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Training Objective

HUAWEI

WAN Protocol Overview

Principles and Configurations of HDLC Protocol Principles,Configurations and Maintenance of PPP and MP Protocol

Principles, Configurations and Maintenance of X.25

Principles, Configurations and Maintenance of Frame Relay

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WAN Overview
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L A N

W A N

L A N

T h eW ideAreaNetworkis called W A Nfor short, w h ichis acom p u ter com m u n icationnetwork establishedinawiderange T h eW A Nis a kin d of cross-regiondatacom m u n ication network, w h ich uses th ee q u ip m e n ts suppliedbytelecomcarriersasthedatatransferplatform T h eW A Nis m a in lyusedtoconnecttheLANsliesindifferentplaces

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Main WAN Connection Technologies


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Point-to-point connection
H D LC , P P P , S L I P

Connection through packet switching network


X.25, Frame Relay, ATM
Service Provider

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High-level Data Link Control (HDLC)


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Flag F

Address A

Control C

Information info

Frame Check Sequence FCS

Flag F

Characteristics:
Bit-oriented protocol Transparent transmission: zero bit filling method Run on synchronous serial lines
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Configurations of the HDLC Protocol


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Encapsulate the HDLC protocol at the interface mode


encapsulation hdlc

Set the keepalive time to detect the link status


keepalive time
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PPP Protocol Introduction


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PPPEncapsulation
PPP

PPPprotocolisdevelopedonthebasisofSLIP PPPprotocolislocatedatthedatalinklayer,thesecondlayerofOSIm o d e l

Thephysicallayercaneitherbethesynchronousorasynchronousphysicalm edia

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PPP Composition
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PPPusesNCPtosupportmultipleNetwork protocols

TCP/IP Novell IPX

PPP

LCP is used to establish and maintain links


ThePPPprotocolism a in ly composedof th eL C P ,N C P sa n dP A P , C H A Pfor network security.

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PPP Protocol Stack


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IP IPCP

IPX IPXCP

Other network protocols Network Layer Other NCPs NCP Link Layer

Authentication, other options LCP Physical media ( synchronous / asynchronous Physical Layer

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PPP Negotiation Procedure


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Dead Stage Establish Stage

Authenticate Stage

Terminate Stage

Network Stage

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PAP Authentication
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Authenticating Party

User namePaswor

ACK / NAK

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CHAP Authentication
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Authenticated Party
Host namerandom message Host nameencrypted message

Authenticating Party

User database

C H A Pisa3-handshakeauthenticationprotocol.Itdoesnotsendanypassword. The authenticatingpartyoriginatestheauthenticationrequest,andithashighersecuritythan P A P . www.huawei.com

Brief Introduction to MultiLink PPP Protocol


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NegotiatewhethertouseMPornotattheLCPstage ThenperformthePPPauthenticationtoobtaintheusernameof theremotepartyandfindthevirtualinterfacetem p late specified for theuseraccordingtotheusername Thenegotiationparam e tersinclude:MRRU,SSNHFandendpoint discrim inator Therearetwoflagsusedforbundling:usernameandtheendpoint discrim inator

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HUAWEI

PPP Configuration Commands


Encapsulate PPP
encapsulation ppp

Configure authentication method


ppp authentication {pap|chap}

Configure user name and password


user username password {0|7} password

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HUAWEI

PAP Configuration Command

Authenticating party configuration


Configure authentication method ppp authentication pap Configure user list user username password [0/7] password

Authenticated party configuration


Configure the PAP user name ppp pap sent-username username password{0|7} password
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HUAWEI

CHAP Configuration Command


C o n figureauthenticationm e thod pppauthentication chap C o n figurelocalhostnam e o s t n a m e pppchaphosth Addtheremoteusernameandpasswordtothelocaluserlist s e r n a m e password[0/7]password useru

Authenticating party configuration:

Authenticated party configuration:


C o n figurethelocalhostnam ea n dtheremoteusernameandpassword o s t n a m e pppchaphosth u s e r username password[0/7] password

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Typical PPP Configuration Example I


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A u thenticatingparty PAPauthentication Q u id w a y# 1
Quidway(config)# user quidway2password0 uidway Quidway(config)# interface serial 0 Quidway(config-if-serial0)# ppp authentication pap

A u thenticatedparty

Q u id w a y# 2
Quidway(config)# interface serial 0 Quidway(config-if-serial0)# ppp pap sent-username quidway2password0 quidway

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Typical PPP Configuration Example II


HUAWEI

A u thenticatingparty
CHAP authentication

A u thenticatedparty

Q u id w a y# 2
Q u idway(config)# user q u i d w a y 1password0 hello Q u idway(config)# interface serial 0 Q u idway(config-if-serial0)# ppp chap host q u i d w a y 2

Q u id w a y# 1
Q u idway(config)# user q u i d w a y 2password0 hello Q u idway(config)# interface serial 0 Q u idway(config-if-serial0)# ppp chap host q u i d w a y 1 Q u idway(config-if-serial0)# ppp authentication chap

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MultiLink PPP Configuration Command


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Basic MP configuration tasks include: Configure the MP work mode of the interface bundled in the virtual template
ppp multilink

Establish the relationship between the PPP users and the virtual template
multilink-user user-name bind virtual-template number

The higher level MP configuration task include: Configure the maximum number of bind MP links
multilink max-bind binds

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Typical MP Configuration Example


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PPP Monitor and Maintenance


Command show user

Operation Show the local user list

Show the interface configuration and status

show interface interface-name

Show the interface information of the MP

show ppp multilink

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PPP Troubleshooting
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Fault 1: the link can never be converted to the UP status


The configuration of the PPP authentication parameters is not correct

Fault 2: the physical link cannot be converted to the UP status


The command "show interface serial number" is used to view the interface status

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X.25 Overview
HUAWEI

DTE

X.25 Protocol

DCE

X.25

DCE

X.25 Protocol

DTE

The X.25 recommendation is the interface specifications between the DTE and the DCE. Itsm a infunctionistodescribehowtoset u pvirtual circuits, transmissionpackets, set up links, transmit data, releaselinks andtoclear thevirtual circuitsbetweenthe DTEandthe DCE , and in the meantime, it wil implement the error control, flow control, statistics, etc.

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X.25 Network Model


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DTE PSE DTE DCE PSE PSE DCE DCE

PSN

DTE

DTE DCE PSE PSN

Data Terminal Equipment Data Circuit-terminating Equipment Packet Switching Equipment Packet Switching Network
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Hierarchy of X.25
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O S IRM
Application Presentation Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer
Data Link Layer

Higher-level protocol with remote DTE Upper-level Protocol

Packet Layer

Packet Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

X.25

Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Physical Layer

DTE

DCE

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Transmission of IP Packet through X.25 Network


IP Header User Data

LAN
Packet Header Frame Header IP Packet

LAN

X.25 Packet

Frame tail

Router

X.25

Router

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X.25 Virtual Circuit


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Statistic time-division multiplexing SVC (virtual switching circuit) and PVC (permanent virtual circuit) An interface can be configured with 4095 virtual circuits at maximum

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Link Layer Protocol LAPB


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The main functions of the Link Layer are as follows: Effectively transmit data between the DTE and the DCE Guarantee the information synchronization between the receiver and the transmitter Detect and correct errors occurred during transmission Identify and report protocol errors to the higher-level protocols Notify the Link Layer status to the Packet Layer www.huawei.com

X.25 Configuration
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Configure the work mode of X.25


e n c a p s u l a t i o nx 2 5 [[ dte|dce ] | [ bfe|cisco-com p a tible|ddn|ietf ]]

Configure the X.121 address


x 2 5a d d r e s s x.121-address

Create the map between network address and X.121 address


x 2 5m a p protocol protocol-addressx.121-address [option]

Create permanent virtual circuit


x 2 5p v c pvc-number protocol protocol-addressx.121-address[option]

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HUAWEI

Parameter Configuration of the X.25 Packet Layer


Configure virtual circuit scope
x 2 5[LIC|HIC|LTC|HTC|LOC|HOC]circuit-number

Configure packet size


x 2 5i p s bytes thedefaultvalueis128 x 2 5o p sbytes thedefaultvalueis128

Configure window size


x 2 5w inpackets thedefaultvalueis2 x 2 5w o u t packets thedefaultvalueis2

Configure modulo mode


x 2 5m odulo{8|128} thedefault value is www.huawei.com

Configure X.25 Sub-interface


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The sub-interface is a virtual interface, which has its own protocol address and virtual circuit. Multiple sub-interfaces can be set up at one physical interface. There are two types of sub-interfaces: point-to-point sub-interface and point-to-multipoint sub-interface. Operation Enter the main interface Encapsulate the X25 protocol Create the X.25 sub-interface Configure address mapping Command interface serial number encapsulation x25

interface serial number.subinterface-number [ multipoint | point-to-point ] x25 map protocol protocol-address x.121-address [option] x25 pvc pvc-number protocol protocol-address x.121-address Configure permanent virtual [option] circuit

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Typical X.25 Configuration Example


HUAWEI

20112451 202.38.160.1
Serial 0 Router A

20112452 202.38.160.2 V.24/V.35 cable


Serial 1 Router B

interface serial 0 ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation x25 dte x25 address 20112451 x25 map ip 202.38.160.2 20112452

interface serial 1 ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation x25 dce x25 address 20112452 x25 map ip 202.38.160.1 20112451

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X.25 Monitor and Maintenance


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Operation View interface information View the X.25 alias list

Command show interface [ type number ] show x25 alias

View the X.25 address mapping table show x25 map View the X.25 switching routing table show x25 route View the X.25 switching virtual circuit show x25 switch-vc-table table View the X.25 virtual circuit show x25 vc lci-number Enable debugging of all the X25 packets Enable debugging of the X25 event debug x25 all [ interface type number ] debug x25 event [ interface type number ]

Enable debugging of the X25 packets debug x25 packet [ interface type number ]

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X.25 Troubleshooting
HUAWEI

The LAPB has already been in the connected status, but the X.25 protocol cannot be in "UP" status
Check whether the DCE/DTE configuration is correct

The X.25 protocol has been in the "UP" status, but the virtual circuit cannot be set up, i.e., cannot ping through
The local X.121 address is not configured The address mapping is not configured The remote X.121 address is not configured The address mapping from the remote end to the local end is not configured The channel scope is not correct Carry facility options not allowed by the network

The virtual circuit can be set up, but frequent resets or clears occur in data transmission
Check whether the flow control parameters are set correctly

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Introduction to Frame Relay


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The frame relay protocol is a kind of fast packet switching technology based upon the X.25 packet switching technology, it is a kind of improved X.25 protocol. The frame relay is based upon virtual circuits.

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Characteristics of Frame Relay

T h efram erelayprotocoltransm itsdatainform a tioninth eformof fram e s T h etransm issionlinksusedbythefram erelayfordatatransm issionarelogicconnection,notthe p h y s icalconnections Itadoptstwo-levelarchitecture(thePhysicalLayerandtheLinkLayer) It im p lem e n ts statistic m u ltiplexing,transparentfram etransm issionanderrordetectionintheLinkLayer, b u t it doesnotprovideretransm issionoperationaftertheerrorisdetected T h em a x im u mreservedfram elengthatleastshouldreach1600bytes/fram e ,appropriatefor e n c a p s u l a t i n gL A Nd a t au n it Itprovidesasetofreasonablebandwidthm a n a g e m e n tandcongestionpreventingm e c h a n ism T h efram erelayadoptstheswitchingtechnologyorientedtoconnection

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Frame Relay Protocol Stack


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OSI Reference Model

Frame Relay

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The Application Layer The Presentation Layer The Session Layer The Transport Layer The Network Layer The Data Link Layer The Physical Layer

. . . . .

Frame Relay The Physical Layer

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Frame Relay Terms


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DLCI: Digial Link Connection Identifier CIR: Committed Information Rate Bc: Burst committed Be Busst excess allowed FECN: Forward Congestion Indication BECN Backward Congestion Indication DE Disposable flag

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Allocation of Frame Relay DLCI


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Obtain the allocated DLCIs from the frame relay network service provider Each DLCI has only local meaning Map the remote network address to the DLCIs

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Inverse ARP Protocol Used for Network Discovery


DLCI 48 172.16.11.2
FR

DLCI 66 172.16.11.3

Router B
Switch Notification

DLCI 48
Switch Notification
Router B Notifies IP 172.16.11.26

Router A

DLCI 66
Router A notifies IP 172.16.11.3

to DLCI 66

to DLCI 48

TheInverseARPautomaticallyfindsthenetworkaddressofthedestinationroutersoas to sim p lify th eframerelayconfiguration www.huawei.com

LMI Supported by Quidway


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ANSI ITU-T (CCITT) Cisco


Compatible

T1.617 Annex D Q.933 Annex (signaling) Gang of Four

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Frame Relay Network Topology

Full-meshed connection

Star architecture

Partial-mesed Connection

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Split Horizon and Frame Relay


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B wants to forward update routing information

to C through S0 of Router A

Router B

DLCI 16 to B DLCI 17 to C DLCI 18 to D

s0 Router A

Router C

Router D
If mapping three DLCIs in the serial interface S0 of Router A to three routers, then the incoming routing information from S0 will not be sent out from this serial interface.

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Frame Relay Subinterface


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Subnet1

Router B

Subnet 2
Router C

s0.1 s0.2 s0.3

Router A

Subnet3
Router D

The subinterface can solve the problem of horizontal segmentation One physical interface can contain multiple logic subinterfaces The routers are connected through frame relay netowrk

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Frame Relay Configuration


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Encapsulate the frame relay protocol


encapsulation frame-relay [cisco-compatible | ietf ]

Conmfigure the terminal type of the frame relay interface


frame-relay intf-type dce | dte | nni

Select the LMI type


frame-relay lmi-type ansi | cisco-compatible | q933a
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Configure Frame Relay Address Mapping


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The frame relay address mapping sets up the mapping relationship between the remote protocol address and the local DLCI. This address can be statically configured or dynamically configured. Manually configure the static mapping:
frame-relay map { ip | ipx } protocol-address dlci [broadcast ]

Dynamic setup: enable dynamic inverse ARP


frame-relay inverse-arp [ ip | ipx ] [dlci ]
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Configure Local Virtual Circuits of Frame Relay


Allocate a virtual circuit number to the main iterface
frame-relay local-dlci dlci

Allocate the virtual circuit numbers to the main interface or the subinterfaces
frame-relay interface-dlci dlci

Difference: "local" can only allocate virtual circuits for the main interface, but the "interface" can either allocate for both the main interface and the subinterfaces.

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Configure Frame Relay Subinterface


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There are two types of subinterfaces: point-to-point and point-to-multipoint subinterfaces Create frame relay subinterface and enter the subinterface configuration mode
interface type number.subinterface-number [ multipoint | point-to-point ]

Configure the virtual circuit number for the frame relay subinterfaces
frame-relay interface-dlci dlci

The command for creating the address mapping is the same as that of the physical interface, you may either use the static or dynamic address mapping. The address mapping is only needed in point-to-multipoint condition.

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Configure Frame Relay Switching


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Allow the frame relay to perform the PVC switching


frame-relay switching

Set frame relay interface type


frame-relay intf-type { dce | dte | nni }

Configure the route of frame relay PVC switching


frame-relay route in-dlci interface serial number out-dlci

Note: If the frame relay switching is used, interface type should be dce or nni
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Typical Frame Relay Configuration Case 1


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DCE

DLCI 100 DTE


Encapsulated as frame relay

interface serial i p a d d1 ress 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0 encapsulation f r a m e - r e l a y intf-type frame-relay d ce frame-relay local-dlci 1 0 0 frame-relay inverse-arp or frame-relay map ip 202.38.163.252 100

Router A IP202.38.163.251

interface serial i p a d d1 ress 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0 encapsulation f r a m e - r e l a y intf-type frame-relay dte frame-relay inverse-arp or frame-relay map ip 202.38.163.251 100

Router B IP202.38.163.252

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Typical Frame Relay Configuration Case 2


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LANs interconnection through frame relay networ


DLCI 50 IP202.38.163.252 Router B

Frame Relay
Router A DLCI 60

DLCI 70

DLCI 80 IP202.38.163.253 Router C

IP202.38.163.251

For detailed configuration , please refer to the teaching materials

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Frame Relay Monitor and Maintenance


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Operation Show the receiving/transmitting statistics information of LMI frame relay messages Show the mapping table of the protocol address and the frame relay address Show statistic information of the frame relay PVC Show frame relay PVC routing table Show frame relay protocol status of each interface

Command show frame-relay lmi [ interface type number ] show frame-relay map show frame-relay pvc show frame-relay route show frame-relay Status

Clear all the dynamically established frame relay clear frame-relay-inarp address mapping Switch on all the message debugging switches of the debug frame-relay all [ interface type number ] frame relay Switch on frame relay ARP message information debug frame-relay arp [ interface type number ] debugging switch Switch on frame relay event information debugging switch Switch on the LMI protocol information debugging switch of the frame relay debug frame-relay event [ interface type number ] debug frame-relay lmi [ interface type number ]

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Diagnosis and Removal of Frame Relay Fault


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Fault1:ThePhysicalLayerisDOW N checkthephysicallines checktheremoteequipment

T h eP h y s icalLayerisUP,buttheLinkLayerisDOW N
Protocol encapsulation W h e therdoesDTE/DCEcorrespondstoeachother M o n itor the transm itting/receiving status of the LMI message

T h eL inkLayerprotocolisUP,butitcannotpingthroughtherem oteequip m e n t
W h e thertheLinkLayerprotocolsoftheequipmentatbothendsareinUpstatus W h e thertheaddressmappingiscorrect checktheroutingtabletoseewhetherthereisroutetotheremoteequipment

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PPP Summary
HUAWEI

The PPP is a Data Link Layer Protocol It supports the point-to-point connection The Physical Layer can either be synchronous circuit or asynchronous circuit It has various NCP protocols such as IPCP and IPXCP, which support the Network Layer protocol better It has the authentication protocol PAP/CHAP so that the network security is guaranteed

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X.25 Summary
HUAWEI

The X.25 corresponds to the three lower layers of the OSI architecture. The Lapb is the Data Link Layer of the X.25 the data of the other protocols (such as IP, IPX, etc.) can be encapsulated into packets and transmitted through the X.25. Y ou need to perform the following operations to configure the X.25 in an interface:
Encapsulate the interface Set the parameters Set the X.121 address of the interface Configure the X.25 map

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Frame Relay Summary


HUAWEI

UsethelocalDLCIastheframerelayPVCidentifiertothedestinationend T h eQ U IDWAYsupportsthreeLMItypes: A N S I A n n e xD C C ITT AnnexA b C ISCOcompatible D e fine static framerelayMAP D e finesubin terfacetoavoidtheproblemofsplithorizonconcerningroutingupdate Bydefault,theInverseARPcanfindrem oteprotocoladdressforthelocalDLCIautom a tically Usethecommandsshowa n ddebugto m onitor the framerelay

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