Você está na página 1de 60

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Introduction to Unit
The following unit and lesson plans are designed for a group of young people aged 17-18, who are newly arrived in Australia. These students are participating in the mainstream Australian secondary schooling system by studying senior secondary courses (years 11-12) at an Australian public school. In 2012, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) developed a draft senior secondary English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) for students like this. Still in the draft stage, this curriculum document is the intended future of secondary ESL instruction in Australia. Various curriculum documents can be found at the ACARA website 1. For the purposes of this unit, selections from the most recent (2012) draft senior secondary syllabus for EAL/D can be found in the appendix. The years 11-12 EAL/D curriculum is divided into two unit strands, based on two possible types of students entering senior secondary study, where English study is compulsory. This unit plan caters for the Bridging Unit strand, which is most suited to new arrivals, as it is designed for students who are at the emerging phase (or early developing phase) of the Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression. Please see the appendix resource 5 for a description of these phases. According to the draft curriculum document Each unit is designed to be taught in about half a 'school year' of senior secondary studies (approximately 5060 hours duration including assessment and examinations). However, the senior secondary units have also been designed so that they may be studied singly, in pairs (that is, year-long), or as four units over two years. This unit plan provides a program structure for Bridging Unit 1, studied singly or concurrently, at the recommended 50 hours duration spanning 20 weeks. This includes 10 hours of integrated assessment. The lesson plans included in this document provide ideas for five possible lessons for this unit. For the purposes of these lesson plans, the dot point key language skills, aims, unit outcomes and content descriptors have been numbered. These numeric references are explained either in the unit plan or in the corresponding extractions from the EAL/D curriculum in the appendix. At the end of this unit, there is coding of the unit by the Quality Teaching (QT)Model (Ladwig & Gore, 2003) to demonstrate how motivation, communication, assessment and support are included in the classroom practice demonstrated by the five included lesson plans.

The senior secondary curriculum documents are available here: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Download/1

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Unit Plan
Topic: Senior Secondary English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Bridging Unit 1 (2012 Draft) Aims According to the current draft of the Australian National Curriculum for EAL/D All senior secondary English subjects aim to develop students: AIM1 - skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing AIM2 - capacity to create texts for a range of purposes, audiences and contexts AIM3 - understanding and appreciation of different uses of language. In addition, English as an Additional Language or Dialect aims to develop students: AIM4 - understanding of the relationships between language, texts and ways of thinking and knowing in SAE AIM5 - ability to communicate ideas, feelings, attitudes and information appropriately in and through SAE across the curriculum areas AIM6 - inferential comprehension, critical analysis and reflection skills.
From:http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Senior%20Secondary%2
0Curriculum%20%20English%20as%20an%20Additional%20Language%20or%20Dialect%20November%2 02012.pdf

Time: 20 weeks = 60 hours, 50x1hr lessons and 10hrs assessment (5 lessons plans included) Description of the EAL/D Subject:

Designed to develop students knowledge, understanding and skills in Standard Australian English (SAE). Students studying this subject will benefit in all curriculum areas from explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of SAE. EAL/D provides a variety of language, literature and literacy experiences to accommodate the diverse range of starting points for students learning English as an additional language or dialect. EAL/D focuses on how language and texts can vary in structure and usage depending on cultural and social context, and how language can change according to audience and purpose. One of the key focuses of EAL/D is the development of students oral language skills. Description of EAL/D Bridging Units (1-4) EAL/D Bridging Units 14 are designed for students who are at the emerging phase (or early developing phase) of the Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression. These students may include: students who have had limited exposure to SAE. These students may have recently exited an Intensive English Centre, or be in a rural, remote or very remote setting with limited or no access to EAL/D specialist intervention students who are new to the Australian educational setting or who have had little or no prior formal education. Students may choose to complete 2, 4, 6 or 8 EAL/D units, and units can be studied sequentially or concurrently. As EAL/D students may perform at different levels of competence in oral communication skills and written ability, it is advised that all language modes be considered equally for appropriate placement into units.

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Bridging Unit 1 Bridging Unit 1 is designed for students who are at the Emerging phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression and focuses on developing communication skills in a range of contexts across the language modes of SAE. There is a particular focus on developing oral communication skills. Ageappropriate texts are used to develop vocabulary, grammar, language learning strategies and understanding. This includes the comprehension and retrieval of key information from familiar texts. The unit will enable students to apply their knowledge and understanding as they create simple texts that express their needs, opinions and ideas. Learning outcomes By the end of this unit, students: LO1 - communicate to express their ideas on familiar topics using visual aids, modelled text and/or teacher support LO2 - demonstrate an understanding of the main ideas in familiar texts and of literal information at sentence level LO3 - respond to familiar texts and begin to articulate opinions LO4 - create short, simply structured oral, written and multimodal texts on familiar topics with some accuracy.

Organisation of content Content descriptions in each unit in EAL/D are grouped under an organising framework that presents key aspects of learning that underpin each subject. Organisers vary between subjects according to the distinctive focus of each subject. The organising framework in EAL/D for Bridging Unit 1 (BU1) is detailed in appendix item 4 pages from the 2012 draft curriculum document. Here is a summary: CD1 - Communication strategies Including CDBU1.1.1, CDBU1.1.2, CDBU1.1.3, CDBU1.1.4 CD2 - Comprehension strategies Including CDBU1.2.1, CDBU1.2.2, CDBU1.2.3, CDBU1.2.4, CDBU1.2.5, CDBU1.2.6 CD3 - Language and textual analysis Including CDBU1.3.1, CDBU1.3.2, CDBU1.3.3, CDBU1.3.4, CDBU1.3.5 CD4 - Creating texts. Including CDBU1.4.1, CDBU1.4.2, CDB CDBU1.4.2U1.4.3, CDBU1.4.4, CDBU1.4.5, CDBU1.4.6

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Week

Suggested Sequence of Teaching & Learning Activities

Assessment & Feedback

1-4 Lessons 1-12

Regular activity (ideally each lesson) show and tell after building student speaking confidence in front of peers in the early lessons, encourage students to speak in front of the class about anything of interest to them that happened since last lesson. As a prompt, suggest that students look for videos on Youtube or articles in magazines that they can talk about, but students can also talk about a personal event that happened, or any topic of their choice. This is not assessed. Weeks 1 & 2 For lessons 1, 2 & 4, see the attached lesson plans. Lessons 3, 5, 6: progress learning through using personal experiences in a range of learning activities, with a focus on achieving unit learning outcomes LO1, 2, and 4. Focus on Key Language Skills (KLS) 3, 4 5 and 7 Weeks 3 & 4 Introduce the learning text American Born Chinese (Yang, 2006) Continue with a focus on achieving unit outcomes 1, 2, and 4 through the study of this text as a class.

Informally assess and give feedback on students by keeping individual student development records, based on observations of the students performance across the four language skill areas.

5-8 Lessons 13-24

Weeks 5 & 6 Continue to study American Born Chinese, focusing on the achievement of the unit learning outcomes (LOs) and the Content Descriptors for Bridging Unit 1. (CDBU1s.) Weeks 7 & 8 Introduce students to the concept of selecting related material through demonstrations and lessons with studies of newspaper and magazine articles and multimodal texts, as well as texts that students bring to class. This will prepare students for the requirements of Assessment Task 1 in weeks 11 and 12.

9-12 Lessons

Weeks 9 & 10 Focus on preparing the students for the oral assessment of unit outcome 1 communication strategies, by consistently

6hrs of in-class student presentations to

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

25-30 + Assess. 31-36 13-16 Lessons 37-48

modelling and practicing presentation before the class, that are not assessed. Weeks 11 & 12 Assessment: students take turns to complete the oral assessment task. Weeks 13 16 Begin to prepare students for the IELTS-style examinations in week 20 by consistently practicing the four writing skills each lesson, through a combination of independent and group activities like peer interviews, use of feedback to the show and tell activity, story writing and study of texts. Weeks 17 - 19 Intensify the practice for the exam by conducting individual practice speaking and listening exams. As a class, work together on improving reading and writing skills. Week 20 Conduct individual IELTS-style examinations. In final lesson, recall all students to receive general feedback.

assess communication strategies lessons 31-36

17-20 Lessons 49-56 + 4hrs exams

4hrs of in-class examinations lessons 57-60

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Lesson Plans WEEK 1 LESSON 1/60


TOPIC: Bridging Unit 1: Introductions INTRODUCTION: This lesson is designed to introduce students to EAL/D study, Bridging Unit 1, and each other, through a variety of introduction exercises. EAL/D AIMS & LESSON OUTCOMES LO1, LO4 LESSON RESOURCES: EAL/D Curriculum documents (relevant pages appendix resource AR4) Introduction to me worksheet (appendix resource AR1) Large world map and/or Smartboard or projector technology Copies of world map A4 size Introduction to my CDBU1/KLS CDBU1.1.1 worksheet (AR2) TIME: 60mins

TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES Introduction Activity. On the board, draw or display a speech bubble, world map, happy face and sad face. Using these cues, and gestures, teacher clearly and articulately stands before class and welcomes class then introduces themselves, including languages they speak, country of origin, and 1 like and 1 dislike. Model the use of eye contact. Mini-lesson - hand out AR1 and work through the questions on the worksheet. Explain the written form of the present tense, first person, singular, and check that students understand by asking them to explain what they think the worksheet is asking. If possible, record this presentation about the present tense and store it on a class website for students to access later. Hand out AR1 and ask students to fill out the same information about themselves. They can complete this activity in their home language/dialect, but the questions are in English, with visual supports that match the board pictures. Each Student reads out their completed ARX in front of the class in turns. Encourage the use of English, but explain that they can do this in their own language if they must help the class understand through use of the visual cues (the pictures on the board) and

CDBU1.1.2, CDBU1.4.2 & 4 CDBU1.1.2,

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

CDBU1.1.4 CDBU1.2.1, CDBU1.2.3

gestures. Class is allowed to ask questions so that they understand. My place on the large world map on the board, teach points to their country of origin. Hand out to students a copy of the world map and ask students to mark the teachers country of origin on the map and write Miss/Mr X next to it. (Demonstrate this on the board.) Each student in turn then says the name of their country of origin in English out loud to the class. The rest of the class marks this on their world map with the students name. If the student cannot explain in English where they are from, they may come out the front and point on the world map.

CDBU1.2.1, CDBU1.2.3, CDBU1.2.5,

Mini-lesson - hand out ARX and work through the questions on the worksheet. Explain the written form of the present tense, third person, singular. If possible, record this presentation about the present tense and store it on a class website for students to access later. Also teach students about relationships in English. Cover the vocabulary for family and classroom, including: father, mother, brother, sister, teacher, classmate. Have students write in their books the English term and equivalent in their home dialect. Place students in pairs and give each student a blank copy of ARX and ask them to write the appropriate term on the top of the worksheet for their pair. (Classmate) Students must ask each other questions in English to fill out the details about their pair student. The like and dislike must be different from the first time, when the students completed the activity for themselves. Students read out to the class what they have learnt about their classmates. They may use the visual cues on the board.

CDBU1.3.1, 2 &4 CLOSURE ASSESSMENT

Explain that today the students learnt valuable speaking, writing, reading and listening skills in English. Discuss possible scenarios where they would need to know how to introduce themselves and where they are from: meeting someone new, job interviews. Encourage students to practice todays lesson with friends and family. Hand out another copy of ARX to students and ask them to complete the activity for a friend or family member for homework. Monitor student development through contribution in activities, have students present their worksheets to you for feedback.

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

WEEK 1 LESSON 2/60


TOPIC: Bridging Unit 1 : My past and present INTRODUCTION: This lesson in intended to explicitly teach students about the past and present tenses in SAE by connecting to their own experience and background knowledge, by sharing their stories with the class. LESSON OUTCOMES LO1, LO2, LO4 LESSON RESOURCES: The Arrival by Shaun Tan photocopies of pages, and digital copies for display. Introduction to my worksheet (AR2) TIME: 60mins

CDBU1s/KLS KLS5

TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES Teacher repeats the introduction from lesson one about themselves, changing the like and dislike. Quiz students on the person and tense of the introduction to check the success of learning in lesson 1. Extend the learning by explaining the voice used (active or passive), clause types, and noun verb agreement.

CDBU1.1

Have students read out the homework activity if they have completed it to the class. AR2 - Introduction to my .. (Father, mother, friend) as todays show and tell activity. Encourage, but do not mandate the use of English for this task. Also encourage the rest of class to ask questions, and establish this as regular practice for show and tell.

CDBU1.3

Mini-lesson: exposition on talking about the past. Explain the past tense in SAE and talking about the past to students. Demonstrate through the irregular verb to be I was, you were, he was, she was, we were, you were, they were. Also demonstrate through some

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

regular verbs like to do I did, you did, he/she/it did, we did, you did, they did Introduce the text The Arrival by Shaun Tan. If possible, give each student a copy and allow time for them to read the book. If not, display pages on the projector and give discuss how the images portray emotion, experience, etc. Consistently ask students how this could be represented in SAE. CDBU1.4.1, CDBU1.4.3 Distribute photocopies of different pages from The Arrival to students. Ask them to come up with caption for the picture/s on the page in English. Encourage the use of the past tense, but do not make it mandatory. Discuss the captions given by students, explaining that there is no right or wrong answer. CDBU1.1 & 1.2 Modelling: tell the students a brief story about your past, clearly marking out your use of the past tense through emphasis and visual cues, like typing/writing key verbs in the past tense on the board as you go, or having a prepared script (with Illustrations/photographs) displayed while you talk, where you highlight or circle key markers of the past tense. CDBU1.4.2, Have students independently write a brief account of an experience from their past. Suggestions could be: My arrival in Australia My first time ,.. A famous story, legend or myth from their country of origin.

Monitor student work and respond to questions about the past tense to the whole class, encourage peers to help each other understand the task. CLOSURE Explain that today students have learnt about how to express emotion and experience in English through adding captions to The Arrival. Add new words learnt to a cumulative vocabulary in the back of their books. Lesson 3 will continue the use of The Arrival to practice writing skills. Monitor student development through the strengths and weaknesses they display in completing the classroom writing, reading, speaking and listening tasks. Keep individual student development profiles.

ASSESSMENT

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

WEEK 2 LESSON 4/60


TOPIC: Bridging Unit 1 : My past and present INTRODUCTION: In week 1 students learnt about the present and past tense by discussing information about themselves, their stories and their experiences. (KLS2, 5 and 7 )This week, students will begin to cover KLS1, 6 and 8 through the introduction of a learning text, American Born Chinese by Gene Yang. LESSON OUTCOMES LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4 LESSON RESOURCES: Copies of Yang, G. (2006). American Born Chinese. USA: Roaring Brook Press -electronic copies of pages 23-29 for display TIME: 60mins

CDBU1s/KLS KLS7.1,

TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES Teacher repeats the introduction of themselves from previous lessons. Ask students Who did their homework? and What did you do on the weekend? Ask them to identify what tense you are speaking in, and discuss the use of tense in their responses, to check the learning from lessons 1-3. Mini-lesson (record if possible): Introduce the text American Born Chinese. Talk briefly about the author, the characters and the content of the text. Especially how the three stories are interwoven, and that the story is about America, so not all of the spelling or expressions used are used in Australia; for example Mom. Post this online for students to access later.

KLS5

Do not yet give out copies of the text, but display pages 23-29 of the book on the board as you read through them. Afterwards, discuss the use of the past and present tense in the story, and how the narration boxes and speech bubbles are used to represent the past and

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

KLS6.1, 6.3 KLS8.3, KLS7

present tense. Label and discuss the different uses of clause and sentence structure, as well as direct and indirect speech, for KLS5. For KLS8.3 and 7, discuss how the herbalists proverb is an example of irony and humour, as well as other specific examples of cultural variations in behaviour.

CDBU1.2 KLS4, 5 and 8 CLOSURE

Distribute copies of the text to class and concentrating on one story (Jin Wang) read through his story in sections. Discuss the representation of characters through dialogue and narration. Focus on helping students achieve KLS4, 5 and 8 by explicitly explaining examples in the text. Explain that students have learnt that English can vary according to context (American and Australian English). Encourage students to read the whole graphic novel American Born Chinese, if they can, as the class will continue to study it in future lessons and if they read it they will understand better. Monitor student development through

ASSESSMENT

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

WEEK 7 LESSON 19/60


TOPIC: Bridging Unit 1 : My past and present INTRODUCTION: This lesson in intended to explicitly help students develop the capacity to select texts of their own choosing and retrieve key information from them, in preparation for Assessment Task 1. In this task the students must give an oral presentation where they deliver a text that they have composed on the retrieval of key information about American Born Chinese and at least one other text that they have chosen. LESSON OUTCOMES LO1, LO2, LO4 LESSON RESOURCES: Copies of Yang, G. (2006). American Born Chinese. USA: Roaring Brook Press A current newspaper or magazine article. A Youtube or news website video that relates to a current event or theme of interest to the study Youtube video on American Born Chinese http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYCZqt5WSOM A worksheet that asks students about the characters, plot and lexical features of American Born Chinese. Base the questions in this worksheet on the Content Descriptors for Bridging Unit 1. Access to the internet, laptops or computers for students (may need library access) CDBU1s/KLS CDBU1.1, CDBU1.2 TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES Now that students are familiar with the story of American Born Chinese, quiz them orally with questions about the features of the text the characters, settings, plot etc. Encourage students to voice their opinion about the text did they find it confusing, entertaining, could they relate to the experience of one or more of the characters? CDBU1.2 Distribute the worksheet asking the students about the features of American Born Chinese. Have them complete it in pairs, or independently. TIME: 60mins

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

KLS 5,6 and 8

Introduce to students a current newspaper or magazine article that clearly tells a story of an event or news item. As a class, identify the characters, plot and settings of the story. See if they can discern the opinion of the author, and explicitly discuss the use of tense and person in the article to encourage development in Key Language Skills.

CDBU1.2.1

Repeat this process for the website or multimodal text (video) on a current issue, event or theme. If unable to find a text, use the Youtube video on American Born Chinese. Distribute copies of the Assessment Task 1 Notification Sheet. Spend the rest of the lesson discussing the requirements of the task. Distribute copies of the Achievement standards for Bridging Units 1 and 2 and explicitly deconstruct them. Discuss how they will be marked according to these standards.

CLOSURE

Explain to students that the task may not be due until week 11, but they should begin now if they want to submit a written version of their oral presentation to the teacher before presenting it to class, as it will take time to choose tasks and write the presentation. Monitor student development through participation.

ASSESSMENT

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

WEEK 13 LESSON 37/60


TOPIC: Bridging Unit 1: Responding to unseen texts. INTRODUCTION: This lesson in intended to explicitly teach students about how they can comprehend unseen written and spoken texts, in preparation for Assessment Task 2, which is an IELTS-style examination that will test the students overall development across all four language skills. LESSON OUTCOMES LO1, LO2, LO4 LESSON RESOURCES: Assessment Task 2 notification sheet Samples of writing and reading tasks from IELTs examinations (general training) available on various IELTS sites, like Cambridge ESOL: https://www.teachers.cambridgeesol.org/ts/teachingresources TIME: 60mins

CDBU1s/KLS CDBU1.4. (16)

TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES Last lesson (the last lesson of week 12, following all Assessment Task 1 presentations) students were notified that they would be asked to share a story about their weekend with the class, to make sure that they will keep practicing their English speaking skills. Conduct these show and tell presentations, remembering to keep them informal and clear of rules. Students can speak about whatever they like.

CDBU1.3 (1-5)

Explain to students that they already know about how to find the features of an unseen text; as a class in lesson 19 they discussed the features of a newspaper/magazine article that they had not seen before. This will be similar to a task in Assessment task 2, where they must comprehend the information from a short text that they have not seen before. (like the IELTS writing task 1 and reading tasks)

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Like American Born Chinese, the texts in the assignment will include words and pictures, but they may be graphs or diagrams in the writing section. In the reading section they will be words only. Distribute the Assessment Task 2 notification sheet and explain the achievement standards that they will be marked on, as well as the requirements of the class. Encourage questions from students to clarify any points they do not understand, and if possible, record and post this session in an online environment for students to access later. CDBU1.1.3 All CDBU1s All KLS CLOSURE ASSESSMENT Practice a sample reading task from a IELTS resource website, as a class. Halfway self-assessment: Access the distributed copies of the EAL/D curriculum documents and discuss with students the Key Language Skills and Content Descriptors for Bridging Unit 1. Get students to rate their ability or confidence in each of the skills described in the curriculum documents and hand them to you confidentially. Explain that next lesson the class will include individual consultations for each student to discuss KLS and CD development. Monitor student development through

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Quality Teaching Coding


Subject: English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Stage: Senior Secondary (current stage 6) Focus area: Bridging Unit 1 Unit coded by: Sonia Carpenter Intellectual Quality
Deep knowledge

Code
4

Descriptor
The unit requires sustained focus on key concepts or ideas but does not require articulation of the relationships between and among concepts. A substantial part of the unit requires students to provide information, arguments or reasoning that demonstrate deep understanding.

Notes
Throughout this unit, students focus continually on the development of all four language skill areas, but only learn the relationship between these skills implicitly in the lesson plans provided. The weekly show and tell activities, combined with the formal assessment tasks, require students to demonstrate their capability in the KLS and CDs, and lesson 37 gives an example of how they demonstrate their understanding of this skill development Textual analysis and show and tell activities allow for the thorough deconstruction of knowledge. Explicit instruction in tense, voice and person also indicates social and personal constructions of knowledge.

Deep understanding

The unit requires knowledge to be treated as socially constructed, with multiple perspectives addressed. Problematic knowledge 3

Higher order thinking

Throughout the unit students are required to demonstrate higher-order thinking. The unit requires students to make substantial reference to, and complex comments on, language and how it works. The unit requires students to present some sustained clarification of the ideas, concepts or arguments related to the substance of the topic.

The simultaneous learning of language and content ensures engagement in higher-order thinking. The consistent parallel language learning and textual analysis means that students consistently comment on language use With language as the topic of this unit, the students must constantly clarify their ideas and understanding of language through substantive communication in class.

Metalanguage

Substantive communication

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Quality Learning Environment


Explicit quality criteria 4 Clear statements are made regarding the quality of work and there is some elaboration of what it means to do well. The unit presents serious challenges to all students, and encourages them to take risks in demonstrating their learning. Although students are given some control over some aspect of the unit (choice, time, pace, assessment), their control is minimal or trivial. Explicit deconstruction of the achievement standards, content descriptors, and KLS throughout the unit ensures that the students are aware of the quality expected in assessment tasks. This unit strongly encourages active and independent participation as significant to success, so student constantly take risks in choosing what to present to the class in the show and tell and assessment task activities. Students exercise control over the show and tell aspect of the class, but texts and outcomes are prescribed by the teacher.

High expectations

Student direction

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Significance

Code

Descriptor
Students background knowledge is substantially incorporated into the unit, and meaningful connection to out-of-school knowledge is integral to the unit. The unit requires students to include substantial recognition of cultural knowledge, and to value this knowledge and the knowledge of the dominant culture equally. The unit requires students to make several meaningful connections between topics or subject areas. The unit requires students to recognise and explore connections between classroom knowledge and situations outside the classroom in ways that create personal meaning and highlight the significance of the knowledge. The unit may include opportunities to influence an audience beyond the classroom. The unit makes substantial use of narrative and it is integral to the requirements of the unit.

Notes
The show and tell, and activities early in the unit, especially lessons 1 and 2, draws heavily on student background knowledge. The integration of independent selection of texts does also. The cultural backgrounds of the students in this EAL/D class are highly valued, and integrated regularly into learning activities.

Background knowledge

Cultural knowledge

Knowledge integration

Connectedness

The lesson activities that draw on current events in texts like newspapers integrate elements of society and culture, community and family and depending on student choice, potentially a host of other subjects and topic areas. The fact that the assessment task 2 is an IELTS-style exam is designed to prepare students for the likelihood that they will be attending this exam in the future, outside of the classroom context. As new arrivals in year 11, their citizenship status when applying for university is likely to result in an IELTS examination.

Narrative

Narrative is central to the show and tell activity, the textual analysis focus and the entire unit plan in general.

References
Ladwig, J., & Gore, J. (2003). Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools: A Classroom Practice Guide. Sydney: Department of Education and Training. Yang, G. (2006). American Born Chinese. USA: Roaring Brook Press.

EDUC6025 A2: Australian Curriculum EAL/D Unit and Lesson plans

c3109550

Appendix Items / Resources


1. Introduction to Me worksheet

2. Introduction to my

worksheet

3. Numbered EAL/D curriculum documents

4. Pages from the 2012 draft curriculum document


5. Description of the Emerging and Developing English Phases (Pages from EALD Teacher_Resource_05_06_12

Introduction to Me

I can speak/my languages are

I am from/my home country is

I like

I do not like

Introduction to My

Their name is/ they are

They can speak/ their languages are

They have travelled to / countries they have seen are

They like

They do not like

Numbered EAL/D curriculum documents


Legend for codes used in unit and lesson plans Key Language Skills for EAL/D
KLS1 Phonological features:
KLS1.1 KLS1.2 pronunciation, stress, rhythm, intonation and pitch for emphasis phonemes and morphemes.

KLS2 Non-verbal language features:


KLS2.1 using culturally appropriate gestures and behaviours.

KLS3 Orthographic competence:


KLS3.1 KLS3.2 KLS3.3 KLS3.4 KLS3.5 using punctuation as required spelling subject-specific vocabulary correctly using subject-specific abbreviations, signs and symbols understanding common logographic signs distinguishing and using print, cursive and diverse fonts.

KLS4 Lexical competence:


KLS4.1 KLS4.2 KLS4.3 KLS4.4 KLS4.5 KLS4.6 KLS4.7 KLS4.8 KLS4.9 KLS4.10 KLS4.11 gradually increasing a word bank of vocabulary in SAE, for example understanding and using metalanguage correctly using discourse markers, for example, for showing cause and effect understanding and using collocations, idiomatic expressions and using synonyms and antonyms as required using lexical chains to achieve cohesion choosing vocabulary appropriate to purpose and audience using descriptive, rhetorical and persuasive language understanding and using formulaic and fixed expressions and understanding proverbs understanding word order within clauses and sentences. subject-specific vocabulary

colloquialisms

collocations

KLS5 Grammatical competence


KLS5.1 KLS5.2 KLS5.3 KLS5.4 KLS5.5 KLS5.6 KLS5.7 KLS5.8 KLS5.9 KLS5.10 KLS5.11 KLS5.12 KLS5.13 clause and sentence structure questioning (including rhetorical questioning) types of verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, articles, verb structures and tenses modality voice (active, passive) clause type (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative) nominalisation additive, comparative, temporal and consequential conjunctions use of correct noun-verb agreement negative questioning direct and indirect speech use of reference items to achieve cohesion.

prepositions and affixes

KLS6 Semantic competence:


KLS6.1 KLS6.2 KLS6.3 KLS6.4 KLS6.5 KLS6.6 KLS6.7 KLS6.8 listening for specific content understanding and using words appropriate to the different semantic identifying shifts in meaning according to syntax identifying inferred meanings in texts identifying ambiguous or inappropriate communication using appraisal to express engagement, attitude and gradation distinguishing between fact and opinion understanding the SAE classification systems used in academic

fields of SAE

environments.

KLS7 Sociolinguistic competence:


KLS7.1 KLS7.2 KLS7.3 KLS7.4 KLS7.5 KLS7.6 questioning for clarification as needed negotiating meaning understanding how language is used to persuade experimenting with the register of texts (tone, language, audience) initiating, sustaining and ending conversations in casual and formal identifying the organisation of thoughts and ideas within SAE texts

contexts (rhetorical patterns).

KLS8 Sociocultural understanding:


KLS8.1 KLS8.2 KLS8.3 KLS8.4 KLS8.5 KLS8.6 KLS8.7 identifying register variations between familiar, semi-formal and some recognising some common cultural references recognising some irony and how humour is created using culturally accepted politeness conventions in listening, speaking recognising cultural variations in acceptance of novice and expert understanding cultural differences in eye contact and personal space identifying cultural variations in symbolism, classification and gender formal contexts

and written protocols knowledge

behaviours

Bridging Unit 1 Content Descriptors


CDBU1.1 Communication skills and strategies including
CDBU1.1.1 communicating needs and ideas to others using visual cues or home language or dialect CDBU1.1.2 repeating modelled pronunciation and intonation, patterns of words, phrases, simple clauses, and sentences CDBU1.1.3 engaging in group work to promote language learning CDBU1.1.4 understanding common cultural gestures and behaviours used by SAE speakers; for example, nods, eye contact, and non-verbal behaviour such as turn-taking and the distance deemed appropriate when engaging in conversation.

CDBU1.2

Comprehension skills and strategies including:


CDBU1.2.1 using visual information and home language or dialect to support understanding CDBU1.2.2 identifying characters and settings presented in stories CDBU1.2.3 keeping charts or lists to organise or classify new vocabulary and knowledge CDBU1.2.4 retelling the gist and responding to texts and ideas considered in class CDBU1.2.5 identifying familiar vocabulary and morphemes, and using these to determine meaning from texts CDBU1.2.6 using dictionaries, picture dictionaries and bilingual resources to understand texts

CDBU1.3

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:


CDBU1.3.1 understanding the purpose of the various forms of communication CDBU1.3.2 using visual cues to predict subject matter and content in literary texts CDBU1.3.3 knowing that language choices can influence the success of communication CDBU1.3.4 identifying how language and imagery can change according to context CDBU1.3.5 articulating different ways that texts can be interpreted

CDBU1.4

Create a range of texts


CDBU1.4.1 using some written and oral text forms and grammatical structures, including the linear sequencing of events through the use of simple sentences, conjunctions, punctuation and paragraphs CDBU1.4.2 using simple first-person recounts and descriptions CDBU1.4.3 using graphic representations of information CDBU1.4.4 using everyday vocabulary CDBU1.4.5 using commonly used logographs, for example $, &, and abbreviations, for example Mr, Mrs CDBU1.4.6 using teacher editing and conferencing including editing for word order, articles, prepositions and simple tenses.

English as an Additional Language or dialect (EAL/D) Rationale


English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) focuses on language learning and the explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of Standard Australian English (SAE). Through close study of language and meaning, students of EAL/D explore how learning in and through English language and literature influences their own and others personal, social and cultural identities and thought processes. They develop skills that enable them to use different registers of spoken and written SAE so they can communicate effectively in a range of contexts and for a variety of purposes in order to become effective crosscultural users of language and dialect. EAL/D provides opportunities for students to engage reflectively and critically with a broad range of spoken, written and multimodal texts (including literary and non-literary texts, for example academic, everyday and workplace texts.) Students learn to create (individually and collaboratively) increasingly complex texts for different purposes and audiences in different forms, modes and mediums. Units 1 to 4 develop students academic English skills in order to prepare them for tertiary study. Bridging Units 1 to 4 provide the linguistic foundation for work, training or further study. Within each unit, students regularly use the language modes of listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing to develop their communicative skills in SAE for a range of purposes, audiences and contexts.

Aims
All senior secondary English subjects aim to develop students: skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing capacity to create texts for a range of purposes, audiences and contexts understanding and appreciation of different uses of language.

In addition, English as an Additional Language or Dialect aims to develop students: understanding of the relationships between language, texts and ways of thinking and knowing in SAE ability to communicate ideas, feelings, attitudes and information appropriately in and through SAE across the curriculum areas inferential comprehension, critical analysis and reflection skills.

Organisation
1. Overview of the senior secondary Australian Curriculum
ACARA has developed senior secondary Australian Curriculum for English, Mathematics, Science and History according to a set of design specifications. The ACARA Board approved these specifications following consultation with state and territory curriculum, assessment and certification authorities. The senior secondary Australian Curriculum specifies content and achievement standards for each senior secondary subject. Content refers to the knowledge, understanding and skills to be taught and learned within a given subject. Achievement standards refer to descriptions of the quality of learning (the depth of understanding, extent of knowledge and sophistication of skill) expected of students who have studied the content for the subject.

The senior secondary Australian Curriculum for each subject has been organised into four units. The last two units are cognitively more challenging than the first two units. Each unit is designed to be taught in about half a 'school year' of senior secondary studies (approximately 5060 hours duration including assessment and examinations). However, the senior secondary units have also been designed so that they may be studied singly, in pairs (that is, year-long), or as four units over two years. State and territory curriculum, assessment and certification authorities are responsible for the structure and organisation of their senior secondary courses and will determine how they will integrate the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards into their courses. They will continue to be responsible for implementation of the senior secondary curriculum, including assessment, certification and the attendant quality assurance mechanisms. Each of these authorities acts in accordance with its respective legislation and the policy framework of its state government and Board. They will determine the assessment and certification specifications for their local courses that integrate the Australian Curriculum content and achievement standards and any additional information, guidelines and rules to satisfy local requirements including advice on entry and exit points and credit for completed study. The senior secondary Australian Curriculum for each subject should not, therefore, be read as a course of study. Rather, it is presented as content and achievement standards for integration into state and territory courses.

2. Senior secondary English subjects


The senior secondary Australian Curriculum for English is presented in four subjects that share common features. These include the continuing development of students knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing. Differences between the subjects lie in the emphasis on how knowledge and skills are developed and the contexts in which they are applied. Each of the four senior secondary Australian Curriculum subjects emphasises different aspects of the study of the English learning area. In all subjects, teachers and students choose from a wide range of fiction and non-fiction (complete texts or extracts) in a range of forms and from a variety of contexts including earlier times, popular culture and different cultures. English is a study of literature, media and language in which students critically and creatively engage with a variety of texts in all language modes. English extends students language, literature and literacy skills for a range of purposes and audiences and builds on the knowledge and skills developed in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum. Students engage in a detailed study of increasingly complex texts and language. They learn how to analyse different interpretations of texts and how to use language modes to achieve specific effects. Essential English is designed to develop students literacy skills and for those who wish to undertake a practical English course. Students examine the purpose and language of a range of texts, expanding their ability to understand, evaluate and communicate effectively in and for a range of contexts. Essential English develops and refines students language, literature and literacy skills which enable them to interact confidently and effectively with others in everyday, community, social and applied learning contexts. Literature provides students with the opportunity to study literature at an intensive level and aims to engage students in the detailed study of literary texts. It builds on the knowledge and skills developed in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum. Literature deepens students understanding of conventions common to different types of composition, and refines their understanding of the effects of language through shared experience of texts and the creative process. Learning to appreciate literary texts, and to create their own, enriches students understanding of human experiences and the capacity for language to communicate those experiences.

English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) is designed to develop students knowledge, understanding and skills in Standard Australian English (SAE). Students studying this subject will benefit in all curriculum areas from explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of SAE. EAL/D provides a variety of language, literature and literacy experiences to accommodate the diverse range of starting points for students learning English as an additional language or dialect. EAL/D focuses on how language and texts can vary in structure and usage depending on cultural and social context, and how language can change according to audience and purpose. One of the key focuses of EAL/D is the development of students oral language skills.

EAL/D Units 14 are designed for students undertaking a senior secondary program of study and extend students language, literature and literacy skills in and for a range of contexts, purposes and audience. Students respond to and create texts in all language modes. EAL/D Unit 4 presents an equivalent level of cognitive challenge to Unit 4 of English. EAL/D Bridging Units 14 are designed for students who are at the emerging phase (or early developing phase) of the Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression. These students may include: students who have had limited exposure to SAE. These students may have recently exited an Intensive English Centre, or be in a rural, remote or very remote setting with limited or no access to EAL/D specialist intervention students who are new to the Australian educational setting or who have had little or no prior formal education.

Students may choose to complete 2, 4, 6 or 8 EAL/D units, and units can be studied sequentially or concurrently. As EAL/D students may perform at different levels of competence in oral communication skills and written ability, it is advised that all language modes be considered equally for appropriate placement into units.

3. Structure of English as an Additional Language or Dialect


Units 14
Unit 1 focuses on investigating how language and culture are interrelated and expressed in a range of contexts. A variety of oral, written and multimodal texts are used to develop understanding of text structures and language features. The relationship between these structures and features and the context, purpose and audience of texts is explored. The unit will enhance students confidence in creating texts for different purposes and across all language modes in both real and imagined contexts. It will broaden their understanding of the sociocultural and sociolinguistic elements of SAE and develop skills for research and further academic study. Unit 2 focuses on analysing and evaluating perspectives and attitudes presented in texts and creating extended texts for a range of contexts. SAE language skills for effective communication in an expanding range of contexts are consolidated. The use of cohesive text structures and language features is developed. The unit focuses on developing planning and editing skills to create extended oral, written and multimodal texts. Attitudes, values and culturally based assumptions within texts are identified, analysed and compared. Strategies for collecting, analysing, organising and presenting ideas and information are refined. Unit 3 focuses on analysing how language choices are used to achieve different purposes and effects in a range of contexts. SAE language skills are developed so that they can be used to describe, inform, express a point of view and persuade for different purposes and audiences. The ways in which language choices shape meaning and influence audiences are explored through the study and creation of a range of oral, written and multimodal texts. The representation of ideas, attitudes and values and how these vary across cultures and within different contexts, particularly the Australian context, is analysed and evaluated. Effective and independent research skills are consolidated throughout the unit.

Unit 4 focuses on analysing, evaluating and using language to represent and respond to issues, ideas and attitudes in a range of contexts. By extending and consolidating language and communication skills, critical use of SAE for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences is developed. Independent and collaborative investigation and analysis are used to explore how language and texts achieve specific purposes and effects. Extended oral, written and multimodal texts and presentations are created, adapted and refined for a variety of contexts, purposes and audiences. Effective research strategies and referencing protocols are used to present ideas, information, conclusions, arguments and recommendations.

Bridging Units 14
Bridging Unit 1 is designed for students who are at the Emerging phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression and focuses on developing communication skills in a range of contexts across the language modes of SAE. There is a particular focus on developing oral communication skills. Age-appropriate texts are used to develop vocabulary, grammar, language learning strategies and understanding. This includes the comprehension and retrieval of key information from familiar texts. The unit will enable students to apply their knowledge and understanding as they create simple texts that express their needs, opinions and ideas. Bridging Unit 2 is aimed at students in the late Emerging phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression and focuses on consolidating communication skills in a range of contexts across the language modes of SAE. Through explicit teaching, the unit focuses on the consolidation of everyday vocabulary and the creation of connected oral, written and multimodal texts. Age-appropriate texts are used as a guide to respond to or reproduce simple texts in informal and rehearsed formal contexts. This unit will enable students to develop strategies for collecting, organising and presenting ideas and information. Bridging Unit 3 is aimed at students who are in the Developing phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression and focuses on responding to and creating extended texts in familiar contexts in SAE. By using the language modes, students engage with familiar and some unfamiliar texts, including literary texts. Language skills for effective communication in SAE in most social, familiar and some community situations are developed. The unit will enable students to create extended oral, written and multimodal texts with a degree of accuracy in structure, language and register. Strategies for collecting, organising and presenting ideas and information continue to be developed. Bridging Unit 4 is aimed at students who are in the late Developing phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression and focuses on responding to and creating connected extended texts in personal, social, community and workplace contexts in SAE. The ability to use SAE language skills to communicate for a range of purposes is evident in the creation of oral, written and multimodal texts required in the workplace and some academic contexts. Some cultural assumptions are explored and explained through the study of a variety of texts, including popular and literary texts. Strategies for collecting, organising and presenting ideas and information are consolidated.

Organisation of content
Content descriptions in each unit in EAL/D are grouped under an organising framework that presents key aspects of learning that underpin each subject. Organisers vary between subjects according to the distinctive focus of each subject. The organising framework in EAL/D is: Communication strategies Comprehension strategies Language and textual analysis Creating texts.

Organisation of achievement standards


The achievement standards have been organised under two dimensions that underpin key aspects of responding to or creating texts. This structure applies to all subjects in senior secondary English. Dimension 1 Dimension 2 Responding to oral, written and multimodal texts Creating oral, written and multimodal texts

Senior secondary achievement standards have been written for each Australian Curriculum senior secondary subject. The achievement standards provide an indication of typical performance at five different levels (corresponding to grades A to E) following the completion of study of senior secondary Australian Curriculum content for a pair of units. They are broad statements of understanding and skills that are best read and understood in conjunction with the relevant unit content. They are structured to reflect key dimensions of the content of the relevant learning area. They will be eventually accompanied by illustrative and annotated samples of student work/ performance/ responses. The achievement standards will be refined empirically through an analysis of samples of student work and responses to assessment tasks: they cannot be maintained a priori without reference to actual student performance. Inferences can be drawn about the quality of student learning on the basis of observable differences in the extent, complexity, sophistication and generality of the understanding and skills typically demonstrated by students in response to well-designed assessment activities and tasks. In the short term, achievement standards will inform assessment processes used by curriculum, assessment and certifying authorities for course offerings based on senior secondary Australian Curriculum content. ACARA has made reference to a common syntax (as a guide, not a rule) in constructing the achievement standards across the learning areas. The common syntax that has guided development is as follows: a. Given a specified context (as described in the curriculum content) b. With a defined level of consistency/accuracy (the assumption that each level describes what the student does well, competently, independently, consistently) c. Students perform a specified action (described through a verb) d. In relation to what is valued in the curriculum (specified as the object or subject) e. With a defined degree of sophistication, difficulty, complexity (described as an indication of quality) Terms such as analyse and describe have been used to specify particular action but these can have everyday meanings that are quite general. ACARA has therefore associated these terms with specific meanings that are defined in the senior secondary achievement standards glossary and used precisely and consistently across subject areas.

The language modes


The processes of listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing, also known as language modes, are interrelated. Classroom contexts that address particular content descriptions will necessarily draw from more than one of these modes in order to support students effective learning. To acknowledge these interrelationships, content descriptions incorporate the processes of listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing in an integrated and interdependent way. 4. Texts Teachers will use an array of material in class. Texts include literary texts, [fiction]<hyperlink text examples: novels, short stories, fables, fairy tales, plays, poems, song lyrics, movies, television shows, comic books, computer games>

and [non-fiction]<hyperlink text examples: biographies, journals, essays, speeches, reference books, news reports, documentaries, photographs, diagrams>, [media texts]<hyperlink text examples: newspaper articles, magazine articles, editorials, websites, CD-ROMs, advertisements, documentaries, photographs, television programs, radio programs>, [everyday texts]<hyperlink text examples: recipes, instructions, diagrams, timetables, notices, blogs, movies, television shows, comic books, computer games, manuals>, and [workplace texts]<hyperlink text examples: reports, minutes, application forms, safety regulations, email>, from increasingly complex and unfamiliar settings, ranging from the everyday language of personal experience to more abstract, specialised and technical language drawn from a range of contexts. Texts provide important opportunities for learning about aspects of human experience and about aesthetic appeal. Texts can be written, [spoken]<hyperlink text examples: dialogues, speeches, monologues, conversations, radio programs, interviews, lectures>, [multimodal]<hyperlink text examples: picture books, graphic novels, web pages, films, television programs, performances, advertisements, cartoons, music videos, computer games, maps>, and in print or [digital/online]<hyperlink text examples: books, CD-ROMs, websites, computer games, social networking sites, email, SMS, Apps>. Texts are structured for particular purposes; for example, to retell, to instruct, to entertain, to explain and to argue. Teachers may select whole texts or parts of texts depending on units of study, cohorts and level of difficulty. Literary texts refer to past and present texts across a range of cultural contexts that are valued for their form and style and are recognised as having enduring or artistic value. While the nature of what constitutes literary texts is dynamic and evolving, they are seen as having personal, social, cultural and aesthetic appeal and potential for enriching students scope of experience. Literary texts include a broad range of forms such as novels, poetry, short stories, plays, fiction, multimodal texts such as film, and non-fiction.

Sample text list


The following texts are examples of literary texts suitable for the study of EAL/D and are intended to stimulate thinking about teaching resources in relation to the content of the curriculum. The following examples are not meant to be prescriptive. Fiction Blueback by Tim Winton (novel) Walk in My Shoes by Alwyn Evans (novel) The China Coin by Allan Baillie (novel) Haroun and the Sea of Stories by Salman Rushdie (novel) The Whale Rider by Witi Ihimaera (novel; film directed by Niki Caro) Adaptations of Shakespeare such as the film of Twelfth Night directed by Trevor Nunn The Black Balloon directed by Elissa Down (film) The River by Libby Hathorn and illustrated by Stanley Wong (picture book) Tales from Outer Suburbia by Shaun Tan (short stories) One Night the Moon directed by Rachel Perkins (film; also see soundtrack) Billy Elliot directed by Stephen Daldry (film) Harvey Krumpet created and directed by Adam Eliot (clay animation) Poetry The Simple Gift by Steven Herrick

Oodgeroo Noonuccal At the Round Earth's Imagined Corners: A Multicultural Anthology of Contemporary Poetry edited by Ken Watson Bush songs and music: http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/bushsongs-and-music Robert Frost Windchimes: Asia in Australian poetry edited by Rowe and Smith Non-fiction Unpolished Gem by Alice Pung (memoir) Maybe Tomorrow by Boori Monty Pryor and Meme McDonald (autobiography) Freedom From Fear by Aung San Suu Kyi (speech) I am Eleven directed by Genevieve Bailey (documentary) A World without Water directed by Brian Woods (documentary) The Legacy: An elders vision of our sustainable future by David Suzuki (lecture) Making Multicultural Australia: www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au The Happiest Refugee: A Memoir by Anh Do

5. Language table
Key language skills for EAL/D
The key language skills described below provide a focus for language instruction in any unit at students point of need and should be taught in context and if relevant. Students should be given the opportunity to develop and demonstrate these skills in a variety of contexts. By the time students have completed Unit 4, they should be proficient in these language skills. This table is not an exhaustive list; rather, it is a guide to focus teachers on some essential skills that students should develop. Phonological features: pronunciation, stress, rhythm, intonation and pitch for emphasis phonemes and morphemes.

Non-verbal language features: using culturally appropriate gestures and behaviours.

Orthographic competence: using punctuation as required spelling subject-specific vocabulary correctly using subject-specific abbreviations, signs and symbols understanding common logographic signs distinguishing and using print, cursive and diverse fonts.

Lexical competence:

gradually increasing a word bank of vocabulary in SAE, for example subjectspecific vocabulary understanding and using metalanguage correctly using discourse markers, for example, for showing cause and effect understanding and using collocations, idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms using synonyms and antonyms as required using lexical chains to achieve cohesion choosing vocabulary appropriate to purpose and audience using descriptive, rhetorical and persuasive language understanding and using formulaic and fixed expressions and collocations understanding proverbs understanding word order within clauses and sentences.

Grammatical competence: clause and sentence structure questioning (including rhetorical questioning) types of verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, articles, prepositions and affixes verb structures and tenses modality voice (active, passive) clause type (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative) nominalisation additive, comparative, temporal and consequential conjunctions use of correct noun-verb agreement negative questioning direct and indirect speech use of reference items to achieve cohesion.

Semantic competence: listening for specific content understanding and using words appropriate to the different semantic fields of SAE identifying shifts in meaning according to syntax identifying inferred meanings in texts identifying ambiguous or inappropriate communication using appraisal to express engagement, attitude and gradation

distinguishing between fact and opinion understanding the SAE classification systems used in academic environments.

Sociolinguistic competence: questioning for clarification as needed negotiating meaning understanding how language is used to persuade experimenting with the register of texts (tone, language, audience) initiating, sustaining and ending conversations in casual and formal contexts identifying the organisation of thoughts and ideas within SAE texts (rhetorical patterns).

Sociocultural understanding: identifying register variations between familiar, semi-formal and some formal contexts recognising some common cultural references recognising some irony and how humour is created using culturally accepted politeness conventions in listening, speaking and written protocols recognising cultural variations in acceptance of novice and expert knowledge understanding cultural differences in eye contact and personal space identifying cultural variations in symbolism, classification and gender behaviours.

6. Links to Foundation to Year 10


Each senior secondary English subject draws upon, develops and emphasises different knowledge, understanding, skills and processes related to the strands of Language, Literature and Literacy used in the Foundation to Year 10 curriculum. The emphasis differs according to the nature of each subject. While each senior secondary English subject places a different emphasis on the three strands, each subject is expected to advance skills in each of the strands. For example, while students encounter, respond to, analyse and create a wide range of literary texts in EAL/D, the focus of the units is on language learning and the development of oral language and literacy skills in SAE.

7. Representation of General capabilities


General capabilities covered in EAL/D include: Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical behaviour and Intercultural understanding.

Literacy
Literacy is important in the development of the skills and strategies needed to express, interpret, and communicate complex information and ideas. In EAL/D literacy skills are developed in conjunction with language learning through a focus on comprehending and creating written, spoken, visual and digital texts

or a combination of these, and using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts. In EAL/D students apply, extend and refine their repertoire of literacy skills and practices by studying the use and impact of English in texts and contexts outside the classroom and in other subjects.

Numeracy
Students use numeracy in EAL/D when they practise and apply the skills of interpreting and analysing, comparing and contrasting, making connections, posing and proving arguments, making inferences and problem solving as they create and respond to a range of texts. For example, students use numeracy skills when they create and interpret sequences and spatial information in non-fiction texts or consider timing and sequence when developing photo stories. They draw conclusions from statistical information, interpret and use quantitative data as evidence in persuasive texts and evaluate the use of statistics in media and other reports.

Information and communication technology (ICT) capability


There is a particular focus in EAL/D on ICT through the use of digital texts and on understanding and creating multimodal texts. For example, students explore the effects of sound and image as they consider how ideas are communicated in digital texts. They use digital technologies when they access, manage and use information and when creating their own texts. In EAL/D students use digital tools to create and respond to texts. They develop skills in reading, viewing and responding to digital and multimodal texts and create texts using different modes and mediums to practise and consolidate their English language skills.

Critical and creative thinking


Critical and creative thinking is integral to the study of and creation of texts in EAL/D. Students analyse and evaluate issues and ideas presented in texts. In both thinking about and creating their own texts, they recognise and develop arguments, use evidence and draw reasoned conclusions. Students experiment with text structures and language features as they transform and adapt texts for different purposes, contexts and audiences. Students use critical thinking when they use their knowledge of language to analyse a range of texts in relation to their purpose, context, audience, structural and language features, and underlying and unstated assumptions. They investigate the ways language is used to position individuals and social and cultural groups. Creative thinking enables students to apply imaginative and inventive capacities in the creation of their own original works.

Personal and social capability


Students develop personal and social capability in EAL/D by developing their communication skills, teamwork, and understanding of verbal and non-verbal modes of interaction. They develop empathy with and appreciation of the perspectives of others. The study of EAL/D helps students to understand and more effectively manage themselves and to understand different personal and social experiences, perspectives and challenges. Students identify and express their own opinions, beliefs and responses by interacting with a range of texts and social situations. EAL/D actively assists students with the development of communication skills needed for conversation, research, presentations, and the expression of viewpoints and arguments. Students work collaboratively in teams and also independently as part of their learning and research endeavours.

Ethical behaviour
Ethical behaviour is explored in EAL/D through the selection of texts for study, for example, when students engage with ethical dilemmas presented in texts, considering reasons for actions and implications of decisions. They examine and question values, attitudes, perspectives and assumptions in texts, comparing these with their own. Students develop greater empathy for the rights and opinions of others by interacting with and interrogating a range of texts and social situations. EAL/D assists students to develop the skills of

visualising and predicting the consequences of certain behaviours and engaging in the exploration of rights and responsibilities. They develop increasingly advanced communication, research, and presentation skills to express considered viewpoints. They develop effective and ethical research strategies and research protocols.

Intercultural understanding
In EAL/D, intercultural understanding encourages students to make connections between their own experiences and the experiences of others. Through the study of contemporary texts, texts from the past and texts from diverse cultures, students explore and analyse these connections. Students understand and can express the interdependence of language, culture, identity and values, particularly in the Australian context, and are able to appreciate and empathise with the cultural beliefs, attitudes and values of others. They study how cultural concepts, beliefs, practices and perspectives are represented in a range of textual forms and for a variety of purposes and audiences. They pay special attention to the contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and Asian cultures to literature and other media in Australia.

8. Representation of Cross-curriculum priorities


The senior secondary English curriculum values the histories, cultures, traditions and languages of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, and their central place in contemporary Australian society and culture. Through the study of texts, students are provided with opportunities to develop their understanding and appreciation of the diversity of cultures and histories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and their contribution to Australian society. The illustrative text lists for each subject include a selection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander literature. There are strong social, cultural and economic reasons for Australian students to engage with Asia and with the contribution of Asian Australians to our society and heritage. It is through the study of texts from Asia that a creative and forward-looking Australia can engage with our place in the region. Through story articulated in a range of mediums, students are provided with opportunities to develop understanding of the diversity of Asias peoples, environments and traditional and contemporary cultures. Texts relevant to this priority are included in the illustrative lists for each subject. Each of the senior English subjects provides the opportunity for the development of informed and reasoned points of view, discussion of issues, research and problem solving. In this context, teachers are encouraged to select texts and issues for discussion connected with sustainability. Through analysis of media articles, documentaries and digital texts, students have the opportunity to research and discuss this global issue and learn the importance of respecting and valuing a wide range of world views.

EAL/D Bridging Units


Bridging Unit 1 Unit description Bridging Unit 1 is designed for students who are at the Emerging phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression and focuses on developing communication skills in a range of contexts across the language modes of SAE. There is a particular focus on developing oral communication skills. Age-appropriate texts are used to develop vocabulary, grammar, language learning strategies and understanding. This includes the comprehension and retrieval of key information from familiar texts. The unit will enable students to apply their knowledge and understanding as they create simple texts that express their needs, opinions and ideas. Learning outcomes By the end of this unit, students: communicate to express their ideas on familiar topics using visual aids, modelled text and/or teacher support demonstrate an understanding of the main ideas in familiar texts and of literal information at sentence level respond to familiar texts and begin to articulate opinions create short, simply structured oral, written and multimodal texts on familiar topics with some accuracy.

Content descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including: communicating needs and ideas to others using visual cues or home language or dialect
repeating modelled pronunciation and intonation, patterns of words, phrases, simple clauses, and sentences engaging in group work to promote language learning understanding common cultural gestures and behaviours used by SAE speakers; for example, nods, eye contact, and non-verbal behaviour such as turn-taking and the distance deemed appropriate when engaging in conversation. using visual information and home language or dialect to support understanding identifying characters and settings presented in stories keeping charts or lists to organise or classify new vocabulary and knowledge retelling the gist and responding to texts and ideas considered in class identifying familiar vocabulary and morphemes, and using these to determine meaning from texts using dictionaries, picture dictionaries and bilingual resources to understand texts. understanding the purpose of the various forms of communication using visual cues to predict subject matter and content in literary texts

Comprehension skills and strategies including:


Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

knowing that language choices can influence the success of communication identifying how language and imagery can change according to context articulating different ways that texts can be interpreted. using some written and oral text forms and grammatical structures, including the linear sequencing of events through the use of simple sentences, conjunctions, punctuation and paragraphs using simple first-person recounts and descriptions using graphic representations of information using everyday vocabulary using commonly used logographs, for example $, &, and abbreviations, for example Mr, Mrs using teacher editing and conferencing including editing for word order, articles, prepositions and simple tenses.

Create a range of texts:

Bridging Unit 2 Unit description Bridging Unit 2 is aimed at students in the late Emerging phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression. It focuses on consolidating communication skills in a range of contexts across the language modes of SAE. Through explicit teaching, the unit focuses on the consolidation of everyday vocabulary and the creation of connected oral, written and multimodal texts. Age-appropriate texts are used as a guide to respond to or reproduce simple texts in informal and rehearsed formal contexts. This unit will enable students to develop strategies for collecting, organising and presenting ideas and information. Learning outcomes By the end of this unit, students: present rehearsed texts on familiar topics with some reliance on visual aids, modelled texts and/or teacher support comprehend literal information in a range of short, familiar texts respond to familiar texts and begin to support ideas by identifying some common language features create short, simply structured oral, written and multimodal texts with growing accuracy.

Content descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including:


communicating ideas orally, digitally and in writing; rewording for understanding and asking for clarification or repetition; using home language or dialect independently approximating the pronunciation, intonation and stress of words and phrases collaborating to produce short texts that present facts, a point of view or opinion using rules of politeness in SAE for everyday situations, for example, through acknowledging the speaker when being spoken to, interacting with a range of participants, entering and exiting conversations, making email contact or using protocols in social situations such as visiting or dining.

Comprehension skills and strategies including:


interpreting non-verbal cues and intonation to guess the meaning in unfamiliar situations identifying and describing characters, settings and events presented in stories using simple graphic organisers identifying essential information from a range of familiar texts retelling and responding to familiar texts using known vocabulary and familiar text structures to find information using modelled research skills and strategies to find information. identifying the way information in texts has been ordered and structured identifying and explaining text structures and language features used in literary texts explaining the purposes of common text types understanding and explaining how information may be included in or excluded from texts to achieve a purpose identifying the persuasive nature of simple text types understanding how there can be nuances in familiar, commonly used words. using simple written and oral text forms, punctuation and grammatical structures including graphic representations of information using descriptions of people, places and events using a growing range of technologies and mediums using simple comparative language, and reference items such as referential and demonstrative pronouns using modal adjectives and adverbs, for example, always, never, sometimes, often using familiar vocabulary including countable and uncountable nouns using growing accuracy with spelling using a growing range of conjunctions using simple strategies for planning and editing.

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:


Create a range of texts:

Achievement standards Bridging Units 1 and 2

Responding to oral, written and multimodal texts


A B C D E

explains literal and implied ideas and information presented in short texts explains an attitude or point of view in simple texts explains the purpose of familiar text structures and vocabulary used in texts

describes literal and some implied ideas and information presented in short texts describes an attitude or point of view in simple texts describes the purpose of familiar text structures and vocabulary used in texts

identifies literal ideas and information presented in short familiar texts identifies a point of view in simple texts identifies the purpose of familiar text structures and vocabulary used in texts

locates some literal information presented in short familiar texts with support understands that texts have a purpose identifies some familiar text structures and vocabulary used in texts

locates very limited literal information in some short familiar texts with support locates simple text structures and vocabulary used in texts

Creating oral, written and multimodal texts


A B C D E

communicates ideas for different purposes and audiences in oral interactions creates texts that describe varied events and personal information clearly in different modes and mediums uses familiar text structures and language features communicates

communicates ideas for familiar purposes and audiences in oral interactions creates texts that describe events and personal information in different modes and mediums uses some familiar text structures and language features communicates

communicates an idea for some familiar purposes and audiences in oral interactions creates texts that recount experiences or personal information in different modes and mediums reproduces familiar text structures and language features communicates

communicates an idea for a familiar purpose in oral interactions creates texts that recount aspects of experiences or personal information in different modes and mediums reproduces some familiar text structures and language features repeats simple ideas with very

communicates in limited oral interactions creates simple recounts or descriptions in different modes and mediums demonstrates minimal control of expression

simple ideas with clarity

simple ideas meaningfully with some clarity

simple ideas with limited control of expression

limited control of expression

Bridging Unit 3 Unit description Bridging Unit 3 is aimed at students who are in the Developing phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression. It focuses on responding to and creating extended texts in familiar contexts in SAE. By using the language modes, students engage with familiar and some unfamiliar texts, including literary texts. Language skills for effective communication in SAE in most social, familiar and some community situations are developed. The unit will enable students to create extended oral, written and multimodal texts with a degree of accuracy in structure, language and register. Strategies for collecting, organising and presenting ideas and information continue to be developed. Learning outcomes By the end of this unit, students:

communicate in a variety of rehearsed and unrehearsed contexts demonstrate literal comprehension of information and ideas used in familiar and simple unfamiliar texts respond to texts to identify purpose, audience, language features and social references create short, simply structured oral, written and multimodal texts using a growing range of vocabulary and simple grammatical structures.

Content descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including:


communicating ideas and opinions in a growing range of situations and rephrasing when meaning is unclear using intelligible pronunciation and intonation of words and phrases collaborating as a way to solve problems or to create texts adopting expected listening behaviours in some unfamiliar situations interacting and using forms of address appropriately in familiar and classroom contexts demonstrating some understanding of common idiomatic and colloquial expressions. drawing on background knowledge or contextual cues to guess the meaning of unknown words translating from home language or dialect to SAE describing characters and settings presented in literary texts and recounting plot details using a range of strategies, such as retrieval charts or note-taking, to extract accurate information from a growing variety of texts identifying and responding to the main ideas in a range of familiar texts

Comprehension skills and strategies including:


Emerging English

EAL/D Learning Progression

CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS LEARNER GROUP Each phase describes a period of significant English language learning development. There will be differences between a student at the beginning of the phase and a student at the end of the phase. These students can speak one or more languages/dialects, including basic English, and have a growing knowledge of print literacy in English. They understand and participate in classroom behaviours and school routines. They engage with curriculum demands with some success, but continue to benefit greatly from the use of first language with peers and teachers assistants to clarify and consolidate understanding. Explicit and focused language teaching will enable them to produce simple written and spoken English, using predictable and learned formulas. They are still in a phase of language learning that requires intense concentration, so they are likely to tire during the day or disengage when the spoken or written texts under discussion are not accompanied by adequate contextual scaffolds. These learners still require extensive EAL/D explicit teaching throughout the school day from both the specialist teacher and the classroom teacher. These students are able to engage with and learn the content of the Australian Curriculum when provided with suitable language teaching and additional time to complete classroom activities. However, they will find it difficult to show their understandings if achievement must be demonstrated through language-reliant activities.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 23

Foundation to Year 2

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years F 2) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression


Speaking Reading/viewing Writing

Student progress can be monitored during the school year using the EAL/D learning progression. It is important to note that: placement on this continuum should be based on a body of evidence and not just one work sample ability in one mode is not an indication of ability across all modes throughout this resource, English refers to Standard Australian English.. Learners at the beginning of this phase communicate verbally and nonverbally in familiar social and classroom situations, relying on formulaic expressions. In this phase, they begin to innovate with language, expanding upon learned phrases and expressions. Learners at the beginning of this phase decode simple texts with familiar vocabulary. In this phase, they are beginning to read independently and understand that texts may have different communicative purposes, and that these purposes may be the same or different from texts they have experienced in their first language. Learners at the beginning of this phase independently write simple sentences using repetitive structure, familiar words and phrases from their oral language, or through following highly structured examples. In this phase, they write basic classroom text types when provided with models, using an emerging knowledge of English sentence structure and demonstrating an emerging understanding of the difference between spoken English and written English. Students: collaboratively construct a limited range of very brief visual and written texts about familiar things using predictable structures produce independent writing using simple repetitive sentences with familiar words and phrases from their spoken language construct images or writing that fulfils

Learners at the beginning of this phase successfully distinguish spoken English from other languages and dialects (i.e. on hearing English, they attempt to respond in English). In this phase, they become more attentive listeners and understand tone of voice (eg teacher praise).

Students: attend for short periods to simple stories and songs with visual scaffolds may show comprehension through action and gesture rather than words understand familiar, simple and repetitive spoken English supported by the immediate context, including simple instructions relying on key words and context (eg Come to the mat), and

Students: participate in highly structured routine exchanges located in the immediate environment, using gesture, isolated words, formulaic language and wellrehearsed patterns to express needs and information initially watch and imitate some social and classroom activities use comprehensible pronunciation and

Students: look through books, focusing on illustrations differentiate between first language print and English print, and follow print conventions of reading left to right and top to bottom bring their previous cultural and linguistic experiences to the task of reading in order to make sense of print

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 24

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years F 2) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Reading/viewing Speaking


attempt to approximate English stress and intonation move from using single words and telegraphic speech, and begin to repeat short, familiar phrases and simple language structures initially use spoken vocabulary focused on content words connected with immediate interests or needs, or vocabulary required to participate in classroom routines (eg finished) demonstrate a beginning understanding of word order in simple phrases and sentences use speaking behaviours from first language to communicate and predict meaning of some unfamiliar spoken texts by using their first language culture and personal experiences make use, when available, of first language speakers to provide words, clarification and translation distinguish between English and other languages and dialects (ie on hearing English, they attempt to respond in English). have a foundational knowledge of predictable English soundsymbol relationships, and some common letter patterns (graphemes) have a small bank of sight words demonstrate comprehension of everyday vocabulary, simple grammatical structures using extensive visual scaffolds benefit greatly from the use of first language with peers, and teachers assistants. use word by word reading when decoding.

Writing different purposes closely linked to concrete experiences (eg descriptions or recounts with explicit instruction) understand simple environmental print around the classroom and school are aware of English print direction, spacing conventions, letter formation and sizing use sentence structures that indicate their developing English syntax (eg Saturday stay home) increasingly use standard English letter patterns, although there may be evidence of writing from the first language use basic punctuation (eg full stops, question marks, capital letters) use a limited range of cohesive devices such as a pronoun reference (eg he, she, it) and subjectverb agreement, although not always accurately use common, everyday vocabulary and some isolated examples of concrete technical vocabulary used in the classroom when encouraged, will use their first language and previous learning experiences productively to scaffold their writing efforts (eg write in the first language, ask for translations from first language to English from

simple questions asking for personal information (eg Whats your name?) use first language knowledge of the world to make interpretations of spoken texts and may use other first language speakers to confirm understanding, ask for clarification, translate, repeat or paraphrase this is positive learning behaviour increasingly discriminate between sounds in English, including initial, medial and final sounds use intonation and stress on words to gain meaning from spoken English (eg hear approval or displeasure, or distinguish between a question and a command) require time to process information and respond.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 25

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years F 2) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Reading/viewing Speaking

Writing other first language speakers, record new English vocabulary using phonetic spelling from first language, or use a combination of first language and English).

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 26

Years 3 to 6

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years 3 6) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression


Speaking Reading/viewing Writing

Student progress can be monitored during the school year using the EAL/D learning progression. It is important to note that: placement on this continuum should be based on a body of evidence and not just one work sample ability in one mode is not an indication of ability across all modes throughout this resource, English refers to Standard Australian English.. Learners at the beginning of this phase communicate verbally and nonverbally with some success in familiar situations. In this phase, they communicate with less reliance on formulaic expressions in routine social and classroom situations, attempting to modify their English in response to a range of familiar classroom and social purposes. Learners at the beginning of this phase decode texts with varying success and begin to recognise some common subject-specific words. As they reach the end of this phase, they are beginning to read independently and understand that texts may have different communicative purposes, and that these purposes may be the same or different from texts they have experienced in their first language. Students: attend to texts read aloud, following the print and understanding some of the main ideas bring their previous cultural and linguistic experiences to the task of reading in order to make sense of print differentiate between first language print and English print, and follow English print conventions of reading left to right and top to bottom read familiar print around the classroom Learners at the beginning of this phase understand some basic purposes for writing, initiate writing for their own purposes and communicate their ideas and experience simply through writing, drawing or copying. In this phase, they experiment with common classroom text types with varying grammatical accuracy. First language influence is still evident in text organisation and language features. Students: write simple sequenced texts (with explicit instruction) about topics of personal interest and for a number of school purposes, including recounting an event, writing a simple description or a set of instructions engage in joint shared writing, both as observers and participants, offering some ideas and options follow text models for text structure and some language patterns (eg a long time

Learners at the beginning of this phase distinguish spoken English from other languages and dialects (ie on hearing English, they attempt to respond in English), they pay attention to the speaker and acknowledge being spoken to. In this phase, they begin to take a more active role in communication, such as seeking clarification when meaning is unclear. Students: follow simple instructions or directions where the context is obvious and recognise familiar words in spoken texts demonstrate understanding of short spoken texts, especially those containing known words and phrases, and respond appropriately to familiar formulaic utterances (eg Time to pack up now) engage in face-to-face interactions, responding to key words and phrases

Students: use formulas, well-rehearsed and common sentence patterns, and short, simple telegraphic utterances to make basic requests, express basic needs and to contribute some relatively complex ideas, usually about concrete subject matter use speaking behaviours from first language to communicate and predict meaning of some unfamiliar spoken texts by using their first language culture

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 27

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years 3 6) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking


and personal experiences use vocabulary that is mainly everyday, but begin to use some technical vocabulary when talking about topics more technically (eg animals, weather) use utterances with varying degrees of grammatical accuracy demonstrate limited control of primary tenses (past, present, future), simple linking conjunctions (and, but) and a small range of pronouns use comprehensible pronunciation and attempt to approximate English stress and intonation rely on an attentive interlocutor who is prepared to fill in gaps and predict meaning make use, when available, of first language speakers to provide words, clarification and translation imitate oral language conventions, such as taking turns and speaking at a volume suited to the situation.

Reading/viewing such as posters and signs, and accurately read back their own writing interpret texts at a literal level have a foundational knowledge of predictable English soundsymbol relationships and some common letter patterns (graphemes) can differentiate between informative and imaginative texts read short texts with predictable structures and everyday language, and reread more complex, well-known texts using appropriate pauses and intonation benefit greatly from the use of first language with peers and teachers assistants use graphophonic knowledge to attempt pronouncing new words choose books to look at and read, decoding the print by using the illustrations to assist meaning.

Writing ago ) tend to use speech-like sentence structures based on simple repetitive patterns (eg I play , I go to lunch , I go home ), and may use drawings and diagrams to scaffold their communication use mainly familiar vocabulary, including articles (a, the), a narrow range of prepositions (on, in), common conjunctions (and) and a narrow range of adverbs (very) use grammatical features that are variable and can include run-on sentences, varying levels of subject verb agreement, tense consistency and phrases of time and place increasingly use standard English spelling patterns and demonstrate knowledge of some soundletter relationships and common sight words use basic punctuation to separate ideas (eg full stops, question marks, capital letters) continue to use formulaic expressions when writing.

demonstrate appropriate listening behaviours such as paying attention and looking at the speaker participate in group learning activities such as games, rhymes and songs, joining in appropriately respond to social cues interpret intonation and stress seek clarification and visual scaffold to extend their understanding of oral texts.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 28

Years 7 to 10

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years 7 10) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression


Speaking Reading/viewing Writing

Student progress can be monitored during the school year using the EAL/D learning progression. It is important to note that: placement on this continuum should be based on a body of evidence and not just one work sample ability in one mode is not an indication of ability across all modes throughout this resource, English refers to Standard Australian English.. Learners at the beginning of this phase communicate simply in a variety of familiar classroom contexts. In this phase, they begin to use simple but effective strategies for initiating communication, negotiating meaning and communicating in a range of familiar and some academic contexts. They may appear to make more errors as they start to create their own sentences rather than repeating formulaic expressions. Students: elaborate on some ideas in coherent speech by using standard expressions to discuss views and attitudes give short, prepared formal spoken reports, but questions directed to them during or after the presentation may present difficulties may show evidence of home language background knowledge in verbal and nonverbal communication experiment with simple grammatical Learners at the beginning of this phase can interpret simple, culturally accessible texts. In this phase, they begin to read, view and comprehend the purpose, main ideas and most specific information that have been taught in a range of simple texts, including informative texts on familiar topics. Learners at the beginning of this phase produce basic classroom and social texts following highly structured examples. In this phase, they begin to write for a range of everyday classroom and personal purposes using a bilingual dictionary, bilingual teachers assistants or bilingual teachers for support. Their first language influence is evident in the way they organise texts. Students: may copy whole chunks of language from a text rather than taking notes and rewriting in their own words attempt to reproduce basic repertoire of text types (eg an email) text may exhibit knowledge of common cultural references formulaic expressions may be used to structure text are able to use topic sentences and stay on topic

Learners at the beginning of this phase can understand familiar instructions and information in a variety of classroom situations. In this phase, with scaffolding, they begin to extract specific information from familiar audio-visual texts and understand the gist of teacher explanations involving known subject-specific information.

Students: participate in two-way conversations on familiar topics in familiar, informal English, responding appropriately and in turn are beginning to correctly interpret intonation, stress and other culturallyspecific nonverbal communication are unable to process detail that is specialised or comprehend much of the subject-specific terminology that is used if it has not previously been introduced

Students: are beginning to draw inferences and to distinguish opinion from fact begin to develop understanding beyond the literal level of text, using context clues to make meaning may be able to comprehend subjectspecific words more easily than common words (eg plant, work, feed, which have a range of meanings depending on the context) use their understanding of basic text

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 29

EMERGING ENGLISH (Years 7 10) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking


forms, conjunctions and pronouns with varying success use comprehensible pronunciation and develop an awareness of English stress and intonation, although this is not always reproduced accurately may seek to extend oral skills in English through experimentation with new vocabulary (which can be seen in obvious errors), or else they will communicate effectively by avoiding complex language forms and vocabulary, rather than attempting to develop these.

Reading/viewing organisation to extend their comprehension begin to combine strategies such as rereading and reading on to facilitate decoding bring their previous cultural and linguistic experiences to the task of reading in order to make sense of print, and benefit greatly from the use of first language with peers and teachers assistants.

Writing experiment with presenting their own ideas with varying grammatical accuracy, using simple connectives and subject-specific vocabulary show some awareness of the difference between informal and academic language, and experience difficulty in the accurate reproduction of most academic language use basic punctuation accurately (eg capital letters, full stops and question marks); first language influence is still evident in punctuation construct paragraphs that may be underdeveloped and show a lack of whole-text consistency spelling may be inconsistent but when read phonetically does not impede comprehension edit their text with the teacher.

have limited understanding of vocabulary across different registers (particularly the academic register), and this will present as a weakness in comprehension increasingly distinguish unfamiliar sounds in English generally ask for help and repetition where necessary.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 30

Developing English

EAL/D Learning Progression

CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS LEARNER GROUP Each phase describes a period of significant English language learning development. There will be differences between a student at the beginning of the phase and a student at the end of the phase. These students can speak one or more languages/dialects, including functional English, and have a developing knowledge of print literacy in English. They are active participants in classroom and school routines, and are able to concentrate for longer periods. They purposefully engage with curriculum demands with increasing success. Their first language continues to be a valuable support, and these learners understand the value of code-switching that is, the ability to change from one language/dialect to suit the context. They produce increasingly extended pieces of spoken and written English (although they may be more proficient in one mode than the other), which include their own innovations with the language. However, they are still developing control over English grammar and building their vocabulary; hence, they continue to need explicit language to be taught, and teaching strategies supportive of EAL/D learners, particularly with academic language of subject disciplines. They are increasingly able to use English sufficiently to demonstrate their understanding of content and thus meet some of the achievement standards for their year level, as described in the Australian Curriculum.

Foundation to Year 2
DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years F 2) Listening Speaking Reading/viewing Writing

Student progress can be monitored during the school year using the EAL/D learning progression. It is important to note that: placement on this continuum should be based on a body of evidence and not just one work sample ability in one mode is not an indication of ability across all modes throughout this resource, English refers to Standard Australian English.. Learners at the beginning of this phase generally participate appropriately in classroom routines (eg group work) and are producing original utterances rather than relying on formulaic and learned language. In this phase, they become more confident as initiators of Learners at the beginning of this phase read simple texts independently and begin to understand the gist of most class texts independently. In this phase, they show some understanding beyond the literal level of these main ideas, issues or plot developments in Learners at the beginning of this phase write for a range of classroom purposes with varying grammatical accuracy, although they still exhibit first language influence. In this phase, they begin to produce a range of text types from across the curriculum, showing an awareness of

Learners at the beginning of this phase exhibit accepted listening behaviours and interpret meaning in familiar situations. In this phase, they develop their listening skills to be able to infer the meaning of some unfamiliar subject-specific situations if given contextual support.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 31

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years F 2) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking


conversations and, with support, can achieve in most oral activities required by the teacher.

Reading/viewing a range of accessible, authentic visual, written and electronic texts from across the curriculum, although they will rely largely on illustrations to construct meaning. Students: begin to understand that written texts are structured differently from spoken ones, that written texts may have differences according to purpose, and that visual texts such as maps and tables are read in specific ways continue to use first language culture and experiences, when given the opportunity, in order to compare and contrast text types and meanings, and thus enhance their comprehension and cognitive abilities in both languages use appropriate intonation when reading statements, questions and dialogue use their growing oral language and grammatical knowledge to read at the phrasal level, putting collocating words together as they read (eg once upon a time), and following simple cohesive devices in texts (eg later, next, in the end) comprehend mostly at the literal level and rely on teacher input to grasp inferential meanings

Writing coherence, purpose and audience.

Students: actively attend to the conversations of other English speakers on familiar topics when the speech is clear and the pace is regular have increased listening participation across a wider range of social and learning situations, including listening to a talk, teacher instructions or classroom discussions, when the language is in context get the gist of unfamiliar English in predictable social and learning situations follow simple teacher direction and explanations with less dependence on gesture and visuals, drawing on a range of discourse markers (such as expression) to help make meaning are beginning to respond to different registers and understand the importance of listening for different purposes interpret most language literally, although they are beginning to hear humour can hear most of the sounds in English,

Students: speak with greater fluency and fewer hesitations, structuring utterances through appropriate word order rather than intonation (eg Do you like ? instead of You like ?) understand that the use and choice of language are dependent upon the social or classroom situation, and can use familiar structures in some less familiar contexts (eg borrowing a library book) use pronunciation that increasingly approximates the English they hear around them, losing first language features in their pronunciation use an expanding range of common, everyday vocabulary with confidence and a limited range of technical vocabulary for operating in the curriculum begin to generate their own language, combining known formulas and vocabulary to make original utterances adapt available vocabulary to talk around a topic in order to compensate

Students: use familiar language and repeated structures to generate writing (eg On the weekend I ) write short, simple texts that communicate their ideas for an increasing variety of purposes, beginning to use features of written rather than spoken English continue to use their first language and previous learning experiences as they develop an understanding of the differences in text types and linguistic features between first language and English to construct texts spell with greater accuracy common words learned in the classroom and spell other words based on their own pronunciation (eg facary for factory), phonetic interpretations based on first language (eg oba dere for over there) separate ideas when writing by using full stops, experimenting with commas and attempt paragraphing use simple sentence structures and

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 32

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years F 2) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking


for unknown vocabulary, attempting approximations using known language to cover gaps may still choose to explore more complex ideas in first language and may use first language structures and features when attempting unfamiliar English constructions (code-switch), or may code-mix (mix first language and English) to convey more complex ideas.

Reading/viewing can read common irregular words such as which and who, and can recognise and read more complex, but still common, letter patterns (eg -igh). When instructed, they can recognise common suffixes and prefixes, and use these to construct meaning (eg -ed for past tense of regular verbs) use a range of strategies for working out words and their meanings and to selfcorrect, including their developing knowledge of everyday and specialist vocabulary, and their knowledge of sentence structure and soundletter relationships use a growing range of strategies to extend their reading, such as adjusting their reading rate according to the task and reading on.

Writing make some attempts at compound and complex sentences, although there are still syntactical errors in their writing move from words to phrases, using a small range of phrases expressing the circumstances of an event (eg Stir the water slowly or In the afternoons, we play soccer) and some expanded noun groups (eg one kind of spider that I know) use an expanding range of vocabulary in writing, although it is still reflective of their spoken vocabulary may use first language to plan writing or draw on words from first language when an English equivalent is not known edit writing with growing support to enhance fluency, accuracy and readability participate in shared writing activities as well as writing independently.

including consonant blends, short and long vowels, and diphthongs develop understandings of sentence types (eg questions) through word order rather than intonation alone are beginning to understand subjectspecific vocabulary, contractions (eg wont), some colloquialisms and idioms relevant to the early years context (eg Lets be quiet little mice) seek repetition and clarification in order to understand spoken language, and may ask other first language speakers for meanings of words to check or confirm their own understandings.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 33

Years 3 to 6

EAL/D Learning Progression


Speaking Reading/viewing Writing

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years 3 6) Listening

Student progress can be monitored during the school year using the EAL/D learning progression. It is important to note that: placement on this continuum should be based on a body of evidence and not just one work sample ability in one mode is not an indication of ability across all modes throughout this resource, English refers to Standard Australian English.. Learners at the beginning of this phase communicate and learn through English in predictable social and learning situations. In this phase, they develop independence in selecting and using a small range of English features, while still relying on others to restate or suggest vocabulary and sentence structure. Learners at the beginning of this phase understand the purpose of most texts and are beginning to understand the gist of most class texts independently. In this phase, they independently read and understand a range of more complex and lengthy texts with predictable structures and familiar vocabulary, but they continue to rely on illustrations to construct meaning. Students: understand and enjoy texts read aloud, identifying characters and retelling sequences of events identify the main idea in a paragraph or text, find specific information and make some inferences based on their prior knowledge continue to use first language, culture and experiences, when given the opportunity, to compare and contrast text types and meanings, and thus Learners at the beginning of this phase reproduce basic models of most classroom text types, but not at the expected levels of the achievement standards. In this phase, they can write a variety of texts in different curriculum areas with some accuracy in text features, organisation and cohesion, provided that this has been adequately modelled by the teacher. Students: plan and write conventional texts, including informative texts and imaginative texts, sequencing information for specific types of texts, such as information reports present information appropriately (eg diagram, graph) show understanding of the structure and function of paragraphs, including topic sentences use a number of common conjunctions

Learners at the beginning of this phase understand spoken English used to talk about familiar and some unfamiliar topics. In this phase, they begin to follow the main ideas in extended talk and discussions, and identify relevant information from subject-specific talk.

Students: understand teacher questions and can relay messages understand instructions, recounts and explanations when supported by clear contexts give relevant details of spoken texts listened to, such as retelling a sequence of events respond to different registers appropriately (eg match a formal response to a formal request)

Students: initiate and participate in casual exchanges with English-speaking peers, and contribute information and express ideas in group tasks and classroom discussions using politeness conventions recount news (giving details involving where, when, who and what in a time sequence) and can give a short prepared talk on a familiar topic use an expanding range of common,

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 34

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years 3 6) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking


everyday vocabulary with confidence and a limited range of technical vocabulary for operating in the curriculum begin to use some colloquial language use basic English features including intonation, and combine and manipulate learned speech patterns, although errors are still apparent (eg I dont know where is it) identify and describe people, places and things using simple vocabulary, and use basic time markers, common prepositions, some common contractions and simple negative forms choose linking conjunctions (eg and, then, but, or, so) to form compound sentences and a small range of conjunctions (eg because, when, before, after) to form complex sentences use pronunciation that increasingly approximates the English they hear around them, discarding first language features in their pronunciation speak with greater fluency and fewer hesitations, structuring utterances through appropriate word order use English dictionaries rehearse oral productions.

Reading/viewing enhance their comprehension and cognitive abilities in both languages identify some unfamiliar cultural references use a range of strategies for working out words and their meanings, including their developing knowledge of everyday and specialist vocabulary and their knowledge of sentence structure and soundletter relationships use appropriate intonation when reading statements, questions and dialogue can read many irregular words and can recognise and read more complex, but still common, letter patterns (eg -tion). When instructed, can recognise common suffixes and prefixes, and use these to construct meaning (eg -ed for past tense of regular verbs) use their growing oral language to extend their reading and understand how to use morphemes to identify word meaning (eg big in bigger and biggest) use a growing range of strategies to extend their reading, such as adjusting their reading rate according to the task, skimming, scanning and reading on.

Writing and relative pronouns to combine simple sentences into compound and complex sentences use pronoun reference with noun/pronoun agreement (eg Mary she her) use appropriate time sequencing (eg first, next, finally) use subjectverb agreement with some accuracy use present and past tense verbs, although they may overgeneralise past tense endings (eg drinked, buyed) use an expanding vocabulary, including subject-specific vocabulary, and select suitable words to enhance descriptions (eg huge instead of big) edit with growing success to enhance fluency, accuracy and readability, and present their writing appropriately in print and electronic forms continue to use their first language and previous learning experiences as they develop an understanding of the differences in text types and linguistic features between first language and English in order to construct texts participate in shared writing, brainstorming and conferencing as preand post-writing activities engage in planning and writing,

understand that open-ended questions (how and why questions) require more than a yes or no answer understand common, everyday vocabulary and know that some words can have more than one meaning, and demonstrate a tentative understanding of vocabulary beyond immediate personal and school experiences participate confidently in shared texts, such as songs and poetry can take notes if given note-taking frameworks and if information is not overly complex or unfamiliar.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 35

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years 3 6) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking

Reading/viewing

Writing accessing vocabulary and spelling knowledge to edit their own work.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 36

Years 7 to 10

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years 7 10) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression


Speaking Reading/viewing Writing

Student progress can be monitored during the school year using the EAL/D learning progression. It is important to note that: placement on this continuum should be based on a body of evidence and not just one work sample ability in one mode is not an indication of ability across all modes throughout this resource, English refers to Standard Australian English.. Learners at the beginning of this phase communicate effectively in the classroom, but not in all academic contexts. In this phase, they participate in, maintain and can achieve in most oral activities required by the teacher. Learners at the beginning of this phase understand the main ideas of familiar classroom texts. In this phase, they show some understanding beyond the literal level of these main ideas, issues or plot developments in a range of accessible, authentic visual, written and electronic texts from across the curriculum. Students: may still be experiencing difficulty discriminating literal meaning from implied meaning, subtle references, innuendo and sociocultural references use appropriate intonation when reading statements, questions and dialogue can transfer information from a text to another format (eg diagram, graph) can read many irregular words, and can recognise and read more complex, but still common, letter patterns (eg -tion). When instructed, can recognise Learners at the beginning of this phase write independently for a range of classroom purposes with varying grammatical accuracy. They still exhibit first language influence in text and language structure. In this phase, they begin to produce a range of text types from across the curriculum, showing coherence and an awareness of purpose and audience. Students: may produce writing that does not reflect their potential because preparatory reading has taken most of the time and limited the available time for drafting and editing create a range of types of texts, using growing knowledge of text structure continue to produce errors in grammar, punctuation and vocabulary, but these do not impede communication use cohesive devices to link both within and across paragraphs

Learners at the beginning of this phase understand the gist of most classroom interactions and information, provided that this is presented clearly and at a moderate pace. In this phase, they listen successfully in a wide range of social (informal) contexts, although they will still experience difficulty in understanding the main points in most academic (formal) contexts. Students: respond appropriately in most unplanned exchanges are beginning to use some cultural expectations when listening to English (eg eye contact, distance, gesture) begin to interpret meaning and feelings from intonation, volume, stress, repetition and pacing understand the gist of most spoken and audio-visual texts, and can identify specific information if questions are given beforehand

Students: ask questions and respond successfully in a wide range of social and some academic contexts, using politeness conventions give and justify opinions if given a supportive environment participate successfully in group discussions and tutorials, using communicative strategies (eg entering the conversation) correctly, provided that this is on a familiar topic demonstrate an awareness and growing

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 37

DEVELOPING ENGLISH (Years 7 10) Listening

EAL/D Learning Progression Speaking


control of register in the creation of their spoken texts use appropriate nonverbal language in most familiar contexts moderate their pronunciation, pace and emphasis so that they are understood in most situations, and accent rarely impedes communication use a growing range of technical vocabulary and begin to use some imagery and colloquialisms plan and rehearse more formal spoken to improve fluency and accuracy of oral language can be understood in most contexts.

Reading/viewing common suffixes and prefixes, and use these to construct meaning (eg -ed for past tense of regular verbs) use graphophonic, syntactic and semantic cues to work out the meanings of unfamiliar words follow meaning across sentences and paragraphs by tracking basic cohesive and reference items make predictions about the likely content of texts based on their understanding of the different purposes and structures of text types use a growing range of strategies to extend their reading such as adjusting their reading rate according to the task, skimming, scanning and reading on continue to use first language, culture and experiences, when given the opportunity, in order to compare and contrast text types and meanings, and thus enhance their comprehension and cognitive abilities in both languages.

Writing use pronoun reference with noun/pronoun agreement (eg Mary she her) use appropriate time sequencing (eg first, next, finally) use appropriate abbreviations in notes begin to apply referencing conventions appropriately independently edit with growing success to enhance fluency, accuracy and readability, and present their writing appropriately in print and electronic forms continue to use their first language and previous learning experiences as they develop an understanding of the differences in text types and linguistic features between first language and English to construct texts.

understand the gist of small amounts of non-literal and generalised information when appropriate background is given identify a range of vocabulary across different learning areas may ask for clarification and extra time when participating in complex listening tasks, group performances or class discussions.

English as an Additional Language Teacher Resource Overview and EAL/D Learning Progression Foundation to Year 10 EAL/D Learning Progression View by Stage of Schooling 38