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Index

A
Abdomen acute, 274275 measuring girth of, 300f undiagnosed pain, 274b Abdominal binding, 46f Abnormal fetal position, 430 Abortion, 421422 Abuse, 122 characteristics of, 122 child, 122-123 documentation for suspected, 125b older adult, 123-124, 124b types of, 122-124 ACE inhibitors, 240. See alsoVascular system Acetaminophen, 101 Acid-base balance, 83-85 Acne vulgaris, 403 Acquired immunity, 88t Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 91-95 Acting out/manipulation, 121 Acute renal failure (ARF), 386388 Addisons disease (adrenocortical insufficiency/adrenal hypofunction), 170 Administration of insulin, 166b Adolescent growth and development, 25-26, 25t Adrenal cortex, diagnostics, 173 Adrenal cortex hypersecretion/hypercortisolism. SeeCushings syndrome Adrenal gland adrenocortical insufficiency/adrenal hypofunction, 170 Adrenal medulla diagnostics of, 173 disorders of pheochromocytoma, 170 Adrenergic agonist, 108 Adrenocortical hormones, 100 Adrenocortical insufficiency/adrenal hypofunction. SeeAddisons disease Adult growth and development, 25-27, 25t Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 149-150 Aggressiveness/hostility, 119 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), 91-95 Airflow normal airflow in and out of lungs, 206f Airway artificial, 217-218 mechanical ventilators, 222 obstruction, 214 Alcohol dependence (alcoholism), 129-131 Allergic reactions medications for, 108

ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), 328329 Alternative therapies, 115. See alsoPsychiatric intervention modalities Alzheimers disease, 126-128 medications for, 140 stages of, 127t Amenorrhea, 367 Aminoglycoside, 104 Amniocentesis, 419 Amputation, 111, 358 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 328329 Analgesics, 67-68 Anaphylactic reaction, 89 anaphylaxis, 89f Anemias, 176-178 aplastic, 177-178 iron deficiency, 177 pernicious, 177 sickle cell, 178 Aneurysm, 229-231 Anger, 119 Angina pectoris (chronic angina), 245-246 Antacid, 289 Antianxiety medications, 141 Antibiotic medications, 104106 Antibiotic-resistant infections, 88 Anticholinergics, 212 Antidepressant medications, 143-144 Antidysrhythmic medications, 258-259 Antiemetics, 287 Antiepileptic medications, 336 Antifungal, 412 Antifungal/protozoal medications, 376 Antihistamines, 108, 286. See alsoRespiratory system, medications Antiinflammatory medications, 100 Antimanic medications, 142 Antinuclear antibody (ANA), 355 Antiparkinsonism medications, 337 Antiplatelets (platelet aggregation inhibitors), 260 Antipsychotic (Neuroleptic) medications, 145 Antiretroviral therapy (ART), 107 Antithyroid medications, 174 Antitubercular medications. See alsoRespiratory system, medications Antiulcer medications, 289 Antiviral medications, 412 Anxiety, 118-122 assessment of, 119t disorders of, 121t medications for antianxiety medications, 141 nursing management of, 120t problems associated with, 118-122

Page numbers followed by b, t and f indicate boxes, tables, and figures, respectively.

473

474

Index
BUN level, 393 Burns, 408-409 degree of burn by tissue layer, 408f depth of , 408b topical antibiotics for treatment of, 413

Apgar scoring system, 427t Aphasia, 339 Aplastic anemia, 177-178 Appendicitis, 273-274 Arthritis osteoarthritis, 352-353 rheumatoid, 351-352 Arthrocentesis, 355 Arthroscopy, 355 Asepsis, 44 ASHD (atherosclerotic heart disease), 244b

C
Calcium imbalances, 99 level, 393 medications, 99, 356 Calcium channel blockers, 258. SeeCardiac medications Calculation of medication dosages, 76 Cancer, 34-39, 111 brain, 314315 breast, 372373 cervical, 372 characteristics of, 34 chemotherapy, 36 colon and rectum, 280281 larnyx, 204205 liver, 301 lung, 206207 malignant melanoma, 407b nursing implications and chemotherapy, 36t oral, 269-270 pancreas, 169 prevention, 34 radiation safety precautions and nursing implications, 38b renal tumors, 391 skin, 407 testicular tumors, 365 treatment of, 35 Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), 385-386 Candidiasis, 367 Caput succedaneum, 444f Cardiac catheterization, 257 Cardiac conduction and dysrhythmias, 263. See alsoCardiac system Cardiac conduction system, 263f Cardiac enzymes, 256 Cardiac glycosides, 260 Cardiac system, 243264 assessing chest pain (PQRST), b, 245 B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), 256 cardiac catheterization, 257 cardiac conduction system, 263f cardiac enzymes, 256 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for health care providers, 261-262 client education for nitroclycerin administration, 246b C-reactive protein (CRP), 256 diagnostics of echocardiogram, 256 electrocardiogram (ECG), 256 event monitor, 256 exercise stress test, 256 Holter monitor, 256 magnetic resonance imaging, 257 positron emission tomography (PET), 257 thallium 201 test, 256 transesophageal echocardiography, 257 disorders of angina pectoris (chronic angina), 245-246 atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD), 244, 244b cardiovascular disease in pregnancy, 253 conduction and dysrhythmias, 263 congenital heart disease, 253-254 heart failure, 249251 infective endocarditis (bacterial), 252 left-sided heart failure, 249f

B
Bacterial vaginosis, 367 Balance disorders, 152. See alsoSensory system Bells palsy, 331 Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 362f, 362b, medications for, 376 Beta2 agonists (long acting), 212. See alsoCardiac medications Beta2 agonists (rapid acting), 212. See alsoCardiac medications Beta-adrenergic blocking medications, 258 Biliary system. See alsoHepatic and biliary system Biological therapy, 357 Biophysical profile, 420421 Biopsy bone, 355 liver, 305 skin, 411 Bipolar affective disorder, 133f Bladder closed irrigation system, 363f scan, 394 Blood bleeding precautions, 180b complete blood count, 184 disorders of disseminated intravascular coagulation, 182 hemophilia, 181 leukemia, 179-180 lymphomas, 181 polycythemia vera (primary), 179 sickle cell anemia, 178, crisis, 178f monitoring transfusions, 186 normal arterial blood gas values, 191t. See alsoRespiratory system physiology of, 176 pressure, 233 pressure assessment, 48b viscosity reducing medications, 260 Body alignment and range of motion (ROM), 43 Body mechanics, 66-67, 341b Bone biopsy, 355 scan, 355 tumors, malignant, 351 Bowel obstructions, 276f BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia). SeeReproductive system: male reproductive system Brain attack (stroke), 317-320 manifestations of, 318f Brain tumors, 314-315 Braxton Hicks contractions, 414, 423 Breasts breast self-examination, 373b cancer of, 372-373 normal pregnancy appearance, 414 self-examination, 373b Bronchiolitis (respiratory syncytial virus), 197 B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), 256 Buergers disease (thromboangiitis obliterans), 229


Cardiac system (continued) life threatening dysrhythmias, 263f myocardial infarction, 247-249 pericarditis, 252-253 rheumatic heart disease, 251-252 unstable angina pectoris, 246-247 heart structures and path of oxygenated blood through the heart, 243f medications for, 258260 antidysrhythmic medications, 258-259 antiplatelets (platelet aggregation inhibitors), 260 beta-adrenergic blocking medications, 258 blood viscosity reducing medications, 260 calcium channel blockers, 258 cardiac glycosides, 260 fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) medications, 259 nitrates, 258 pacemakers, 264 permanent pacemaker placement, 264f physiology of, 243-244 risk factors in arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD), 244b Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for health care providers, 261-262 Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy, 253 system, normal pregnancy, 414 Cataract, 148 Catherization urinary, 400-401 CAT scan (computerized axial tomography), 355 Celiac disease (malabsorption syndrome), 281 Cellulitis, 406 Centers for disease control (CDC) vaccine recommendations, 31t recommended adult immunization schedule, 33f Centrally acting inhibitors (antiadrenergics), 240. See alsoVascular system Central nervous system (CNS) cerebrospinal fluid circulation, 308f major divisions of, 307f physiology of, 307-308 Cephalosporins, 105 Cerebral aneurysm, 320-321 Cerebral palsy (CP), 329 Cervical cancer, 372 Cervix dilation and effacement, 425f Cesarean birth, 428 Chemotherapy, 36 Chest pain assessing, 245b Chest trauma, 194 Chicken pox (varicella), 28 Child abuse, 122 Child-related disorders, 124 cognitive impairment (mental retardation), 124-125 Chlamydia infection, 371 Cholangiography, 305 Cholecystitis, 302-303 Cholelithiasis, 302-303 Cholinergic (anticholinesterase) medications for, 337 Chorionic villus sampling, 419420 Chronic renal failure (CRF), 388-389 Chronically ill client and pediatric client, 24 Circulatory overload, 83 Circulatory system, normal newborn, 443 Cirrhosis, hepatic, 299-301 Cleft lip, 450451 Cleft palate, 450451 Closed bladder irrigation system, 363f Cognitive impairment, signs of, 309b

Index

475

Cold applications, 46 Colles fracture, 347 Colon cancer of, 280-281 Coma Glasgow coma scale, 311t Commonly used medicinal herbs, 71 Common postoperative complications, 57-58t Communicable diseases, 28-34 diphtheria, 32 infectious mononucleosis, 34 parotitis (mumps), 28 pertussis (whooping cough), 32 poliomyelitis, 33 rubeola (measles, hard measles, red measles), 31 rubella (German measles, three-day measles), 31 roseola infantum (exanthema subitum), 32 scarlet fever (scarlatina), 33 tuberculosis, 199-200 varicella (chicken pox), 28 Communicating with physicians on the telephone, 62b Computer adaptive testing (CAT), 3 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan), 355 Concept of loss, 112 Congenital heart disease, 253-254 Conjunctivitis, 150 Connective tissue: joints and cartilage, 340 Considerations of the pain experience, 49f Constipation, 267-268 Contact dermatitis, 404 Contraception, 414, 438-439 Contractions, 414, 420 Contraction stress test, 420 Continent uninary diversion, 398, 398f COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), 200-201, 200f Corticosteroids. SeeAppendix 5-7, 100; See alsoRespiratory system, medications CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) 261-262 C-reactive protein (CRP), 256 Creatine kinase (CK), 355 Creatinine level, 393 Crisis intervention, 115 Croup syndromes, 195 Crutches, 359 measurement for, 359f Cryptorchidism (undescended testes), 365 CT scan, 355 Cushings syndrome, 171 Cystic fibrosis (CF), 202-203 Cystitis, 435 Cystocele, 366 Cystometrogram (CMG), 394 Cystoscopy, 394 Cytomegalovirus, 371 Cytoprotective medications, 289

D
Daily fetal movement count, 420 Defense mechanisms for coping, 113114 understanding, 114b Deltoid muscle injection site, 75f Dependence, 121 Dermatitis atopic, 403 contact, 404 Dermatophyte (fungal infections), 406 Detachment, 122 Developmental dysplasia of the hip, 341-342

476

Index
Endocrine system comparison of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycemia, 165t diabetic assessment considerations and care, 163b disorders of Addisons disease (adrenocortical insufficiency/adrenal hypofunction), 170 cancer of the pancreas, 169 Cushings syndrome (adrenal cortex hypersecretion/hypercortisolism), 171 diabetes insipidus, 159 diabetes mellitus, 162 diabetes, type 1, 162 diabetes, type 2, 163 Graves disease, 159 hyperparathyroidism, 161 hyperpituitary: acromegaly, 158 hyperthyroidism, 159 hypoglycemia (insulin reaction), 168 hypoparathyroidism, 162 hypothyroidism, 160 pancreatitis, 169 pheochromocytoma, 170 medications used in endocrine disorders ADH replacement, 174 alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, 175 antihypoglycemic medications, 174 antithyroid medications, 174 biguanide, 175 dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors, 175 injectable drugs for diabetes, 175 meglitinides, 175 oral hypoglycemic medications, 174 pancreatic enzymes, 174 profile of insulins, 164f radioactive iodine, 174 sulfonylureas, 175 thiazolidinediones, 175 thyroid replacements, 174 physiology of, 158 Endometriosis, 368 Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), 306 Endoscopy, 306 Enemas, 293 Enteral feeding, 292 Enterostomal surgery, 111 Episiotomy, 425 Epispadias, 383 Epstein-Barr virus, 34 ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), 306 Erectile dysfunction (ED), 366 medications for, 376 Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 451 Event monitor, cardiac, 256 Excretory urogram, 393 Expectorant. See alsoRespiratory system, medications External fixation, 344f Eye diagnostics, 155 disorders of, 146-150 age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 149 cataract, 148 conjunctivitis, 150 glaucoma, 146-147, 147f, 156 retinal detachment, 148 trauma, 150 irrigating, 157 ophthalmic medications cycloplegic and mydriatics, 156 glaucoma, 156 other ophthalmic, 156

Diabetes insipidus, 159 Diabetes mellitus, 162 comparison of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycemia, 165t diabetes, type 1, 162 diabetes, type 2, 163 diabetic assessment considerations and care, 163b diabetic sick day guidelines, 168b guidelines for food selection, 166b implications in the administration of insulin, 166b medications for, 174-175 profile of insulins, 164f sites used for insulin injection, 167f Dialysis, 390-391 Diphtheria, 32 Disaster planning, 59 Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), 357 Disseminated intravascular coagulation, 182 Diuretics, 241 diuretic water slide, 241f loop diuretics, 241 osmotic diuretic, 241 potassium-sparing diuretics, 241 thiazide diuretics, 241 Diuretic water slide, 241f Diverticular disease, 277-278 DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs), 357 Documentation guidelines for effective, 61b Dopamine antagonists, 286 Dose tresponse relationships, 73b Drug actions, 69 Drug interactions, 70 Dumping syndrome, 271b Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, 367-368 amenorrhea, 367 endometriosis, 368 menorrhagia, 368 metrorrhagia, 368 Dysplasia, of the hip, 341-342 Dysrhythmias. SeeCardiac system Dystocia, 429

E
Ear disorders of, 151 balance disorders, 152 hearing loss, 152 otitis media, 151 hearing aid care, 153b improving communication with hearing imparied clients, 153b irrigation, 157 physiology of, 150 Eating disorders, 125 ECG (electrocardiogram), 256 Echocardiogram, 256 Eclampsia, 422-423 Ectopic pregnancy, 422 ED (erectile dysfunction), 366 Electrocardiogram (ECG), 256 Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 117, 136b Electrolyte imbalance calcium, 99 potassium, 97 sodium, 98 Electrolytes, and fluids, 80-81 Electromyelogram (EMG), 355 Encephalitis, 322


Eye (continued) physiology of, 146-147 promoting independent activities of daily living for the client with diminished vision, 149b

Index

477

F
Factors influencing dose-response relationships, 73b Family therapy, 115 Fecal impaction, 268b Female reproductive system disorders of, 366369 physiology of, 360361 Fetus, 418420 abnormal fetal position, 430 assessment testing, 419421 fetal circulation, 418419 fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, 424 labor and delivery, nursing interventions, 424425 multifetal pregnancy, 430 Fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) medications, 259 Fluid, 80 and electrolytes, 80 imbalances (ECF), 80 intravenous replacement therapy, 82 Fluoroquinolones, 106 Food and drug administration pregnancy risk categories, 71t Forceps delivery, 428 Forms of medication preparations, 75 Fractures, 343-348 Colles fracture, 347 compartment syndrome, 345f external fixation, 344f hip, 347348 mandible, 348 pelvis, 347-348 rib, 348 traction, common types, 345f Fundal massage technique, 431f Fungal (dermatophyte) infections, 406 Fusion inhibitor, 107

G
Gallbladder, 296 common sites of gallstones, 302f Gastritis, 279 Gastroenteritis, 279 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 270 Gastrointestinal (GI) system abdominal quadrants, 266f changes in gastrointestinal eystem related to aging, 266b dignostics of, 284285 disorders of acute abdomen, 274275 appendicitis, 273274, 274f bowel obstructionsm, 276f cancer of the colon and rectum, 280281 celiac disease (malabsorption syndrome), 281282 constipation, 267268 diverticular disease, 277278 dumping syndrome, 271b gastritis and gastroenteritis, 279 gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 270 hemorrhoids, 282 hernias, 278 Hirschsprungs disease, 280 inflammatory bowel disease, 278279 intestinal obstruction, 275277 nausea and vomiting, 266267 obesity, 270271

Gastrointestinal (GI) system (continued) oral cancer, 269270 peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 271273 peritonitis, 275, 275f pyloric stenosis, 273 enemas, 293 enteral feeding, 292 medications for antacid, 289 antiemetics, 287 antihistamines, 286 antiinflammatory, 288 antiulcer medications, 289 cytoprotective medications, 289 dopamine antagonists, 286 histamine H2 receptor antagonists, 289 intestinal antibiotics, 288 laxatives, 286287 prostaglandin analogues, 289 proton pump inhibitors, 289 nasogastric tubes, 291 organs of the digestive system, 265f ostomy care, 294295, 294f parenteral nutrition, 290 physiology of, 265266 preventing fecal impaction, older adult, 268b Genital warts, 371 GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), 270 Gestational hypertension nursing management of clients with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, 424b GI tract, newborn, 444 Glasgow coma scale, 311t Glaucoma, 146. See alsoEye: disorders of Glomerulonephritis, 385 Gonorrhea, 370 Gout, 353, 356 Graves disease. SeeEndocrine system Group therapy, 115 Growth and development, 24-27, 25t Guidelines for effective documentation, 61b Guillian-Barr syndrome, 327-328

H
Hand hygiene, 87b Headache, 330 Head injury, 315316 discharge instructions for, 316b Health assessment, 42 history, 42 teaching, 42 Health care personnel (HCP) vaccine recommendations, 31t Hearing aid care, 153. See alsoEar Hearing loss, 152 Heart failure, 249251 left-sided heart failure, 249f Heart structures, f, 243 Heat and cold applications, 46 Hematological system, newborn, 444 Hematologic system age-related assessment findings for the hematologic system, 177t diagnostics of, 184 disorders of disseminated intravascular coagulation, 182 disorders of the spleen, 182 hemophilia, 181 leukemia, 179-180 lymphomas, 181

478

Index
I
Ileal loop, 398f Immobility, 18-19, 48 assistive devices for, 359 crutch measurement, 359f Immune globulin human Rho(D) (RhoGAM), 442 Immune system acquired immunity, 88t physiology of, 8889 Immunization schedule Adult, 33f Child 0-6 Years, 32f Immunosuppresant, 412 Imperforate anus, 451 Impetigo, 405406 Incontinence, 380 dealing with, 380b types of urinary, 380t Increased intracranial pressure (ICP), 310313, 312f adult and children, 313b Induction of labor, 428429 Infant, 24-26, 443-449 diabetic mother, 453 growth and development, 25t physiology of, 443447 premature, 435 special needs, 435 Infection, 85-88 antibiotic-resistant infections, 88 chlamydia, 371 fungal (dermatophyte), 406 hand hygiene, 87b infection control procedures, 102103 postpartum, 434435 prevention of transmission in the health care setting, 87 signs of infection, 86b urinary tract, 381b viral, 407 Infectious mononucleosis, 34 Infective endocarditis (bacterial), 252 Infiltration, 82 Inflammation, 85 cardinal signs of inflammation, 85t Inflammatory bowel disease, 278-279 Inflammatory disease pelvic, 368-369 Inflammatory disorders, 364-365 Injection routes, 74f deltoid muscle injection site in the upper arm, 75f ventrogluteal intramuscular injection site, 75f vastus lateralis intramuscular injection site on the right thigh, 75f Insulin administration of, 166b hypoglycemia (insulin reaction), 168 implications in the administration of, 166b profile of insulins, 164f sites used for insulin injection, 167f reaction. SeeHypoglycemia Integumentary system. SeeSkin during pregnancy, 415 normal newborn, 445 normal pregnancy, 415 Interpersonal withdrawal, 118 Intervention modalities, 115-117 Intestinal antibiotic and antiinflammatory medications, 288 Intestinal obstruction, 275-277 Intrafamily abuse and violence, 122 Intrauterine device (IUD), 438

Hematologic system (continued) sickle cell anemia, 178 sickle cell anemia crisis, 178f hematopoietic stem cell transplant, 187 medications for, 185 physiology of, 176 polycythemia vera (primary), 179 Hemophilia, 181 Hemorrhage in the pregnant client, 430 nursing management of hemorrhage in the pregnant client, 431t Hemorrhoids, 282 Hepatic and biliary system diagnostics of, 305-306 disorders of cancer of the liver, 301 cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, 302-303 common sites of gallstones, 302f hepatic cirrhosis, 299-301 hepatitis, 297-299, 298t jaundice, 296298 liver transplantation, 301-302 measuring abdominal girth, 300f organs of, 296 physiology of, 296 T-tube, placement of, 303f Hepatic cirrhosis, 299-301 Hepatitis, 297-299, 298t Herbal supplements, 70 Hernias, 278 Herniated intervertebral disk, 342-343 Herpes genitalis, 370-371 High-alert medications, 72 nursing implications, 73b Hip dysplasia, 341-342 fracture of, 347 replacement, 348-349 Hirschsprungs disease, 280 Histamine h2 receptor antagonists, 289 HIV (human immunodificiency virus), 91-95 Holter monitor, 256 Homeostasis, 80-108 physiology of, 80-81 Hormone replacement medication for, 377 Hostility/aggressiveness, 119 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 91-95 Human sexuality, 111-112 Hyaline membrane disease (HMD). SeeNewborn: respiratory distress (RDS) Hydrocele, 366 Hydrocephalus, 316-317 Hygiene hand washing, 43 nursing measures, 43, 48-49 Hypercalcemia, 99 Hyperemesis gravidarum, 422 Hyperparathyroidism, 161 Hyperpituitary: acromegaly, 158 Hypertension, 224-226 pregnancy induced (PIH), 422-423 nursing management of clients with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, 424b Hyperthyroidism, 159 Hypocalcemia, 99 Hypoglycemia (insulin reaction), 168 Hypoparathyroidism, 162 Hypospadias, 383 Hypothyroidism, 160 Hypoxia, 191-192


Intravenous fluid replacement therapy administering, 82 complications, 82 Intravenous urography (IVP), 393 Iron deficiency anemia, 177 Isoimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn, 452 IUD (intrauterine device), 438 IVP (intravenous urography), 393

Index

479

J
Jaundice, 296297 Joint replacement, 352 protecting joints in older adults, 352b

K
Key words for identifying the nursing process, 2b Kidney. See alsoUrinary-Renal system disorders of, 380389 physiology of, 378380 Kissing disease (infectious mononucleosis), 34 Knee replacement, 349 KUB (kidnesy, ureters, bladder), 393

L
Labor complications assiciated with, 429432 fetal heart rate monitoring, 424 labor contraction cycle, 427f maternal data collection during, 423424 observations and nursing care during, 426427 Labor contraction cycle, 427f Larnyx cancer of, 204-205 Laxatives, 286-287 Legal considerations, 60 documents, 63 implications, 59-68 protective procedures, 60 Leukemia, 179-180 Leukotriene modifiers. See alsoRespiratory system, medications Liver, 296 cancer of, 301 transplantation of, 301-302 Lockjaw. See alsoTetanus (lockjaw) Long-term care, 23-28 care of the chronically ill client, 24 psychological responses to disability, 23 rehabilitation, 23 goals of, 23 Lou Gehrigs disease, 328. See alsoAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Lungs cancer of, 206-207 physiology of 188, 188f Lupus, 90-91 Lymphomas, 181

M
Macrolides, 105 Magnesium sulfate, 440 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 257, 355 Malabsorption syndrome (celiac disease), 281282 Male reproductive system benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 361362, 361f inflammatory disorders, 364365 physiology of, 360 prostate disorders, 361363 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), 362364, 364f

Malignant melanoma, 407, 407b Manipulation/acting out, 121 Maslows hierarchy of basic human needs, 41, 41f Mastitis, 435 Maternal assessment testing, 419421 data collection during labor, 423424 labor and delivery, nursing interventions, 424429 Meconium aspiration syndrome, 450 Medication administration, 70-75 injection routes, 74f nursing responsibilities in, 70 Medication dosages calculation of, 76-79 Medication implications for older adult clients, 72b Medications for allergic reactions, 108 Medications for pain relief, 51 analgesics, 67-68 moderate opioids, 68 moderate to strong opioid, 68 narcotic, 67 narcotic antagonist, 68 strong opioid, 67 Medicinal herbs, 71t Meningitis, 321-322 Menorrhagia, 368 Mental status examination, 113 Metabolism normal pregnancy, 415 Metrorrhagia, 368 Milieu, 115 Mind-body-spirit therapies, 115 Mnemonic to evaluate pain (PQRST), 50b MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), 257, 355 Multifetal pregnancy, 418, 430 Multiple sclerosis (MS), 326-327 Muscle relaxant medications, 340 Muscular dystrophy (MD), 328-329 Musculoskeletal and connective tissue system 5 Ps of neurovascular assessment, 346f amputations, 358 body mechanics, 341b connective tissue: joints and cartilage, 340 diagnostic studies, 355 invasive diagnostics, 355 arthrocentesis, 355 arthroscopy, 355 bone biopsy, 355 electromyelogram (EMG), 355 myelogram and CT scan, 355 noninvasive diagnostics, 355 bone scan, 355 computerized axial tomography (CAT scan), 355 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 355 x-ray films, 355 serum diagnostics, 355 antinuclear antibody (ANA), 355 creatine kinase (CK), 355 rheumatoid factor (RF), 355 disorders of bone tumors, malignant, 351 compartment syndrome, 345f developmental dysplasia of the hip, 341-342 fractures, 343-348 Colles fracture, 347 hip, 347 mandible, 348 pelvis, 347-348 rib, 348 gout, 353

480

Index
Neurologic system (continued) headache, 330 head injury, 315-316 hydrocephalus, 316-317 increased intracranial pressure (ICP), 310-313, 312f adult and children, 313b meningitis, 321-322 multiple sclerosis (MS), 326-327 muscular dystrophy (MD), 328-329 myasthenia gravis, 325-326 Parkinsons disease (paralysis agitans), 329-330, 330f Reyes syndrome, 317 seizures, 338-339 spinal cord injury, 322-325 areas of paralysis, 322f stroke (brain attack), 317-320 risk factors associated with, 319b trigeminal neuralgia, 331 Glasgow coma scale, 311t major divisions of the central nervous system, 307f manifestations of right-brain and left-brain stroke, 318f medications for antiepileptics, 336 antiparkinsonism medications, 337 cholinergic (anticholinesterase), 337 peripheral nervous system (PNS), 308-310 PERRLA, 309 physiology of, 307-308 Neurovascular assessment 5 Ps of, 346f Newborn disorders of cleft lip and cleft palate, 450451 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 451 imperforate anus, 451 infant of a diabetic mother, 453 isoimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn, 452 neonatal sepsis, 452 neural tube defects, 451 respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 450 high-risk, 447449 disorders acquired during and after birth, 448449, 449t normal, 443447 caput succedaneum, 444f neonatal period, 443 major reflexes of, 445t temperature, 443 regulating in high-risk, 448 physiology of, 443 Nitrates, 258 Nitroglycerin administration, 246 client education, 246b NNRTIs (nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), 107 Noninvasive pain relief measures, 51 Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 101, 357 Nonstress test (NST), 420 Normal vital signs, 47t NRTIs (nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors), 107 NSAIDs (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications), 357 Nuclear imaging scans (scintigraphy), 305 Nursing priority, 2 Nursing process, 1, 3, 41, 113 Nutritional evaluation, 27-28

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue system (continued) herniated intervertebral disk, 342-343 osteoarthritis, 352-353 osteomyelitis, 350 osteoporosis, 349-350 progression of, 350f rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 351-352 scoliosis, 343 external fixation of fracture, 344f hip replacement, 348-349 immobility assistive devices for, 359 crutch measurement, 359f joints, 352-353 protecting joints, 352b knee replacement, total, 349 medications for, 356-357 antigout medications, 356 biological therapy, 357 calcium medications, 356 disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), 357 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDs), 357 skeletal muscle relaxants, 356 musculoskeletal changes in the older adult, 340b older adult, musculoskeletal nursing implications, 347b traction, common types, 345f Myasthenia gravis, 325-326 Myelogram, 355 Myocardial infarction, 247-249 MyPyramid, 28-29, 29f

N
Nasal decongestants. See alsoRespiratory system, medications Nasogastric tubes, 291 Nausea, 266267 NCLEX examination, 4 alternate format questions, 14-18, 14f, 15f, 16f, 17f, 18f decrease anxiety, 21 evaluating multiple-choice questions, 9 management of client care, 7 multiple-choice question, 9f NCLEX-PN test plan, 3t nursing priorities, 7 plateau to establish pass or fail, 4f successful test taking strategies, 5-7 Neonatal sepsis, 452 Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor), 385 Nephrotic syndrome, 383384 Nervous system, newborn, 444 Neural tube defects, 451 Neurocirculatory assessment, 346 Neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medications, 145 Neurologic system assessing neurologic function in older adults, 309b autonomic nervous system, 309t central nervous system, 307 cerebrospinal fluid circulation, 308f confusion, causes of in the older adult, 310b diagnostics of, 334-335 discharge instructions for clients with head injury, 316b disorders of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 328-329 aphasia, 339 Bells palsy, 331 brain tumors, 314-315 cerebral aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrahage, 320-321 cerebral palsy (CP), 329 encephalitis, 322 Guillain-Barr syndrome, 327-328

O
Obesity, 110, 270271 Older adult, 27 age-related factors influencing older adult care, 27b aging and mental health, 113b


Older adult (continued) assessing neurologic function, 309b benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 362b changes in gastrointestinal system related to aging, 266b confusion, causes of, 310b dealing with incontinence, 380b diabetic assessment considerations and care, 163b differences in skin assessment, 402b evaluation of blood pessure, 225b growth and development, 25t guidelines for food selection, 166b hearing aid care, 153b improving communication with hearing imparied clients, 153b infections, 87b medication implications for older adult clients, 72b musculoskeketal changes, 340b musculoskeletal nursing implications, 347b preoperative and postoperative considerations, 54b preventing fecal impaction, 268b promoting independent activities of daily living for the client with diminished vision, 149b protecting joints in older adults, 352b respiratory care priorities, 193b urinary tract infection, 381b Oral cancer, 269270 Osteoarthritis, 352353 Osteomyelitis, 350 Osteoporosis, 349350 progression of, 350f Ostomy, 294295 care of the client with, 294f Otitis media, 151 Oxygen, 220 Oxygenated blood through the heart, 243f Oxytocic medications, 440

Index

481

P
Pacemakers, 264 Pain considerations of the pain experience, 49f cultural implications of, 50 harmful effects of pain, 50b medications for pain relief, 51 analgesics, 68 mnemonic to evaluate pain (PQRST), 50b noninvasive pain relief measures, 51 Pancreas cancer of the pancreas, 169 diagnostics of, 173 medications for. SeeEndocrine system: medications used in endocrine disorders pancreatic enzymes, 174 Pancreatitis, 169 Paralysis agitans (Parkinsons disease), 329330 Paranoid disorders, 137 Parasitic infestations, 406407 Parenteral nutrition, 290 Parkinsons disease (paralysis agitans), 329330, 330f Parotitis (mumps), 28 Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 93-94 Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 368369 Penicillin, 104 Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 271273 Perception, disturbances of, 137b Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS), 420 Pericarditis, 252253 Perioperative care, 53 common postoperative complications, 57t day of surgery, 55

Perioperative care (continued) general postoperative care, 56 immediate postoperative recovery, 56 preoperative and postoperative considerations, 54b Peripheral arterial disease (peripheral vascular disease), 226229 Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 308310 Peritonitis (hot belly), 20f, 275, 275f Pernicious anemia, 177 PERRLA, 309 Personality disorders, 128 Pertussis (whooping cough), 32-33 PET (positron emission tomography), 257 Pharmacology, 69 commonly used medicinal herbs, 71t drug actions, 69 drug interactions, 70 factors influencing dose response relationships,73b food and drug administration pregnancy risk categories, 71t forms of medication preparations, 75 general concepts of, 69 herbal supplements, 70 medication implications for older adult clients, 72b methods of medication administration, 73 calculation of medication dosages, 76 injection routes, 74f injection sites, 75 deltoid muscle injection site in the upper arm, 75f sites used for insulin injection, 167F ventrogluteal intramuscular injection site, 75f vastus lateralis intramuscular injection site on the right thigh, 75f nurses legal responsibilities in administration of medication, 72 nursing implications for high-alert medications, 73b pregnancy risk categories, 71t Pheochromocytoma, 170 Phlebitis, 82 Pituitary, 173 diagnostics of, 173 Placenta normal pregnancy, 415, 418 Pneumonia, 198-199, 198f Pneumothorax, 193 Poliomyelitis, 33 Polycythemia vera (primary), 179 Polydrug dependence, 131-134 Positioning and body mechanics, 66-67, 341b Positron emission tomography (PET), 257 Postmastectomy nursing care, 374f Postmenopausal vaginitis (atrophic vaginitis), 367 Postmortem care, 44 Postoperative complications, 57t Postpartum (puerperium period), 432435 complications of, 434435 data collection, 432 physiological changes, 432433 Potassium imbalances, 97 medications, 97 PQRST (assessing chest pain), 245b Preeclampsia, 422423 Pregnancy, 414416 and body image, 111 antepartum period, 417418 nursing management during, 417418 Apgar scoring system, 427t cardiovascular disease, 253 common discomforts and relief measures, 419t complications associated with, 421423 abortion, 421422

482

Index
Protease inhibitors (PIS), 107 Proton pump inhibitors, 289 Psoriasis, 403 Psychiatric disorders affective disorders, 133-135 bipolar affective disorder, 133f cognitive impairment (mental retardation), 124 eating disorders, 125-126 organic mental syndromes, 126b psychiatric considerations of older adults, 126-128 schizophrenic disorders, 135-137 Psychiatric nursing body image, 110 concepts and care, 109-112 Psychophysiological disorder, 128 Psychosocial data assessment, 112 Psychosurgery, 117 Pulmonary edema, 203-204 Pulmonary embolism, 195 Pulse points, 227f Pyelitis, 435 Pyloric stenosis, 273

Pregnancy (continued) ectopic pregnancy, 422 hyperemesis gravidarum, 422 hypertensive disorders (PIH), 422423 contraceptive methods, 438439 danger signs of, 418b definition of common terms, 415t fetal and maternal assessment testing, 419421 amniocentesis, 419 biophysical profile, 420421 chorionic villus sampling, 419420 daily fetal movement count, 420 nonstress test (NST), 420 percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS), 420 ultrasonography, 419 fetus, 418420 fetal circulation, 418419 gastrointestinal system, normal pregnancy, 414 labor and delivery, 423432 cervical dilation and effacement, 425f complications associated with, 429432 abnormal fetal position, 430 dystocia, 429 hemorrhage in the pregnant client, 430 multifetal pregnancy, 430 nursing management of hemorrhage in the pregnant client, 431t preterm, 429 prolapsed cord, 430 supine hypotensive syndrome (vena caval syndrome), 430 fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring, 424 fundal massage technique, 431f induction of, 428429 labor contraction cycle, 427f maternal data collection, 423 nursing interventions during, 424429 forceps delivery, 428 observations and nursing care during, 426-427f medications for anticonvulsant, magnesium sulfate, 440 RhoGAM, immune globulin human Rho(D), 442 to cause uterine contractions, oxytocic and prostaglandins, 440 to suppress labor, tocolytic medications, 441 nursing management of clients with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, 424b operative obstetrics, 425428 cesarean birth, 428 episiotomy, 425 parental reaction to premature infant or infant with special needs, 435 physiological changes, 414415 postpartum (puerperium period), 432435 attachment: psychosocial response, 433 complications of, 434435 cystitis and pyelitis, 435 infection, 434435 mastitis, 435 thrombophlebitis, 435 data collection, 432 physiological changes, 432433 prenatal care, 415418 signs and symptoms of, 416t Pregnancy risk categories, 71t Pre-school, 26 growth and development, 25t Pressure ulcer, 404-405 stages of, 404f Preterm labor, 429 Prolapsed cord, 430432 Prostaglandin analogues, 289 Prostaglandins, 440

R
Range of motion (ROM), 43 Rape, 124 Raynauds disease, 229 Recommended immunization schedule adult, 33f. See alsoCenters for disease control (CDC) for children aged 0-6 years, 32f. See alsoCenters for disease control (CDC) Rectocele, 366 Rectum, cancer of, 280281 Red measles. See alsoRubeola (measles, hard measles) Reflexes neonatal, 445t Regression, 118 Rehabilitation, 23-40 Renal. See Urinary-Renal system acute renal failure (ARF), 386-388 biopsy, 394 chronic renal failure (CRF), 388-389 diagnostics of, 393-394 dialysis, 390-391 medications for bladder relaxants, 395 glycoprotein hormones, 395 immunosuppressives, 396 urinary analgesics, 395 urinary tract antiseptics, 395 renogram (renal scan), 394 transplant, 389-390 tumors, 391 Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), 385-386 ultrasound exam, 394 Renogram (renal scan), 394 Reproductive system female reproductive system, 360-361 breast self-examination, 373b disorders of breast carcinoma, 372-373 cervical cancer, 372 cystocele and rectocele, 366 dysfunctional uterine bleeding, 367 amenorrhea, 367 endometriosis, 368 menorrhagia, 668 metrorrhagia, 368 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 368-369 postmastectomy, 374f


Reproductive system (continued) vaginal inflammatory conditions, 367 bacterial vaginosis, 367 candidiasis, 367 postmenopausal vaginitis (atrophic vaginitis), 367 trichomoniasis, 367 male reproductive system, 360 benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 362b closed bladder irrigation system, 363f disorders of erectile dysfunction (ED), 366 hydrocele and varicocele, 366 testicular tumors (cancer), 365 inflammatory disorders, 364-365 prostate disorders, 361-364 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 361 undescended testes (cryptorchidism), 365-366 testicular self-examination, 365b medications for, 376 antifungal/protozoal medications, 376 benign prostatic hyperplasia, 376 erectile dysfunction, 376 hormone replacement, 377 physiology of, 360-361 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 369-372 chlamydia infection, 371 cytomegalovirus, 371 genital warts, 371 gonorrhea, 370 herpes genitalis, 370-371 syphilis, 369-370 Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 450 Respiratory syncytial virus (bronchiolitis), 197 Respiratory system artificial airways, 217-218 position of endotracheal tube, 217f position of tracheostomy tube, 218f suctioning through, 219 care priorities for the older adult, 193b disorders of asthma, 201-202 cancer of the larnyx, 204-206 cancer of the lung, 206-207 chest trauma, 194 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 200-201, 200f croup syndromes, 195-196 cystic fbrosis (CF), 202-203 hypoxia, 191-192 pneumonia, 198-199, 198f pneumothorax, 193-194 pulmonary edema, 203-204 pulmonary embolism, 195 respiratory syncytial virus (bronchiolitis), 197 tonsillitis, 197-198 tuberculosis, 199-200 effective coughing, 192b mechanical ventilators, 222 medication for, 212-213 anticholinergics, 212 antihistamine, 213 antitubercular, 213 beta2 agonists, long acting, 212 beta2 agonists, rapid acting, 212 corticosteroids, 212 expectorant, 213 leukotriene modifiers, 213 nasal decongestants, 213 normal airflow in and out of lungs, 206f normal alterial blood gas values, 191t normal newborn, 443

Index

483

Respiratory system (continued) normal pregnancy, 414 organs of, 188, 188f oxygen, 220 oxygen tranasport, 189 physiology of, 188-191 placement of chest tubes, 215f prevention of aspiration, 193b pulmonary diagnostics, 210-211 respiratory assessment of the older adult client, 190t retractions, location of in children, 196f sputum specimen collection, 221 suctioning through artificial airways, 219 sudden airway obstruction, 214 symptoms of respiratory distress and hypoxia, 192t water-sealed chest drainage, 215-216, 215f Restraints, use of, 117b Retinal detachment, 148 Retrograde pyelogram, 393 Reyes syndrome, 317 Rheumatic heart disease, 251-252 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 351-352 Rheumatoid factor (RF), 355 RhoGAM (immune globulin human Rho(D) ), 442 Roseola infantum (exanthema subitum), 32 Rubella (German measles, three-day measles), 31-32 Rubeola (measles, hard measles, red measles), 31

S
Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina), 33 Schizophrenia, 135 School-age child, 26 growth and development, 25t Scoliosis, 343 Seizure disorders, 338339 classification of, 338 Sensory system, 146. SeeEar; Eye Serum laboratory tests, 305 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 369372 chlamydia infection, 371 cytomegalovirus, 371 genital warts, 371 gonorrhea, 370 herpes genitalis, 370-371 syphilis, 369-370 Shame, 121 Shock (severe hypotension), 231233 medications used for treatment, 242 Sickle Cell Anemia, 178 Skeletal system physiology of, 340 Skin diagnostic studies, 411 differences in skin assessment, 402b disorders of acne vulgaris, 403 atopic dermatitis, 403 burns, 408409 degree of burn by tissue layer, 408f depth of, 408b cellulitis, 406 contact dermatitis, 404 fungal (dermatophyte) infections, 406 impetigo, 405406 infections fungal (dermatophyte), 406 viral, 407 malignant melanoma, 407, 407b parasitic infestations, 406407

484

Index
Toddler growth and development, 25t, 26, Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), 385-386 Tonsillitis, 197-198 Traction, examples of common types of, 345f Transesophageal echocardiography, 257 Transfusions, blood, 186 Transplant, renal, 389-390 Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), 362-364, 364f Traumatic, brain/head injury, 315 Trichomoniasis, 367 Trigeminal neuralgia, 331 Tonsillitis, 197 Tuberculosis, 199-200 Tumor bone, 351 brain, 314-315 breast, 372 cervical, 372 renal, 391 testes, 365 Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), 385-386 TURP (transurethral resection of the postate), 364, 364f

Skin (continued) pressure ulcer, 404405 stages of, f, 404 psoriasis, 403 medications used for antifungal, 412 antiinflammatory, 412 antiviral, 412 immunosuppresant, 412 topical antibiotics for treatment of burns, 413 physiology of, 402403 Sodium imbalances, 98 medication to correct imbalances, 98 Specimen collection, 47 sputum collection, 221 urine collection, 399 Spinal cord injury, 322-325 areas of paralysis, 322f Spinal fluid, circulating, 308f Spleen, disorders of, 182 Sputum, specimen collection, 221 STDs (sexually transmitted diseases). SeeReproductive system Stem cell transplant, 187 Steps of the nursing process, 41 Sterile technique procedures and guidelines, 44b Sterilization, permanent, 439 Stroke (brain attack), 111, 126, 317-320 manifestations of right-brain and left-brain, 318f risk factors associated with, 319b Study habits, 20-21 Subarachnoid hemorrhage, 320-321 Successful test taking on the NCLEX exam, 5 Suctioning, 219 Sulfonamides, 105 Supine hypotensive syndrome (vena caval syndrome), 430 Syphilis, 369-370 Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, sepis), 87-88 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 90-91

U
Ulcer pressure, 404405 stages of, 404f Ultrasonography, 419 Ultrasound gallbladder, 306 pregnancy, 419 renal, 394 Umbilical cord, 444 Undescended testes (cryptorchidism), 365 Unstable angina pectoris, 246-247 Urethral pressure profile or urethral pressure profilometry (UPP), 394 Urinalysis, 393 Urinary-Renal system catherization, 400-401 diversions continent, 398, 398f ileal loop, 398f permanent, 398 temporary, 397 diagnostics of, 393-394 disorders of urinary calculi, 382-383 glomerulonephritis, 385 hypospadias and epispadias, 383 incontinence dealing with incontinence, 380b types of urinary, 380t nephrotic syndrome, 383-384 urinary tract infections 380-381, 381f in the older adult, 381b normal newborn, genitourinary system, 445 normal pregnancy, 414 physiology of, 378-379 structure of the urinary system, 379f medications for analgesics, 395 antiseptics, 395 bladder relaxants, 395 glycoprotein hormones, 395 immunosupressive, 396 physiology of, 378-380 Urine

T
Temperature assessment, 48 normal newborn, 443 regulating in high-risk newborn, 448 Testes testicular self-examination, 365b testicular tumors, 365 undescended (cryptorchidism), 365 Test plan, 1, 3 Test-taking process, 19 strategies, 5-6 tips for, 19 Tetanus (lockjaw), 33 Tetracyclines, 105 Thallium 201 test, 256 Therapeutic communication, 18-19, 115-116, 116t meal plans, 28-30, 30t nursing process, 18-19, 114 Three-day measles. SeeRubella (German measles, three-day measles) Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buergers disease), 229 Thrombophlebitis, 234-235, 435 Thyroid, 173 diagnostics of, 173 thyroid replacements. SeeEndocrine system: medications used in endocrine disorders Tocolytic medications, 441


culture and sensitivity, 393 specific gravity, 393 stream testing, 394 Urodynamic studies, 394 Uterine bleeding amenorrhea, 367 dysfunctional, 367-368 endometriosis, 368 menorrhagia, 368 metrorrhagia, 368 Uterus normal pregnancy, 414 postpartum, 432 Ventrogluteal intramuscular injection site, 75f Violence, 119 Viral infection, skin, 407 Vital signs, 47 Vomiting, 266-267

Index

485

W
Warts genital, 371 Whooping cough, 32 Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), 385386 Wound care, 45 abdominal binding, 46f wound cleansing, 45f wound drain and suction devices, 46f

V
Vaccine recommendations, 31t. See alsoCenters for disease control (CDC) Vagina inflammatory conditions of, 367 bacterial vaginosis, 367 candidiasis, 367 postmenopausal vaginitis (atrophic vaginitis), 367 trichomoniasis, 367 normal pregnancy, 414 Vaginosis atrophic vaginitis (postmenopausal vaginitis), 367 bacterial, 367 Varicella (chicken pox), 28 Varicocele, 366 Varicose veins, 233-234 Vascular system blood pressure, 223 diagnostics, 237 disorders of, 223-235 aneurysm, 229-231 atherosclerosis, 223-224 pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, 224f hypertension, 224-226 hypertensive nursing care, 226f lifestyle modifications for hypertension prevention and control, 226b hypertension, risk factors, 225t peripheral arterial disease (peripheral vascular disease), 226-229 Raynauds disease, 229 shock (severe hypotension), 231-233 thromboangiitis obliterans (Buergers disease), 229 thrombophlebitis, 234-235 varicose veins, 233-234 evaluation of blood pressure, 225b medications for anticoagulants/antiplatelets, 239 antihyperlipidemic, 238 antihypertensive, 240 diuretics, 241 treatment of shock, 242 physiology of, 223 pulse points, 227f Vastus lateralis intramuscular injection site, 75f

X
X-ray films, 355 kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB), 393

Y
Young adult growth and development, 25t