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CS M51A Summer13 Section 1 Logic Design of Digital Systems Lecture 11

August 1, 2013

3 Su 1

Yutao He yutao@cs.ucla.edu 4532B Boelter Hall


https://courseweb.seas.ucla.edu/classView.php?term=131&srs=187154910
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Outline
Administrative Matters Chapter 7:
Spec of Sequential Systems

Summary

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Administrative Matters
There is no quiz on Friday August 2nd HW #6
Be posted on-line tonight

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Motivation: Lecture 2 Ex. 2 Revisit


Description:
A single light can be controlled by any one of three switches. Design a digital system that controls the light as follows:
One switch is the master on/off switch. If it is down, the light is off. When the master switch is up, a change in the position of one of other switches causes the light to change.
Switches

Switches DDD DDU DUD DUU UDD UDU UUD UUU

Lights Off Off Off Off Off On On Off

On Off Off On

System

Light

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Sequential Systems: Overview


(Hardware) Systems Analog Digital Seq. Comb.

Basic Concepts
Synchronous sequential systems Clocks States Finite state machines Mealy and Moore machines

Specification
Time behavior (I/O sequence) State transition table State diagram

Sync. Async.

Minimization Implementation
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Definition of Sequential Systems

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Sync. Vs. Async. Sequential Systems

Synchronous

Asynchronous

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Clock
An independent periodic reference signal Provided by
An internal crystal An external 60 Hz alternating current

Make sure you know


When is the present (t) When is the next (t+1)
* back to the future

When is the previous (t-1)


* forth to the past

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Time-Behavior Specification
Behavior of a sequential system can be specified by a sequence of input(s)/output(s) pairs with respect to the clock signal
Time t Input xi(t) Output zi(t) 0 1 2 ...

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Example 7.1: Serial Decimal Adder


Addition is performed one digit at a time, starting from the LSB Output is generated at each time instant As a result, a 8-digit serial decimal adder needs 8 clock cycles to finish the calculation
s = x + y = 21638753+73652425 t 01234567 x(t) 3 5 7 8 3 6 1 2 y(t) 5 2 4 2 5 6 3 7 s(t) 8 7 1 1 9 2 5 9 c(t) 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

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State
Introduced to help memorize the complete input/output sequences Usually number of states are finite Itself is also a time function Two types of states are defined:
present state (PS): s(t) next state (NS): s(t+1)

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State Description of Sequential Systems


A sequential system can be specified as a finite state machine (FSM) by specifying
output function: z(t) = H(s(t), x(t)) state transition function: s(t+1) = G (s(t), x(t))
Inputs x(t) Outputs z(t) Present State s(t)

Output Function State transition Function

Next State s(t+1)

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Example 7.3 - Serial Decimal Adder


Inputs: x(t), y(t) {0,1, , 9} Outputs: z(t) {0, 1, , 9} State: c(t) {0, 1} Initial State: c(0) = 0 Functions:
State transition function: c(t+1) =
1 if x(t)+y(t)+c(t) 10 0 otherwise

Output function z(t) = (x(t)+y(t)+c(t)) mod 10

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State Transition Table


An extended truth table for specifying output function and state transition function in a tabular form

PS

Inputs x(t)

NS, Outputs z(t)

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Example 7.4: Odd/Even Detector


Given a system whose input has two values a and b, and whose output also has two values, 0 and 1. The output at time t is 1 if the number of b s in the input x(0,t) is even, and 0 otherwise.
PS Inputs x(t) Inputs: x(t) {a,b} a b Outputs: z(t) {0, 1} Even Even, 1 Odd, 0 State: s(t) {Even, Odd} Odd Odd, 0 Even, 1 Initial State: s(0) = Even NS, Outputs z(t) t 01234567 x(t) a b b a b a b a z(t) 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
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State Diagram
A graphical specification of a sequential system

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Example: State Diagram


Inputs x(t) a b Even Even, 1 Odd, 0 Odd a/1 b/0 Even Odd Odd, 0 Even, 1 a/0 PS

NS, Outputs z(t)

b/1
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Mealy and Moore Machines


Mealy Machine:
Its output depends upon both input and state

Moore Machine:
Its output depends only upon present state

inputs

logic for
outputs combinational logic for next state

outputs inputs

reg

combinational logic for next state

reg

logic for outputs

outputs

state feedback

state feedback

Mealy Machine

Moore Machine

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Example 7.5 - A Moore Machine

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How to Select State Names


Use integers as state names Example: A modulo-64 counter
Input: x(t) {0,1} Output: z(t) {0,1,,63} State: s(t) {0,1,,63} Initial State: s(0) = 0 Function:
* Transition function: s(t+1) = [s(t)+x(t)] mod 64 * Output function: z(t) = s(t)

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How to Select State Names (Cont d)


Use state-vector approach:
state is represented by a vector s = (sn-1, , s 0)

Example:
A sequential system that counts the occurrence of 55 different events. When the count of event I is a multiple of 100, the output is z(t) = i, otherwise, z(t) = 0 Input: x(t) {1, 2, , 55} Output: z(t) {0, 1, 2, , 55} State: s(t) = (s55,,s1), si {0,1,,99} State: s(0) = (0,0,,0) Functions:
* Transition function: si(t+1) = * Output function:
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[si(t)+1] mod 100 if x(t) = i si(t) otherwise

z(t) =

if x(t) = i and si(t) = 99 0 otherwise


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Case Study 1: Finite Memory Systems


A sequential system has finite memory of length m is z(t) depends only on the last m input values:
z(t) = F(x(t-m+1), t))

Example 7.12:
z(t) =
p q if x(t-3,t) = aaba otherwise

Finite memory of length four

All finite-memory machines are FSMs Not all FSMs are finite-memory
z(t) =
1 0 if number of 1 s in x(0, t) is even otherwise

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Case Study 2: Pattern Detector


Detect sub-patterns in the input sequence Two types:
overlapped and non-overlapped

Example:
Input: x(t) {0,1} Output: z(t) {0,1} 1 Function: z(t) =
0 if x(t-3,t) = 1101 otherwise

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Case Study 2a: Attack CS31 Project 3 in a CSM51A Way


A piano-playing software Buttonbeat
Note, Beat, Tune, A well-formed, note/beat/tune, A playable note/tune

Note:
a note letter a note letter followed by an accidental sign a note letter followed by a digit a note letter followed by an accidental sign followed by a digit

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Case Study 3: Controller


A FSM that produces control signals as the states are traversed. Control signals determine actions performed by other parts of the system. Two types
Autonomous
* State transitions follow a fixed sequence of states, independent of any inputs except the clock.

Non-autonomous
* The transition is decided by external inputs

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Vending Machine Controller

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Vending Machine Controller (Cont d)

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State Minimization
Motivation:
High-level design may generate many redundant states Fewer states may mean fewer state variables To reduce the complexity and cost

Basic concept:
Two states are equivalent if they are impossible to distinguish from the outputs of the FSM, i. e., for any input sequence the outputs are the same
* (1) Output must be the same in both states * (2) Must transition to equivalent states for all input combinations

Basic Methods:
Table matching Implication Chart
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Table Matching Procedure - Overview


Starting with the state table Step 1: Row matching with respect to outputs Step 2: Rename the newly partitioned classes Step 3: List their next state transitions by using new names Step 4: Check if partitions are same by column matching within classes
If no, go back to Step 1 If yes, The states are minimal

Write the state table for the minimal states


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State Minimization - Example 7.14

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Example 7.14 (Cont d)


Row Matching:
P1 = (A, C, E) (B, D, F)

Column Matching:

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Example 7.14 (Cont d)


Row Matching:
P2 = (A, C, E) (B, D) (F)

Column Matching:

Row Matching:
P3 = (A, C) (E) (B, D) (F)

Column Matching:

P3 (A, C) (E) (B, D) (F) a 1 1 2 4 4 b 3 3 4 3 3 c 3 3 4 1 1

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Example 7.14 (Cont d)


Column Matching:
P4 = (A, C) (E) (B, D) (F) = P3

Stop: The states are minimal

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Summary
Specification of sequential systems
time-behavior state-transition table equation state diagram

Several common types of sequential systems


pattern detectors Controller

State equivalence and minimization

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Next Lecture
Chapter 8: Sections 8.1-8.7

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