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Language: Grammar Usage Grade 4 Stacey Colegrove

Nouns
Verbs Adjectives Pronouns

Reviewing and Understanding Nouns

Conjunctions Types of Sentences Complete Sentences Combining Sentences

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Introduction
Instructional Challenge I currently teach fourth grade, at Manchester Elementary Middle School in Manchester, Vermont. My curriculum plan is going to address a weakness in Language Usage, by specifically focusing on grammar skills, for fourth grade. Our school began to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Literacy, this past year. Before the CCSS, we relied on the Vermont Grade Level Expectations (GLEs), which were further detailed in our district curriculum. The GLEs were clear but not as rigorous and specific as the CCSS. As we began to implement the new standards this year, we found students had gaps in their learning, due to the standards not matching up. So, even though I taught the CCSS this year, as they were delved out for grade 4, many of my students struggled due to the content they missed the year before. Specifically speaking, fourth graders struggled with various concepts of nouns--which are not covered by the CCSS in fourth grade. This challenge was evident on the computerized academic assessment, from the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA), called Measures of Academic Progress (MAP). The MAP tests are aligned with the national and state curricula and standards (MAP, n.d.). The MAP DesCartes continuum specifically mentions nouns as Skills to Enhance (Appendix A), in order to move along the continuum. The continuum has fourth graders working on specific parts of speech (nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, conjunctions. etc.,) all in an effort to get to sentence structure (complete, fragment, and combining sentences.) Nouns are an important, underlying part of the 4th grade continuum. Even though fourth graders can typically distinguish between and use common nouns, there are many elements they struggle with: plural, singular, irregular, and proper. Therefore, this curriculum will be focused on noun review and instruction. My goal is to implement this plan next year, and then to use the same or similar strategies as a model for the other parts of speech and sentence units.
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Data
The MAP test uses values on the RIT Scale (Rasch Unit.) The values are used to measure student growth over time as well as to compare student growth to normative data. By the end of the fourth grade, students should have an RIT score of 207.0 on the NWEA Language Usage assessment, according to the NWEA Normative Data. A score between RIT 201-210 lists Skills and Concepts to: Enhance, Develop, and Introduce (Appendix B). This year, out of sixteen students in my classroom, three students met the average norm data, six were above the norm score, and seven students were below average. That means 44% of my class was below average at the end of this school year.
RIT scores from MAPs Language Assessment May, 2013

Number of Students
3 4 3 3 3
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Student RIT Scores


Low (176, 191, 197) Low Average (199, 200, 200, 203) Average (209, 211, 214) High Average (214, 215, 219) High (221, 227, 237)

Research
Benjamin & Berger (2010) believe teaching grammar should be engaging, lively, and social; they believe old grammar teaching focuses on low-level thinking, with a strong focus on only identification skills. In their book, they mention the following strategies for teaching grammar: using visuals, rhythm, manipulatives, problem-solving, wordplay, inductive reasoning, creative dramatics, and pattern-finding (2010). It is my intention add life to my grammar teaching, by incorporating some of these strategies for guided and individual skill work. I will do this using technology and games. The strategy I am focusing on, for contextual application, is teaching grammar through the use of poetry. This strategy is multi-disciplinary, because it highlights a grammar skill, which also supports both reading and writing goals. In Macks book (2005), she uses patterned poetry to teach and show students how to implement grammar skills. She utilizes successful poets such as Jack Prelutsky, Bruce Lansky, Shel Silverstein, and Lilian Moore. These poems are engaging and have varying structures, including rhythm as suggested by Benjamin & Berger (2010). There is power behind presenting students with models of humorous, rich language and encouraging them to wonder why language works the way it does in order to help them use grammar effectively; metacognitive discussions, or wondering, is much more effective than first teaching grammar out of context--in isolation (Mack, 2005). Therefore, it will be important for the teacher to model this process, during discussions, by asking questions and modeling how to use reference books for information about grammar.
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Curriculum Map--Overview New Unit Focus


Nouns
1. REVIEW third grade Common Core State Standards in Language. 2. Use MAP Skills to Enhance. 3. Apply to fourth grade Language, Reading, and Writing standards per the CCSS. Isolated Skills *classify nouns *define Proper Nouns *differentiates possessive singular and plural nouns *use appropriate form of irregular nouns In Written Compositions: *identify nouns * identify proper nouns *recognize regular plural nouns *recognize irregular plural nouns *choose singular or plural noun, depending on context

Successive Unit Lessons


1. Implement fourth grade Common Core State Standards in Language, Reading and Writing. 2. Use NWEA MAPs Skills to Develop. Verbs Adjectives Pronouns Conjunctions Complete Sentences Sentences Combines Sentences

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NWEA DesCartes 200.9-207.0 Goal: Language: Overarching 2013-2014 L.4.1 Understand, Edit for Goal Grammar, Usage L.3.1a, L. Nouns: common, proper, Nouns 3.1b, L.4.1, singular, plural, irregular plural, possessive September (Lost and RL.4.5, RL. 4 weeks Found 4.10, W.4.4, singular, plural singular, Poems) W.4.5, W. irregular. 4.10 Dates Unit CCSS

Assessments NWEA MAP Assessment (Fall, Winter, Spring)

Curriculum Map Page One (of 2)

October 4 weeks

Verbs (Cures for a Boring Day Poems)

November 3 weeks

Adjectives (Synonym Poems)

December 3 weeks

Pronouns (Encounter Poems)

Independent Practice Formative & Summative Quizzes Contextual Writing: Lost and Found poetry MAPs assessment Skills to DEVELOP Formative Observations-L.4.1B, L. Verb: usage, linking, Independent Practice 4.1C, RL. Formative & Summative 4.5, RL. auxilary, tenses, irregular, Quizzes 4.10, W.4.4, irregular tenses, form with Contextual Writing: Cures for a W.4.5, W. collective nouns Boring Day Poetry 4.10 MAPs assessment Formative Observations-Skills to ENHANCE: L.4.1d, RL. Independent Practice Adjectives: distinquish, 4.5, RL. Formative & Summative comparative, irregular 4.10, W.4.4, Quizzes comparitive, superlative W.4.5, W. Contextual Writing: Synonym comparitive, and predicate 4.10 Poems adjectives. MAPs assessment Formative Observations-4.1a, RL. Skills to ENHANCE: Independent Practice 4.5, RL. Pronoun: I and Me, Formative & Summative 4.10, W.4.4, subjective, simple Quizzes W.4.5, W. possessive, indefinite, Contextual Writing: Encounter 4.10 relative Poetry MAPs assessment

Formative Observations--

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January 1 week

L.4.2c, RL. 4.5, RL. Conjunctions 4.10, W.4.4, (Pair Poems) W.4.5, W. 4.10

Formative Observations-Skills to DEVELOP Conjunctions: identify

Independent Practice Formative & Summative Quizzes Contextual Writing: Pair Poems MAPs assessment

Curriculum Map Page Two (of 2)

January 3 weeks

Sentence Types

Skills to DEVELOP L.4.1e, W. Sentence Types: 4.4, W.4.5, statements, interrogative, exclamatory, directions, W.4.10 and commands.

Formative Observations--

Independent Practice Formative & Summative Quizzes Contextual Writing: implemented in daily writing tasks MAPs assessment

February 3 weeks

Sentences-L.4.1f, W. Complete, 4.4, W.4.5, Fragment, W.4.10 Run-on

Skills to DEVELOP Independent Practice Sentences: subject, Formative & Summative Quizzes complete, incomplete, Contextual Writing: run-on, and fragments. implemented in daily writing MAPs assessment

Formative Observations--

March 3 weeks

Skills to DEVELOP Formative Observations-Combining Sentences: Independent Practice Combining L.4.2c, W. compound, complex Formative & Summative Quizzes Sentences: 4.4, W.4.5, grammar, gerund phrases, Contextual Writing: point of view (from first to W.4.10 Implemented in daily writing third), and appositive MAPs assessment phrases

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Standards in New Curriculum


Standards Addressed The standards being addressed are based on the fourth grade Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts. These standards include Language, Reading Literature, and Writing. Language: Conventions of Standard English CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.1a Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.1b Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. Reading Literature: Craft and Structure and Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 45 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Writing: Production and Distribution of Writing and Range of Writing CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1 3 above.) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4 here.) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
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Unit Plan Overview


BIG IDEA *Introduce the various concepts (new and review) through poetry, computer skill practice, skill activities, and with literature. * Follow up with guided poetry activities to reinforce grammar concept (provide meaning through presentation of writing). Engage: Students will read a poem, with predictable line pattern, aloud. After a brief discussion, the teacher will model the poem pattern by writing a class poem. The teacher will then teach the grammar concept through a mini-lesson. Explore: Students will practice word play on the computer (Benjamin & Berger, 2010) and with skill activities. The teacher will assist students with prewriting ideas for the poetry topic, which imitates the grammar pattern/rhythm and utilizes the grammar skill. Students will follow through with writing, in a guided writing format, then they will publish and share their poems. Explain: The teacher will teach several grammar concepts: proper nouns, possessive singular, possessive plural, and irregular nouns. Elaborate: Students will study variations and examples of concepts through literature. The teacher will continue to reinforce grammar concepts with visual, physical, and interactive activities. Evaluate: Formative observations, summative quizzes, student writing (poems), and tri-annual MAP school assessments will all be used in the evaluation process.
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Activities
Day 1: The teacher will distribute copies of, and read aloud, a patterned poem called What I Found in My Desk (See Appendix C). This is a Lost and Found poem, which highlights common nouns. The teacher will then ask students to discuss the elements of the poem. Students will be encouraged to guess the grammar topic that the poem is modeling: the concepts in this poem include common nouns, singular and plural nous, capitalization, and article-noun agreement. Next, the teacher will model the poem pattern by writing a class poem. Day 2: The teacher will review the poem elements, and then she will teach the grammar concept through a minilesson. The teacher will name the concept and dene it with the following: A noun answers the questions: WHO or WHAT did the action? A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. Learning the names of things or nouns comes rst when acquiring a rst or a second language. Naming the things in our universe is important to all human beings; what we cannot name, we cannot even think about. Experienced writers search for a more exact noun before adding adjectives (Mack, 2005). Students will then examine and record the nouns in the poem. After sharing these as a whole group, the teacher will identify them as common nouns. Students will then practice identifying common nouns on the computer using this link and through a skill activity (Appendix E). Day 3: After reviewing the classication of common nouns, the teacher will read a book about common nouns (see slide below). Afterwards, students will go on a noun hunt. They will look through a Shel Silverstein poem with a partner and record all common nouns found (see slide below). After sharing out with the whole class, students will do a second, independent noun hunt with another Shel Silverstein poem. The teacher will make formative observations during this process and will assist as needed.
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Literature
Common Nouns Proper Nouns

Merry-Go Round: A Book About Nouns By: Ruth Heller

A Mink, a Fink, A Skating Rink: What is a Noun? Brian P. Cleary

If You Were a Noun Michael Dahl

Charlottes Web E. B. White

Who Was Abraham Lincoln? The One Who Stayed Shel Silverstein by Janet Pascal

Everything On It Shel Silverstein

Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out Shel Silverstein http://allthingsupperelementary.blogspot.com/2013/02/mrhughesnoun-hunt.html

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Day 4: Students will begin to plan their own Lost and Found poems. The teacher will assist students with this--brainstorming as many ideas as they can for objects that might be lost (real or imagined.) Students will begin to draft their own poems, using the structure of the original poem as a guide (Appendix D). Differentiation: students who need support with this process will be encouraged to create name labels for common items around the classroom (using sticky notes.) They can then use these items for their poems. Day 5-6: (ongoing) Students will continue to work on their Lost and Found poem, with teacher support, using a scoring rubric for editing (Appendix E). Students will publish these poems as locker cards--where they will fold construction paper in half (like a card), then decorate the front of the card with a drawing of a locker. The teacher use their writing to assess their ability to write common nouns in context. Formative assessment: the teacher will give students a short, skill quiz on identifying and classifying common nouns (see Appendix H). This data will inform the teacher about who needs further instruction and support. Day 7-8: After students publish and share their poems, the teacher model a new version of the classroom poem-using proper nouns. The teacher will name the concept and define it with the following: A proper noun is a specific person, place, or thing and is always capitalized. Proper nouns include: days of the week, names, months, buildings, states, cities, towns, organizations, religions, and historical documents. The teacher will ask students to substitute proper nouns in Lanksys poem, with a partner, as an application of this skill. Differentiation: students who need support with this process will be encouraged to create name labels for proper noun items around the classroom (using sticky notes.) Examples might include: Nike sneakers, Ticonderoga pencils, and MacBook laptops.
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Day 9: Students will go on a common and proper noun hunt. They will look through a familiar text to find both common and proper nouns (examples on previous slide). These could be fiction, non-fiction, and/or poetry. Working with a partner, students will fill out the worksheet Noun Hunt (see previous slide). The teacher will make formative observations during this process and will assist students as needed. Students will pair up with other groups for small group shares. Day 10-11: Students will practice proper nouns on the computer using this link and through a skill activities (Appendix F and G). Formative assessment: the teacher will give students a short, skill quiz on identifying proper nouns (see Appendix H). This data will inform the teacher about who needs further instruction and support. Day 12-14: Next, the teacher will point out how some nouns in Lanskys poem are singular and some are plural. The teacher will name the concept and define it with the following: Nouns can name one thing, such as a cat. Those are singular nouns. Nouns can name more than one thing, such as cats. Those are plural nouns. Some more examples of singular and plural nouns are:
Singular dog school girl dogs schools girls Plural

Students will then be asked to list singular and plural nouns from the original poem and from each others published poetry. After this, students will practice the skill of plural nouns on this link and through a skill activities (Appendix F and G). Formative assessment: the teacher will give students a short, skill quiz on choosing and differentiating between singular and plural nouns (see Appendix H). This data will inform the teacher about who needs further instruction and support.
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Day 15-17: The teacher will introduce irregular nouns. She will name the concept and define it with the following: Most nouns have plurals formed according to regular rules. However, some nouns have unusual, or irregular plurals. Here are examples of some irregular nouns and their plurals:
Noun Type Ends with -fe Rule Change f to v then add -s Examples wife--wives life--lives knife--knives wolf--wolves half--halves volcano--volcanoes tomato--tomatoes cactus--cacti focus--foci mouse--mice man--men woman--women foot--feet child--children person--people tooth--teeth sheep sh deer moose

Ends with -f Ends with -o Ends with -us Special

Change f to v then add -es Add -es Change --us to -i Change the vowel or word or add a different ending

Unchanging Special

Stay the same

Students will practice this skill in isolation with teacher guidance. Students will practice this skill on the computer using this link and through a skill activities (Appendix F and G). Day 18-19: Students will practice and review common nouns, singular and plural possessive nouns, proper nouns, and irregular nouns. Day 20: Students will take a summative classroom quiz on the four isolated skills (See Appendix I). Ongoing: MAP assessments--fall data and winter data will be compared for growth and next steps.
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Types of Assessments
See Appendixes D-H
Formative Observations & Quizzes Contextual Poetry Writing Word Play using Technology Identify Classify Differentiate Fill in the Blank Define List Summative Classroom Assessments Identify Classify Differentiate Fill in the Blank District Assessment: NWEA MAPs Computer Test Four Presentation Styles: Multiple Choice Hot Spots Click and Pop Sticky Click

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Teachers must accept and build upon the premise that learners differ in important ways (Tomlinson, 1999). Therefore, it is essential to recognize the needs and hopes of students as they learn and make meaning of new curriculum. As Dunkle (2012) explains, teachers must differentiate based on content, process, and product while understanding students readiness, learning challenges, abilities, and experiences. This unit applies several types of differentiation techniques. First of all, the teacher attends to student differences by allowing students to have choice in how they create their Lost and Found poems (Tomlinson, 1999). This fosters interest and individuality. She may offer up suggestions such as a change in topic location, based on student need and interest. For example, the poem could take place in an old castle, on an alien ship, in the desert, or on a boat. Secondly, the teacher modifies content, process, and products, by supporting students throughout the contextual writing process and skill practice (Tomlinson, 1999). She does this by supporting students through the entire writing process. Students who need help brainstorming their poem topic might create labels for common items around their classroom, using sticky notes, such as their desks, pencils, the clock, etc. Students who work at a faster pace may be allowed the choice to create their own poetry structure, instead of relying solely on the poem format provided. The teacher will also allow multiple opportunities of direct instruction and practice, by utilizing formative assessments. Finally, the teacher will balance group and individual norms, by remaining aware of struggling and accelerated learners (Tomlinson, 1999). She will do this by providing genuine learning opportunities for skill application. Students who need more instruction or varying assessment techniques may receive one-on-one support and individual learning goals. Students who advance beyond grade-level targets may work on additional writing and reading projects such as Noun Mad Libs (Appendix J).
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Differentiation

Professional Development and Support


In order to make this meaningful and current, it will necessary for me to continually communicate with third grade and fourth grade teachers at my school. Before creating this unit, I spoke briefly with a third grade teacher and my partner, a fourth grade teacher. We all agreed there are obvious learning gaps, which hinder the advancement of students, in Language Usage. Although their data is not included in this project, they also had sub-par results in the NWEA MAP assessments for Language Usage. This unit plan will help meet the needs of incoming fourth graders for this upcoming school year. However, as the implementation of CCSS regulates in the near future, this plan may become more of a review unit, rather than a full instructional unit. Dunkle (2012) supports this reality by saying change can be messy and uncomfortable and we sometimes need to embrace new beliefs and understandings about our work. I will need to review NWEA data prior to this unit each year and create pre-assessments to determine future planning. At the completion of this unit, I will need to look at the summative quizzes and winter NWEA data to see if the approach was successful. It will be important to collaborate with my parter teacher, who teaches grammar in a different way. We will compare class data to see which techniques show advancement and which need improvement. As for professional development, our school is offering training on how best to use the NWEA data, as it aligns with the CCSS. It is my intention to enroll in training next fall with several colleagues. Also, all gradelevel teams meet once a week, throughout the school year. During these meetings teams share data and instructional strategies. This allows us to determine next steps. My principal attends each grade-level meeting and maintains data about each grade. If one grade shows improvement in the area of Language Usage, I would be able to do peer observations. Dunkle (2012) claims peer observations are one of the most effective ways to learn in order to receive specific feedback and information for professional growth.
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Websites for Practice


Nouns: http://www.english-online.org.uk/games/ verbnounboth.htm http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/grammar/ noun/balloon_game/ http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/basketball/ index.html http://www.ezschool.com/Games/PluralNouns.html http://www.softschools.com/language_arts/games/ singular_plural_nouns.jsp http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=218710 SubjectPredicate http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugGZPieO9ZI

Sentences: http://www.edontheweb.com/the_ed_files_flash.asp? ModuleID=127&MovieName=Edontheweb3.swf http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/clubhouse/ http://www.toonuniversity.com/aol/2l_pucap.html http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=218710

Mixed: http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=218710 http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=218710

Verbs: http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=218710

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References
Benjamin, A., & Berger, A. (2010). Teaching grammar: What really works. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. Dunkle, C. A. (2012). Leading the common core state standards from common sense to common practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Green, L. B., & Klecan-Aker, J. S. (2012). Teaching story grammar components to increase oral narrative ability: A group intervention study. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 28(3), 263-276. Mack, N. (2005). Teaching grammar with playful poems: Engaging lessons with model poems by favorite poets that motivate kids to learn grammar. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc. MAP (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nwea.org/node/98 National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, C. O. C. S. S. O. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/L/4 Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom, responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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Appendix A

Skills to Enhance
NWEA DesCartes 200.9-207.0

In Isolation: Classifies words as nouns Defines proper nouns Differentiates between possessive singular and plural forms of nouns Uses appropriate form of irregular nouns (term not used) In Written Compositions: Identifies proper nouns in written compositions Identifies nouns in written compositions Recognizes irregular plurals (term not used) of nouns in written compositions Recognizes regular plurals of nouns in written compositions Recognizes irregular plurals of nouns in written compositions Chooses a singular or plural noun (term not used), depending on the context of the sentence
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Appendix B
DesCartes: A Continuum of Learning
Language Usage
Goal: Language: Understand, Edit for Grammar, Usage
Skills and concepts to Enhance (73% Probability*) 191 - 200 Parts of Speech Evaluates the usage of positive, comparative, and superlative forms of adjectives (terms not used) in written sentences Classifies words as nouns Uses the conjunction "and" to create a compound sentence Uses the conjunction "but" to create a compound sentence Uses the conjunction "so" to create a compound sentence Identifies proper nouns in written compositions Identifies nouns in written compositions Identifies words that tell "who" did an action Defines proper noun Recognizes irregular plurals (term not used) of nouns in written compositions Recognizes regular plurals of nouns in written compositions Recognizes irregular plurals of nouns in written compositions Chooses a singular or plural noun (term not used), depending on the context of the sentence Differentiates between possessive singular and plural forms of nouns Uses appropriate form of irregular nouns (term not used) Defines pronoun Uses I and me correctly Identifies subjective pronouns (nominative, term not used; e.g., I, you, he, she, it, we, they) in written compositions Uses the simple possessive (term not used) "their" correctly in written compositions Recognizes correct usage of indefinite pronouns (term not used) Uses relative pronouns (term not used) appropriately in written compositions (e.g., who, whoever, which, that, whom) Distinguishes between words that describe nouns (term not used) and other words Uses comparative form of an adjective (terms not used) ending in -y to complete a sentence Uses the irregular comparative and superlative forms of the adjective bad (e.g., worse, worst) to complete a sentence (terms not used) Uses comparative form of adjectives correctly Uses predicate adjectives (term not used) in written compositions Classifies words as verbs in written compositions Identifies past tense verbs (term not used) Identifies the future tense of regular verbs (terms not used) Identifies past tense verbs Identifies the future tense of regular verbs

NWEA DesCartes RIT Score Range 201-210


201 - 210 RIT Score Range: Statements Last Updated: Mar 21, 2013

Skills and Concepts to Develop (50% Probability*) 201 - 210 Parts of Speech Uses main verbs to form the past perfect tense (term not used) in written compositions (e.g., Jane has been helping me.) Selects the conjunctive adverb "therefore" to create a compound sentence Uses the conjunction "and" to create a compound sentence Uses the conjunction "so" to create a compound sentence Identifies proper nouns in written compositions Defines proper noun Classifies words as nouns Identifies the objective case (direct object, indirect object, object of preposition) of a noun in written compositions Recognizes irregular plurals (term not used) of nouns in written compositions Recognizes irregular plurals of nouns in written compositions Differentiates between possessive singular and plural forms of nouns (terms not used) Differentiates between possessive singular and plural forms of nouns Identifies subjective pronouns (nominative, term not used; e.g., I, you, he, she, it, we, they) in written compositions Uses the simple possessive (term not used) "their" correctly in written compositions Uses subjective pronouns (nominative, term not used) we, he, she, and they correctly in written compositions Recognizes plural forms of objective pronouns (term not used) Recognizes correct usage of indefinite pronouns (term not used) Recognizes correct usage of reflexive pronouns (term not used) Uses relative pronouns (term not used) appropriately in written compositions (e.g., who, whoever, which, that, whom) Identifies numerical adjectives (term not used) in written compositions Classifies words as adjectives Evaluates the usage of positive, comparative, and superlative forms of adjectives (terms not used) in written sentences Uses more or less to create the comparative form of an adjective (terms not used) to complete a sentence Uses comparative form of adjectives correctly Identifies superlative adjectives (term not used) (e.g., -est, most, least) in written compositions Identifies present tense verbs (term not used) Determines correct verb form for sentences containing the pronoun "there" (term not used; e.g., There are several new houses on my street.)

Skills and Concepts to Introduce (27% Probability*) 211 - 220 Parts of Speech Uses the conjunction "so" to create a compound sentence Identifies the correct use of then/than Edits for errors in usage Classifies words as nouns Identifies the possessive nouns in written composition Identifies the objective case (direct object, indirect object, object of preposition) of a noun in written compositions Defines direct object Recognizes the plural of compound nouns (e.g., passersby) Determines whether a noun is singular or plural based on subject-verb agreement Differentiates between possessive singular and plural forms of nouns Recognizes when the possessive pronoun "their" needs to be used Identifies subjective pronouns (nominative, term not used; e.g., I, you, he, she, it, we, they) in written compositions Uses subjective pronouns (nominative, term not used) we, he, she, and they correctly in written compositions Uses the subjective pronouns (nominative, term not used) he, she, and we correctly in written compositions as part of a compound subject Uses indefinite pronouns (term not used) appropriately in written compositions Recognizes correct usage of reflexive pronouns (term not used) Uses relative pronouns (term not used) appropriately in written compositions (e.g., who, whoever, which, that, whom) Recognizes examples of verbs used as adjectives Classifies words as adjectives (term not used) Classifies words as adjectives Evaluates the usage of positive, comparative, and superlative forms of adjectives (terms not used) in written sentences Recognizes that the suffix -er means more when used with an adjective (term not used) Uses comparative form of adjectives (terms not used) correctly Uses comparative form of adjectives correctly Identifies present participles in written compositions (e.g., is running) Identifies the correct auxiliary verb for the content of the sentence (e.g., will, was, shall) Uses linking verbs in sentences containing complex subjects (terms not used; e.g., The time for selling houses is now.) Uses a consistent tense form in writing with irregular verbs (terms not used)

Explanatory Notes * At the range mid-point, this is the probability students would correctly answer items measuring these concepts and skills. Both data from test items and review by NWEA curriculum specialists are used to place Learning Continuum statements into appropriate RIT ranges. Blank cells indicate data are limited or unavailable for this range or document version. Generated 6/9/13, 8:12:03 AM 2006-2013 Northwest Evaluation Association. All rights reserved. Please refer to the DesCartes Use Agreement for terms of use. Educational Standard: Common Core English Language Arts K-12: 2010 Page 1 of 4

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Appendix C
Lost and Found Poem: A patterned poem called What I Found in My Desk

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Appendix D
Lost and Found Poem Structure

What I Found in My Locker A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) A/an ______________________________ (item) and one more thing, I must confess, a note from teacher: Clean This Mess!!!!

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Appendix E
Scoring Rubric

Name: ___________________________________ Date: _________________ Title of Poem: _____________________________ On target-- All correct 3 There are few or no Spelling & Grammar errors in mechanics, usage, grammar, or spelling. *All nouns are correct. Each line begins with a capital letter. All correct end punctuation.

Scoring Rubric
No Evidence 1 The poem is difficult to understand at times because of errors in mechanics, usage, grammar, or spelling. *No nouns are correct.

Mostly correct 2 There are some errors in mechanics, usage, grammar, or spelling. *Most nouns are correct.

Capitalization

Many lines begin with a Few or no lines begin with capital letter. Some correct end punctuation. a capital letter. No correct end punctuation.

Punctuation

Makes sense

The focus of the poem is The focus of the poem is The focus of the poem is clear throughout. The poem enables the mostly clear. The poem enables the The poem does not enable the reader to see, hear, feel, or think about the subject. unclear or confusing.

reader to see, hear, feel, reader to see, hear, feel, or Sensory details or think about the subject think about the subject; in a new way or in a before. Adjectives & Word choice is vivid and imagery exact throughout. The title is interesting Title and makes sense; it message to the reader.
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however, this may be predictable choices. Most word choices are precise. Some may be vague or repetitive. The tile makes sense and communicates the focus/ may be very basic.

more potent way than done with clichs, or other

Words may be misused or unclear.

There is no title. Or the

communicates the focus/ message to the reader. It title does not make sense.

Appendix F

Common Nouns

Proper Nouns

Plural Nouns

Irregular Plural Nouns

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Appendix G

Proper Nouns

Irregular Plural Nouns

Plural Nouns

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Appendix H

Identifying Proper Nouns


PROPER NOUNS
Circle the proper nouns in the following sentences (there may be more than one in each sentence): 1. On Saturday, I will play soccer with my friends at noon. 2. There is a Catholic church on our street. 3. I was born on a sunny day in June, in the state of Vermont. 4. The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. 5. My favorite holiday is Thanksgiving, because our family gets together.

Skill Quiz Examples


Identifying and Classifying Common Nouns

Common
Circle the nouns:

NOUNS

dog

wag

car

mother red

him

cry pool

learn pizza

library soft us

crayon

Choosing and Differentiating Between Singular and Plural Nouns


Singular and Plural NOUNS
Add the noun as a plural for the following--Possessive Singular: Noun Jane car school It was ________________________ pencil. The ________________________ color was red. A ________________________ playground should have a slide and swings.

Circle the nouns in each sentence:

One day, a princess kissed a frog. Three little pigs built houses made of straw, sticks, and brick. The prince brought a glass slipper for the stepsisters to try on, but it only fit the youngest girl. The wolf pretended to be the grandmother by wearing her glasses and sleeping in her bed.

Add the noun as a plural for the following--Possessive Plural: Noun puppies ladies stores Those ________________________ eyes are open.. The ________________________ jobs were important. All the ________________________ lights were on.

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Appendix I
Name: _____________________________________ 1. Circle the nouns:

Summative Classroom Assessment


Date: _______________

NOUNS

Name: _____________________________________

Date: _______________

NOUNS
6. Add the noun as a plural for the following--Possessive Singular:

fish

pizza

smiling

teacher

laugh

school

fuzzy

she

Noun Sam dog It was ________________________ fault. The ________________________ toys were on the floor. It was the ________________________ party. It was that ________________________ classroom. The ________________________ favorite color is red. I want ________________________ crayons.

2. Write the definition for Nouns:

_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________


3. Write one common noun for each category: Person Place Thing

girl person teacher . James

7. Add the noun as a plural for the following--Possessive Plural: Noun cats . bowls . fish children The ________________________ food is in the cupboard. Those ________________________ colors are pretty. The ________________________ tank is colorful. Our ________________________ ideas are excellent. It was the ________________________ choice.

4. Write the definition for Proper Nouns:

_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________


5. Write one proper noun for each category: Person Place Thing

peoples

8. Change the following Irregular Nouns into their plural form: knife wolf tomato cactus thesis man child ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
Copyright 2013 Stacey Colegrove http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Stacey-Colegrove

Copyright 2013 Stacey Colegrove http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Stacey-Colegrove

sheep

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Appendix J

Noun Mad Libs for differentiation

Have students create their own interest-based stories. These should be short in length (1-3 paragraphs). Next, have students erase all of the nouns from their stories. Students will then share their Mad Libs with a partner to fill in. Here are several ways to approach this activity: Have students type up their stories and leave blank spaces. Make multiple copies of their stories and share as homework assignments. One student can name nouns blindly while a partner fills in the story. Students can use a classroom list of brainstormed nouns. Students can share their stories with the class, before and after. Students can choose a paragraph from a published story to use, rather than writing their own stories.

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