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EEE 125 LAB 3

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department Basic Circuits Laboratory EEE125

Oscilloscope, Probes and Waveform Generator

OBJECTIVE To become familiar with using an oscilloscope and a built-in waveform generator. To calculate, obtain, and measure the time varying signals, amplitude and duration (period) of various voltage signals. To explore time domain and frequency domain representation of signals.

INTRODUCTION Digital Oscilloscope The oscilloscope is the most important instrument available to the practicing technician or engineer. It permits the visual display of a voltage signal that can reveal a range of information regarding the operating characteristics of a circuit or system that is not available with a standard multimeter. At first glance the instrument may appear complex and difficult to master. Be assured, however, that once the function of each section of the oscilloscope is explained and understood and the system is used throughout a set of experiments, your expertise with this important tool will develop quite rapidly. Now that we have acquired a basic understanding of how the oscilloscope works, we can proceed to explore some of the most common tasks which can be accomplished with it. The oscilloscope which we will be using in the lab is the InfiniiVision DSO-X 2002A Oscilloscopes, a two channel (input) scope. Aside from the display itself, the oscilloscope consists of various control panels which give the user complete control of how the scope processes and displays its inputs. In the section that follows we will describe each of the control panels and outline the functionality of each of the settings found therein. The oscilloscope is basically a graph displaying apparatus and it represents an electrical signal such as voltage as a function of time. Our oscilloscope has two channels and the ability to perform the basic functions of Triggering and scaling both in the vertical and the horizontal axes. In the laboratory environment one usually finds oscilloscopes that perform a variety of specialized functions including various mathematical operations on signals. The features of our scope corresponds to the most basic and important characteristics of these instruments.

EEE 125 LAB 3

The Front Panel Controls On the front panel, key refers to any key (button) you can press. Softkey specifically refers to the six keys that are directly below the display. The legend for these keys is directly above them, on the display. Their functions change as you navigate through the oscilloscope's menus. For the following figure, refer to the numbered descriptions that follows.

Figure 1: InfiniiVision DSO-X 2002A Oscilloscope

The Oscilloscope Display The oscilloscope display contains acquired waveforms, setup information, measurement results, and the softkey definitions.

Figure 2: Oscilloscope Display

EEE 125 LAB 3

Frequency Measurement in Oscilloscope The frequency of an unknown signal may be calculated from the oscilloscope very easily. The period of the waveform is the product of the distance along the x-axis covered by one cycle and the horizontal sweep setting. As an example, a sine-wave generator is set to 1000 Hz with the voltage applied to the oscilloscope vertical. One cycle covers 9.95 cm, with a sweep speed (or -6 known as time/div) of 100 sec/cm. The period is T = (9.95)*(100X10 )sec. The measured frequency is f = 1/T = 1005 Hz.

Figure 2: Frequency measurement

EQUIPMENTS Resistors 1M X 1, 2M X 1 Breadboard Digital multimeter DSO-X 2002A Digital Oscilloscopes USB data drive (bring this during lab session) Crocodile clips, BNC Connectors, Connection wires (single core)

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part I Oscilloscope Probes: Theory and Practice 1. Measuring an electrical signal inevitably affects that signal. This applies to all measurements, including the display of an oscilloscope waveform. Affecting the signal cannot be totally eliminated, but it can be minimized sufficiently that the effect is unimportant. 2. Then the measured result is a sufficiently accurate representation of the real signal. It is therefore critical for the measurement engineer to understand the effect of the instrument on the signal. A x10 scope probe (Figure 1a) is useful in several applications: a) To reduce loading effect on the circuit under test b) To compensate for the effect of test cable capacitance c) To permit the measurement of large voltages

Figure 1a: Oscilloscope Probe 3. The better an oscilloscope or voltmeter is, the smaller the current it needs to flow through it of a given voltage - i.e. the higher its input resistance. Since it has a very large input resistance, an oscilloscope can only be used to measure voltages and time. 4. To better understand the loading effect of oscilloscope or voltmeter, consider the circuit of Figure 1b, one volt in series with a resistance of 1M. (That is, the Thevenin Equivalent is a circuit with an open-circuit voltage of 1 volt, and an internal resistance of 1M.) Suppose an ideal voltmeter/oscilloscope, which presents an open circuit to the measurement circuit, is used to measure the voltage. There is no current through an ideal voltmeter/oscilloscope, so there is no voltage drop in the resistor.

EEE 125 LAB 3

Figure 1b: Ideal voltmeter/oscilloscope 5. Expect the voltage between points A and B. VAB = __________ V (expected) 6. Using digital voltmeter, measure the voltage across points A and B. VAB = __________ V (measured) 7. Now consider Figure 1c. The same measurement is attempted with a digital voltmeter that presents a load of say, 2M to the circuit. Then the 1M internal resistance and the 2M voltmeter resistance Rmeter form a voltage divider.

Figure 1c: Non-ideal voltmeter/oscilloscope 8. Expect the voltage between points A and B. VAB = __________ V (expected) 9. Using digital voltmeter, measure the voltage across points A and B. VAB = __________ V (measured) 10. Explain the differences between ideal and non-ideal voltmeter/oscilloscope.

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part II Calibrating the oscilloscope probes, probe compensation and frequency measurement 1. Press the power switch. The power switch is located on the lower left corner of the front panel. The oscilloscope will perform a self- test and will be operational in a few seconds. 2. The first signal to input to the oscilloscope is the Demo 2 Probe Comp signal (see Figure 1 no.18). This signal is used for compensating probes. 3. Connect an oscilloscope probe from channel 1 to the Demo 2 (Probe Comp) terminal on the front panel. Connect the probe's ground lead (reference lead) to the ground terminal (next to the Demo 2 terminal). 4. Use [Auto Scale] to automatically configure the oscilloscope to best display the input signals. Press [Auto Scale]. You should see a waveform on the oscilloscope's display a compensated signal similar to Figure 2a.

Figure 2a: Calibrated and compensated signal 5. Otherwise you will get uncompensated signal like in Figure 2b. The compensation capacitance of the probes must be adjusted to suit the input capacitance of the oscilloscope. This requires adjusting the compensation each time if the probe is moved to a different scope. It is driven with a purely square wave signal. To compensate the probe, the compensation capacitance may typically be found as a screwdriver adjustment in the body of the probe. By adjusting the screw you may obtain the compensated signal.

Figure 2b: Uncompensated signal

EEE 125 LAB 3

6. Auto Scale analyzes any waveforms present at each channel and at the external trigger input. This includes the digital channels, if connected. Auto Scale finds, turns on, and scales any channel with a repetitive waveform that has a frequency of at least 25 Hz, a duty cycle greater than 0.5%, and an amplitude of at least 10 mV peak- to- peak. Any channels that do not meet these requirements are turned off. 7. Determine the number of divisions of X and Y. Record the volt/div and time/div from the display, thus calculate the period, frequency and peak to peak voltage of the calibrated signal. Please refer Figure 2a. Each box represents one division. Number of divisions, X = __________ Number of divisions, Y = __________ Volt/div = __________ V Time/div = __________ s Period = __________ s (calculated) Frequency, f = __________ Hz (calculated) Pk-Pk voltage, Vp-p = __________ V (calculated) 8. Do not turn off the oscilloscope as you will use the automated measurement of the calibrated signal in the next experiment i.e Part III.

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part III Automated measurements and USB storage devices 1. The [Meas] key lets you make automatic measurements on waveforms. Some measurements can only be made on analog input channels. The results of the last four selected measurements are displayed in the Measurements information area on the righthand side of the screen. 2. Press the [Meas] key to display the Measurement Menu. Press the Source softkey to select the channel. Press the Type softkey, then rotate the Entry knob to select a measurement to be made. 3. Press the Add Measurement softkey or push the Entry knob to display the measurement. Cursors are turned on to show the portion of the waveform being measured for the most recently added measurement (bottom-most on the display). To view the cursors for a previously added measurement (but not the last one), add the measurement again. 4. Measure the signals peak to peak voltage and its frequency. Compare with those in step 7 of Part II. Frequency,f = __________ Hz (measured) Pk-Pk voltage, Vp-p = __________ V (measured) 5. To turn off measurements, press the [Meas] key again. Measurements are erased from the display. 6. To stop making one or more measurements, press the Clear Meas softkey and choose the measurement to clear, or press Clear All. After all measurements have been cleared, when [Meas] is pressed again, the default measurements will be Frequency and PeakPeak.

7. Most USB mass storage devices are compatible with the oscilloscope. However, certain devices may be incompatible, and may not be able to be read or written to. When the USB mass storage device is connected to the oscilloscope's front or rear USB host port, a small four- color circle icon may be displayed briefly as the USB device is read. 8. Insert your USB into the host port. You do not need to "eject" the USB mass storage device before removing it. Simply ensure that any file operation you've initiated is done, and remove the USB drive from the oscilloscope's host port. Do not connect USB devices that identify themselves as hardware type "CD" because these devices are not compatible with the InfiniiVision X- Series oscilloscopes. If two USB mass storage devices are connected to the oscilloscope, the first one is designated "\usb" and the second one is designated "\usb2".

9. Image files can be saved to an external USB storage device. Press [Save/Recall] > Save > Format; then, turn the Entry knob to select 8-bit Bitmap image (*.bmp), 24-bit Bitmap image (*.bmp), or 24-bit image (*.png). 10. Press the softkey in the second position and use the Entry knob to navigate to the save location. Press the Settings softkey. In the File Settings Menu, you have these softkeys and options. Set to Invert Grat thus the graticule in the image file has a white background instead of the black backgound that appears on- screen. Also choose Palette and select Grayscale images. 11. Finally, press the Press to Save softkey. A message indicating whether the save was successful is displayed.

EEE 125 LAB 3

Experiment: Part IV Waveforms generator 1. A waveform generator is built into the oscilloscope (comes together). The waveform generator gives you an easy way to provide input signals when testing circuitry with the oscilloscope. Waveform generator settings can be saved and recalled with oscilloscope setups. 2. To access the Waveform Generator Menu and enable or disable the waveform generator output on the front panel Gen Out BNC, press the [Wave Gen] key. When waveform generator output is enabled, the [Wave Gen] key is illuminated. When waveform generator output is disabled, the [Wave Gen] key is off. 3. The waveform generator output is always disabled when the instrument is first turned on. The waveform generator output is automatically disabled if excessive voltage is applied to the Gen Out BNC. 4. In the Waveform Generator Menu, press the Waveform softkey and turn the Entry knob to select the waveform type.

Figure 4a: Sample of waveform generators output 5. Depending on the selected waveform type, use the remaining softkeys and the Entry knob to set the waveform's characteristics. 6. Pressing a signal parameter softkey can open a menu for selecting the type of adjustment. For example, you can choose to enter amplitude and offset values, or you can choose to enter high- level and low- level values. Or, you can choose to enter frequency values or period values. Keep pressing the softkey to select the type of adjustment. Turn the Entry knob to adjust the value. 7. Notice that you can select between coarse and fine adjustments for frequency, period, and width. Also, pushing the Entry knob is a quick way to toggle between coarse and fine adjustments. 8. The Settings softkey opens the Waveform Generator Settings Menu which lets you make other settings related to the waveform generator. For example to restore waveform generator defaults, press the Settings softkey. Then press the Default Wave Gen softkey. The waveform generator factory default settings (1 kHz sine wave, 500 mVpp, 0 V offset, High- Z output load) are restored.

EEE 125 LAB 3

9. For our first experiment with the scope we will measure the various signals from the waveform generator. Connect an oscilloscope probe from channel 1 to the Gen Out BNC output using any extra BNC cable obtained from lab technician. 10. Start by setting the waveform generator to generate a sinusoidal signal with a peak to peak voltage and frequency of 5 Vp-p and 10 kHz respectively. Measure that signal on channel 1 of your scope. Press [Auto Scale] and adjust the volt/div and time/div until you see the signal. Draw your output signal in Figure 4b.

Figure 4b: 5 Vp-p, 10 kHz sinusoidal waveform 11. Set the volt/div to 1V/div and time/div to 25 us/div on the scope. Set the offset voltage to 0 V. Determine the number of divisions of x-axis and y-axis. Number of divisions, x-axis = __________ at 25us/div Number of divisions, y-axis = __________ at 1V/div 12. A sinusoidal signal can also be represented by a mathematical function. Set the waveform generator to generate a sinusoidal signal with a corresponding function. Draw your output signal in Figure 4c. The function is V(t)= 2.5 sin 314t + 0.

Figure 4c: V(t)=2.5 sin 314t + 0 sinusoidal waveform


EEE 125 LAB 3

13. Determine the number of divisions of x-axis and y-axis. Record the volt/div and time/div from the display, thus measure the period, frequency and peak to peak voltage as well as AC RMS-FS voltage of the calibrated signal using automated measurement. Number of divisions, x-axis = __________ Number of divisions, y-axis = __________ Volt/div = __________ V Time/div = __________ s Period = __________ s (measured) Frequency, f = __________ Hz (measured) Pk-Pk voltage, Vp-p = __________ V (measured) AC RMS-FS voltage, Vac,rms = __________ V (measured) 14. Let say the following signal is a PWM output obtained from an experiment. Determine the type of the signal, the number of divisions of x-axis and y-axis. Record the volt/div and time/div from the display, thus determine the period, frequency, peak to peak voltage and duty cycle of the signal.

Figure 4d: PWM output signal

Type of signal = __________ Number of divisions, x-axis = __________ Number of divisions, y-axis = __________ Volt/div = __________ V Time/div = __________ s Period = __________ s (calculated) Frequency, f = __________ Hz (calculated) Pk-Pk voltage, Vp-p = __________ V (calculated) Duty cycle, k = __________ % (calculated)


EEE 125 LAB 3

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. List the uses of oscilloscope and waveform generator. 2. List the waveforms that can be generated via waveform generator. 3. Determine the period of 5 Vp-p, 1000 Hz sinusoidal waveform in milliseconds. Period = __________ ms If the horizontal sensitivity of the scope is set to 2 ms/div, calculate the number of horizontal divisions required to properly display one full cycle of the 1000 Hz signal. Number of divisions = __________ If the vertical sensitivity of the scope is set to 0.2 V/div, calculate the number of vertical divisions required to properly display full cycle of the signal. Can the oscilloscope do this? Number of divisions = __________