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Training Objectives

HUAWEI

Understandconceptandtechnologyofmulticast

Master IGMP protocol and configuration

Master PIM protocol and configuration

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Unicast,Broadcast and
HUAWEI Multicast
Host

10.10.1.0/24
Unicast Multicast Broadcast

Server

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Comparision between Unicast and Multicast
HUAWEI

Unicast

Multicast

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Multimedia Conference
HUAWEI

Multimedia
terminal

Internet

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Data distribution
HUAWEI

File Remote host


server

Internet

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Real-time Data Multicast
HUAWEI

Multimedia
Server host

Internet
Stock
Football exchange
game

Vocal
Concert

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Game and Emulational
HUAWEI Application
Player

Internet

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Characteristics of Multicast
HUAWEI technology
Advantages
Increase efficiency, control network traffic and decrease the load of servers and CPUs
Optimizeperformanceandeliminateredundanttraffic
Distributed application, which makes multipoint transimmsion possible
Disadvantages
Multicast application is based on UDP
Do best efforts
No congestion control
Packet duplicate
Disordered reaching of packets

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Multicast Addresses
HUAWEI

Range of multicast addresses


224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
Reserved multicast addresses
224.0.0.0 - 224.0.255.255
Local management multicast addresses
239.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
User multicast addresses
224.0.1.0 - 238.255.255.255

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MAC Multicast Addresses
HUAWEI

MAC Multicast addresses


Ethernet : 01-00-5e-xx-xx-xx

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Mapping IP Multicast to
HUAWEI Ethernet

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Multicast Forwarding
HUAWEI

ReversePathForwarding(RPF)
ForwardingmulticastpacketisnotbasedonthedestinationaddressofIPpacket but use
RPFtocheckanddeterminewhethertoforwardordiscardtheincomingpacket.
ProcedureofRPFcheck
The router checks the source address of the arrival multicast packet. and if the
packet is arrived at the interface that can return to the source end, RPF check is
successful and the information packet is forwarded.
If RPF check fails, packet will be discarded.

The check on multicast source address is


achieved by querying unicast routing table

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Example:RPF Check
HUAWEI

Receiver
ource

92.18.0.32

RPF check fails,the


packets arrive at an error
interface

Multicast Packet

Multicast packets arriving at an error


interface

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Further View: RPF check fails
HUAWEI

Multicast data from 191.18.0.32

S0

S1
RPF check S2
fails

Unicast routing table


Network Interface
191.18.0.0/16 S1 Data arrives at S0, RPF check fails and the router
discards the packet
168.0.253.0/24 S0
15.15.0.0/16 S2

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Further View: RPF check
HUAWEI succeeds

Multicast data from 191.18.0.32


S0

S1
RPF check S2
succeeds

Unicast routing table


Network Interface
191.18.0.0/16 S1 Data arrives at S1, RPF check succeeds, the router
forwards the packet
168.0.253.0/24 S0
15.15.0.0/16 S2

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Forwarding multicast packet by
switch without multicast
HUAWEI
function

Multicast??

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Achieving Multicast in Layer 2
HUAWEI Switch

Check the table 1


Forwarding table

2 5
3 4
MAC address Interface
01-02-03 1 2 5

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IGMP - Internet Group
HUAWEI Management Protocol

IGMP protocol is the only protocol between a


host and a router
RFC1112 defines IGMP V1 (support
windows95)
RFC2236 defines IGMP V2 (support windows
and most of the newest service packets of Unix)
Draft-ietf-idmr-igmp-v3-03.txt defines the
up-to-date IGMP V3

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Actions of a Router and a
HUAWEI Host in IGMP

response report

routine query

unsolicited report for joining group

reportforleavinggroup

group-specific query

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Actions of Router in Shared
HUAWEI Network in IGMP

10.10.0.1/16 10.10.0.3/16
query query
message message

: Election fails, stop sending query message


: router fails, stop sending query message
:re-sendquerymessage

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Report Suppression Process
HUAWEI

Query
message
Response Response Response
report Response report report
report

Routersendsqueryperiodically
Onlyonememberofeachgroupinthesubnetsendsresponsereport
Othermembersaresuppressedanddon'tsendreport.

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IGMP V2 Packet Format
HUAWEI

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Comparision Among Three
HUAWEI IGMP Versions
IGMP V1 IGMP V2 IGMP V3

Querier election based on routing self election self election


protocol

leaving type leave silently actively send actively send


leaving packet leaving packet

Designated group none yes yes


query

Designated source none none yes


and group joining

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Compatibility Processing
HUAWEI between IGMP V1 and V2
V1 Host v2 Host V1 Router V2 Router

V1 Host V1host report Router works in


suppresses V2 V1
host
V2 Host V2host is V2 frame format
suppressed by is compatible
V1host report with v1

V1 Router V2 frame format V2 router is


is compatible forced to
with v1 configure as v1

V2 Router Router works in V2 router is


v1 till V1 timer forced to
out of time configure as v1
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IGMP Snooping Establish and
HUAWEI Maintenance Group

IGMP report 1
0
CPU
forwarding table
MAC address interface IGMP query
01-02-03 0135

2 3 4 5

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Configuration Commands
HUAWEI

Configuration on the Router


Start multicast application
Quidway ( config ) #ip multicast-routing
Emulate host behavior - join a group
Quidway ( config-Vlan-interface0 ) #ip igmp
join-group 224.1.1.1
Specify IGMP version number
Quidway ( config-vlan-interface0 ) #ip igmp version 1
Display IGMP interface information
Quidway#show ip igmp interface ethernet 0

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Multicast Routing Protocol
HUAWEI Overview
DVMRP V#(Distance Vector Multicast Routing
Protocol (Internet Draft)
Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode
(PIM-DM)(Internet Draft)
Protocol Independent Multicast - sparse mode
(PIM-SM)(RFC 2362)
Multicast of shortest path first (MOSPF) (RFC
1584)
Others (Core-based trees mulitcast routing
protocol, <CBTv2><RFC2189>, etc. )

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Protocol Independent
HUAWEI Multicast - PIM

PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast) is independent of unicast protocol (use any unicast
route)anddependsonunicastprotocoltoperformRPFcheck
UDP port number: 103
PIM router group address: 224.0.0.13
PIM protocol is divided into:
PIM_DM (Protocol Independent Multicast -
Dense Mode)
PIM_SM (Protocol Independent Multicast -
Sparse Mode)

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PIM_DM Forwarding
HUAWEI

Receiver
ource

92.18.0.32

Multicast dataflow

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PIM_DM Pruning
HUAWEI

Receiver
ource

192.18.0.32

Multicat dataflow

Prune message

Stop sending multicast dataflow

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PIM_DM Grafting and Grafting
HUAWEI Response
Receiver
ource
192.18.0.32

Multicast data flow


Graft message
Grafting response
IGMP join group

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PIM_DM Status Maintenance
HUAWEI

Receiver
ource

192.18.0.32

Multicast dataflow

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Assert Mechanism
HUAWEI

Source S

10.10.0.1/16 10.10.0.3/16

multicast dataflow

Assert message

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Neighbor-Finding Mechanism
HUAWEI

Periodically send Hello Packet - find neighbor,


establish and maintain neighborhood
Elect DR——the router with highest IP address
becomes DR of this network segment
when IGMP is version 1, DR also acts as IGMP
querier
Hello message

Hello message

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PIM-DM Configuration
HUAWEI Commands

Configuration on Layer 3 switch


Start mulitcast process
Quidway(Config)#ip multicast-routing
Start PIM-DM process at the interface
Quidway(config-VLAN-Interface2)#ip pim
dense-mode

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Configuration Example
HUAWEI

Video
Server Backbone
network
with PIM-DM

Accesslayer

Multi-Media
PC www.huawei.com
PIM_SM Forwarding and
HUAWEI Joining
RP/DR DR
Receiver
Source
192.18.0.32

Multicast dataflow

joining message

IGMP joining

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PIM_SM Pruning
HUAWEI

RP/DR DR
Receiver
Source
92.18.0.32

Multicast dataflow

Prune message

Stop sending multicast dataflow

IGMP leaving

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PIM_SM Status Maintenance
HUAWEI

DR RP DR
Source
192.18.0.32

Joining message

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PIM_SM Registration and
HUAWEI Registration Stop
Registration
DR RP DR
receiver
ource
Registration
92.18.0.32 stop

Multicast dataflow

Unicast registration message

Unicast registration stop message

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Multicast Distribution Tree
HUAWEI Model
DR DR
Receiver
Source

2.18.0.32

ThisisSPT!

DR RP Receiver
Source
192.18.0.32

Oh,RPT!

Multicast dataflow
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Shortest Path Tree Switch
HUAWEI

DR RP DR
Receiver
Source
192.18.0.32

Multicast dataflow

Stop sending multicast dataflow

SPT joining

SPT grafting

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Configuration on the Router
HUAWEI

Start mulitcast process


Quidway(config)#ip multicast-routing
Start PIM-SM at the inteface
Quidway(config-vlan-interface0)#ip pim
Sparse-mode

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PIM_SM Configuration
HUAWEI Example
C-RP、 C-BSR

Video Server
Backbone network
with PIM-SM

Access Layer

Multi-Media PC
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