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Displacement Ventilation DESIGN GUIDE

SECTION J Displacement Ventilation

w w w. p r i c e - h v a c . c o m

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Contents

Displacement Ventilation

Displacement Ventilation Introduction .................... J8 - J10 Typical Applications ................................................................. J9 Terminology . .......................................................................... J10 Displacement Ventilation Characteristics ............. J11 - J14 Thermal Plume..........................................................................J11 Stratification Height..................................................................J11 Room Airflow Pattern. .............................................................. J12 Diffuser Air Flow Pattern. ......................................................... J13 Contaminant Distribution........................................................ J13 Temperature Distribution........................................................ J14 Location of Returns.................................................................. J14 Thermal Comfort. .......................................................... J15 – J16 Ventilation Effectiveness. ...................................................... J17 Heating with Displacement Ventilation. ............................ J18 Humidity Control........................................................... J19 – J20 Design Suggestions ................................................................ J19 Direct Expansion Rooftop Units.............................................. J19 Dehumidification and Heat Recovery.......................... J19 – J20 Acoustics........................................................................ J21 – J22 Designing with AHUs and RTUs........................................... J23

Loading Within the Space. .......................................... J24 – J25 Loads ....................................................................................... J24 Sensible and Latent Loads...................................................... J25 Diffuser Types. ................................................................ J26 – J27 Diffuser Layout and Location................................................ J28 DV Supply Air Methods.......................................................... J29 Component Selection and Installation.............................. J29 Air Volume Calculations ............................................. J30 – J31 Design Procedure. .................................................................... J31 Design Examples.............................................................J32 - J37 Small Office Example.................................................. J32 – J34 Boardroom Example..................................................... J35 – J37 Special Applications Supplement..............................J38 - J52 Displacement Ventilation for Industrial Applications....J39 Machine Shop Example................................................ J40 – J43 Displacement Ventilation and Schools........................ J44 – J45 Classroom Example...................................................... J46 – J48 Displacement Ventilation and Healthcare................... J49 – J51 References ................................................................................. J52

Price has partnered with Krantz Products USA Inc., North American Distributor for Krantz, the world leader in displacement ventilation diffusers, to offer a complete system for displacement ventilation distribution. The Krantz Komponenten® industrial diffusers have been the preferred specification for industrial applications since Krantz Komponenten® first pioneered the North American market. Krantz Komponenten® diffusers are offered to the U.S. and Canadian HVAC markets exclusively through Price.
© Copyright E.H. Price Limited 2007. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.

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Price Industries works hard to promote the use of sustainable building materials and innovative air distribution technologies to improve the air quality and environment integrity in the built environment. Price has a long history of designing and promoting products systems that are energy efficient and ideal for use in “Green Building” designs. Price is committed to the continual introduction of new products and systems that further the goals outlined by the USGBC.

Displacement Ventilation Design Guide

About this Design Guide
This document is intended to provide answers to common questions as well as provide some guidance for working though the most common issues when designing an Displacement Ventilation system. Throughout the document you will find helpful hints as well as Green Tips, Control Tips and Product Tips, an example of which is shown below.

Green Tip Green Tips provide useful insight into some opportunities for making design decisions which might help in designing a sustainable building. Some pointers are provided for both the LEED® and the Green Globes® rating systems.

Control Tip Control Tips are provided to maximize the understanding of all of the control opportunities and issues with Displacement Ventilation systems. In some cases these will help reduce control complexity or optimize control effectiveness.

Product Tip Product Tips provide a link between the design guide section and the product section to assist the design engineer in selecting product with the recommended characteristics.

DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION

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All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.

© Copyright E.H. Price Limited 2007.

Displacement Ventilation

Design Guide

Displacement Ventilation Introduction
Overview Airflow in ventilated spaces generally can be classified by two different types; mixing (or dilution) ventilation and displacement ventilation. Mixing ventilation systems (Figure 1) generally supply air in a manner such that the entire room volume is fully mixed.The cool supply air exits the outlet at a high velocity, inducing room air to provide mixing and temperature equalization. Since the entire room is fully mixed, temperature variations throughout the space are small while the contaminant concentration is uniform throughout the zone. Displacement Ventilation systems (Figure 2) introduce air into the space at low velocities which causes minimal induction and mixing. Displacement outlets may be located almost anywhere within the room, but have been traditionally located at or near floor level. The system utilizes buoyancy forces, generated by heat sources such as people, lighting, computers, electrical equipment, etc. in a room to remove contaminants and heat from the occupied zone. By so doing, the air quality in the occupied zone is generally superior to that achieved with mixing ventilation. Concept Displacement ventilation presents an opportunity to improve both the thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) of the occupied space. Displacement ventilation takes advantage of the difference in air temperature and density between an upper contaminated zone and a lower clean zone. Cool air is supplied at low velocity into the lower zone. Convection from heat sources creates vertical air motion into the upper zone where high level return outlets extract the air as illustrated in Figure 3. In most cases, these convection heat sources are also the contamination sources, i.e. people or equipment, thereby carrying the contaminants up to the upper zone, away from the occupants. Since the conditioned air is supplied directly into the occupied space, supply air temperatures must be higher than mixing systems (usually above 63 degrees F) to avoid creating uncomfortable drafts. By introducing air at elevated supply air temperatures and low outlet velocity a high level of thermal comfort can be achieved with displacement ventilation. Figure 1: Mixing (Dilution) Ventilation

Figure 2: Displacement Ventilation

Figure 3: Displacement Flow Characteristics

© Copyright E.H. Price Limited 2007.

All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.

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. .Where cooling loads are high and radiant cooling is not an option. may allow a reduction in fan energy with the selection of a smaller fan components. as there is a lower supply air temperature and higher return air temperature. • Overhead Air Distribution may be a better choice than displacement ventilation in the following cases: DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Figure 4: Classroom Application .Hospitals .Where the room heights are 9 feet or more. J-6 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.Supermarkets Figure 5: High Ceiling Application . Flexibility – as loads change within the space. • Chiller efficiency may be increased when the system is not dehumidifying.Where the contaminants are warmer and/or lighter than the room air.Where the supply air is cooler than the room air. Both the LEED® and Green Globes green building rating systems have credits that are applicable to displacement ventilation systems.H. For example. Energy Savings – • The lower pressure drop associated with displacement ventilation outlets. . if the space was designed to have a fairly even load distribution and now has the loads concentrated to one side.Dining Rooms .Theaters . a displacement system will be able to compensate.Where contaminants are colder and/or denser than the ambient air. See the Green Tips for further information. the system is able to compensate as the buoyant forces drive supply system and will draw the air towards the loads. When properly designed.Restaurants .Classrooms . Spaces where displacement ventilation has been successfully used are: .Industrial Spaces • Displacement ventilation is usually a good choice in the following cases: . . Price Limited 2007. . • Economizer operating hours can be increased to take advantage of free cooling because supply air temperatures are higher than with overhead air distribution systems. 3. © Copyright E. 4. personal thermal plumes draw fresh air up the body.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Introduction Benefits 1.Where disturbances to room airflow are strong. Typical Applications • Displacement ventilation is an effective method of obtaining good air quality and thermal comfort in the occupied space.Where ceiling heights are below 8 feet.Schools . 2. there should always be a greater amount of fresh air in the breathing zone when compared to a conventional dilution system.Where low noise levels are desired. . All of the warm and polluted air is extracted at the high return.Meeting Rooms .Conference Rooms .Casinos . IAQ – Because fresh supply air is pooling at the floor level. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. .

Buoyancy The vertical force exerted on a volume of air that has a density lower than the ambient air. IAQ Indoor Air Quality.The analysis of a space utilizing computers to simulate fluid motion. An indication of how well a space is extracting contaminates. Figure 6 L Figure 7 L W Figure 8 © Copyright E. Displacement Ventilation Room ventilation created by room air displacement. DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Draft Unwanted local cooling of a body caused by movement of air. typically 40 FPM. Ventilation Effectiveness The ratio of contaminants in the exhaust to the contaminates at the breathing level. Draft Temperature The effective temperature based on the temperature and velocity of the supply air causing discomfort. An example of output from a CFD analysis is shown in Figure 8. Stratification When the temperature of the space varies with height.H. Length. Width. Mixed Ventilation Air diffusion where the mixing of supply and room air is intended. Percent Dissatisfied (PD) ASHRAE defines the percent dissatisfied as the percentage of people predicted to be dissatisfied with their environment due to draft. A sustainable building rating program from the US Green Building Council. refer to Figure 7. Price Limited 2007. ” In real terms it is a measure of the thermal comfort performance in a space. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Upper Zone The space above the occupied zone. CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics. PMV. refer to Figure 6. Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) L Vote. by introducing air at low level in a space at a lower air temperature than the room air. Adjacent Zone The Length of the adjacent zone is the length from the diffuser face to a specified velocity. typically 40 FPM. is an index The Predicted Mean that predicts the mean value of the votes of a large group of persons in relation to a scale defined by ASHRAE W [ASHRAE Standard 55 2004] Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) ASHRAE defines the predicted percentage of dissatisfied as “an index that establishes a quantitative prediction of the percentage of thermally dissatisfied people determined from PMV. J-7 .Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Terminology Adjacent Zone The adjacent zone is defined as the distance from the diffuser face to a point where the velocity of the airstream is reduced below to 40 FPM measured 1” above the floor. LEED® Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. and an indication of IAQ. Occupied Zone An imaginary box in the room defined as 6 feet above the floor and not less than 24 inches from the walls. Adjacent Zone The width of the adjacent zone is the width from the diffuser face to a specified velocity. Thermal Plume The air current rising from a hot body. Breathing Zone The estimated height at which occupants will inhale the surrounding air. Green Globes® A sustainable building rating system from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

the air becomes more buoyant. a room with more stratification will reduce the relative density of the plu me and. otherwise known as natural convection. Clearly. Also.g. Stratification Height In Figure 11. Figure 9: Thermal Plume. For example.Stratification Height DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION q1 q2 Yst q0 J-8 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. but at an altered height. If the building occupants are in a seated work position. q1 is the upward moving airflow contained in thermal plumes that form above heat sources. [Source: ASHRAE Underfloor Design Guide] Figure 10: Thermal Plume of Cylinder [Source: Skistad] Figure 11 . and with the thermal plume boundary layer included.8m [6 ft]). This saves energy from treating outdoor air as well as primary fan energy. A point source type expansion of the thermal plume is still present. As a thermal plume rises above the heat source. The maximum height to which a plume will rise is dependent on the heat source strength. a lower stratification height (e. the height to which the plume will rise. q0 represents the supply airflow into the room from a low side-wall diffuser. This causes air to rise in the space and to be replaced by air from the side or below. q1q2. a cylinder produces a boundary layer and the convective thermal plume takes a different shape. The cylinder is a better approximation of an occupant in the space than a point source. Green Tip Lower stratification heights will result from reduced airflow. Price Limited 2007. it entrains surrounding air and increases in size and volume as it loses momentum.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Characteristics Thermal Plume As heat sources transfer heat to the surrounding air. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.H. moving away from the heat source. The thermal plume generated from a point source acts differently than a thermal plume generated from large objects in the space. equals q0. as the initial momentum of the plume will increase. In terms of this simplified configuration. as depicted in Figure 9.2m [4ft]) may be acceptable. the stratification height will occur at a height (Yst) where the net upward moving flow. as a result. 1. . and q2 is the downward moving airflow resulting from cool surfaces. © Copyright E. an important objective in designing and operating a displacement ventilation system is to maintain the stratification height near the top of the occupied zone (1. shown in Figure 10.

diffusers on several walls would normally be required. filling the entire space. Airflow Penetration A displacement system supplying cool air through a diffuser will deliver air along the floor in a thin layer typically less than 8” in height. Because of the low discharge velocity of displacement outlets. Cold sinks such as an exterior wall or window can generate convection flows down the wall and across the floor. When the cool air meets a heat source such as a person or piece of equipment. When designing the system to deal with the cooling demand of the space. Heat sources such as people. a portion of the conditioned air is captured by the thermal plume of the heat source. The strength of the thermal plume is dependent on the power and geometry of the heat source. If obstructions such as furniture or partitions are encountered. The supply air spreads across the floor in a similar manner to water flowing out of a tap. For rooms exceeding 30 feet in length or width.H. © Copyright E.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Characteristics Room Airflow Pattern Airflow patterns in a displacement ventilation system are quite different than in a mixing system. while the remainder of air continues further into the room. A theater with even seating. the air will flow around and beyond the obstruction illustrated in Figure 14. Depending on the strength of the thermal plume. the room air motion is influenced to a large degree by convection flows. equipment or warm windows. Even rooms with irregular geometries can be uniformly supplied with conditioned air (Figure 15). Figure 12: Air Layers Figure 13: Vertical Air Movement Figure 14: Obstruction Figure 15: Irregular Room Geometry Couch Diffuser Supply Air Supply Air Diffuser Partition Green Tip Because displacement ventilation systems are gravity driven. The convection flows are created by heat sources such as people. Price Limited 2007. The warmest air layers are near the ceiling and the coolest air layers are near the floor as depicted in Figure 12. Room air moves horizontally across the floor due to momentum from the supply outlet and suction from thermal plumes. caution must be used in sloped applications. the convection flows can rise to the ceiling or distribute at a lower height. Vertical air movement (Figure 13) between layers is caused by stronger convection forces associated with heat sources or cold sinks. computers. create a rising convection flow known as a thermal plume. etc. will require less diffusers in the lower sections of the theater and more in the upper to compensate the natural movement of the air to the lower portion of the theater. The convection flows within the room cause the formation of horizontal air layers. the penetration depth of a displacement diffuser can be 26 – 30 feet from the face of the diffuser. lights. or by heat sinks such as a cold wall or window. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. J-9 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.

. the flow will be distributed horizontally into the space per Figure 18.H. See the Ventilation Effectiveness section for further discussion. location within the space. Price Limited 2007. but could be applied to other areas as well. contaminants are diluted with supply air and are distributed evenly throughout the space. Due to the density of the cool Figure 17: Cool Air Supply supply air it falls towards the floor a short distance from the diffuser face and continues along the floor at a depth of approximately eight inches. A displacement diffuser supplying cool air will result in an air pattern resembling Figure 17. With mixing ventilation. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. The general upward motion of air causes contaminants to concentrate within the upper zone ( Figure 20 ). Displacement ventilation improves occupant air quality by reducing the contaminants in the lower portion of the room. For a displacement diffuser supplying heated air. when the supply air temperature equals room temperature. 2006). When supply air is isothermal. the air in the breathing zone is cleaner than the room air at the same height.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Characteristics Diffuser Airflow Pattern In order to avoid draft it is essential for the displacement diffuser to uniformly deliver the supply air across the entire diffuser face at low velocity. supply air will rise towards the ceiling Figure 18: Isothermal Air Supply Figure 19: Heating Air Supply with little or no penetration into the space. but are typically not addressed in dollar figures. A publication from Capital E shows the estimated costs with improved IAQ for schools. Recent publications and studies have shown the increase in IAQ to increase performance in schools (Ref. for example). ASHRAE JournalVolume 48 Number 10 Oct. © Copyright E. This requires an internal equalization baffle in combination with a low free area face. and space height. heat sources. because the upward convection around a person brings clean air from lower level to the breathing zone. Contaminant Distribution Contaminant distribution in a space is influenced by several factors such as supply air method. J-10 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. contaminant source type. The figure represents contamination distribution in a room supplied with mixing and displacement ventilation for a typical case where the contaminant source is warm (a person. (Figure 19) For most applications supplying heated air through displacement outlets is not recommended. Figure 20: Contaminant Distribution DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Uniform distribution of contaminants within the mixed space. Contaminants are concentrated at the upper portion of the space. For displacement ventilation case. Contaminants that are heavier than air need to be extracted at a lower level if they present a safety concern. Green Tip The potential IAQ increase and reduction in airborne illness transmission are substantial.

Using this design procedure an acceptable room temperature stratification level can be achieved. the temperature difference between return and supply in a stratified system will generally be greater than 13ºF . For lower ceilings it is best to place the return above the heat source in the space.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Characteristics Temperature Distribution Since cool air is introduced at low level with a displacement ventilation system. This vertical temperature gradient is known as stratification. room cooling load. a temperature gradient exists between the floor and ceiling level of the space. as long as the ceiling is over 8 feet. For commercial displacement ventilation systems. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. For more information on chilled ceiling systems see the Radiant Systems section. the lower the temperature difference between floor and ceiling. is affected by several factors. If the exhaust is located lower than 7 feet there may be some polluted/hot air remaining within the occupied zone.The greater the volume of air supplied into a room. The ASHRAE Design Guide has determined a method to calculate the head to foot temperature stratification of a displacement system based on supply air volume and load distribution.The design procedure is presented on page J31. The temperature profile. the temperature gradient is greater in the lower part of the room and lessens in the upper part. Figure 21: Vertical Temperature Gradient Figure 22: Heat Source Location 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION Heat Sources In Upper Zone Heat Sources In Lower Zone Temperature °F Reference: REHVA Guidebook be exhausted properly from the space. Controlling stratification in the occupied zone is critical to maintaining occupant comfort.H. ideally at ceiling height. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. If heat sources are located in the lower part of the room. This relationship was used to develop a design procedure for displacement ventilation systems. location and type of heat source and height of the space. chilled ceiling systems can be used to remove additional heat from the space. supply air temperatures ranging from 65-68ºF can be expected. when heat sources are located in the upper part of the room the greatest stratification occurs near the ceiling (Figure 22). An explanation of how the calculation method was achieved is presented on page J30. If the return is located below the ceiling. J-11 . Location of Returns Returns should be located as high as possible in the space to remove as much of the stratified zone as possible. Control Tip Temperature stratification above the occupied zone is not a concern. Figure 21 illustrates a typical temperature profile for a room with displacement ventilation. the air above the return may not © Copyright E. Ensure that the returns are extracting at a minimum of 9 feet to ensure stratification control. or stratification. Product Tip Where additional cooling is required. ASHRAE Standard 55 requires the temperature difference between the head and foot level of a standing person not to exceed 5°F . Price Limited 2007. most notably the supply air volume. Conversely. As well.

012 1. Most building HVAC designers would prefer to never hear feedback from the occupants of a building that they have designed – no feedback would indicate a good design as most people will complain about being hot or cold. The factors that must be addressed when defining conditions for human thermal comfort include: • metabolic rate • radiant temperature • humidity • clothing insulation • air temperature • air speed 80 80 % % % Figure 22: Acceptable range of operative temperature and humidity [ASHRAE Standard 55 2004] Data based on ISO 7730 and ASHRAE STD 55 Upper Recommended Humidity Limit 0. Most office spaces fall within these limitations.POUNDS MOISTURE PER POUND DRY AIR .5 Figure 23: Effect of air velocity on acceptable range of operative temperature and humidity [ASHRAE Standard 55 2004] Data based on ISO 7730 and ASHRAE STD 55 Upper Recommended Humidity Limit 0.5 clo and 1.005 70 6 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE . Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort ASHRAE Standard 55 defines thermal comfort as a “condition of the mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment” . most building occupants expect a narrow range of temperature.0 clo which is intended to be representative of when the outdoor environment is warm and cool.5 DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-12 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. expect to find in any space they enter. Figure 22 shows the range of operative temperatures for an 80% occupant acceptance.010 HUMIDITY RATIO . This range of operative temperatures are based on a 10% dissatisfaction criteria for whole body (general) thermal comfort (based on the PMV – PPD index – see ASHRAE Standard 55 for a description of the PMV – PPD index) and an additional 10% dissatisfaction for local thermal comfort. Two zones are shown on these figures.012 humidity ratio .H. air temperature. a building occupants’ preferred thermal environment is based upon what they are normally exposed to and as a result. they may not find that environment acceptable for a period of time if they have experienced different thermal conditions or different activity levels just prior to entering the space.0 clo of thermal insulation.002 PMV Limit 0.ºF 0% % % % % .005 70 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE . a thermal complaint will occur. © Copyright E. but in reality.0 Met to 1. As a result. air speed. but rarely will a building occupant give kudos for being thermally comfortable. Today. one for 0.004 50 40 30 20 No Recommended Lower Humidity Limit IDITY RELATIVE HUM 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 .014 30 FPM 15 FPM 50 FPM .012 . This comfort zone is typically defined in terms of a range of operative temperatures that will provide a thermal environment that a specific percentage of occupants will find acceptable.004 40 30 20 No Recommended Lower Humidity Limit IDITY RELATIVE HUM 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 . all six are of equal importance.ºF 60 50 % % % % .POUNDS MOISTURE PER POUND DRY AIR 95 95 . ASHRAE Standard 55 defines a comfort zone that may be determined for a given range of humidity. metabolic rate.5 Clo . This method may be used in spaces where the occupants Met levels are within 1.010 HUMIDITY RATIO .0 Clo 0.3 Met and clothing has a clo value between 0.012 humidity ratio . Price Limited 2007. Another issue affecting thermal comfort is the fact that when a person first enters a new thermal environment.5 clo and one for 1. This definition is based on the fact that each person defines what is thermally comfortable based upon their own physiological and psychological states. To no small part.002 PMV Limit 0.014 . Unless the building is only occupied by one occupant and the occupant is in complete control of his or her thermal environment. air velocity and humidity and if the environment is out of their preconceived expectations. respectively.006 80 80 % % % % . . ASHRAE defines the goal for the thermal environme nt as an acceptance by a substantial majority (at least 80%) of the building occupants.006 Most designers only consider the last three. This period of adaptation may take up to an hour before the person becomes satisfied with the new thermal environment. radiant temperature. 100 90 % 10 100 90 % 10 . Figure 23 shows the effect of air velocity on the operative temperature. and clothing insulation. there will always be at least one occupant who will express dissatisfaction with the building HVAC systems.

or their hands and or feet are cold. approximately 8% of the occupant will complain of a cool sensation. Since the natural convective air velocity of the occupant is about 30 fpm. The most sensitive part of the human body in the typical office environment is the back of the neck. This leads to physically cold hands and feet. When a person experiences a drop in core body temperature. which is shown in Figure 24. °F FEELING OF COOLNESS FEELING OF WARMTH © Copyright E. to maintain thermal comfort. A common complaint for cold sensation is the feet. In an improperly designed overhead air distribution system. the occupant should not be closer than two feet to the displacement diffuser. 50% humidity and 50 FPM. °F FEELING OF WARMTH NECK REGION FEELING OF COOLNESS 40% 30% 20% 10% Figure 25: Effect of air velocity and temperature difference on thermal comfort for the ankle region [source: ASHRAE Fundamentals] Air Velocity. FPM 40% 30% 20% 10% ANKLE REGION NECK REGION 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Temperature Difference. There are several factors which are rolled into this calculation including draft. For displacement air distribution. The most common complaint due to thermal comfort are either the occupant is too hot. this type of air distribution will not significantly disturb the natural convective air movement around the occupant. the complaint sensation may vary up to 25% occupant dissatisfaction. J-13 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . This will lead to higher occupant satisfaction due to the significantly lowered air velocity sensation and the self balancing heat load of the occupant from the low velocity cool fresh air at the occupant’s feet. It is this measure that is typically referenced with thermal comfort is examined or discussed. Too high an air velocity can be a significant factor in generating these thermal complaints.H. conserving heat for the critical internal organs. the air may separate from and ceiling may directly impact building occupants. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Thermal Comfort The predicted percentage dissatisfied is a measure of the thermal comfort performance in the built environment. FP 100 90 80 70 Air Velocity. Figure 24: Effect of air velocity and temperature difference on thermal comfort for the neck region [source: ASHRAE Fundamentals] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Temperature Difference. radiant asymmetry and stratification. With a typical dead-band of a thermostat of +-2F . The ASHRAE design conditions of 70F . the body begins to restrict blood flow to the extremities. In displacement air distribution. A gradient larger than this value may lead the occupant to become aware that his or her feet are cooler than their head. You may have both complaints in the same building on the same day. the average room air velocity is just about 20 to 30 feet per minute. In stratification air distribution systems. Price Limited 2007. Figure 25 shows the combined effect of air velocity and temperature for this body part. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. The cold complaint caused by draft is more commonly experienced in overhead air distribution than underfloor or displacement ventilation. it is important to maintain no more than a 5ºF (3ºC) temperature difference between the occupants head and feet. The ankles are demonstratively not as sensitive as the back of the neck to the effect of velocity and only moderately impacted by mild temperature differences from set point.

If ε < 1. Also.96 DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-14 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.2 – 1. Table 1: Ventilation Effectiveness for Different Types of Air Distribution Systems [Source: Krantz™] Measurement point in room In front of standing person In front of seated person Linear Displacement 1. the air in the occupied breathing zone is fresher (cleaner) than the return air this indicates that the pollutants are being moved by the cleaner supply air away from the occupied zone and toward the return grille.97 0.H. the air in the occupied breathing zone is as fresh (or dirty) as the air in at the return grille. CHPS credit EQ2. 3 – 2. Where: ε= Cpe/Cpbz Cpe = concentration of pollutants in the exhaust Cpbz = concentration of pollutants at breathing level If the zone (or room) is 100% mixed. .2 – 1.0 with average ε = 0.88 – 0.0 0.96 Slot Outlets 0. the ventilation effectiveness. and proven with ASHRAE 129-1997 (12 points possible).93 – 0. Table 1 shows data collected by Krantz for the ventilation effectiveness of various types of air distribution systems. indoor air quality of the space.65 Twist Outlets 0. Price Limited 2007.7 < ε < 1. this indicates that the occupied breathing zone is dirtier than the return air and this lowered ventilation effectiveness is typically caused by short-circuiting of the supply air to the return grill and is considered a gross waste of pollution removal potential. This is achievable with a properly designed displacement system.90 – 0.9) and mode of operation (heating or cooling). Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.97 1. clean air through a diffuser into the space and removal of the dirtier room air through a return grille.2 and have the potential for greater ventilation effectiveness when used in combination with dedicated outdoor air systems and radiant heating/cooling systems.9. Green Tip The high ventilation effectiveness from a properly designed displacement ventilation system can earn credits in Green Globes and LEED® rating systems for higher indoor air quality.0.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Ventilation Effectiveness Ventilation Effectiveness Ventilation effectiveness is a measure of the air distribution system’s ability to remove airborne pollutants from a building space. Displacement diffusers are shown in the Krantz laboratory to have ventilation effectiveness higher than that of a fully mixed system. Well-designed displacement ventilation air distribution systems have a ventilation effectiveness that are at least ε = 1. Typically.0. This removal of airborne pollutants occurs through the injection of fresh. mixed ventilation systems are overhead air diffusers and have an average ventilation effectiveness of ε = 0.3 requires the zone distribution effectiveness Ez value to be greater than 0.0. If ε > 1. The type of supply diffuser used will have a direct impact in the ventilation effectiveness of the building HVAC system. ε= 1.6 Ceiling Outlets Floor Twist Outlets 1.92 – 0. Green Tip Using displacement ventilation for schools is a great way to increase the ventilation effectiveness. One measure of the ventilation effectiveness is to compare the contamination level in the breathing zone to the contamination level present in the return air grille for a zone.95 1.9. both LEED® and Green Globes® have IAQ credits for the implementation of displacement ventilation. The overall ventilation effectiveness of overhead diffuser systems may vary due to diffuser type (0.1: Thermal Displacement Ventilation is a two point credit for the use of displacement ventilation in the building.3 – 1. Green Tip The Green Building Initiatives: Green Globes® v. © Copyright E.1 section 7 G.1.

The DLE-H shown in Figure 27 utilizes an integrated heating element above the supply face. and will rise to the ceiling level and be exhausted or returned. The primary difference with these diffusers is the velocity being supplied to the space is much higher than what is acceptable in a commercial space. For more information on this option refer to the Radiant Systems section of the catalog. and as a result. radiant flooring. This is because the supply air does not have enough forward momentum to overcome the effects of buoyancy. © Copyright E. These diffusers act like a perimeter radiation system common to northern climates. some mixing will occur. Price has a long history of manufacturing special designs to suit specific applications.H. this displacement diffuser provides cool. The use of panels for heat interspersed with Chilled Beams for cooling have been used with good success. Price Limited 2007. Refer to the Radiant Product design guide for more information. so short circuiting of the air is minimized. Product Tip There are many options for providing heat through specialized displacement diffuser. There are several methods for supplying radiant heat. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. slow moving air through the top section and warm. as previously mentioned. supplying a space with hot air at the same flow velocities required by displacement ventilation is not recommended. and Beams. as long as the fan coil is located outside the occupied zone and is used to treat perimeter walls and glass. bypassing the occupied zone. Sails.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Heating with Displacement Ventilation Heating Displacement ventilation relies on the principle that thermal plumes drive the movement of the air within the space and. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. There are several ways to overcome this and provide a comfortable environment. Shown in Figure 28. Diffusers with Integrated Heat There is a wide range of available diffusers on the market that provide heating options. will force supply air down into the occupied space. Control Tip A four-pipe system may be approximated by two separate hydronic systems. Another alternative is to use a special displacement diffuser with dual faces. they can be used to compensate for the sensible cooling demand and provide excellent comfort conditions to a space. Figure 27: DLE-H Figure 28: Special Displacement Diffuser with integrated heating section J-15 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . fast moving air through the lower section in order to provide a localized mixed zone of warm air near the diffuser. Figure 26: Radiant Panel Green Tip Heating and Cooling by using water or an antifreeze mixture as the heat transport medium is much more efficient than by using air. Several of the industrial models available from Price offer a heating mode which.The convective forces from the heating element are not substantial enough to draw the supply air into the front intake opening for the heater. Contact your local Price representative for details. when supplied with warm air. Radiant Systems Utilizing radiant systems has benefits beyond supplying heat for a displacement system. radiant panels (Figure 26). Fan Coils Fan coils may be incorporated into a displacement system as an alternative heating source. Product Tip The DLE-H Displacement diffuser provides a convective heat source directly installed into the diffuser and is ideal for perimeter treatment. without mixing the occupied zone. perimeter radiation. Refer to the Radiant Products design guide for more information. including heating sections incorporated into displacement diffusers.

In a humid climate. This is an accurate analogy as most tight constructed buildings have been determined to leak around a minimum of one air changes in three hours. Figure 29A illustrates one approach for humidity control commonly known as Side-Stream Bypass. It is entirely likely that when this ventilation air is pretreated for humidity control. This moisture control of the outside air will require the outside air to be cooled to a temperature below the dewpoint. A portion of the return air is bypassed before the coil and mixed with the conditioned air to achieve proper temperature and humidity prior to delivery to the displacement diffuser. Designers typically size the cooling coils on peak sensible load (the hottest part of the weather cycle). The ASRHAE Humidity Control Design Guide for Commercial and Institutional Buildings encourages designers to think of buildings as “very leaky refrigerators” . © Copyright E.This negative pressurization can and will cause air to infiltrate through the building walls and will provide a transport of moisture from the outside if the outside environment has more moisture in the air than the interior does. Poorly constructed buildings may experience two air changes an hour. it may only be to maintain a humidity level that does not exceed the recommended upper limit of ASRHAE Standard 55. Pretreat Ventilation Air In a humid climate. This typically accounts for about 50 to 80% of the building moisture load in typical commercial buildings.The best solution to this issue is to use ducted returns. this discussion will focus on major issues and make some recommendations that will assist in building design. Only the outdoor air and a part of the return air are actually directed through the coil.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Humidity Control Humidity control is extremely important and exists in most climates. while humidity control is not always automatically included in buildings located in areas that are not considered hot and humid. the returns should be placed close to the air handling equipment. Price Limited 2007. not just the traditional hot and humid climates. the amount of leakage is directly related to how much energy must be expended to control the humidity level in the interior spaces. Unfortunately. humidity control means limiting the upper humidity level to the guidelines of ASRHAE Standard 55 in order to provide good thermal comfort. Controlling humidity means different things to different people as their personal perspectives are different. or displacement air distribution. Building Shells Are Sources of Humidity All buildings leak air through the building shell.H. This leakage is a direct transfer of moisture into or out of the interior zones and needs to be accounted for in the building moisture loads. . most buildings experience a drift of humidity levels from hour to hour. In the office environment. In this application the primary air is cooled to 55°F or less at the air handler to provide dehumidification. Conditioned air is supplied to the primary valve of the terminal via a supply duct. Controlling humidity is the most common question when discussing the concepts of underfloor air distribution. The proportion of primary and return air is controlled to maintain a supply air temperature above 63°F . the peak latent load is typically not connected to the peak sensible load. Another option for humidity control is the series type fan powered terminal (Figure 29B). not the dry bulb temperature. If humidity control is included. When an open plenum return is used in an exterior zone. the biggest source of moisture is typically the ventilation air from the outside. or more. Design Suggestions The HVAC designer is responsible for the control of humidity levels and his selection of equipment will make or break the design. Although there are many factors which will affect the control of humidity in the space. Museums often need humidity levels to be maintained in a narrow range to slow or prevent decay in artwork and historical displays. Return air is induced into the return air opening from the return air plenum. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. the HVAC designer must take care to prevent negative pressurization in the plenum space. Figure 29A: Side Stream Bypass Humidity Control Figure 29B: Series Fan Terminal DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-16 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. This means that the total load (sensible + latent) may peak when the outdoor dew point temperature is the highest. In an underfloor or displacement air distribution system that will mean the supply air temperature from the air handling equipment will be significantly lower than the recommended design supply zone air temperatures. the entire building humidity load will be controlled without any additional moisture removal. The fan terminal is used to increase the supply air temperature to an acceptable level before entering the zone. The fan delivers a constant air volume to the zone. In fact. or duct chases. The air will need to be reheated to prevent occupant dissatisfaction from the temperature of the supply air. The cooling coil is operated to produce 50-55ºF leaving air temperature for dehumidification. In an effort to minimize the ductwork in an underfloor or displacement designed building. Temperature control is automatically part of a building HVAC equipment design.

Then the compressors shut down and the moisture on the coil will re-evaporate and be added to the air. Heat Pipes – these are often used to improve the operation of desiccant or mechanical dehumidifiers. Having said that. it is often cost effective to use separate dehumidification equipment such as an active Desiccant Dehumidifier (dry wheel. The theory for enthalpy control is to use outdoor air when the total heat outdoors (the enthalpy) is lower than the total heat inside. but rely upon dry air. or a Mechanical Dehumidifier (condenser and evaporator coils in the air stream). This will raise the overall efficiency of the HVAC system and allow for more localized cooling in high sensible loadings such as call centers. • Remember to analyze the dehumidification cycle at the peak moisture removal load as well as the peak temperature point. it can typically have a smaller cooling capacity. or liquid system). ASHRAE has several recommendations for dehumidification of a building: • Dry the ventilation air first as the bulk of the moisture load in buildings is due to the ventilation air. This approach does not consider the difference in dew points between inside and outside. Load Reduction Equipment It is outside the scope of this design guide to provide design criteria for the many different types of energy recover/load reduction equipment available on the HVAC market today. the coil temperature is often raised to prevent sub-cooling the zone. Simply sizing the coil for the highest total load will not prevent this issue in latent capacity if the control is based upon only the zone dry-bulb temperature and not also the humidity level.These heat pipes are usually capable of transferring between 45 and 60% of the temperature difference between two air streams.H. When the occupants of a building are in a dry climate. a heat exchanger can be used to provide reheat to the supply air which will reduce the load on the equipment to provide the suggested supply air temperatures for underfloor and displacement air distribution. These wheels do not use heated air to remove the moisture. It is recommended that all economizer cycles are set so that the outdoor air is never used when the outdoor dewpoint is higher than the interior dew point design point. an economizer cycle is typically used. but do not always solve this issue. Price Limited 2007. Unfortunately. Control Tip When a DX system is oversized. © Copyright E. Active Desiccant Wheels – these wheels use heated air to remove the moisture from the desiccant and can deeply dehumidify the air as a result. This is a great approach for the use of fan air columns in a raised floor application. most people find the dryer and warmer combination more comfortable. RH < 45%. They are sealed tubes that contain some liquid and a gas a low pressure. Plate Heat Exchangers – hot and cold air streams are separated by thin plates and the air passes through the exchanger in an “x” or “z” pattern.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Humidity Control Direct Expansion Roof Top Units DX packaged roof top units may be used to condition raised floor cavities and displacement ventilation. Dehumidification Dehumidification is actually quite simple. • Lower the design dewpoint and raise the interior set point dry bulb temperature. the compressors will remove the cooling load with very little cycle time. If the cooling system is not required to remove latent loads. Merely place enough dry air into the building space to absorb the excess humidity. the ventilation air is still required and will also transport moisture into the zone. most are merely temperature controlled and may not prevent humidity control issues year the entire year. The net effect is a humid occupied zone. Several different systems that maybe appropriate for the building design are: Passive Desiccant Wheels – these wheels can transfer between 10 and 90% of the heat and moisture difference between two air streams. Air with a lower enthalpy from the outside may contain more moisture than is desired in the space. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Dedicated Dehumidification and Energy Recovery When the exhaust air exits the building at the same point as the supply air enters. they will have the same perceived comfort level at 78F as they would at 74F and 50% RH. Plate heat exchangers are usually able to transfer between 60 and 65% of the temperature difference between the two air streams. J-17 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . The issue is that at part-loads. Additionally. The liquid in the bottom of the tube will boil at low temperatures (cooling the air outside the tube) and drift upward where it will condense and reheat heat (heating the air outside the tube). care must be exercised to select the proper sized equipment and controls to maintain moisture removal. Economizer Cycle For “free-cooling” . the issues complicated in that many different methods exist to take the moisture out of the air and many difficulties exist in the control of this equipment. • Downsize the cooling equipment and use a dehumidifier. Interestingly. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. This means that not enough moisture will be removed by the cooling coil which will allow the humidity levels to rise in an uncontrolled manner. When moisture loads are high. However. Enthalpy control is often used.

The ARI 885-98 Standard attenuation factors used to estimate the NC values in the tabulated data for Price terminal units is based upon five feet of lined duct work. Manufacturers (including Price Industries) who participate in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI). Terminals – Discharge Sound Transmission As long as the duct downstream from the terminal is lined.03 7 Inlet Size in. 10 10 10 10 Airflow CFM 155 232 310 387 DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-18 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.06 0. may cause discomfort to the space occupants. in.wg. Fan Powered Terminals The first and most commonly considered is the sound generated by fan powered terminals. An example of diffuser noise is shown in Table 2. A copy of the ARI 880 and 885 Standards may be downloaded at no cost from www. space effect and flow division. The level of sound attenuated depends upon the ductwork configuration. if not properly accounted for and treated.7] Face Velocity FPM 20 30 40 50 Total Static Pres.01 0. Figure 30: Space Effect Factor [ASHRAE Fundamentals] 10 Space Effect Factor.org.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Acoustics Acoustics Considerations There are typically at least five primary sources of sound generation in a displacement ventilation application: fan powered terminals.ari.04 0. .02 0.02 0. the Price Quick Select program for terminals may be used with the attenuation factors shown inTables 1 and 2. dB 0 SMALL OFFICE -10 LECTURE HALL -20 AUDITORIUM -30 ARENA -40 -50 -60 1 3 10 30 100 300 1000 Distance from Source in Feet Product Tip To estimate the actual NC values present in the design space. Appendix E.wg. Table 2: Sample Performance Data for a DF3 Unit Size [Face Area. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Fan powered terminals use either a PSC (permanent split-capacitor) motor or an ECM (electronically commutated motor) to drive a blower for VAV applications. Diffusers The second most commonly considered is the sound generated by the air outlet. NC 0.H. diffusers. Interestingly. These devices typically produce low to mid frequency sound energy which. there will be some sound energy attenuation.Noise Pressure sure Criteria in. The sound energy generated by terminals may be transmitted by three transmission paths into the occupied space: discharge sound from the terminal outlet through the ductwork and out the diffuser. ft²] WxHxD 24 x 24 x 13 [7. Price Limited 2007. © Copyright E. five feet of flex duct. control valves. terminal certification program (ARI 880) are required to calculate NC (noise criteria) values using predetermined sound transmission path attenuation factors in the ARI 885-98 Standard. they are typically not at fault for any sound generation issues other than perhaps direct radiated sound transmission from a terminal or a control valve located near the diffuser inlet. air-handling equipment and structuralborne sound. and radiated sound from the terminal/induction opening (if present) directly through the ceiling or floor tile and by vibration energy from the fan/motor through the casing into the ceiling support structure or floor slab. This program uses the data in the ARI 885-98 Standard and allows the user to ‘build’ their ductwork configuration.

Catalog NC = 30 – 10 + 5 – 10*log10(1+1) Catalog NC = 22 DF1 Diffuser (48x24x13) at 295 CFM generate an NC values < 15 NC. The NC values for the diffusers are calculated using ASHRAE Standard 70. occupant distance from sound sources of 5ft and 1 diffuser. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Hz Component Description Lined Discharge Duct with flex duct (see note a) Unlined Discharge Duct with flex duct (see note b) NO flex duct – Lined Metal Duct (see note c) NO flex duct – Unlined or Solid Metal Duct (see note d) Small Terminal < 300 CFM Med. The tabulated NC values may be corrected for the type of space in your design by using the formula below and the SEF factor from Table 3. Table 3: Suggested Discharge Sound Attenuation (dB) (see ARI 885-98 Standard for basic values and methodology used). Octave Band mid Frequency. See Table 2. Note d: based on 5ft unlined duct 8 inch branch duct with 8 inch round solid metal duct (unlined).Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Acoustics Diffusers – Air Movement Generated Sound Largely due to their low pressure drop. Terminal 300 to 700 CFM Large Terminal > 700 CFM Small Terminal < 300 CFM Med. Number of supply diffusers is 1 (250 CFM) and the number of return diffusers is 1. Terminal 300 to 700 CFM Large Terminal > 700 CFM Small Terminal < 300 CFM Med. occupant distance from sound sources of 5ft and 1 diffuser. 8 inch branch duct with 5ft of flex duct.H. on the previous page. and shows the quiet nature of displacement diffuser. If you do not have a ceiling. Catalog NC = Room NC – 10 + SEF – 10*log10N Where: • Room NC is the design goal • SEF is the correction factor from Figure 1 • N is the # of outlets in the space Example: Private Office space (Design NC = 30). . 10 ft x 10 ft with 2. Terminal 300 to 700 CFM Large Terminal > 700 CFM Small Terminal < 300 CFM Med. Please consult an acoustician for assistance with this issue. Price Limited 2007. occupant distance from sound sources of 5ft and 1 diffuser. ASHRAE Standard 70 assumes that all diffusers are discharging air into a ‘typical’ space that will experience a sound absorption of 10dB in all bands. Note b: based on 5ft unlined duct. J-19 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION Note a: based on 5ft lined duct (1in liner). for NC levels associated with a DF3 displacement outlet. displacement diffusers do not typically have NC values above NC 30.5 CFM/SF (295 CFM) From Figure 1. occupant distance from sound sources of 5ft and 1 diffuser. The left column indicates the NC levels lower than 15 as ---. © Copyright E. Note c: based on 5ft lined duct (1in liner). The return grill would be selected to have an NC values of 19 or less as well. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Terminal 300 to 700 CFM Large Terminal > 700 CFM 125 24 27 29 22 25 27 18 21 23 16 19 21 24 27 29 22 25 27 18 21 23 16 19 21 250 28 29 30 22 25 27 18 19 20 12 15 17 28 29 30 22 25 27 18 19 20 12 15 17 500 39 40 41 27 30 32 21 22 23 9 12 14 39 40 41 27 30 32 21 22 23 9 12 14 1000 53 51 51 28 31 33 33 31 31 8 11 13 53 51 51 28 31 33 33 31 31 8 11 13 2000 59 53 52 30 33 35 38 32 31 9 12 14 59 53 52 30 33 35 38 32 31 9 12 14 4000 40 39 39 22 25 27 28 27 27 10 13 15 40 39 39 22 25 27 28 27 27 10 13 15 8000 28 30 32 18 21 23 21 23 25 11 14 15 28 30 32 18 21 23 21 23 25 11 14 15 Product Tip These NC calculations are based on a ceiling present. 8 inch branch duct with 8 inch round solid metal duct (unlined). 8 inch branch duct with 5ft of flex duct. you must correct for that lack of absorption. the SEF = 5.

should be used in combination with a heat recovery system. will help to save energy under partial load conditions and will help to promote stratification in the space. Designing with Packaged Rooftop Units (RTUs) Generally. if the building can support a larger DX system. For larger buildings.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Designing with AHUs and RTUs Designing with Air Handling Units When designing with Air Handling Units (AHUs). air handlers should feed each floor. Price Limited 2007. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. depending on the size or design of the building. the use of an economizer is recommended. Figure 31: Air Handling Unit (AHU) Figure 32: Variable Frequency Drives [source: Siemens Building Technologies Ltd. When climate permits. This can increase the energy efficiency of the building while still creating the appropriate thermally comfortable indoor environment. it is difficult to use packaged rooftops with a displacement ventilation system due to their intended use of delivering 55°F supply air.H. AHUs in a displacement ventilation systems must be able to supply an off-coil supply air temperature of ~65°F [18°C] in order to limit discomfort. Variable speed drives on a VAV system.] DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-20 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Figure 31. while others will require a custom package. This will almost certainly cause discomfort in the zone and. side steam by-pass or heat recovery wheels can be used to bring the air back to the correct supply air temperature. If temperature reset systems are incorporated into the system the set point can be raised during low load conditions to extend the economizer cycle. of which. some will be from offthe-shelf AHUs. © Copyright E. Where dehumidification is required. An example of this would be a building management system (BMS) in conjunction with CO2 sensors for demand control ventilation schemes of partial use spaces. Figure 32. A large DX system with multiple compressors and temperature reset capabilities can be used to produce the cooling requirements more efficiently. therefore. see the humidity control section for further information. there are several options to consider. . Demand control ventilation can be incorporated into the displacement system to help reduce the energy demand of the system in low load cases and still provide the proper space ventilation. or a range of floors.

Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Cooling and heating can be efficiently accomplished by using a radiant system in combination with a displacement ventilation system. The total load in the building remains the same. Wall conduction. described by Figure 34. Without treatment. (Figure 35D). only a portion of the loads are considered from the entire space. The reduction and calculation of these will be discussed in another section. only a portion of the load remains in the occupied zone. depends on the design of the window treatment. In this case the ventilation air only needs to satisfy ventilation rates. Price Limited 2007. Figure 33: Overhead Air Distribution Figure 34: Occupied Zone 1ft 1ft 6 ft Figure 35: External/Lighting Loads A B C D © Copyright E. The latent portion of the loads in the system need to be removed with the supply air.H.Only the radiant component of overhead lighting loads are considered because the convective loads from the lighting remains above the occupied zone by convecting directly to the upper zone.The sensible load needs to be removed by either cool supply air or by radiant cooling. Shades at windows will reduce the amount of energy transferred to the space as the shades will absorb and reflect the energy. In the case of conduction and lighting loads. the amount heating however. as shown in Figure 35a. Some of the energy will become a convective energy gain outside of the occupied zone (Figure 35B). will contribute a predicable amount of the heat to the occupied zone. shown in Figure 35c. and Overhead Lighting Solar energy gain in the space is both radiant and convective. needs to be conditioned to meet comfort conditions.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Loading Within the Space Cooling Requirements A traditional mixing system conditions the whole space to be an even temperature. and not cooling loads. J-21 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . With displacement ventilation only the occupied zone.The system then has be designed to cool the entire volume of the space (Figure 33). the majority of this load falls on the floor. even if the space set point is constant. for example. but when calculating the effect the loads have on the occupied space. Conduction. Solar. Radiant Effects The local surface temperature of objects within a space will cause occupants to either feel cooler or warmer. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.

humid air generated by certain equipment. The factor applied to the total sensible heat gain to the space from occupants is shown in the calculation section of this design guide. As a result only a portion of the sensible heat load need to be accounted for in a displacement ventilation system. even without supply air. DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Figure 36: Radiant and Convective Portions of Heat Sources Convection Radiation Figure 37: Thermal Plume J-22 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. ASHRAE 2005 Fundamentals Chapter 8. radiation and evaporation. ASHRAE 2005 Fundamentals Chapter 30.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Loading Within the Space People and Equipment Loads People and equipment transfer heat to their surroundings by four heat transport methods: conduction. When using displacement ventilation for cooling. . Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations. as either sensible or latent loads. Nonresidential Cooling. © Copyright E. The rate at which occupant heat is generated is dependent on several factors: • clothing levels • metabolic rate • environmental conditions • activity level. Latent Heat Unlike the sensible load. Each of which contribute to the heat gain of the space at different rates. with some radiating to the floor. convection. give general heat load generated by people and equipment in various states of activities for both sensible and latent components.H. all of the latent load generated by people and equipment need to be accounted for in the air volume calculation. and warm moist air exhaled by occupants all contribute to the space latent load. Price Limited 2007. Thermal Comfort. Convective and radiative heat transfer from a person are sensible heat gain to the space (Figure 36). Evaporation from occupants. demonstrates the calculations for sensible heat generation from people. People produce a convective heat plume from their bodies as they warm surrounding air as seen in Figure 37. and ceilings. only this portion is considered when sizing the air volume and supply air temperature. etc. Chapter 30. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. A portion of conductive/convective heat naturally transfers to the upper zone. while evaporative heat transfer are latent heat gains. walls. and Heating Load Calculations. Control of the latent portion of the heat generated in the space is critical to controlling the relative humidity of the space. For further information on latent heat calculations see ASHRAE 2005 Fundamentals. Sensible Heat The sensible heat gain to the occupied zone is only a portion of the total sensible load emitted from the occupants. The radiation generated by the occupant is emitted to the space in all directions.

J-23 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. In some cases the diffusers are custom fabricated to meet an area’s unique architectural design. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. One version of the rectangular units is designed to be integrated into the wall (Figure 40). These enclosure are suited for perimeter locations.H. These units can be mounted in a stair riser. The three-way diffuser has a higher air volume capacity than the one-way. and are supplied with a field fabricated plenum shown in Figure 41. Displacement Linear Enclosure Linear enclosure can act as both a supply diffuser and as a heating source. a one-way pattern is produced as seen in Figure 38. Corner Units Corner units are specifically designed to fit into a 90° corner in a room. Rectangular Units Rectangular units are typically placed against a wall or partition. Another version of a rectangular unit has no plenum or inlet and is designed for plenum feed applications. 2. etc. If only the face of the unit is active. If both the face and sides are active. Price Limited 2007. wall. cabinet. 3. a three-way pattern results (Figure 39). Flat or circular faces are available depending on the desired look. although bottom or rear inlets are available. Supply inlets can be located at the top or bottom of the unit. Diffuser inlets are usually at the top of the unit. Figure 38: One-Way Diffuser Figure 39: Three-Way Diffuser Figure 40: Wall Mounted Figure 41: Recessed Diffuser Figure 42: Corner Diffuser Figure 43: Displacement Linear Enclosure © Copyright E.These diffusers are ideal for applications where wall space may be limited as corners are available for use.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Diffuser Type A wide variety of displacement air diffuser types are available to suit the location restrictions and décor of a particular room or space. A 90° radial pattern is produced by corner units (Figure 42). Some common displacement diffuser types are described as follows: 1. A narrow plenum and rectangular inlet are characteristic of this design. As a heating source they are designed so that the heating element does not interfere with the air temperature or air flow patterns (Figure 43).

6. Circular Units Circular units can supply high volumes of air to a space because the air is distributed in a complete 360° radial pattern (Figure 45). © Copyright E. . walkways. The Price industrial flat diffuser is intended to be placed on the industrial floor space and provide supply air. The supply inlet can be located at the top or bottom of the units. Price Limited 2007. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. The floor mounted grilles can provide a linear pattern from the grille face.H. Floor Mounted Units Displacement diffusers are available for integration with a raised floor distribution system. etc. Industrial Diffusers For the industrial environment diffusers need to be able to withstand impact from moving equipment. Figure 44: Semi Circular Diffuser Figure 45: Circular Diffuser Figure 46: Round Floor Grille Figure 47: Linear Floor Grille Figure 48: Industrial Diffuser DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-24 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. 7.The robust design allows this diffuser to withstand the impact forces common to the industrial sector. lounges. The round floor displacement unit produces a low velocity radial pattern across the floor as seen in Figure 46. lobbies.The Krantz line of industrial diffusers are designed to be mounted above the occupied zone. Semi-circular Units Shown in Figure 44 Semi-circular units are typically placed against a wall or pillar. Supply inlets can be located at the top. Circular units are typically placed free-standing in large interior spaces such as halls. bottom or rear of the unit. or able to be mounted above the working space and designed to supply air deep into the space (Figure 48). 5. and have integrated heating and cooling supply air modes. Displacement floor grilles can also be fan assisted (Figure 47) when additional air volumes are required and a fan terminal is not economical. A 180° radial pattern is produced.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Diffuser Type 4.

place more of the diffusers at the upper level of the space. it is important to locate these above aisle ways or along perimeters. Regarding return air outlets. Product Tip To conceal ductwork from the ceiling to a floor mounted diffuser. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. or ramp. Perforated covers may require the ductwork to be painted to conceal it completely. in the ceiling or at an elevated location. The cool air will want to flow down to the lower. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. When mounting displacement diffuser. Figure 50A: Long Rooms Figure 50B: Large Open Rooms Figure 49: Wide Rooms 30 ft 15 ft Figure 51: Distance from Diffusers © Copyright E. a duct cover may be used. •  Rectangular or semi-circular units are often located on walls opposite to the exterior windows and walls. When ducting from below a diffuser it is important to supply the diffuser with a base for easy connection to the diffuser. consider several diffusers along the wall per Figure 50A. consider mounting the diffuser on two opposite walls as seen in Figure 49 . ensure that the cover will properly conceal the ductwork. J-25 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . In installations where the ductwork is supplied from above the diffuser and needs to be hidden. Locating the return air outlets above strong heat sources such as windows will ensure the efficient removal of the heat and contaminants generated by the thermal plume. •  For large rooms wider than 30 feet. When supplying displacement air to a room with a sloped floor. it is essential that they be placed at high levels either on the wall or in the ceiling. Locating the diffusers along perimeters will help to reduce the heat gain and entrainment of pollutants as the air passes down through the stratified layers. •  For rooms longer than 15 feet. due to the weight of the outlets. •  Place more diffusers in areas which have a higher cooling load.These covers are designed to match the look of the diffuser for a consistent architectural finish. displacement outlets can be mounted in numerous locations and configurations. round or rectangular diffusers can be placed in the mid of the space (Figure 50B). •  Place diffusers no closer than 2 feet from occupants as shown in Figure 51.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Diffuser Layout and Location Due to the variety of diffuser types available.H. The same model types for mixing systems would apply to displacement systems. •  For large open spaces. The following are some general recommendations for supply diffusers. • Avoid placing large obstacles near the diffuser face. Price Limited 2007. Placing a diffuser directly over an occupant will lead to occupant discomfort. When mounting displacement diffusers along the walls it is important to provide support.

in a ducted configuration. bottom. Allow for a base where possible. return air temperature. Diffusers can be connected from the top. Mounting flanges are provided for a tamper proof installation as shown in Figure 55. the DLE/DLE-H and the ARFHD all require pressurized plenums. This will make the diffuser easier to install in the field. see the Calculation section for full equations. Installation Generally floor mounted diffusers are provided with wall mounting strips. Product Tip The DF1R. Figure 52: Ducted Connection Figure 53: Pressurized Plenum Component Selection and Installation Component Selection Displacement diffusers designed for the commercial sector have a recommended maximum face velocity of 40 feet per minute to ensure comfort in the space. The type of diffuser is typically selected to match architecture or other space constraints. H Distance X X From Floor to Screw Location Figure 54: Typical Wall Mounting Mounting Plate DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Figure 55: DF1R Installation J-26 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. ensure that the plenum is properly sealed . special designs may be required to accommodate the balancing of the diffuser. See the DiffuserType section for summary descriptions of the diffusers offered by Price.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide DV Supply AIr Methods Ducted Connection The most common method to supply air to a displacement diffuser is via a ducted connection.H. Price Limited 2007. For further information on pressurized plenum designs see the UFAD design guide. The air volume. the DR360 is provided with a floor mounting ring. (Figure 54) The DF1W installs into a engineered ducted plenum. Balancing dampers required for diffusers should be mounted at least 3 duct diameters away from the inlet connection on the diffuser. The DF1R displacement diffuser is designed to fit into a pressurized plenum. and supply air temperature are calculated values based on the room dynamics. they do not come standard with ducted connections. provided with the diffuser. Advantages of using a pressurized plenum are reduced ductwork easier balancing and quicker installation. Product Tip When selecting a bottom duct diffuser and a balancing damper is required. In transitional spaces such as lobbies. Pressurized Plenum: When utilizing a pressurized plenum with a displacement diffuser. Product Tip When selecting a bottom duct diffuser ensure that the diffuser has a base if the product is floor mounted. 50 feet per minute face velocities are acceptable. © Copyright E. . and sides depending on the function and design of the diffuser.

The supply air temperature is calculated from: Where the temperature difference between head and foot is given by: and: Using αr and αcf = 0. In determining the air volume requirements for an all air displacement ventilation system the ASHRAE Design Guide has developed a procedure to calculate the cooling supply flow rate. • H is the height of the ceiling (ft). Such that. • Overhead lighting. the total cooling load is: Qt = Qoe + Ql + Qex Load factors for the above catagories have been determined by ASHRAE research project RP-949. • ΔThf is the temperature difference from heat to foot level (°F). desk lamps and equipment. • Te is the exhaust air temperature (°F) © Copyright E.1 for recognized values of ventilation effectiveness. • The heat conduction through the room envelope and transmitted solar radiation. Determination of the ventilation rate: • Cp is the specific heat of the air at constant pressure (BTU/lb•°F). Qex (Btu/h). or may have stricter requirements.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Air Volume Calculations Cooling Flow Rate Due to the higher supply air temperatures inherent with displacement ventilation.132 Less than 15% of the total lighting load is radiated to the occupied space. Based on the coefficients above. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. each heat source will have a different effect upon the loads in the space.295 Approximately 1/3 of this cooling load enters the space between foot and head level. • Vf is the required fresh air rate for displacement ventilation (CFM). aex = 0. since a proportion of the heat sources in a room are exhausted directly without impacting the occupied space.H. Qoe (Btu/h). we can include a load factor for their contribution to the total space load.Typical Heat sources have both radiant and convective components so it is important to assign loads to the occupied zone and the upper zone. Ql (Btu/h). Price Limited 2007. • η is the ventilation effectiveness of the space. Figure 56: Cooling Loads Conduction and Solar Overhead Lighting Occupant and Equipement Actual zone air flow rate is the maximum of the cooling air flow and the ventilation rate. depending on the load type. Vr is determined from ASHRAE Standard 62-2004 based on room application. However. taking into account the stratified loads. Since some heat sources are above the occupied zone. • Θf is a dimensionless temperature. desk lamps and equipment.95 BTU/h*ft²*°F from ASHRAE fundamentals. • Vr is the flow required for acceptable indoor air quality (CFM). Refer to ASHRAE Standard 62. Loads can be divided into the following three catagories: • The occupants.185 More than 80% of the external loads enter the upper space via the thermal plume and radiation. • Occupants. The other 2/3 enters the upper space via the thermal plume and radiation. Determination of the required air flow rate for summer cooling: • ρ is the air density (lb/ft³). • The overhead lighting. depending on room layout and space type (Figure 56). • A is the area of the space (ft²). • Heat conduction and solar radiation. al = 0. aoe = 0. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Local codes may not allow the discount for the ventilation effectiveness. it is often assumed that the cooling supply air flow rate will be significantly greater when compared to a traditional overhead mixing system. • Ts is the supply air temperature (°F). The exhaust air temperature can be calculated from: J-27 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION Where: . displacement ventilation flow rates can be equal or even lower than mixing systems. Due to stratification. the ASHRAE Design Guide lists the following equations for determining summer cooling flow rates for a typical office space.

Step 1: Determine the Summer Cooling Load Use a cooling load program or the ASHRAE manual method to determine the design cooling load of the space in the summer.075 lb/ft² and Cp = 0. but at least one or two of the following values must be predetermined.076 Qoe + 0.048 Qex Step 7: Selection of Diffusers The goal is to maximize comfort in the space and minimize the quantity of diffusers.076 Qoe + 0. vertical temperature gradient in the space in the computer simulation as the room air temperature is not uniform with displacement ventilation. From standard 62-2004: Equation 6-1 is used to determines the Breathing Zone Outdoor Air Flow Vbz and Equation 6-2 Is used to determine the Zone Outdoor Air Flow Voz where Ez = 1.24 BTU/lb*°F . These calculations are only for determining the airflow requirements to maintain the set point in the space. but this value may increase or decrease depending on the space and comfort requirements. a computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) of large spaces is recommended to optimize the air supply volume. these formulae can be used in various combinations. assume a 1°F/ft. using standard air. ρ = 0. If possible.33V 2 + 1. desk lamps and equipment. A full calculation is possible using the above ASHRAE formulae. Vh The flow rate required for summer cooling.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Displacement Ventilation Air Volume Calculations Depending on the application.2 . The procedures presented are based on the findings of ASHRAE Research Project RP-949 and the procedure outlined in the ASHRAE Design Guide. Step 5: Determine Supply Air Temperature The supply air temperature can be determined from the ASHRAE Design Guide equations and simplified to: Step 2: Determine the Cooling Load Ventilation Flow Rate. Itemize the cooling load into the following categories: • The occupants. we can reduce the equations to the following: Vh = 0. Only the sensible loads should be used for the preceding calculations. Qex (Btu/h). but this value can change if the occupants are not seated. standards. Step 4: Determine Supply Air Flow Rate Choose the greater of the required flow rate for summer cooling and the required ventilation rate as the design flow rate of the supply air. please refer to the ASHRAE Design Guide.H. .6 A• Qt 2. V.The design procedure applies to typical North American office spaces and classrooms. Price Limited 2007. © Copyright E. A CFD simulation can validate the design and is recommended for larger spaces.048 Qex 3. the total building load remains the same as with a mixing system. Qoe (Btu/h) • The overhead lighting. is: Step 6: Determine Exhaust Air Temperature The exhaust air temperature can be determined by the following method: Vh = 0. At a maximum. or Ts. Standard air has a density. These procedures should be used with care when applied to large spaces such as theaters or atria. J-28 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. ASHRAE suggests a 40 fpm face velocity. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.6 for people in a seated position as per ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Step 3: Determine Flow Rate of Fresh Air Standard 62-2004 Ventilation Rate Procedure includes default values for ventilation effectiveness. Using these values.034 Ql + 0. For a complete explanation and derivation of the assumptions and equations used to develop this procedure. Ql (Btu/h) • The heat conduction through the room envelope and transmitted solar radiation. contact your local Price representative about CFD modeling. or experience: n. usually set by codes. Typically we suggest using ΔThf=3.2 for displacement ventilation per Table 6. Tsp.8 A•V Design Procedure The following step by step design procedure is offered as a simplified approach to determine ventilation rate and supply air temperature for typical displacement ventilation applications. ΔThf.034 Ql + 0.

H. J-29 . and 5 CFM/Person outdoor airflow rate required per person.6F . the stratification for a sedentary seated person according to ASHRAE 55 is 3. the occupants tend to be in a seated position. and from 13:00 to 17:00. and has a control temperature of 72°F .31 BTU/h/ft². ASHRAE standard 55-2004 stipulates the maximum combination of velocity and temperature in the occupied zone.The space is designed for 2 occupants. Price Limited 2007.2 (table 6-2. In an office. a computer with LCD monitor. and approximately 17. For displacement ventilation a ventilation effectiveness. ASHRAE Standard 62-2004). Occupants Set Point Floor Area Exterior Wall Area Volume Qoe Ql Qex QT 2 72 °F 120 ft² 90 ft² 1080 ft³ 1012 BTU/h 819 BTU/h 450 BTU/h 2281 BTU/h The loads are broken down as follows: Qoe = (2 People X 250 BTU/h) + 308 BTU/h = 808 BTU/h Ql = 120 ft² X 6. as well as the stratification in the space. The office is a north facing room. used primarily during the hours from 8:00 to 12:00. The assumptions made for the space are as follows: • Load per person is 250 BTU/h • Lighting load in the space is 6. As previously discussed. DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION © Copyright E. The room is 10 ft wide. PPD due to draft. or zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez).82 BTU/h/ft² • Computer load is 308 BTU/h (CPU and LCD Monitor) • Conduction through the window and wall is 5 BTU/h/ft² • The specific heat and density of the air or this example will be 0.82 BTU/h/ft² = 819 BTU/h Qex = 90 ft² X 5 BTU/h/ft² = 450 BTU/h QT = 2077 BTU/h Total cooling load for this space (QT) is 2077 BTU/h. 12 ft long. Ra.06 CFM/ft² outdoor airflow rate required per unit area. ASHRAE Standard 62-2004 requires 0.T8 florescent lighting. This example examines a small office in this space. assumed to be 1. Space Considerations One of the primary considerations when using a DV system is comfort.24 BTU/lb°F and 0. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. The owner expressed interest in supplying the office spaces with wall mounted displacement diffusers or corner displacement diffuser as space is limited.075 lb/ft³ respectively.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Small Office Example Space Design The owner of an office building is renovating and would like to consider using displacement ventilation in the office areas. Rp. and 9 ft from floor to ceiling. be delivered to the space for moderately active office work applications. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.

or may have stricter requirements. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.H. Calculate the Supply Air Temperature Determine the Return Air Temperature DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-30 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. and they should be used instead of this calculation. Price Limited 2007. The total supply air volume for cooling is then the maximum value between Vh and Vr. Example: Title 24 in California.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Small Office Example Determine the Airflow Rate to meet the Cooling Load Determine the Fresh Air Flow Rate and Breathing Zone Ventilation Effectiveness Note: Some local codes may not allow the discount for VE. . © Copyright E.

Figures 58 and 59 depict the velocity profiles. slow moving air is visible throughout the space. again ensure that sedentary occupants will be at least 2 feet from the diffuser.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Small Office Example Selection of Diffusers For this application we are limited to wall mounted or corner diffusers at the request of the owner. and draft temperatures in the space. The seated occupant is experiencing ambient air temperatures from 69º to 72º F . Traditional displacement diffusers are limited to 40 fpm face velocity in standard commercial applications in order to meet comfort criteria. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. From the velocity profile images. Figure 57 shows the temperature profiles across the space.H. With a supply air rate of 111 CFM and a face velocity of 40 fpm. air movement. The images also show the plumes off of the occupants and computer as well as the general shape of the air pattern leaving the diffuser.94 ft². 2. J-31 . A DR90 unit with an 18” diameter and 30” tall will provide a face area of 2. and the standing occupant 69º to 75º F . Layout of the Office The corner diffusers could be placed in any of the corners to supply this room. and reiterates that occupants need to be located at an appropriate distance from the diffuser. The DF1W produces the predicted temperature stratification in the space. calculated airflow and supply air temperature for the small office with the DF1W to give a visual representation of the temperature distribution. is indicated in green. For the DF1W. Both are within the thermal stratification comfort conditions set by ASHRAE. Figure 60 shows the predicted draft temperature for the space. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. The wall diffusers can be placed on any of the walls in the room. DF1R or DF1C a 24”x18”diffuser will provide a face area of 3 ft².78 ft² of diffuser face area is required. as long as the occupant is not within 2 feet of the diffuser face. Figure 57: DF1W Temperature Profile Figure 58: DF1W Velocity Profile Figure 59: DF1W Velocity Profile Figure 60: DF1W Draft Temperature DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION © Copyright E. The DF1W diffuser seems to produce a thermally comfortable environment. Also visible are the heat plumes off of the occupants and computer. The range in which people will feel the most comfortable. Flow Visualization A CFD analysis was run for this example using the conditions. Price Limited 2007.

26 BTU/h/ft². or zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez).24 BTU/lb°F and 0. ASHRAE Standard 62-2004 requires 0. 8 72 °F 336 ft² 3360 ft³ 2496 BTU/h 2294 BTU/h 0 BTU/h 4790 BTU/h DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-32 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Ra.075 lb/ft³ respectively. a projector. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Price Limited 2007. For displacement ventilation a ventilation effectiveness. The owner and architect want the displacement diffusers in the space to fit seamlessly into the room. and approximately 14. and 5 CFM/Person outdoor airflow rate required per person. and has a control temperature of 72°F . is assumed to be 1. This example examines a private boardroom that is located in the center of the building without any exterior surfaces.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Boardroom Example Space Design The owner of a new office building wants to use a displacement ventilation system for all occupied spaces.2 (table 6-2. © Copyright E. . Rp. T8 florescent lighting.H.82 BTU/h/ft² • Computer and LCD load is 308 BTU/h • Projector load is 188 BTU/h • The specific heat and density of the air or this example will be 0. • Some of the assumptions made for the space are as follows: • Load per person is 250 BTU/h • Lighting load in the space is 6.82 BTU/h/ft² = 2294 BTU/h Qex = 0 BTU/h QT = 4790 BTU/h Total cooling load for this space (QT) is 4790 BTU/h. be delivered to the space for moderately active office work applications. and 10 ft from floor to ceiling. There is a large white board at the west end of the room and cabinets along the south and east end of the room. The space is designed for 8 occupants. ASHRAE standard 62-2004). 14 ft long. a computer with LCD monitor. Space Considerations • The head to foot gradient recommended by ASHRAE is 3. The room is 24 ft wide.06 CFM/ft² outdoor airflow rate required per unit area.6°F from head to foot for seated occupants. Occupants Set Point Floor Area Volume Qoe Ql Qex QT The loads are broken down as follows: Qoe = (8 People X 250 BTU/h) + 308 BTU/h + 188 BTU/h = 2496 BTU/h Ql = 336 ft² X 6.

The total supply air volume is then the maximum value between Vh and Vr.H.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Boardroom Example Determine the Airflow Rate to meet the Cooling Load Determine the Fresh Air Flow Rate and Breathing Zone Ventilation Effectiveness Note: Some local codes may not allow the discount for VE. Example: Title 24 in California. or may have stricter requirements. Calculate the Supply Air Temperature Determine the Return Air Temperature © Copyright E. J-33 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Price Limited 2007. and they should be used instead of this calculation. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.

Quiet operation 2.68 ft² would be required.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide Boardroom Example Selection of Diffusers For this application we have three goals set by the owner: 1. Price recommends limiting the duct velocity to 1200 fpm. At 126 CFM a diffuser face area of 6. or as part of the furniture. Again. Also visible are the heat plumes off of the occupants and computer. but they must ensure that sedentary occupants will be located at least 2 feet from the diffuser. mount them in the wall. Both are within the thermal stratification comfort conditions set by ASHRAE. To make these diffusers as unobtrusive as possible there a two options. to minimize noise from ductwork. The diffusers can be placed on any of the walls in the room. Figure 61: DF1R Temperature Profile Figure 62: DF1R Velocity Profile DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Figure 63: DF1R Draft Profile J-34 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Figures 62 depict the velocity profile. Figure 61 shows the temperature profiles across the space and a reasonable temperature stratification is predicted.H. and draft temperatures in the space. Figure 63 depicts the draft temperature for the space. © Copyright E. calculated airflow and supply air temperature for the small office with the DF1W to give a visual representation of the temperature distribution. air movement. Diffusers must be hidden Inherently. Flow Visualization A CFD analysis was run for this example using the conditions. displacement ventilation diffusers are quiet. The seated occupant is experiencing ambient air temperatures from 69º to 72º F . Two diffusers at 60”x8” will be able to meet the 40 fpm requirement. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. and the standing occupant 69º to 75º F . the range in which people will feel the most comfortable is indicated in green. For thermal comfort a face velocity of 40 fpm is required. . The DF1R diffusers produce a thermally comfortable space. Price Limited 2007. Thermal comfort to the space 3. The images show the plumes off of the occupants and computer as well as the general shape of the air pattern leaving the diffuser and slowly entering the zone. or in the wall under the whiteboard in a pressurized plenum. but care has to be taken to limit the sound generated from the HVAC air supply. the DF1R displacement diffuser could be installed at the base of the cabinets. Layout of the Boardroom For a concealed look.

SECTION J: DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION SPECIAL APPLICATION SUPPLEMENTAL Machine Shops Schools Hospitals w w w. p r i c e . c o m .h v a c .

it is advantageous to mount displacement diffusers beside permanent fixtures such as roof supports and off of the floor in order to facilitate reconfiguration and to protect the diffusers from damage from forklifts. The low level exhaust will serve as an outlet for these gasses.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Industrial Displacement Ventilation Industrial Applications Displacement Ventilation is ideally suited for the industrial sector. Diffuser Selection Unlike commercial displacement ventilation diffusers. some paint VOCs. where the supply diffusers are typically supplying at a low level and returns are located high within the space. Price Limited 2007. © Copyright E. as the goal is to provide fresh air evenly throughout the space. Adjacent zones should not overlap. Diffuser Location In most industrial applications. As the environment evolves. In fact. such as carbon monoxide (CO). there is the possibility that these pollutants can collect in the lower portion of a space (Figure 64). and should come as close to each other as possible. The diffusers are not limited by the 40 fpm face velocity. It is recommended that diffusers supply ventilation from above the occupant and exhaust is located at a low level. Weight of Pollutants In industrial environments with pollutants that are lighter than air. For environments with pollutants that are heavier than air. equipment. diffuser placement is critical in an effort to reduce short circuiting. the industrial diffuser is selected based on adjacent zone. Figure 65 shows a layout for an automotive garage. When a low level return is used. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. With this in mind. depending on the diffusers functionality. there is often the need to reconfigure the space. The increased ventilation effectiveness and inherent pollution control of displacement ventilation ensures a clean breathing zone for occupants. and have a wide range. the same principles apply as in the commercial application of displacement ventilation. Ozone (03). . the floor plan is set up with a certain degree of flexibility. there are outlets at a high level as is typical of displacement ventilation but there is also an outlet near the floor level to exhaust any fumes being stored.The object is to provide as much quality air to the occupants and ensure stratification . The displacement diffuser should be mounted above the occupied zone so that supply air has a chance to travel through the breathing zone and the occupied zone and carries with it some pollutants. DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Figure 64: Heavy Pollutant Concentration Figure 65: Pollutant Extraction J-36 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. An automotive garage may have fumes from exhaust which linger due to their density.H. In this example. modern displacement ventilation was first used in factories of Europe. while still ensuring a comfortable space. and materials moving throughout the facility.

2 (table 6-2.86 BTU/h/ft².24 BTU/lb°F and 0. The owner doesn’t want any of the diffusers to take up floor space. and 10 CFM/Person outdoor airflow rate required per person. For displacement ventilation a ventilation effectiveness. 40 machines. 90 ft long. ASHRAE Standard 62-2004 requires 0. Ra. with the assumptions made for the space are as follows: • Load per person is 375 BTU/h • Lighting load in the space is 10. Price Limited 2007. assumed to be 1. or zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez).045 BTU/h/ft²•°F X 18°F) + (7920 ft² X . To provide good internal air quality and save on energy the owner wants to supply air in the shop with displacement ventilation. This example examines the shop floor in this space.031 BTU/h/ ft²•°F X 18°F) = 6582 BTU/h QT = 355306 BTU/h Total cooling load for this space (QT) is 355306 BTU/h. Occupants Set Point Floor Area Exterior Wall Area Volume Qoe Ql Qex QT 35 75 °F 7920 ft² 2670 ft² 118800 ft³ 314591 BTU/h 81053 BTU/h 6582 BTU/h 402226 BTU/h The loads are broken down as follows: Qoe = (35 People X 375 BTU/h) + (33880 + 64390 + 31050 + 38180 + 30436 + 56610) BTU/h = 267671 BTU/h Ql = 7920 ft² X 10.234 BTU/h/ft² = 81053 BTU/h DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION Qex = (2670 ft² X . All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. ASHRAE standard 62-2004). 15 ft from floor to ceiling. The space is 88 ft wide.234 BTU/h/ft² • Machine load is: • 6 x 5-axis CNC’s at 9435 BTU/h each • 4 x Horizontal turning mill’s at 7609 BTU/h each • 5 x Vertical mill’s at 7636 BTU/h each • 5 x Lathe at 6210 BTU/h each • 10 x Drill at 6439 BTU/h each • 10 x Saw at 3388 BTU/h each • The “U” values for the wall is .18 CFM/ft² outdoor airflow rate required per unit area. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. and wants the diffusers to operate in both heating and cooling modes. be delivered to the space machine shop applications.H. Rp. Mercury Vapor Light Fixtures. © Copyright E. J-37 . Space Considerations In this machine shop.031 BTU/h/ft²•°F • The specific heat and density of the air or this example will be 0. and has a control temperature of 75°F . and approximately 44.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Machine Shop Example Space Design A machine shop owner has outgrown his existing operations and is renovating an older building. The shop floor is designed for 35 occupants.045 BTU/h/ft²•°F . but will allow diffusers to be placed on columns. and for the roof is . pollutants generated in the space are lighter than air.075 lb/ft³ respectively. so the exhausts need to be located high in the space and the diffusers in or near the occupied zone.

and they should be used instead of this calculation. Price Limited 2007. Example: Title 24 in California.H. or may have stricter requirements. . © Copyright E.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Machine Shop Example Determine the Airflow Rate to meet the Cooling Load Determine the Fresh Air Flow Rate and Breathing Zone Ventilation Effectiveness Note: Some local codes may not allow the discount for VE. The total supply air volume for cooling is then the maximum value between Vh and Vr. Calculate the Supply Air Temperature Determine the Return Air Temperature DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-38 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.

068 0.441 0.281 0. For the 14025 CFM the space requires a total of 12 diffusers.214 0.156 0.171 0. controlled though the BMS or by Bowden cable.214 0. the Bowden cable should be mounted in close proximity to the diffuser and needs to be accessible to the occupants. so an appropriate adjacent zone must be selected.115 0.480 0.339 Static Pressure in WG 0.H.370 0.350 0.496 0.7 ft2] 25 [20. diffusers are placed on the columns.6 ft2] Placed 3 m above ground: Heating Unit Size (Face Area) Face Vel fpm 50 75 100 125 75 100 125 150 100 125 150 175 Airflow cfm 580 870 1160 1450 1103 1470 1838 2205 2060 2575 3090 3605 Total Pressure in WG 0. Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 Note 1 10 [6.330 0.269 SPL dBA 36 45 52 59 47 53 58 62 47 52 56 60 Adjacent Zone (Heating) ∆T = 5°F ft. Price Limited 2007. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.882 0.112 0.198 0.249 0.386 0. .171 0.050 0.269 0.445 0. the face velocity is not limited to the 40 fpm face velocity.6 ft2] In this example.683 0.156 0.339 0.6 ft2] 18 [14.138 0. each with a supply air volume rate of 1169 CFM. To provide the proper floor coverage an adjacent zone of 20 feet is selected.6 ft2] 18 [14. <6 21 26 37 19 31 36 42 24 29 36 41 14 [11. The 14” diameter diffuser provides the 20 feet adjacent zone for the smallest pressure drop and noise level at 1165 CFM.262 0.174 0.445 0. For the diffusers with heat/ cool changeover.214 0. Under normal circumstances a max supply air penetration of 32 ft with 10 inch unit and 82 ft with 25 inch unit. returns should be located as high as possible in the space.164 0. to keep the floor area clear. The maximum supply air penetration depth for floor mounted diffusers when cooling largely depends on the number and intensity of the heat sources. it can be mounted above the occupied zone and along columns. As with commercial applications. Placed 3 m above ground: Cooling Unit Size (Face Area) Face Vel fpm 75 100 125 150 75 100 125 150 100 125 150 175 150 175 200 225 Airflow cfm 488 650 813 975 870 1160 1450 1740 1470 1838 2205 2573 3090 3605 4120 4635 Total Pressure in WG 0. 16 28 32 45 27 38 45 52 32 37 42 47 ∆T = 10°F ft.7 ft2] 25 [20. Heat cool changeover may be accomplished by an actuator.249 0.089 0. Layout of the Shop The diffusers should be mounted on columns evenly throughout the space about 9 feet above floor level. For further instructions on heating mode operation see the industrial diffusers section of this design guide.370 0. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.208 0.628 0.262 0.467 0.123 0.099 0. J-39 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION Performance Notes: 1. Unlike the commercial applications.329 0.557 Static Pressure in WG 0.608 0.470 0.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Machine Shop Example Selection of Diffusers The DR360i-HC will be the best choice for this space.The entire floor surface must be serviced by the diffusers.115 0.198 0.330 0.329 0. © Copyright E.442 SPL dBA 48 56 62 67 45 52 59 64 53 58 62 66 56 60 64 67 Adjacent Zone (Cooling) ∆T = 18°F ft.645 0.467 0. as it can perform the heating and cooling.208 0.297 0.5 ft2] 14 [11.281 0.

Price Limited 2007. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. . the space doesn’t show jets or major movements of air. A CFD analysis was run for this example using the conditions and calculated airflow and supply air temperature. © Copyright E. With the temperatures and velocities in the space. Figure 66 and 67 show the temperature profiles throughout the space. Figure 68 shows the temperature surface of 74 colored for velocity. sizes and quantities are reasonably selected and help ensure that the space is optimized for energy performance and thermal comfort. there are not any areas within the occupied zone where the draft temperature is excessive.H. Figure 67: Temperature Profile Figure 68: Diffuser Airflow Pattern Figure 66: Temperature Profile Figure 69: Velocity Profile Figure 70: Draft Temperature Profile DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-40 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. The space is stratified and the design set point of 74 was met. Figure 69 shows the velocity profile of the space. A CFD simulation can ensure that the outlet locations. Figure 70 shows the draft temperature.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Machine Shop Example Flow Visualization Airflow in the machine shop can be visualized through a CFD simulation or physical mock-up. to show how the air is delivered from the diffusers to the occupied zone.

the natural thermal plumes of each occupant drive the movement of air.6% Asthma 21. there is an increased demand to construct schools that are more resource efficient. The CHPS program is a self-certification and recognition program designed to “facilitate the design of high performance schools: environments that are not only energy efficient. In a displacement ventilation system. which will lead to lower energy consumption for the building during operation. cool air at the lower portions and warm. Green Tip Using displacement ventilation for schools is a great way to increase the ventilation effectiveness in a classroom. This leads to the high indoor air quality. several studies have been conducted and organizations formed to meet the need for information and establish baselines. comfortable. J-41 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION 100% . Figures 72 and 73 show these reductions by increasing the ventilation rate and applying pollutant source controls.0% Resipatory Drinka et al 1996 Jaakkda Brundage Bourbeau Fisk & et al & et al Rosendfeld 1985 1997 Miettinen 1995 1995 Sundell 1996 Fisk & Rosenfeld 1995 Figure 73: Pollutant Source Controls % Improvement / Reduction in Symptoms 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 85. As well. well let. sustainable. and have improved learning and health benefits. this report collected the findings of various researchers demonstrating the reduction in transmission of airborne illnesses. CHPS credit EQ2. Allergies 47.1:Thermal DisplacementVentilation gives two credit points for the use of displacement ventilation in the building. As this demand increased. In certain markets. The major benefits are: • Longer “Free Cooling” periods due of higher supply air temperatures • Lower System Pressure Requirements • Higher indoor air quality • Improved thermal comfort • Low noise generation from diffusers These benefits correlate to the cost of running a building as well as the health and well being of the occupants.4% Asthma. but also healthy.0% SBS 23. leading to a lower operating equipment cost of the building.These benefits have been translated into cost savings. Figure 71: Airflow Pattern with Displacement Ventilation Table 4: Applicability of Displacement Ventilation Applicable Spaces Classrooms Library Multi-Purpose/ Cafeteria Gym Corridors Administration Toilets Other Climates South Coast North Coast Central Valley Mountains Desert When to Consider DV Programming Schematic Design Development Contract Docs.Because this air has not been mixed with room air the air moving up the occupant is cool and unpolluted.0% SBS 46.0% Resipatory 35. Furthermore.6% SBS 33. as the occupants thermal plumes dictate the required amount of air delivered to the occupant. the longer free cooling periods allow for an economizer to run longer during the day. Figure 72: Increased Outdoor Air 100% % Improvement / Reduction in Symptoms 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 87. in a 2006 report by Gregory Kats at Capital E. polluted air a high level in the space.0% SBS 20. and containing the amenities needed for a quality education” . and each person is delivered the amount of cooling that they require. based on the USGBC LEED® Program. Mucosal Beijing Residence Liu et al 1996 Australian Wargocki Residence 1998 Liu et al 1996 Wieslander et al 1997 Jaakkda et al 1994 © Copyright E. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Price Limited 2007.0% Colds 61. Construction Commissioning Operation Benefits from a Displacement Ventilation System As described throughout this design guide. Most notably the Collaborative for High Performing Schools (CHPS) was initiated in California. the lower system pressure can allow for a reduction in the size of the fan or motor driving the fan to that zone. there are several benefits to applying a displacement type system to commercial spaces.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Displacement Ventilation and Schools High Performance Schools As operating costs for schools continue to increase.3% Flu 67. This results in a stratified environment. respectively. with fresh.0% SBS 33. the thermal comfort and air quality of schools were presented as a dollar and performance value. to meet the needs of school design. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.H.5% Asthma.

Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. .2 for a displacement ventilation. libraries or any space that demands acoustical performance are the perfect application for this quiet system. sick building syndrome. and teacher retention. An increase to the IAQ of a school has been shown to reduce the incidents involving Asthma by 25% and the reduction of cold and Flu cases by 51% on average. With a reduction of sick day taken requirements in a green school. shown here. © Copyright E. The low noise levels generated by a displacement system is also a desirable feature for school applications. while reducing absenteeism.2 from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 Table 5: Financial Benefits from Green Schools [Source: Capital E] Financial Benefits of Green Schools ($/ft²) Energy Emissions Water and Wastewater Increased Earnings Asthma Reduction Cold and Flu Reduction Teacher Retention Employment Impact Total Cost of Greening Net Financial Benefits $9 $1 $1 $49 $3 $5 $4 $2 $74 ($3) $71 Figure 74: DFXi Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person by space Pz = zone population Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per area by space Az = zone area Ez = zone air distribution effectiveness Voz is the required outdoor air flow rate The zone ventilation effectiveness is approximately 1. Spaces such as auditoriums. See the industrial displacement ventilation product section for further detail. respiratory problems.H. This is desirable in spaces such as gymnasiums and high traffic areas such as hallways and foyers. Other studies have shown that an increase to the ventilation rate for an overhead mixing system can improve the speed at which students complete work without an increase in the amount of errors produced from students. The increased IAQ led to an increase in student test scores. so a system designed with displacement ventilation will require less outdoor air to increase the performance within schools. shown in Figure 74 is a more robust diffuser and can be incorporated into a commercial design. The increase in ventilation rate is related to the ventilation effectiveness of the mixed system. flu. The reduced time that teachers and onsite health care workers spend attending to sick children translates directly into costs. there is an estimated savings of $2/ft² (Table 5). most notably a reduction in asthma complications. Green schools have been shown to increase average test scores by 3-5% and reduce teacher turn-over rates by 5%. With a teacher away for fewer days due to sickness. band rooms. and headaches. and conservatively estimated to be 1.The time that parents take off to provide care to their children can be translated into costs as well. 6. Price Limited 2007. DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-42 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. there is a positive impact on health.0 for an ideal overhead air distribution system.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Displacement Ventilation and Schools With the increase of indoor air quality. Eq. Product Tip The DFXi Industrial Displacement Diffuser . there is a reduced need for substitute teaching staff. A displacement ventilation system will require at least 20% less outdoor air than a overhead mixing system.

There is one exterior wall. as is has been shown to increase student performance and reduce absenteeism. Ra. three computers with LCD monitors.6F . be delivered to the space for classroom applications. DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION 26 74 °F 750 ft² 300 ft² 300 ft³ 7500 BTU/h 7424 BTU/h 4381 BTU/h 17044 BTU/h © Copyright E. ppd due to draft. This example examines a typical classroom in this school. and approximately 22.They want to use displacement ventilation in the spaces due to a recognized increase in ventilation effectiveness while ensuring comfort within the rooms. ASHRAE standard 62-2004).12 CFM/ft² outdoor airflow rate required per unit area. Some of the assumptions made for the space are as follows: Load per person is 250 BTU/h Lighting load in the space is 6. is assumed to be 1. the occupants tend to be seated throughout the majority of the day.6 BTU/h/ft² The specific heat and density of the air or this example will be 0.2 (table 6-2. facing NW. The Space Considerations As previously discussed.6 BTU/h/ft² = 4381 BTU/h QT = 17044 BTU/h Total cooling load for this space (QT) is 16925 BTU/h. the stratification for a sedentary seated person according to ASHRAE standard 55-2004 is 3. and has a control temperature of 74°F . The room is 25 ft wide. T8 florescent lighting. In a classroom.6 BTU/h/ft². J-43 . All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. as well as the stratification in the space. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. and 10 ft from floor to ceiling level. ASHRAE Standard 62-2004 requires 0. 30 ft long. The classroom is designed for 25 children and 1 teacher. or zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez).075 lb/ft³ respectively Occupants Set Point Floor Area Exterior Wall Volume Qoe Ql Qex QT The loads are broken down as follows: Qoe = (26 People X 250 BTU/h) + (3 Computers X 308 BTU/h) = 7424 BTU/h Ql = 750 ft² X 6. with 100 ft² of window.826 BTU/h/ft² = 5120 BTU/h Qex = 300 ft² X 14. ASHRAE standard 55-2004 stipulates the maximum combination of velocity and temperature in the occupied zone.24 BTU/lb°F and 0. and 10 CFM/Person outdoor airflow rate required per person.H. For displacement ventilation a ventilation effectiveness.826 BTU/h/ft² Computer loads are 308 BTU/h each Average Solar/Conduction load through the exterior wall is 14. Price Limited 2007.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Classroom Example The Space Design The local school board is looking for ways to improve the IAQ of the classrooms. Rp. and the room has an exposed ceiling.

and they should be used instead of this calculation.0 fpm. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Classroom Example Determine the Airflow Rate to meet the Cooling Load Determine the Fresh Air Flow Rate and Breathing Zone Ventilation Effectiveness Note that some local codes may not allow the discount for VE. Example: Title 24 in California. The total supply air volume is then the maximum value between Vh and Vr. J-44 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Price Limited 2007. Calculate the Supply Air Temperature Determine the Return Air Temperature DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Selection of Diffusers Because floor space is limited in a classroom. and occupants will need to be located at least 2 feet or more from the diffuser. for comfort reasons. As stated in previous examples. and wall space is typically covered with teaching material. 23. the diffusers for this space are limited to 40 fpm. either a ceiling mounted or corner mounted diffuser would be the ideal diffuser choice. or may have stricter requirements. Three 30”x 42” DFIC corner diffusers will supply 946 CFM at 36. © Copyright E.65 ft² of diffuser face is required. With a supply air volume of 946 CFM and a face velocity of 40 fpm.H. .

Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Classroom Example Layout of the Classroom The corner diffusers could be placed in any of the corners to supply this room. shown in red on the floor. J-45 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . Figure 77 shows the velocity profile in the space. Price Limited 2007. There is a prominent uncomfortable space directly in front of the diffusers.H. but at full load in the space. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Figure 76 shows the temperature profile in the space with a isoplane showing the set point temperature of the space. Figure 78 shows the draft temperature profile in the space. calculated airflow and supply air temperature with the DF1C selected in the example for a visual representation of space dynamics. The seated occupants are experiencing the desired set point and the stratification in the space is not outside the comfort criteria. The DF1C’s function as predicted and creates an even stratification in the space. some over cooling may occur. Figure 75: Temperature Profile Figure 76: Temperature Profile with a 74º F Isoplane Figure 77: Velocity Profile Figure 78: Draft Profile © Copyright E. CFD Representation of the Space A CFD analysis was run for this example using the conditions. The DF1C’s produces a prominent air pattern predicted to be up to 60 feet per minute. All of the occupants are near or within the desired temperature. Figure 75 shows the temperature profile in the space. but placement of the diffuser with respect to the occupants is critical. The DF1C diffusers create the appropriate stratification in the space. as long as the occupant is not within 2 feet of the diffuser face. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.

Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Displacement Ventilation and Healthcare Healthcare Air Distribution Air Distribution for Healthcare facilities is much more critical and specialized than for a typical air conditioned office space. In this case the DV system can be combined with radiant cooling to counteract the loads. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. On page J-12 of this design guide it has been pointed out that the ventilation effectiveness of DV systems are greater than overhead systems with typical ventilation effectiveness of 1. Higher ventilation effectiveness translates directly to contaminant removal resulting in a healthier. By supplying the ventilation air at low velocity and elevated temperature the DV system maintains comfort conditions. In this case the DV system is sized to distribute the ventilation air requirement while the radiant cooling system deals with the cooling load. ASHRAE provides guidelines for minimum air changes of total and outside air for the various types of spaces in a healthcare facility (ASHRAE HVAC Applications Handbook). . If the patient room contains a large amount of medical equipment with high heat output. As the supply air is drawn to and up the occupants and equipment contaminants are effectively captured by the thermal plume and carried out of the occupied zone. Displacement ventilation has the potential to significantly improve contaminant removal as well as provide superior thermal comfort levels in the space. Price Limited 2007. avoid objectionable drafts and remove contaminants to protect both the patient and visitor from infection. the room load may exceed the limit for the DV system (38 BTU/hr/ft2).2 or higher. Two areas in health care facilities particularly well suited for displacement ventilation are patient rooms and waiting rooms. Patient Rooms The air distribution system in a patient room must maintain thermal comfort. In addition to accurate control of temperature and velocity in the space to maintain acceptable comfort of the occupants the air distribution system must be able to dilute and effectively remove contamination (odor. Traditionally overhead mixing systems have been used to supply sufficient quantity of ventilation air to dilute and carry away contaminants. Figure 81: Plan view of Exam Room Figure 80: Exam Room Figure 79: Model of the Patient Room DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Figure 82: Model of the Waiting Room Diffuser Loads Diffuser J-46 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. © Copyright E. airborne microorganisms and viruses) from the space.H. cleaner occupied space.

Table 6 demonstrates excellent ventilation effectiveness for both outlet locations even at ACHs below current code requirements. Mock-up Testing Mock-up tests conducted in the Price Laboratory in co-operation with Stantec Consulting Ltd and Mazzetti & Associates support the application of displacement ventilation in hospital patient and waiting rooms. Table 9 illustrates ventilation effectiveness values for the DV system are superior to overhead mixing even at lower air change rates.0 © Copyright E. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Price Limited 2007. 2. People in the waiting area could be extremely infectious or on the other hand extremely susceptible to infection. By comparison.Tests were run at several outside temperature conditions. Unless seated directly in front of a displacement outlet occupants will also experience a high level of thermal comfort. Three rooms were mocked-up and run at several conditions to determine comfort and ventilation effectiveness. Fresh clear air is distributed directly to the occupants and contaminants removed with the thermal plumes. Obviously infection control is a priority consideration of the air distribution system but comfort condition must also be maintained. FPM PPD % Vent Eff 1 DV 80 4 91 68 75 76 10 to 25 10 to 12 1.1 3 DV 80 4 -22 69 75 79 12 to 28 7 to 10 1 DV A 190 4 68 76 78 10 to 67 6 to 22 1. Comfort was determined by Percent of People Dissatisfied (PPD) as defined by ASHRAE Standard 55.9 2 DV 1200 1. For a detailed report of the Healthcare Air Distribution Mock-up contact your Price representative. 1. A PPD value less than 20 is deemed acceptable. In all modes of operation.9 when operating in the heating mode. Table 8 confirms that comfort is maintained even with air change rates as high as 12. overhead mixing systems usually are limited to a ventilation effectiveness of 0. Table 7 demonstrates excellent ventilation effectiveness at all conditions.8 – 0.4 2 DV B 190 4 66 74 76 10 to 40 2 to 17 1. J-47 . FPM PPD % Vent Eff Table 7: Exam Room Test Method Supply CFM Supply ACH Outside Temp SA Temp OP Temp RA Temp Air Velocity. 3. acceptable comfort conditions were maintained. Occupancy in the room can vary greatly and the health status of the occupant is not known. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter.3 Table 8: Waiting Room Comfort Test Method Supply CFM Supply ACH SA Temp OP Temp RA Temp Air Velocity. FPM PPD % 1 DV 1800 12 65 70 74 10 to 46 10 to 20 2 DV 1200 8 64 71 74 12 to 34 5 to 14 3 DV 900 6 65 72 76 12 to 30 5 to 12 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION Table 9: Waiting Room Vent Eff Test Method Supply CFM Vent Eff 1 Ceiling 1800 0. Table 6: Patient Room Test Method Supply CFM Supply ACH SA Temp OP Temp RA Temp Air Velocity.1 3 DV 900 1. Patient Room: Figure 79 illustrates the room layout which included an exterior window simulated with an environmental chamber and two DV outlet locations. Displacement ventilation is again ideally suited to this application.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Displacement Ventilation and Healthcare Waiting Room Waiting rooms pose a special challenge to the air distribution system. even at ACHs below current code requirements. Outlet location B provides superior comfort as it is further away from the occupants. Exam Room: Figures 80 & 81 illustrate the room layout which included an exterior window simulated with an environmental chamber and radiant ceiling panels for supplemental heating and cooling.3 2 DV 80 4 0 66 74 77 12 to 20 8 to 16 1.H. Waiting Room: Figure 82 illustrates the room layout and outlet location.

H. Figure 85 illustrates the velocity profile of the patient room with DV. © Copyright E. Generally velocities in the space are less than 20fpm (0. Temperatures in the occupied zone are in the 70° . The overhead system (Figure 86) demonstrates higher velocities under the diffuser illustrating the induction of room air as well as some higher velocities projecting down the far wall. Any lighter than air contaminants would be concentrated in the higher warm air layer.74ºF comfort range. A distinct stratification is observed with warmer temperatures at the ceiling. . By contrast the overhead system (Figure 83) produces a fairly uniform temperature distribution as expected.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide—Special Supplemental Displacement Ventilation and Healthcare CFD Analysis The test data gathered from the Laboratory mock-up was used to create CFD models of the space. Figure 84 illustrates the temperature profile of the patient room with DV. Figure 83: Temperature Profile with overhead air distribution Figure 84: Temperature Profile with displacement ventilation Figure 85: Velocity Profile with displacement ventilation Figure 86: Velocity Profile with overhead air distribution DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-48 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. Figure 83 is the output for the CFD simulation of the patient room example at the cooling design conditions with overhead air distribution. Price Limited 2007.33 fps).

Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. 11. Greening America’s Schools. Control of the Built Environment series. 3. Vol 48. John Wiley & Sons Inc. No.S. Capital E Report.1. Performance Evaluation and Development of Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation. Pt. 10. Pawel Wargocki and David Wyon. Xiaoxiong Yuan.1. Gregory Kats. 2006. Inc. 9. Peter Nielsen. V. ASHRAE Journal. Shiping Hu. www. Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: Applications Guide for Off-the-Shelf Equipment for Displacement Ventilation Use Consultant Report prepared for California Energy Commission. October 2006. Federation of European Heating and Air Conditioning Associations.H.S. 1. 12. ASHRAE Transactions 1999. “System Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” . 105. Chapter 32. Hakon Skistad.usbgc. 4. ASHRAE Transactions 1998 V. Comparison of Energy Consumption between Displacement and Mixing Ventilation Systems for Different U. 105. Price Limited 2007. 2002. Qingyan Chen and Leon Glucksman. Kim Hagstrom. 1. Qingyan Chen and Leon Glicksman. Elisabeth Mundt. 13. Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation. A Critical Review of Displacement Ventilation. J-49 DISPLACEMENT vENTILATION . 1994. ASHRAE Transactions 1999. Qingyan Chen and Leon Glucksman. 5. 2006.Green Building Rating System for New Construction & Major Renovations (LEED-NC) Version 2. Research Report on effects of HVAC on Student Peformance. 8. Morton Blatt. 10. 7. 14. ASHRAE. Rehva Guidebook No 1. Leon Glicksman. © Copyright E. ASHRAE Standard 55. 2.11 2. Displacement Ventilation. LEEDTM (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) .. Green Building Council.revised 3/14/03. Qingyan Chen and Leon Glicksman. Space Air Diffusion. and Jorma Railio. 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. U. Xiaoxiong Yuan. All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion.com/leed. November 2002 . Displacement Ventilation in Non-Industrial Premises. Buildings and Climates. 2003. 104. ASHRAE Standard 62. Qingyan Chen. Pt. Costs and Benefits. 6. Pt. England. Final Report to ASHRAE on Research Project RP-949.Displacement Ventilation Design Guide References 1. V. Hakon Skistad.

Underfloor Air Distribution Design Guide Notes DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION J-50 All Metric dimensions ( ) are soft conversion. Price Limited 2007. Imperial dimensions are converted to metric and rounded to the nearest millimeter. .H. © Copyright E.

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Price manufacturing endeavors arose from our belief that we could supply superior products and services at a reasonable price. bulletins or instructions or any misuse or any modification not authorized by the Company voids this warranty. Arizona • Representation in major US cities IN CANADA 638 Raleigh Street Winnipeg. You can rely on Price – our products and services – with confidence.8050 Fax: 770. specifications are subject to change without notice.business integrity. The Company will replace defective product at its option. Warranty: The Company warrants and guarantees that all goods within this catalog that have been manufactured by the Company have been manufactured in accordance with the specifications published herein and will be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of twelve (12) months from the date of Bill of Lading issued by the Company. Product Improvement is a continuing endeavor at Price.6404 IN THE UNITED STATES • US Head Office. Georgia • Representation in major US cities 999 North Thornton Road Casa Grande.2715 • Canadian Head Office. Manitoba • Sales Offices or Representation in all major Canadian cities The founding principles of our company have never changed .h v a c . low VOC inks w w w. State. Laboratory & Manufacturing Facilities in Winnipeg.PRICE AIR DISTRIBUTION PRODUCTS FOR WORLD CLASS CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 2975 Shawnee Ridge Court Suwanee. This warranty is in lieu of all Provincial. Our mission is to become the worldwide supplier of preference for air distribution products and services.4220 Fax: 204. but will not be responsible for labor or material charges in replacing product or consequential damages. Consult your Price sales representative for current specifications or more detailed information. Any installation not conforming with the Company's specifications. Price Technical Center. c o m ® Price is a registered trademark of E. Price Limited. manuals.663.669. Printed in Canada 2007 .623. and Federal statutory warranties and the conditions herein are in substitution and replacement of such warranties. Manitoba Canada R2K 3Z9 Ph: 204. Your Local Price Representative: Printed on Recycled Material using vegetable-based. statutory or otherwise. Georgia USA 30024 Ph: 770.623. Export Sales Office & Manufacturing Facilities in Atlanta.H. p r i c e . Therefore. Arizona USA 85222-3809 • Manufacturing Facilities & Price Technical Center West in Phoenix. © 2007. first class service and a commitment to people.