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` Christian Rivero Statistics Solution # Problem Set 2

1. Light Bulbs problem Four brands of light bulbs are being considered for use in the final assembly area of the Saturn plant in Spring Hill, Tennessee. The director of purchasing asked for samples of 100 from each manufacturer. The numbers of acceptable and unacceptable bulbs from each manufacturer are shown below. At the .05 significance level, is there a difference in the quality of the bulbs? Manufacturer ABCD Unacceptable 12 8 5 11 Acceptable 88 92 95 89 Total 100 100 100 100 Answer: Null: There is no difference in the quality of bulbs Alternative: There is difference in the quality of bulbs Uses chi square test to test the hypothesis that there a difference in the quality of the bulbs produced by different manufacturers. between A and B: no between A and C: yes between A and D: no between B and C: no between B and D: no between C and D: yes p=213,9=0.05 213 . 0.05 P=.157 > a= 0.05 accept the null. There is no difference in the quality of the bulb.

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3. DPWH Problem Answer:

Null Hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between the number of bidders and the amount of winning bid on highway projects.

Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between the number of bidders and the amount of winning bid on highway projects. An inverse relation has a regression equation of y = 5.72 + 13.87/x 2.3707 (r = 0.58757) A straight-line regression has the formula y = 11.23 - 0.4667x 2.0738 (r = -0.70638), which is a slightly better fit, but neither is a particularly good fit, as shown by the rms errors and the correlation factors Each indicates a decrease in bid with an increase in bidders. Decision: Reject the Null (p=0.70). There is a significant positive relationship between the number of bidders and the amount of winning bid on highway projects.

4. Cardio Glide Answer: Person Months owned(X) Hours exercised(Y) X* X Y*Y X*Y Jim 12 4 144 16 48 Claire 2 10 4 100 20 Juan 6 8 36 64 48 Neil 9 5 81 25 45 Jonalyn 7 5 49 25 35 William 2 8 4 64 16 Joshua 8 3 64 9 24 Melvin 4 8 16 64 32 John 10 2 100 4 20 James 5 5 25 25 25 Total 65 58 523 396 313

The hypothesis to be tested is: Ho: r = 0 H1: r < 0 (hypothesizing a significant negative correlation between the two variables - a one tailed test)

The test statistic is, . t = r [(n-2)/(1-r2 )] = - 0.8269 * [(10-2)/(1-(- 0.8269)2 )] = - 4.1593 From the t-table for 0.01 level of significance and for 10-2 = 8 degrees of freedom we get the critical value = 2.896

Since the numerical value of the test statistic is greater than the critical value we reject the null hypothesis with 99% confidence. Hence we conclude that there is a negative association between the number of months since the glide was purchased and the length of time the equipment was used last week.

5. home sample A sample of 12 homes sold last week is selected. Can we conclude that as the size of the home (reported below in thousands of square feet) increases, the selling price (reported in thousands) also increases?

Home Size (thousands of square feet) X 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.3 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.1 Total 13.8

Selling Price ( thousands) Y 100 110 105 120 80 105 110 85 105 75 70 95 1160 Decision: Accept the null (p=.30) There is no significant relationship between the size of the home and the selling price. We cannot conclude that there is a positive correlation between the size of the home and the selling price. Thus, there is no association between the home size and the selling price of 12 homes sold H 1 : p 0; p>0. Reject H 1 if t > .087 12 2 t= = .275 1 .0076 Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between the home size and the selling price Level of Significance: 0.05 Null Hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between the size of the home and the selling price

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7. Body Esteem Problem Answer

Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference among participants with high, medium and low body esteem in terms of high frequency of sexual intercourse. Alternative: There is a significant difference among participants with high, medium and low body esteem in terms of high frequency sexual intercourse

Level of significance: 0.05 Computation: ANOVA single factor

Summary Groups High Body Esteem Medium Body Esteem Low Body Anova Source of Variation Between groups Within groups Total SS 3168.167 7096.583 10264.75 Df 2 33 35 MS 1584.083 215.048 F 7.366186 P-value 0.002265 F crit 3.2849 Count 12 12 12 Sum 447 260 178 Average 37.25 21.66667 14.83333 Variance 3777.4773 157.8788 109.789

Decision: (F crit 3.2,F7.3) Reject the null. Therefore, there is a significant difference among participants whos body esteem is high, medium and low in terms of sexual intercourse.

8. Survey conducted at Central University It is most appropriate to adopt a paired t-test for this problem. Hence the 2 sets of data will be combined and tested based on their differences. There is no need to be concerned with equal or unequal variances. If X1 and X2 denote the weight of a student before and after, respectively, D = X2 - X1 shall denote the difference. It is assumed that X1 and X2 are normally distributed. Based on the data, we obtain the following results Sample size n = 11 Sample mean D-bar = 7.364 Sample standard deviation sD = 8.370 The hypotheses are Ho: 1 = 2 H1: 1 2 The test statistic is T = D-bar / sD/n = 7.364 / 8.370/11 = 2.918 Given that = 0.01, the critical t-value with 10 d.o.f. = 3.169 Since the test statistic does not exceed the critical t-value, we fail to reject Ho. Thus, the richer Filipino food will cause an increase in weight.

9. Calorie Watchers Summary of the data: Name Morco Lim Tan Yap Cruz Moran Chan Cruz An Chan Weight Change Gained Lost No change Gained Lost Gained Gained Lost Lost Lost

There is an inverse relationship between the variables. As the months increase, the numbers of exercise decreases.

Reject Ho. There is a negative association between months owned and hours exercised.

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