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Power flow control using UPFC and PST


A UPFC is used to control the power flow in a 500 kV /230 kV transmission system. The system, connected in a loop configuration, consists essentially of five buses interconnected through three transmission lines (L1, L2, L3) and two 500 kV/230 kV transformer banks Tr1 and Tr2. Two power plants located on the 230 kV system generate a total of 1500 MW which is transmitted to a 500 kV, 15000 MVA equivalent and to a 200 MW load connected at bus. Each plant model includes a speed regulator, an excitation system as well as a power system stabilizer (PSS). In normal operation, most of the 1200 MW generation capacity of power plant

2. study of Phase and power of Three-Winding Distribution Transformer


Furthermore, as the inductive reactive power of Load 1 and Load 2 (2*10 kvar) is compensated by the capacitive reactive power of Load 3 (20 kvar), the primary current is almost in phase with voltage The small phase shift (-2.8deg.) is due to the reactive power associated with transformer reactive losses. 3 Measurement of Voltage and Power Three-Phase Programmable Source, PLL

In this work we study The Discrete 3-Phase PLL block measures the frequency and generates a signal (wt output) locked on the variable frequency system voltage. The PLL drives two measurement blocks taking into account the variable frequency: one block computing the fundamental value of the positive-sequence load voltage and another one computing the load active and reactive powers. These two blocks and the PLL are initialized in order to start in steady state 4. Fault Tolerant Control Systems in Perspective Fault tolerant control systems are considered with the purpose to increase system reliability. A system is reliable if it is able to perform its required function within statedconditions. Increased reliability can be achieved either by ensuring that faults cannotoccur (simple but expensive), or by accepting the inevitable risk of faults and design the system to be fault tolerant (cheap but complex). With the purpose to dene the role of FTCSs this chapter rst discusses the related areas within reliable systems design. This leads to a presentation of the approach taken in this thesis and an outline of the topics considered. State-of-the-Art in these topics is then presented. The design of reliable systems is an interdisciplinary eld that covers a wide range of research areas ranging from process instrumentation manufacturing,over software design to implementation in computers. A system is only reliable if the risk of failures has been considered in each area and subsequently designed anticipating this risk. Reliability and fault tolerance in connection with control systems are considered