International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 7–July 2013

To Increase the Rotation Efficiency of the Windmill Blades by Using Turbulator
A. Suresh#1
#

G. Ravindra Reddy*2

Y. Hari Prasad Reddy$3

PG Student, CAD/CAM, Siddharth Institute of Engineering and Technology, Puttur - 517583 mob: 9494294547. *Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Siddharth Institute of Engineering and Technology, Puttur – 517583, mob: 8008343692. $ Professor, & Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkatesa Perumal College of Engineering & Technology , Puttur – 517583, mob: 8498082020.

Abstract -- Technology has the enemy of nature in one way. In this paper, to increase the rotation efficiency of wind mill blades using boundary layer blowing principle. In order to increase the use of wind energy, it is important to develop wind turbine rotor models with high rotation rates and power coefficients. Therefore injecting a high velocity air mass into the air stream essentially tangent to the wall surface of the airfoil reverses the boundary layer friction deceleration thus the boundary layer separation is delayed. Wind energy is the most popular renewable energy resource, thanks to its elastic cost compared with conventional fossil resources. In line with advancing technology, manufacturing costs are expected to fall below the current level. we shall glance to increase the rotation efficiency of wind mill blades using boundary layer blowing principle. Technology has the enemy of nature in one way. In order to increase the use of wind energy, it is important to develop wind turbine rotor models with high rotation rates and power coefficients. Therefore injecting a high velocity air mass into the air stream essentially tangent to the wall surface of the airfoil reverses the boundary layer friction deceleration thus the boundary layer separation is delayed. There is no doubt that adding a Turbulator to the existing blade can change the downwash distribution leading to increased produced power, but a load analysis must be made whether the additional thrust can be afforded.

60GW for year 2010. Like Turkey some countries have clean energy resource carrying no fossil based energy reserves. However, fossil energy resources such as carbon dioxide pollute the world and they are a threat to future generations. Therefore, utilizing wind energy potential is crucial in global world context. In order to increase the use of wind energy, it is important to develop wind turbine rotor models with high rotation rates and power coefficients. This study aimed at manufacturing highly efficient wind turbine rotor models using NACA profiles. The term „„rotor‟‟ refers to blades and rotor as a whole.
II. HISTORY OF WIND MACHINES

It should be noted that, human being has managed to derive benefit from the nature since their creation. As the time passed they have improved their abilities parallel to their intelligence. They found fire, wheel etc… then they established some primitive water tanks (early dams, artificial ponds etc…) and while Keywords --- wind turbine, airfoil, NTK/41, base bleed carrying out those they felt something; WIND. They decided to derive benefit from wind because it is a I. INTRODUCTION Wind energy is the most popular renewable energy powerful and a permanent type of energy that the resource thanks to its elastic cost compared with nature has given them. The Persians built the first windmills, as per record conventional fossil resources. In line with advancing in approximately 900 AD. It is of noted that these technology, manufacturing costs are expected to fall below the current level. In Europe, wind energy windmills had vertical axis and were drag type capacity level for year 2010 is 40,000MW and that devices. As such they were inherently inefficient, and level is ten times higher than that of year 2000. particularly susceptible to damage in high winds. Wind energy made its appearance in Europe during Turkey also needs to increase the use of wind energy the middle ages. Most of windmills had horizontal in order to raise its electricity production capacity to axis. They were used for almost every mechanical

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 7–July 2013

task, including water pumping, grinding grain, sawing wood, and powering various tools. The early mills were built on posts, so that the entire mill could be turned to face the wind (yaw) when its direction changed. These mills normally had four blades. The wind continued to be a major source of energy in Europe during the period just prior to the Industrial Revolution, but began to recede in importance after that time. The reason that wind energy began to disappear is primarily attributable to its nontransportability. This means that wind energy only can be facilitated where it blows. It cannot be stored or conveyed to another place. One significant development in the eighteenth century was the introduction of scientific testing and evaluation of windmills. The Englishman John Smeaton discovered three basic rules that are still applicable for wind turbines.

wind for mechanical power and included a number of features, which were later incorporated into some early electricity generating wind turbines. As the European windmills were entering their final years, another variant of windmill came into widespread use in the United States. This type of windmill was most notably used for pumping water, particularly in the West. These windmills were distinctive for their multiple blades and are often referred to as “fan mills”.
III. WIND TURBINE DESIGN

Scale model of this project is NTK/41 wind turbine.
A. NTK/41 WIND TURBINE DIMENSIONS

Rotor diameter Hub diameter Blade length No. of blades
B. BLOCKAGE RATIO

: : : :

41m 35m 16.8m 3

Area of test section : 90000 mm Area of blade : 6400 mm Blockage ratio : 4.4 % From the blockage ratio conclude the blade scale down size 1:120
C. MODEL DIMENSIONS

Rotor Diameter Hub Diameter Blade length No. of blades
Figure1 Principal Subsystems of HAWT

: 340 mm : 60 mm : 140 mm :3

D. BLADE DIMENSIONS

According to Smeaton apparatus: The speed of the blade tips is ideally proportional to the speed of the wind. The maximum torque is proportional to the speed of the wind squared. The maximum power is proportional to the speed of the wind cubed. The eighteenth century European windmills represented the culmination of one approach to using

Length of the blade : 140mm Tip : 12mm Root width : 33mm

IV. AIRFOIL SELECTION

All airfoils listed below are from NACA series
TABLE: 1 AIRFOIL SELECTION

Airfoil

CL max

CD min

L/D

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63210 63A010 66210 64210 64110 64A010 64A210 64A410 65210 65410 1.55 1.2 1.2 1.45 1.4 1.225 1.425 1.625 1.4 1.525 0.0045 0.0045 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.00425 0.004 0.00425 0.00375 0.00375 344 226 400 362.5 350 288 356.27 382 373 406
Figure: 3 D CATIA blade Diagram with vortex generator

VI. BASE BLEED ATTACHMENT

When placed on a blade, the center of the base bleed should be 8% - 12% after of the leading edge. For most installations a placement of 10% is deal. The length is measured along the “chord” and should not be measured along the curved portion. From 140 mm - 10 hole in diameter of 1mm Inlet hole: stagnation point Outlet hole: 10 % from leading edge (must be tangential) Blade consists of ten base bleed (B1 –B 10),

From the aerofoil data book various airfoils of required t/c are taken and are tabulated for maximum lift coefficient and minimum drag. From the table the airfoil with optimum combination of maximum lift coefficient and minimum drag coefficient is selected . Vector sum of theses tangential and normal forces integrated over complete surface gives a resultant force vector. Component of this force in the direction of relative velocity past the car body is known as aerodynamic drag.
V. DESIGNING OF WIND TURBINE BLADE IN CATIA V5

Figure: 4 Base bleed profile.

Figure: 2 D CATIA blade Diagram

Figure: 5 D CATIA aluminum blade Diagram with base bleed

VII. ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINE BLADES USING AUTODESK CFD SIMULATOR

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 7–July 2013

the inlet. Normally we would have to enable better numerical schemes (2nd or 3rd order and run until a much better convergence of the flow solution is reached, but this would take about 3 hours with this case and about 2 weeks with an adequate mesh refinement). So we simply visualize the actual results.
TABLE: 2 COMPUTATION TEST RESULT AT VELOCITY OF 6 M/S Figure: 6 Boundary layer separation

S. No 1 2 3

Airfoil NACA 65410 Without Base Bleed With Vortex Generator With Base Bleed

Achieved Velocity m/s 7.53 7.03 8.0

Torque N-m 0.03655 0.09346 0.171856

TABLE: 3 SHOWS THE COMPUTATION TEST OF OTHER WIND TURBINE BLADE AT VELOCITY 6 M/S ( FOR COMPARISON)

S. No 1 2 3 4
Figure: 7 Analysis of NACA 65410 with vortex generator for comparison

Airfoil RAF 34 A RAF 38 A RAF 89 A RAF 32 A

Achieved Velocity m/s 7.074 7.073 7.514 7.732

Torque N-m 0.0763 0.0643 0.09420 0.1321

VIII. RESULT & CONCLUSION

Blade model is “wall” with “blade” (in the field “Zone Name”).We considers our model as a wind-tunnel model. So the blade is a stationary wall, the viscosity makes the air stick at the blade coachwork, so no slip the coachwork is very smooth, so a roughness of zero. Ceiling of the wind-tunnel and Side wall of the wind-tunnel are specified shear for this will allow the air to slip on the ceiling wall. This is not realistic, but so, we can use a very coarse mesh without boundary layer problems. Velocity is 6 m·s-1 in the Speed field. Correspond to 90km/h. and 0.05m in the “Roughness Height” field. Initialize the “Compute From” -inlet. This will attribute to all cells of the model, the velocity, pressure and turbulences values that we defined for

Graph No: 1 comparisons of inlet velocity vs. outlet velocity

For comparison a rectangular modification of the original blade was designed with the same platform area as the blades with base bleed. This modification does produce more power compared to the original blade but not as much as the cambered and twisted blade. All four upwind pointing base bleed do result in lower thrust compared the

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 7–July 2013

rectangular blade , while the upwind pointing base bleed results in comparable or even higher thrust.

Graph No: 4 inlet velocity vs. drag coefficient

Graph No: 2 comparisons of inlet velocity vs. torque

The graph shows the base bleed system of an blades plays a crucial role in the torque and lift coefficient. Without high-lift devices, the maximum lift coefficient, attainable by a high-aspect-ratio wing is about five times the incidence (in radians) at incidences up to stall

The graph determines further increase in angle of incidence will increase flow separation on the wing upper surface, and the increased flow separation results in a loss in lift and a large increase in drag.

Graph No: 5 inlet velocity vs. experimental model lift coefficient

Graph No: 3 inlet velocity vs. lift coefficient

The graph determine the maximum lift coefficient as accurately as possible, since this lift coefficient corresponds to the stall speed, which is the minimum speed at which controllable speed can be maintained.
Graph No: 6 Inlet velocity vs. experimental model drag coefficient

There is no doubt that adding a base bleed to the existing blade can change the downwash distribution leading to increased produced power, but

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a load analysis must be made whether the additional thrust can be afforded.
REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Manwell J. F. et.al “Wind Energy Explained”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., England, 2002 Spera, D. “Wind Turbine Technology”, ASME Press, 1994 Buhl, M. L., Jr. “WT_PERF User’s Guide”, NREL, Colorado, 2004 Scheck, S. “HAWT Aerodynamics and Models from Wind Tunnel Measurements, NREL, Colorado, 2002 Glauert, H. “The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory”, University Press, Cambrige, 1959 Bertin, J. J. and Smith, M. L. “Aerodynamics for Engineers”, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1998 Katz J, Plotkin J. “Low Speed Aerodynamics”, McGraw- Hill Inc., New York, 1991 Jureczko.M, Pawlak.M, Mezyk.A Optimisation of wind turbine blades, journal of materials processing technology 167(2005). Sohn.Y.U, Chun.H, Kim.Y.C, Chung.C.W, Kim.Y.H, Han.K.S. Blade design of a 750Kw direct- drive wind turbine generator system. Kong C, Kim H, Kim J. A study on structural and aerodynamic design of composite blade for large scale HAWT system. Final report, Hankuk Fiber Ltd; 2000. Numerical Analysis of Winglets on Wind Turbine Blades using CFD Jeppe Johansen† and Niels N. Sørensen†,‡ †Wind Energy Department, Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark. Wind rotor blade construction Small Wind Systems for Battery Charging Contract R 7105 By Teodoro Sanchez Campos ITDG, Sunith Fernando and Hugh Piggot.

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