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DCS ARCHITECTURE AND TDC 3000

Presented by: Ziauddin/M. Sohail/Haroon Yousaf

INTRODUCTION
DCS is the real time component of control system. Introduced in mid 1970s, it has became an essential component of Process plant control system. Control system reliability, flexibility and speed are basic functions, offered by DCS.

FUNCTIONS
DISTRIBUTION
DCS distributes control tasks into relatively small sets of independent sub systems. Distributed tasks includes:
    

Data collection. Process Control. Presentation of information Process analysis Storage / retrieval of information.

FUNCTIONS
DISTRIBUTION
Advantages of Distribution:


Lower exposure to component or subsystem failure. Better isolation to facilitate maintenance & upgrade. Flexibility for application development.

FUNCTIONS
CONTROL
This is to automate the process by integrating advanced regularity, logic & sequential control. Capable to handle multiple control loops and flexibility to change control strategies as per process demand. 100 percent reliability on failure of any control component.

FUNCTIONS
CONTROL
In addition to control, supports following:


Information exchange with business, logistics and transportation applications. Preventive or Predictive maintenance scheduling. Analysis for better control or trouble shooting.

FUNCTIONS
SYSTEM
System organizes the command structure & information flow among its constituents part. This act as a single automation system unifying the various subsystem. The subsystem includes:
  

Process signal input & conditioning. Process actuator signal output. Human readable process displays.

FUNCTIONS
SYSTEM


Human actions i.e. set point changes, manual overrides and alarm handling. Communications subsystems.

HIERARCHY OF DCS
Digital control along with networking allows process information to be passed from level to level within a corporation. This information flow represents the flow of measured variable from a flow transmitter to anywhere in the world. Such hierarchical representation of the information leads to a better understanding. Broadly, DCS hierarchy consists of 05 levels.

HIERARCHY OF DCS
Level 0 Field Instruments
This level handles control and process information to & from the process field. Measurement devices provide the information on the current conditions of process. The actuators / control valves permit control decisions to be imposed on the process. Generally, analog / smart transmitters & control valves dominate this layer / level.

HIERARCHY OF DCS
Level 1 Process Control
This level operates the process at or near the targets supplied by others. High degree of automation control is provided to achieve operation consistency. Reduction in variance in key process variables and uniform product quality are obvious benefits.

HIERARCHY OF DCS
Level 2 Supervisory Control
Set points / Outputs and other controllable process variable can be changed to meet set targets. Plant optimization & emergency handling are the main features at this level.

HIERARCHY OF DCS
Level 3 Engineering / Production Control
Configuration of new process values / alarms or change in control strategy is done at this level. New graphics displays configuration or amendments for better human interface. Tuning of Control loops. Long and short term Production planning of continuous and batch processes.

HIERARCHY OF DCS
Level 4 Corporate information System
The upper most level of control system in a corporation. Long term and strategic functions are performed from this level. Inventory control on feedstock and subsequent contracts. Production forecast and requirement of raw materials.

TDC 3000 An Introduction


TDC (Total Distribution Control) 3000 is the propriety product from Honey well, USA. TDC-3000 uses High level control language (CL) for system control and security strategies. Modular structure and its components communicates with each other, with redundancy. PM (Process Manager) Control hub of the system, linked with communication channels from field and Central Control Room.

TDC 3000 An Introduction


Information travels through high speed coaxial cable. Data monitoring and control via CRT consoles called Universal stations. Specially designed Keyboard to access max. no of input option for process control. Dedicated component for data storage and retrieval called History Module.

TDC 3000 An Introduction


High level calculations / algorithms are carried out in AM (application module) Two communications cables, LCN & UCN for the integrity of the system.

TDC 3000 Architecture


US AM UCN
NIM

HM

PM Field Signal
Note: All the communication is two way.

MC

TDC 3000 Architecture


MARSHELLING CABINET


Signal termination from field to DCS cabinet and vice versa. Signal conversion and provision of fuses to protect circuits.

TDC 3000 Architecture


PM Cabinet
 

Contains I/O cards and Process Manager modules. Redundant cards / modules are used for system reliability. PM have all necessary algorithms / loop for specific control strategy. UCN is the communication link / channel, receives or transfer data to/from PM modules.

TDC 3000 Architecture


LCN Cabinet


It houses NIM, an electronic card, link for communication b/w LCN / UCN. Application and History modules also reside in this cabinet. LCN is the communication channel for high level modules i.e. NIM. AM. HM & IOUS.

TDC 3000 Architecture


DCS Consoles


Universal Stations (US) are man machine interface, also called IOUS. User friendly graphical displays to control or view process parameters as a real time component. Specially designed Keyboard to facilitate access of displays, alarms and controller. Touch screen feature for controlling.

TDC 3000 Components


I/O Modules


The analog & digital points (signals) processing carried out in I/OMs. Input Modules are:
 Analog Input high level  Analog Input low level  Digital Input  Pulse Input

TDC 3000 Components




Output Modules are:


 Analog out put  Digital out put

Tasks executed in Input Modules, are


 Analog to digital conversion  PV characterization  Range checking  Alarm detection  PV source checking

TDC 3000 Components




Tasks performed by Output modules:


 Conversion of OP to 0 to 20 mA.  Selection of direct / reverse controller action.

TDC 3000 Components


Process Manager


  

Highly flexible high-performance controller for control. Configurable according to process requirements. Capable of executing 160 control loop at a time. Functions of I/O scanning through regulatory & logic control to more advance control can be implemented. The PM consists of Process Manager module & I/O subsystem

TDC 3000 Components


Process Manager


Process Manager Module consists of:


 Communication Processor & Modem  I/O link interface Processor  Control Processor

I/O subsystem consists of:


 I/O link (X-Bus)  40 redundant I/O modules

TDC 3000 Components


Process Manager


 

The processing power of PM is measured in terms of Processing Units (PU) & Memory Unit (MU) One PM Module guaranteed the max. capacity of 560 PU and 7900 MU. PU value determined by data type and scan rate. MU value determined by type of data, max.for analog signals. Max. 40 I/O modules can be hooked with PMM.

TDC 3000 Components


Universal Control Network


Communication channel for PM to high level modules. It is redundant coaxial cable and can support up to 32 redundant devices. Supports peer to peer communication with 5 megabit/sec network designed.

TDC 3000 Components


Network Interface module (NIM)
 

 

It provides link between LCN and UCN. Its changes protocol of UCN data for LCN and vice versa. Forwards messages from network to LCN. Available in redundancy.

TDC 3000 Components


Local Control Network (LCN)


Data channel / cable for higher level modules. Token passing protocol with rate of 5 megabits/sec. Co-axial cable handles 2000 bytes per token. Supports max. 64 nodes.

TDC 3000 Components


History Module (HM)


An LCN module, acts a network server for loading software and data base into LCN modules. Historizer for specified point parameters and system events. Generates trends/reports as per configuration.

TDC 3000 Components


Application Module (AM)


An LCN node, provides complex calculations and advanced control. Allows control logic to access data anywhere on the LCN. Control strategies in AM is implemented by user friendly language called CL/AM.

TDC 3000 Components


Open Universal Station (IOUS)


 

Human interface to process control, highest level of LCN node. CRT display allows monitoring/control and handling of alarms. Displays/prints trends, event history and reports. Monitor system status and also used as to build process and system database. Offers multi-window environment.