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CURSO: TCNICO EM INFORMTICA

INGLS INSTRUMENTAL
PROF. LUCY LANNA FREITAS

IGUATU CEAR
APRESENTAO DA DISCIPLINA O que ingls instrumental? Como surgiu? English for Specific Purposes (E.S.P), que em portugus quer dizer: Ingls com Objetivos Especficos, tambm chamado de ingls instrumental ou tcnico, ou seja, a habilidade de entender textos em lngua inglesa usando estratgias especficas de leitura. Surgiu com a necessidade de comunicao rpida e eficaz em vrios contextos mundiais. Como por exemplo: durante a guerra, os soldados precisavam aprender o idioma do inimigo para sobreviverem, este vocabulrio bsico era visto no avio, navio, nos campos de batalha. Com o passar do tempo, outros contextos sociais foram surgindo, como: a necessidade de leitura de livros, revistas, catlogos, instrues operacionais, manuais escritos em ingls que precisavam ser compreendidos pelos usurios, etc. Sendo assim, torna-se necessrio uma abordagem especfica da lngua Inglesa, que atenda as necessidades profissionais dos estudantes, que so leitura e compreenso de livros. E assim, o Ingls Instrumental possui o objetivo de desenvolver a habilidade de leitura, isto , de compreenso de textos de diversas reas do conhecimento escritos em lngua inglesa, utilizando para isso estratgias de leitura, a fim de tornar o aluno capaz de compreender um texto da sua rea de estudo. Nesse enfoque, a leitura conta com o conhecimento prvio dos leitores. O ingls instrumental consiste no treinamento instrumental dessa lngua, em que as habilidades tm por objetivo extrair conhecimentos para reas especficas de estudo. Vale lembrar que o ingls instrumental ou tcnico pode ou no visar a comunicao oral em ingls, entretanto, para os cursos de WEB e REDES sua principal habilidade a ser trebalhada ser a leitura e o estudo de gramtica, restringindo-a a um mnimo necessrio, ou seja, associando-a ao texto. Mtodo Desenvolve a leitura ("reading") de forma limitada a um objetivo especfico, atravs da habilidade de manipular textos em lngua inglesa, tentando assimilar a compreenso geral e inferir informaes especficas. A gramtica ensinada de forma contextualizada a um objetivo especfico. Traduo os textos Para nosso curso no h traduo, porm outros mtodos so utilizados como, por exemplo: deduo, contexto semntico, reconhecimento de afixos, cognatos e vocabulrio da rea. Como sero as aulas?

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As aulas sero ministradas em portugus, pois no curso no sero trabalhadas as habilidades da fala, de compreenso oral e de escrita. No haver traduo literal, outras estratgias sero utilizadas como por exemplo, deduo, cognatos, familiares, dicas tipogrficas e outros. Muitos exerccios de leitura e compreenso de textos, mos quais vocs podero aplicar as estratgias de leitura que sero ensinadas. O ingls instrumental poder abrir seus horizontes de leitura e assim voc se manter mais informado e prximo ao mundo globalizado TESTE: COMO EST O SEU INGLS? Leia atentamente o texto abaixo e assinale a opo correta para cada questo. 1 A computer is a programmable machine that stores and retrieves data and performs high-speed logical and mathematical operations. However, it is not able to think. It accepts data and instructions as input, and after processing them, it outputs the results. 4 When we talk about computers, we have to consider the hardware and the software. The hardware consists of all the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system, and the software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a computer. QUESTES DE 1 A 11 1) O melhor ttulo para o texto seria: a) The history of Computers b) What is a computer? c) Hardware x Software 2) uma idia presente no texto: a) o computador resolve problemas atravs do seu prprio raciocnio. b) o hardware mais importante para o computador do que o software. c) o processamento de dados composto de trs etapas. 3) Do texto, podemos inferir que: a) o computador se presta a diversas aplicaes por causa da sua versatilidade. b) o computador est se tornando cada dia menor e mais barato. c) o computador a inveno humana que mais evoluiu nas ltimas dcadas. 4) (...) the software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a computer. A idia contida na orao acima est associada a: a) It basically consists of the systems analysts, the programmers, the operators and the technical managers. b) It is the collection of man-written solutions, as well as all documents to guide the operation of a computer. c) It consists of several units: the CPU, the main memory, and the peripherals known as input and output devices. 5) No trecho selecionado para a questo 4, a palavra programs pode ser entendida como: a) canais b) jogos c) instrues 6) A pergunta que pode ser respondida com base nas informaes contidas no texto : a) Quem inventou o computador? b) O que significa software?

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c) O que um dispositivo de entrada? 7) A opo na qual a palavra computer exerce a funo de modificador : a) computer (I. 1) b) computers (I. 4) c) computer (I. 5) 8) O melhor pargrafo para finalizar o texto seria: a) Fourth-generation computers are rather faster than third-generation computers and can complete thousands of instructions at a time. b) On the backside of the computer, there are several slots into which we can connect a wide range of peripherals. c) In only a short time, the computer has changed the way in which many jobs are done and has become part of our everyday lives. 9) De acordo com o texto e com as informaes abaixo faa a correspondncia entre as palavras ( esquerda) e as definies ( direita) a) computer game ( ) The study and development of computer systems, hardware and software. b) computer graphics ( ) All of the hardware and software that can interact with a particular computer. c) computer science d) computer security ( ) Charts, graphs, diagrams, or pictures produced with the aid of a computer. ( ) A computer program designed for amusement or instruction. or unauthorized persons. 10) Os fatos abaixo esto relacionados com a histria do computador. Numere-os de 1 a 5, partindo do mais antigo para o mais recente. ( ( ( ( ( ) In the 17th and 18th centuries, many ways of calculating were invented. ) The first analog computer was used in World War II. ) The primitive calculating device was the fingers of a mans hands. ) Howard Aiken invented the first digital computer, called Mark 1. ) The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820.

e) computer system ( ) The process of protecting a computer system from access by virus

11) Identifique as partes componentes do computador abaixo:

Monitor Screen Keyboard Mouse CD-Rom Drive Disk Drive Scanner Printer CD-Rom - Floppy Disk/Diskette

ABILITIES AND OTHER FACILITATORS Cognates: so palavras de origem grega ou latina bem parecidas com as do portugus. Ex. different diferente, infection infeco. Obs.: Ateno com os falsos cognatos. Ex. pretend no significa pretender, mas sim, fingir; importante observar se a palavra se encaixa no contexto. Repeated words: se uma palavra aparece vrias vezes no texto, isto significa que ela importante para a compreenso do mesmo. Typographical Evidences: so smbolos, letras maisculas, negrito, itlico, etc., que do dicas teis sobre o texto. Selectivity: leitura seletiva, isto , selecionar os trechos onde se quer encontrar uma determinada informao (pargrafos, por exemplo). Dictionary: o dicionrio deve ser utilizado como ltimo recurso para se descobrir o significado de uma palavra ou expresso desconhecida. Isso para que a leitura no seja lenta demais, e para que o leitor no desanime tendo que parar toda vez que encontrar algo desconhecido. ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA Skimming: leitura rpida para ter-se uma idia central do texto. Scanning: leitura com objetivo de encontrar algumas informaes especficas no texto. Prediction: significa inferir o contedo de um texto atravs de seu conhecimento prvio sobre o tema (background); atravs do contexto semntico (palavras de um mesmo grupo, por exemplo: hospital, nurse, doctor, ambulance); contexto lingstico (pistas gramaticais); contexto no-lingstico (gravuras, grficos, tabelas, nmeros, etc.); conhecimento sobre estrutura do texto (lay out, ttulo, subttulo, diviso de pargrafos, etc.). Vale ressaltar a importncia do conhecimento prvio do leitor e das suas expectativas e dedues em relao ao texto. COGNATOS Muito comuns na Lngua Inglesa, os cognatos so palavras de procedncia grega ou latina, bastantes parecidas com as da Lngua Portuguesa, tanto na forma, como no significado. Os cognatos podem ser: Idnticos: Exs.: radio, piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular, chance, camera, inventor, etc. Bastante parecidos: Exs.: gasoline, banks, inflation, intelligent, population, revolution, commercial, attention, different, products, secretary, billion, dramatic, deposits, distribution, automatic, television, public, events, models, etc. Vagamente parecidos: Exs.: electricity, responsible, explain, activity, impossible, lamp, company, etc.

PALAVRAS FAMILIARES (ESTRANGEIRISMOS) Familiares so palavras conhecidas pela maioria das pessoas que vive em um pas altamente influenciado pela cultura dos pases de Lngua Inglesa. No tm a mesma origem das palavras da Lngua Portuguesa. Alguns exemplos de Familiares: Software Fast food Delivery Shows Hamburguer Windows Video game Dollar Moto/Office Boy Play Hot dog Credit card Marketing Site DVD / CD Diet Mouse Light Drive-thru Record

COGNATOS Leia os segmentos abaixo e selecione todas as palavras que se paream com o Portugus e aquelas que so usadas da mesma forma tanto na Lngua Inglesa como na Lngua Portuguesa. a. Computers are electronic machines that process information. They can perform complex operations in a fraction of time. But, they cant think. b. Computers are divided into two parts: hardware and software. Hardware refers to the actual equipment and software refers to the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer. c. The CPU is the part of a computer that executes the arithmetic and logic operations. It controls all the computer activities.

d. Memory is the storage area where a computer saves or retrieve data. It is expressed as quantities of K. For example, each K is equal to 1,024 bytes and each byte is equal to 8 bits. e. A mouse is a device that has a ball underneath. It is used to point the cursor at different parts of the screen or at specials symbols called icons. f. There are many different high-level languages. Each one has its advantage or disadvantage. COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL and PASCAL are examples of high-level languages.

g. Data put into a computer is INPUT. The input is processed according to the program that is being used. The results of processing are called OUTPUT. h. Film transparent de qualit suprieure. Faites de votre imprimante couleur HP Deskjet une machine fabriquer ls transparents pour rtroprojecteur. (Hewlett Packard)

SKIMMING
Leia os segmentos abaixo e utilizando os cognatos e familiares identifique o assunto abordado em cada um deles: 1) One of the most impressive sights in Paris, this construction was built in the second half of the 19th century as an ornament, presumably to show the possibilities of steel, and to allow Parisians to see their own city from above. Now a major tourist attraction for visitors from all over the world and a site for TV and radio transmissions. It is linked in the worlds mind with the image of France and Paris. - ____________________________________________. 2) In computer science, a popular pointing input device, used mostly for playing computer games but used for other tasks as well. It usually has a square or rectangular plastic base to which is attached a vertical stem. Control buttons are located on the base and sometimes on top of the stem. The stem can be moved to control the movement of an object on the screen. - ____________________________________________. 3) A computer peripheral that puts text or image on paper or on another medium, such as a transparency. They can be categorized in any of several ways. The most common distinction is impact x, non impact. Impact physically strike the paper and are exemplified by dot-matrix; non impact include every other type of print mechanism including laser, ink-jet and thermal. - ____________________________________________. 4) Alcoholic drink produced originally in Scotland, Ireland and USA, by fermenting certain cereal grains and then distilling to produce a light-colored liquid containing about 40% alcohol. It is drunk with or without ice, soda or according to taste. - ____________________________________________. 5) A common pointing device. Its basic features are a casing with a flat bottom, designed to be gripped by one hand; one or more buttons on the top; a ball on the bottom; and a cable connecting it to the computer. By moving it on a surface, the user typically controls a cursor. To select items or choose commands on the screen, the user presses one of the buttons, producing a click._________________________________.

Scanning
Complete the chart using the information from the texts below: 2. Last week Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz, 76, was awarded this years Nobel Prize in Literature. A day after the announcement, Paz met with Newsweeks Sarah Crichton in New York.

1. Czechoslovakias minister of Finance, Vaclav Klaus, an advocate of free-market economic reforms, has emerged as his countrys fastest-rising politician. At a recent congress of the Civic Forum, the the coalition that toppled the Communist regime, Klaus was elected chairman, overwhelming the candidate supported by President Vaclav Havel. Last week in Prague, Klaus, 49, talked with NewsWeeks Andrew Nagorski about the Significance of his upset victory. 3. Chilean novelist Isabel Allende, 48, a niece of the late President Salvador Allende, is one of the most celebrated authors writing in Spanish. While visiting Rome to promote the release of her latest book, Stories of Eva Luna, she talked to Newsweeks Anne Whaley.

4. Jean-Luc Godard, 60, is widely considered one of the worlds great film directors. A founder of the French New Wave film movement, along with Franois Truffaut and Eric Rohmer, Godard has directed such modern classics as Contempt Starring Brigitte Bardot and others. His latest film, New Wave features Alain Delon. Recently, Godard spoke with Newsweeks Benjamin Iury at at his office in Rolle, Switzerland. Nationality Occupation

Name Isabel Allende

Age

76 Czech Film Director

PREDICTION
Correspondncia a) Suponhamos que voc acaba de receber um carto-postal de um amigo que est viajando. O carto pegou chuva e algumas palavras desapareceram. Tente descobrir que palavra foi apagada em cada lacuna atravs da previsibilidade fornecida pelo contexto. Querido_________________________, A viagem est sendo __________________ .Tenho____ divertido bastante por aqui. H muitas ______________ para fazer durante a noite: vrios bares, restaurantes, cinemas e teatros e _______________ variedade de shows. A cidade ________________ bonita, com uma geografia encantadora. Ontem __________o Po de Acar com meus primos. A subida do bondinho d um __________na barriga, mas vale a pena vencer o medo. A _________ l do alto do morro fantstica! Espero ________ tudo esteja bem a com vocs. Volto __________ uma semana. Um grande abrao e at a ________________ b) Como voc descobriu as palavras que faltavam? ______________________________________ c) Apesar de o nome da cidade visitada pelo seu amigo no estar mencionada no carto, ela pode ser facilmente reconhecida. Que meios voc utilizou para a deduo? _____________________ d) De que modo seu conhecimento de mundo pode ajud-lo a fazer inferncias? _______________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 1- Quais os diferentes tipos de texto que voc conhece? ______________________________________________________________________ 2- Que estratgias voc utiliza para deduzir o assunto de um texto nas seguintes situaes: a) Voc encontra um grupo de amigos conversando e descobre que perdeu metade da conversa. ______________________________________________________________________ b) Voc liga a televiso e ouve a notcia que lhe interessa pela metade. ______________________________________________________________________ c) Voc chega atrasado ao cinema e perde os primeiros minutos do filme. ___________________________________________________________________

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What is a browser, and what browsers are available? A browser is a software program used to access and display pages and files on the web. Browsers require a connection to the Internet (e.g., through a cable modem, a direct Ethernet connection, or a modem). Popular web browsers include the following: Mozilla Firefox, Netscape, Internet Explorer, and Safari Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, and Safari are graphical web browsers that can access text, graphics, sound, and other media. These browsers offer a graphical user interface in which you use a mouse to navigate. Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Netscape are available for both Windows and Macintosh computers; Safari is available only for Mac OS X. Firefox is available to Indiana University users in all of the Student Technology Centers (STCs). Netscape and Internet Explorer are available in the Windows STCs; Safari is available in the Macintosh STCs. All are available via IUware at: http://iuware.iu.edu/

1) O que um Browser e para que usado? (Resposta em portugus) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) De acordo com o texto, quais so os Browsers mais populares? (Resposta em portugus) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) O que estes browsers oferecem? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4) Para onde o Firefox est disponvel? ___________________________________________________ 5) Para onde o Safari est disponvel? ____________________________________________________ 6) Qual o tipo de texto?_______________________________________________________________ 7) Circule todas as palavras cognatas no texto. 8) Relacione todas as palavras familiares do texto e d a traduo. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

FALSOS COGNATOS Tambm chamados de falsos amigos, os falsos cognatos so palavras normalmente derivadas do latim, que tm portanto a mesma origem e que aparecem em diferentes idiomas com ortografia semelhante, mas que ao longo dos tempos acabaram adquirindo significados diferentes. Abaixo est a tabela de falsos cognatos.

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EM INGLS SIGNIFICA EM PORTUGUS MAS PARECE SER QUE EM INGLS

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ACTUAL ACTUALLY ADVERTISE ALUMNUS AMASS APPLICATION APPOINTMENT ARGUMENT ASSIST ATTEND AUDIENCE AVAILABLE BALCONY BARRACS BATON BEEF BOND CAFETERIA CAMERA CARTON CASUALTY CIGAR COLLAR COLLEGE COMMODITY COMPASS COMPETITION COMPREHENSIVE CONDUCTOR CONTEST CONVENIENT CONVICT COSTUME DATA DECEPTION DECORATE DEFENDANT DESIGN DISGUST DIVERT EDITOR EDUCATED EMISSION ENROLL ESTATE EXCITING EXIT EXPERT EXQUISITE REAL NA VERDADE ANNCIO EX-ALUNO ACUMULAR INSCRIO HORA MARCADA DISCUSSO AJUDAR FREQUENTAR PLATIA, PBLICO DISPONVEL SACADA QUARTEL BATUTA, CACETETE CARNE DE GADO LAO, LIGAO REFEITRIO MQ. FOTOGRFICA CAIXA DE PAPELO FATALIDADE CHARUTO GOLA, COLARINHO FACULDADE ARTIGO, MERCADORIA BSSOLA CONCORRNCIA COMPLETO, TOTAL COBRADOR COMPETIO, CONCURSO PRTICO CONDENADO ROUPA, FANTASIA DADOS, INFORMAES LOGRO, FRAUDE DECORAR(ORNAMENTAR) RU PROJETO, CRIAO, ESTILO NUSEA DESVIAR REDATOR INSTRUDO DESCARGA ALISTAR-SE PROPRIEDADE, IMVEL EMPOLGANTE SADA PERITO APURADO ATUAL ATUALMENTE ADVERTIR ALUNO AMASSAR APLICAO APONTAMENTO ARGUMENTO ASSISTIR ATENDER AUDINCIA AVALIAR BALCO BARRACA BATOM BIFE BUNDE CAFETERIA CMARA CARTO CASUALIDADE CIGARRO COLAR COLGIO COMODIDADE COMPASSO COMPETIO COMPREENSIVO CONDUTOR CONTEXTO CONVENIENTE CONVICTO COSTUME DATA DECEPO DECORAR(SABER DE COR) DEFENDER DESIGNAR DESGOSTO DIVERTIR EDITOR EDUCADO EMISSO ENROLLAR ESTADO EXCITANTE XITO ESPERTO ESQUISITO PRESENT NOWADAYS, TODAY WARN PUPIL WRINKLE, DENT, CRUSH INVESTMENT NOTE REASONING ATTEND ANSWER, SERVE COURT APPEARENCE EVALUATE COUNTER HUT, TENT LIPSTICK STEAK STREERCAR, TRAM COFFEE SHOP CHAMBER, TUBE CARD CASUALLNESS CIGARETTE NECKLACE HIGH SCHOOL COMFORT A PAIR OF COMPASSES CONTEST UNDERSTANDING DRIVER CONTEXT APPROPRIATE CERTAIN CUSTOM, HABIT DATE DISAPPOINTMENT MEMORIZE DEFEND APPOINT GRIEF ENJOY PUBLISHER POLITE ISSUE WIND, CURL STATE THRILLING SUCCESS SMART WEIRD

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FABRIC FAMILIAR FILE GRIP INCOME TAX RETURN INGENIOUS INGENUITY INJURY INJURY INSCRIPTION INTEND INTOXICATION INTRODUCE JOURNAL JUST LAMP LARGE LECTURE LEGEND LIBRARY LUNCH LUXURY MAGAZINE MANAGE MAYOR MOISTURE MOROSE NOTICE NOVEL OFFICE ORDINARY ORE PARENTS PARTICULAR PASTA PHYSICIAN POLICY PORT PORTER PREJUDICE PRESCRIBE PRESENTLY PRETEND PREVENT PROCURE PROFESSOR PROPAGANDA PROPER PULL PUSH RANGE TECIDO CONHECIDO ARQUIVO AGARRAR FIRME DECLARAO DE IMPOSTO DE RENDA CRIATIVO, ENGENHOSO ENGENHOSIDADE FERIMENTO FERIMENTO RAVAO EM RELEVO PRETENDER EMBRIAGUEZ APRESENTAR PERIDICO NUM DADO MOMENTO, APENAS LUMINRIA GRANDE PALESTRA LENDA BIBLIOTECA ALMOO LUXO REVISTA ADMINISTRAR, CONSEGUIR PREFEITO UMIDADE RABUGENTO PERCEBER ROMANCE ESCRITRIO COMUM MINRIO PAIS ESPECFICO MASSA MDICO POLTICA, NORMA PORTO CARREGADOR PRECONCEITO RECEITAR LOGO, EM BREVE FINGIR IMPEDIR CONSEGUIR, ADQUIRIR PROFESSOR DE UNIVERSIDADE DIVULGAODE IDIAS APROPRIADO, ADEQUADO PUXAR EMPURRAR VARIAR, COBRIR FBRICA FAMILIAR FILA GRIPE DEVOLUO DE IMPOSTO DE RENDA INGNUO INGENUIDADE INJRIA INJURIA INSCRIO ENTENDER INTOXICAO INTRODUZIR JORNAL JUSTO(APERTADO - DE JUSTIA) LMPADA LARGO LEITURA LEGENDA LIVRARIA LANCHE LUXRIA MAGAZINE MANEJAR MAIOR MISTURE MOROSO NOTCIA NOVELA OFICIAL ORDINRIO OURO PARENTES PARTICULAR PASTA FSICO POLCIA PORTA PORTEIRO PREJUZO PRESCREVER PRESENTEMENTE PRETENDER PREVENIR PROCURAR PROFESSOR PROPAGANDA PRPRIO PULAR PUXAR RANGER FACTORY
MEMBER OF THE FAMILY

LINE, QUEUE COLD INCOME TAX REFUND NAIVE NAIVETY INSULT INSULT APPLICATION UNDERSTAND POISONING INSERT NEWSPAPER TIGHT FAIR LIGHT BULB WIDE READING SUBTITLE BOOKSTORE SNACK LUST DEPARTMENT STORE HANDLE BIGGER MIXTURE SLOW NEWS SOAP OPERA OFFICIAL VULGAR GOLD RELATIVES PRIVATE FOLDER, PASTE PHYSICAL POLICE DOOR DOORMAN DAMAGE EXPIRE NOW INTEND WARN LOOK FOR TEACHER ADVERTISEMENT OWN JUMP PULL CREAK, GUARDA

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REALIZE RECLAIM RECORD REPORT REQUIREMENT RESPITE RESUME RSUM RETIRE SCHOLAR SENSIBLE SORT STABLE STRANGER STUPID SUPPORT SYMPATHETIC TAX TEMPER TENANT TENTATIVE TURN TUTOR UNIQUE USE VEGETABLES VINE VOYAGE PERCEBER RECUPERAR GRAVAR, DISCO RELATRIO REQUISITO INTERVALO, PAUSA RECOMEAR CURRCULO APOSENTAR ERUDITO, LETRADO SENSATO ESPCIE, ESCOLHER FIRME, ESTVEL DESCONHECIDO BURRO SUSTENTAR, APOIAR COMPREENSIVO, SOLIDRIO IMPOSTO TEMPERAMENTO, GNIO INQUILINO PROVISRIO VEZ, VOLTA PROFESSOR PARTICULAR DIFERENTE, SEM IGUAL UTILIZAR, USAR VERDURAS, LEGUMES VINHA, VIDEIRA VIAGEM DE BARCO, NAVE ESPACIAL REALIZAR RECLAMAR RECORDAR REPRTER REQUERIMENTO RESPEITO RESUMIR RESUMO RETIRAR ESCOLAR SENSIVEL SORTE ESTBULO ESTRANGEIRO ESTPIDO SUPORTAR SIMPTICO TAXA TEMPERO TENENTE TENTATIVA TURNO TUTOR NICO USAR (VESTIR) VEGETAIS VINHO VIAGEM FLORESTAL ACCOMPLISH COMPLAIN REMEMBER, RECALL REPORTER REQUEST, PETITION RESPECT SUMMARIZE SUMMARY WITHDRAW SCHOOLBOY SENSITIVE LUCK BARN FOREIGNER RUDE BEAR, STAND, TOLERATE NICE, PLEASANT, FRIENDLY FEE CONDIMENT LIEUTENANT ATTEMPT, TRY SHIFT GUARDIAN THE ONLY ONE WEAR PLANTS WINE JOURNEY, TRIP, TRAVEL

Exercite no texto abaixo alguns falsos cognatos:

A DAY AT WORK In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement. Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have already retired. I pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the office. After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the government. Escreva o verdadeiro significado das palavras em destaque:

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___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

USO DO DICIONRIO O dicionrio uma fonte de muitos tipos de informaes sobre palavras. Veja o exemplo abaixo: COMPUTER: (KAMPJULTER). An electronic machine that can be supplied with a program. Voc pode notar que podemos encontrar: - A representao fontica das palavras - Abreviaturas - Significado das palavras - Classe gramatical das palavras Veja o exemplo seguinte e responda: 1. Qual a representao fontica da palavra look? 2. Quantos significados ela pode ter como substantivo? E como verbo? 3. Qual a primeira expresso mencionada? 4. Qual o significado de to look for?

Adaptado do dicionrio Ingls/Portugus Michaellis Verbos Quando voc procura um verbo no dicionrio geralmente encontra a base do verbo, por exemplo: look, work, teach. Mas, quando lemos textos encontramos os verbos sob diferentes formas: looking, worked, teaches. Quando o verbo irregular encontramos a seguinte explicao no dicionrio: Fell/fel/ v. passado de fall. Assim, ter que procurar o verbo na sua forma base (fall), para encontrar a definio da palavra. Observe os seguintes exemplos em Portugus e Ingls. Quais as semelhanas na forma de utilizao das palavras no Portugus e no Ingls? 1. Ele apagou as velas. 2. Tenho que limpar as velas do carro. 3. O marinheiro levantou as velas do barco. 4. Eu no vou ao cinema com eles porque detesto segurar vela.

Look (luk) s. 1. Olhar m., olhadela f. 2. Expresso f. aspecto m// v. 1 Olhar 2. Contemplar, observar. 3. /considerar. 4. Prestar ateno. 5. Ter vista para. 6. Parecer. 7. Inspecionar, examinar Have a ~ at It d uma olhada nisto. It ~s like rain est com aspecto de chuva, ameaa chover. ~ out seja cuidadoso. To ~ after 1. Procurar 2. Cuidar de. To ~ down upon

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claro que o contexto sempre importante para a compreenso das palavras que tm vrios significados diferentes. Em Ingls tambm o contexto muito importante para a interpretao adequada dos vocbulos. 1. The waiter fills their glasses with champagne. 2. She went to the optician for a new pair of glasses. 3. This window is made of glass. 4. I like computers. 5. OS2 operating system is like Ms DOS Voc precisa ter em mente que na leitura de textos tcnicos voc encontrar vrias palavras em ingls que talvez j faam parte de seu vocabulrio, mas que nesse contexto iro adquirir novos significados. Qual a traduo mais adequada para os vocbulos em negrito? 1. I will substitute my computer by a notebook. 2. I need a new notebook for my English classes 3. I need the key to open the door. 4. To enter the program, press any key. 5. I have to save money to by a new car. 6. Dont forget to save the file before turning off the computer. Abreviaturas mais comuns encontradas nos dicionrios f. feminino m. masculino m. pl = masculino plural p.p. = particpio passado pl = plural pop. = popular pref. = prefixo prep. = preposio pret. = pretrito pron. = pronome s. substantivo s.pl = plural sg. = singular sup. = superlativo v. = verbo var. = variante de Smbolos Comuns: separao da categoria morfolgica ~ substitui a palavra de entrada (ou seja, a palavra que se est consultando) Smbolos fonticos: Formas de pronncia Vogais / Ditongos / Semivogais / Consoantes Sinal que significa acentuao Sinal : que significa prolongao NOTA: Observar sempre a organizao do dicionrio (guia fontico)

DOUBLE MEANING WORDS

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comum a todas as lnguas a ocorrncia de palavras com significado ou funo gramatical mltiplos. Freqentemente este mltiplo sentido em um idioma no tem correspondente em outro. Quer dizer: os termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas reas de significado entre diferentes idiomas. Este fenmeno, tambm chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer idioma; assim como o portugus, o ingls tambm tem inmeras palavras de mltiplo significado. , entretanto a ocorrncia do fenmeno na lngua me do aluno que causa maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular sempre mais difcil do que o inverso. Portanto, sempre que diferentes idias representadas pela mesma palavra na lngua me do aluno corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda lngua, o mesmo ter dificuldades em expressar-se corretamente. As diferentes palavras do ingls que correspondem aos diferentes significados da palavra do portugus podem eventualmente funcionar como sinnimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre os dois idiomas. O objetivo, entretanto, mostrar os contrastes nas ocorrncias mais usuais do vocabulrio ingls moderno. Ingls Abstract Affiliate Affluent Ambulant Apology Application Apply Argument Arm Bachelor Balance Ball Bar Bat Cancel Capital Case Cell Character China Class Classified Club Coll Collect Compass Confirmed Consistent Content Date Directory Easy Primeiro significado Abstrato Filiar-se Afluente Paciente de Ambulatrio Apologia Aplicao Aplicar Argumento Arma Bacharel Balana Bola Bar Basto de beisebol Cancelar Capital Caso Clula Carter China Classe Classificado Clube Fresco Colecionar Compasso Confirmado Consistente Contente Date Diretoria Fcil Segundo significado Resumo Determinar Paternidade Rico Capaz de Caminhar Desculpas Requerimento Inscrever-se Discusso Brao Solteiro Equilbrio Baile, Bala (projtil) Barra Morcego Carimbar Maiscula Estojo Cela Personagem, caractere Porcelana Aula Confidencial Taco de golfe Legal Cobrar, coletar Bssola Inveterado Compatvel Contedo Tmara, Encontro Lista telefnica Em Paz / Confortvel

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Effective Entertain Faculty Figure Fix General Individual Interest Just Legend Letter Match Major Manifest Mark Mass Matter Medicine Move Observe Official Oil Operator Order Park Period Plant Principal Pupil Race Rare Record Rest Retire Roll Save Scale Sequel Spectacles Spirits Story Subject To Play Turkey Vice Efetivo Entreter Faculdade (mental) Figura Fixar General Individual Interesse Justo Legenda Letra Ligar (Relacionar) Major Manifesto Marca Massa Matria Medicina Mover Observar Oficial leo Operador Ordem Parque Perodo Planta Principal Pupila Raa Raro Recorde Resto Retirar Rolo Salvar Escala Sequela Espetculos Espritos Estria Sujeito Jogar/ Brincar Turquia Vice Verdadeiro Receber visitas Corpo Docente Nmero Consertar Geral Indivduo Juros Apenas Lenda Carta Partida (Jogo) Principal bvio Nota Missa Assunto Remdio Mudar Celebrar Autoridade Petrleo Telefonista Pedido Estacionar Menstruao Fbrica Diretor da escola Aluno Corrida Mal passado (carne) Gravar Descansar Aposentar Lista Economizar Balana Sequencia culos Bebida alcolica Pavimento, andar Assunto Tocar / Imitar Peru Vcio

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EXERCCIOS A) Assinale o significado correto das palavras em destaque nas sentenas: 1) I need to cancel your documents. ( ) cancelar ( ) carimbar 2) She is the principal of the school. ( ) diretora ( ) principal 3) His mark was terrible. ( ) marca ( ) nota 4) The operator (a) gave me the wrong number of the plant (b). a- ( ) operador ( ) telefonista b- ( ) planta ( ) fbrica 5) We are lost. We need a compass now. ( ) bssola ( ) compasso 6) He is the most famous bachelor of the party. ( ) bacharel ( ) solteiro 7) Do you know the capital (a) of China (b)? a- ( ) capital ( ) principal b- ( ) porcelana ( ) China 8) Brasilia is the capital of Brazil. ( ) capital ( ) maiscula 9) I use capital letter to write my name. ( ) capital ( )maiscula 10) I appreciate Chinese china. ( ) porcelana ( ) China 11) John collects caps. ( ) coleciona ( ) cobrou B) D os respectivos significados das palavras repetidas em cada segmento: 1) a) Mike is not married. He is a bachelor. b) He finished the college last year. Now, he is a bachelor in Biology. 2) We have a directory in order to look for the telephone numbers of the students. This directory is in the directory of the school. 3) The character of this film has a bad character. 4) You have to write the names of the capitals with capital letters.

MOUSE MEMORIES In 1968 Douglas Engelbart demoed a strange device called a mouse. Last week 1.500 people gathered at Stanford University to honor him. Speakers stressed that Engelbarts contributions went beyond the mouse.

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His Stanford computer was the second one to hook up to ARPAnet, the Internets predecessor, and he developed the first use of multiple windows. More important, Engelbart strove to enhance human intelligence, thus improving our ability to solve problems. Well click to that. (SCANNING) Responda as questes abaixo: 1) O que aconteceu: a) em 1968? ______________________________________________________________________________ b) durante a semana anterior a 28 de dezembro de 1998? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2) Na frase: Well click to that, o termo em destaque passa a idia de: a) discordar b) aprovar c) rejeitar d) aplaudir 3) Verdadeiro ou Falso: Segundo os oradores, o trabalho de Engelbart restringiu-se criao do mouse. (cite a linha do texto em que se encontra essa informao) ______________________________________________________________________ 4) De onde foi retirado o texto lido? a) de um jornal b) da internet c) de um livro d) de uma revista 5) Faa, em portugus, um breve resumo sobre o texto. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

A HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER: NETWORK Timesharing, the concept of linking a large numbers of users to a single computer via remote terminals, is developed at MIT in the late 50s and early 60s. 1962: Paul Baran of RAND develops the idea of distributed, packet-switching networks. ARPANET goes online in 1969. Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the basic ideas of the Internet in 1973. In 1974 BBN opens the first public packet-switched network - Telenet.

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A UUCP link between the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University establishes USENET in 1979. The first MUD is also developed in 1979, at the University of Essex. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol) is established as the standard for ARPANET in 1982. 1987: the number of network hosts breaks 10,000. 1989: the number of hosts breaks 100,000. Tim Berners-Lee develops the World Wide Web. CERN releases the first Web server in 1991. 1992: the number of hosts breaks 1,000,000. The World Wide Web sports a growth rate of 341,634% in service traffic in its third year, 1993. The main U.S. Internet backbone traffic begins routing through commercial providers as NSFNET reverts to a research network in 1994. The Internet 1996 World Exposition is the first World's Fair to be held on the internet. 1) Quando a ARPANET foi ao ar? ________________________________________________________ 2) O que fizeram Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf? _________________________________________________ 3) Escreva um pargrafo informando o assunto tratado no texto. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4) O que TCP/IP em ingls? (traduza para o portugus)

5) Qual o significado do termo World Wide Web?

CONJUNCTIONS

1. ADIO:
-

2.

and : e in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover: alm disso as well as: assim como also: tambm apart from: com exceo de both....and: ambos; tanto como not only ... but also: no apenas...mas tambm CONTRASTE/CONCESSO/ADVERSATIVA: but: mas however, neverthless: entretanto yet: entretanto, ainda

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although, even though, though: embora nonetheless, notwithstanding: no obstante despite that, in spite of: apesar de rather than, instead of: em vez de whereas: enquanto PROPSITO: in order to: a fim de - so as to: de modo que

3.

4. CONSEQUNCIA/CONCLUSO: - therefore: portanto - consequently, as a result: consequentemente - accordingly: de acordo, adequadamente - hence: pois, ento, da - thus: assim - thereby: assim, desse modo - then: ento - so: ento, pois - finally: finalmente 5. ALTERNATIVA - otherwise: por outro lado - or: ou - or else: ou ento, ou ainda - either ... or: ou... ou - while, whereas: enquanto

6. REITERAO:

- that is: isto - in other words: em outras palavras in short, in brief: em resumo - i.e. : (do latim) isto that is to say: quer dizer 7. COMPARAO: like, as: como than: do que

8. ILUSTRAO:
e.g. : (do latim) por exemplo for instance, for example: por exemplo such as: tal como namely: a saber viz: (do latim) quer dizer

9. CONDIO:
if: se unless: se no, a menos que provided that: uma vez que on condition that: desde que as long as: uma vez que subject to: sujeito a

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wether: se CAUSA: because: porque due to: devido a as: porque since: uma vez que DVIDA OU HIPTESE: perhaps, maybe: talvez possibly: possivelmente TEMPORAL: when: quando while: enquanto GRUPOS NOMINAIS So grupos de palavras, compostos por duas ou mais palavras que esto relacionadas entre si, sendo que uma a palavra principal; o substantivo (ncleo), e as outras so os modificadores; palavras que caracterizam o substantivo. Exs.: Electric Energy = Energia Eltrica Private Investors = Investidores Privados State Government = Governo Estadual Observe que nos grupos nominais em Ingls a palavra principal, ou seja, o substantivo (ncleo) sempre a ltima palavra do grupo, ao passo que em portugus ns comeamos o grupo com ela. Assim, temos: United Kingdom Reino Unido Parliamentary Vote Voto Parlamentar

10.

11.

12.

Os grupos nominais podem ter mais de um modificador: Red Cross Emblem = Emblema da Cruz Vermelha Vrias siglas so iniciais de Grupo Nominais: VIP = Very Important Person = __________________________________________________________ WTC = World Trade Center = ____________________________________________________________ WHO = World Health Organization = _____________________________________________________ NASA = National Air and Space Administration = ___________________________________________ USAF = United States Air Force = ________________________________________________________ USA = United States of America__________________________________________________________ Outros Exemplos:

Modern computer = Computador moderno Central processor = Processador central Laser printer = Impressora laser Personal computer = Computador pessoal

Confirma-se ento que a ordem dos grupos nominais em Ingls INVERSA ordem em Portugus: Data Processing = Processamento de dados Central Processing Unit = Unidade Central de Processamento Arithmetic and Logic Operations = Operaes lgicas e aritmticas Operaes aritmticas e lgicas Electronic machine = Mquina eletrnica

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Pense nas seguintes estruturas: Como elas seriam traduzidas para o Portugus?

Car race = ________________________


Exerccios

Race car = ________________________

1) Qual o significado das siglas e as suas respectivas tradues: a. IMF (International Monetary Fund): ______________________________________ b. NATO (North-Atlantic Treat Organization): _________________________________ c. EEC (European Economic Community): ____________________________________ d. UNO (United Nations Organization): ______________________________________ e. USA (United States of America): __________________________________________ f. CPU (______________________________________________________________): ________________________________________________________________ g.RAM(____________________________________________________________________):_____________ ____________________________________________________ h.ROM(____________________________________________________________________):____________ ____________________________________________________ i. CD (________________________________________________________________): ______________________________________________________________________ j.ALU(____________________________________________________________________):______________ ____________________________________________________ k. ALGOL (____________________________________________________________): ______________________________________________________________________ l.BASIC(____________________________________________________________________):____________ ________________________________________________________ m.COBOL(_____________________________________________________________________):_________ __________________________________________________ n. CRT (______________________________________________________________):________________________ o. DDD (______________________________________________________________): ____________________________________________________________________ p. DOS (______________________________________________________________): ______________________________________________________________________

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q. IBM (______________________________________________________________): ______________________________________________________________________ r.I/ODevices(____________________________________________________________________):________ ____________________________________________________ s. MVS (______________________________________________________________): ______________________________________________________________________ t. PC (________________________________________________________________): _____________________________________________________________________ u.HTML(____________________________________________________________________):____________ ____________________________________________________ v.WWW(_____________________________________________________________________):___________ ____________________________________________________

2) Analisando a tela a seguir, indique todos os grupos nominais encontrados, determinando o Modifier e Head Word. D a traduo de cada um deles:

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________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

3) Passe os seguintes grupos nominais para o Portugus: a. Data Communication Processor - ____________________________________________ b. Artificial Intelligence - ____________________________________________________ c. Backup System - _________________________________________________________ d. Secondary Memory - _____________________________________________________ e. Control Structure - _______________________________________________________

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f. Central Processing Unit - __________________________________________________ g. Magnetic Tape - _________________________________________________________ h. Operating System - ______________________________________________________ i. Access Control - _________________________________________________________ j. Data Processing Department - _______________________________________________ k. Auxiliary Equipment - ____________________________________________________ l. Control Circuits - _________________________________________________________ m. Automatic electronic devices -______________________________________________ n. Last generation program - ________________________________________________________ o. correctly programmed data - ________________________________________________________ p. Computer integrated circuits. - ______________________________________________________ OBS: Os exemplos dados nas atividades a seguir foram adaptados do livro: Infotech English for Computer Users. I) Os grupos nominais a seguir so bastante simples. So formados pelo ncleo (head word = HW) que o substantivo e um modificador = Modifier (M), que pode ser adjetivo ou substantivo. Grife o ncleo (HW) e faa a traduo.

1) Disabled worker = trabalhador incapacitado 2) Rehabilitation engineer = 3) Employs abilities = 4) Pointing device = 5) Speech synthesizer = 6) Disk controller = II) Nesta segunda atividade temos: o ncleo e dois modificadores (um artigo e um adjetivo ou substantivo): 1. the major informations = as informaes principais 2. a brief introduction = uma breve introduo (ou uma introduo breve) 3. the English language = 4. the principal program = 5. the file areas = III) Agora vamos trabalhar com grupos um pouco maiores, compostos de um ncleo mais dois, trs ou mais adjetivos e/ou substantivos. Esses grupos podem ou no vir precedidos de artigos. 1. ARP -- (Advanced Research Projects) = 2. ASP -- (Application Service Provider) = 3. AT&T American Telephone & Telegraph Company = 4. CDMA -- (Code Division Multiple Access) = 5. CRM - - (Customer Relationship Management) = 6. DHCP -- (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) = 7. DHTML -- (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language) = 8. DNS (Domain Name System) = 9. DSL -- (Digital Subscriber Line) =

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10. Email -- (Electronic Mail) = 11. ERP - - (Enterprise Resource Planning) = 12. FAQ -- (Frequently Asked Questions) = 13. FTP -- (File Transfer Protocol) = 14. HDD Hard Disk Drive = 15. HTML -- (HyperText Markup Language) = 16. HTTP -- (HyperText Transfer Protocol) = 17. IMAP -- (Internet Message Access Protocol) = 18. IP Internet Protocol = 19. ISP -- (Internet Service Provider) = 20. IT -- (Information Technology) = 21. JPEG -- (Joint Photographic Experts Group) = 22. LAN Local Area Network = 23. MAC Address (Media Access Control Address) = 24. MUD -- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) = 25. OCR Optical Character Recognition = 26. OSI (Open Source Initiative) = 27. PDF -- (Portable Document Format) = 28. PPP -- (Point to Point Protocol) = 29. SEO -- (Search Engine Optimization) = 30. SMTP -- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) = 31. SQL -- (Structured Query Language) = 32. Sysop -- (System Operator) = 33. TCP Transmission Control Protocol = 34. URI -- (Uniform Resource Identifier) = 35. URL Uniform Resource Locator = 36. URN -- (Uniform Resource Name) = 37. VOIP -- (Voice Over IP) = 38. VPN -- (Virtual Private Network) = 39. WAN -- (Wide Area Network) = 40. Wi-Fi -- (Wireless Fidelity) = IV) H tambm os grupos nominais com a palavra of, onde a ordem das palavras continua igual em portugus. Observe que o ncleo do grupo nominal vem antes da preposio of. 1. The performance of program = a performance de programa 2. A long history of personal computers = uma longa histria de computadores pessoais 3. An essential part of a printer = 4. A important group of personal files = 5. Different languages of the same families = 6. POP = Point of Presence =

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Storing data in computer programs For those new to computer programming, data and code go hand in hand. You cannot write a program of any real value without lines of code, or without data. A Word Processor program has logic that takes what the user types and stores it in data. It also uses data to control how it stores and formats what the user types and clicks. Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the program runs (it can also be stored in a file, but that is another matter beyond the scope of this tutorial). Each memory 'slot' is identified by a name that the programmer chooses. For example LineTotal might be used to name a memory slot that holds the total number of lines in a Word Processor document. The program can freely read from and write to this memory slot. This kind of data is called a Variable. It can contain data such as a number or text. Sometimes, we may have data that we do not want to change. For example, the maximum number of lines that the Word Processor can handle. When we give a name to such data, we also give it its permanent value. These are called constants. Leia o texto acima e responda: 1) Retire do texto todos os grupos nominais que conseguir identificar. (traduza-os) ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Explique o que tem um programa processador de palavras e o que ele faz.. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Que nome dado ao tipo de dado que o programa pode ler livremente e escrever para a memria slot? __________________________________________________________ 4) Explique como pode ser usada a LineTotal. _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5) Qual a correta traduo do ttulo do texto? a) Dados armazenados em programas de computador b) Armazenamento de dados em programas de computador. c) Programas de computador em armazenamento de dados 6) Complete a traduo da frase. Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the program runs Dado ______________ na ___________ do computador ___________o programa _________.

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FORMAO DE PALAVRAS Algumas palavras que aparecem nos textos demandam um pouco mais de ateno para inferi-las e reconhec-las durante a leitura. So as chamadas palavras derivadas, ou seja, palavras que apresentam componentes denominados genericamente de afixos que podem ser prefixos ou sufixos. O conhecimento da formao das palavras muito til, sem dvida, para sua compreenso. Isto significa que necessrio reconhecer os afixos mais comumente usados na lngua que se que aprender e, naturalmente, seu significado. Sufixos e prefixos podem ser acrescentados s palavras dando-lhes novos significados e, quase sempre, alternando sua classe gramatical. Portanto, ateno: habitue-se a descobrir ou reconhecer o significado de palavras e expresses atravs de prefixos e sufixos, da nova posio que ocupam na frase, como tambm na alterao da classe gramatical. A fim de facilitar sua identificao, colocamos a seguir uma lista com os afixos mais usados na lngua inglesa. Prefixao o prefixo muda o significado da palavra primitiva, mas no muda a classe gramatical. a (sem) anti (contra) dis (oposto) il, ir, im, in (no) mis (errado) non (no) un (no) over (excesso, alm) pre (antes) Mini, micro Macro, mega Inter (entre) Amoral Anti-clockwise Disagree Illegal Misunderstand Nonsense Unmagnetized Overdose Premarital Minicomputer Macroeconomics Interface apolitical anti-nuclear dishonest irregular misdirect non-fiction uncommon overeat prefix Microcomputer Megabyte Interactive asexual Antichrist disloyal imperfect /incomplete misaddress non-programable unprofessional prehistory

Sufixao o sufixo pode mudar a classe gramatical da palavra sem mudar-lhe o sentido primitivo. Formao de verbos: - en - ify - ize Formao de advrbios - ly (mente) - ward (em direo) Logically Downward comparably homeward Yearly Inward annually Freshen Simplify Centralize blacken solidify modernize Harden computerize

Formao de substantivos: - ance / ence - or - er - ee - ist Tolerance Operator Trainer Trainee Economist Preference Accumulator Employer Employee Scientist Performance programmer Dentist

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- ion - ment - ity - ism - ness - dom - hood - ship Formao de adjetivos: - able, ible - an, ian - ful -y - ic - ical/al - less Ex.: Programmable American Powerful Tasty Poetic Sociological Homeless Admirable Sagitarian Hopeful Healthy Democratic Magical Childless Divisible suburban wonderful/beautiful Education Investment Sincerity Modernism Happiness Freedom Childhood Friendship Collision development Generosity Buddhism Darkness Kingdom Brotherhood Partnership Compilation Magnetism

relationship

Wireless

COMFORT = Substantivo = Conforto UNCOMFORT = Substantivo = Desconforto CONFORTABLE = Adjetivo = Confortvel Selecione no texto as palavras que so formadas por sufixos: CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD Computer specialists include System Analysts, Programmers and Operators. Systems Analysts develop methods for computerizing business. They also improve the efficiency of systems in use. Application Programmers write commercial programs to be used by business, science center and home. System Programmers write the complex programs that control the inner working of the computer. Computer operators handle several types of computers. Other people who work in the computer field include Computer Scientists, who conduct research and teach at universities; Hardware Designers and Engineers, who work in areas such as microchip and peripheral equipment design; Information Center Administrators or Data Base Administrators, who manage the information collections of business or data banks. Agora, escreva em Portugus as especialidades que so mencionadas no texto: ____________________________________ - ___________________________________ ____________________________________ - ___________________________________ ____________________________________ - ___________________________________ ____________________________________ - ___________________________________ ____________________________________ - ___________________________________

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A PR-HISTRIA DOS COMPUTADORES AQUECIMENTO Junte-se a um colega e, em cinco minutos, procure no texto da prxima pgina as respostas para as seguintes perguntas. A dupla que acabar primeiro e apresentar todas as respostas corretas vence a competio. a) O que Lady Ada Lovelace inventou para a mquina de Babbage? __________________________ b) Quanto pesava o ENIAC, o primeiro computador a vlvula? _______________________________ c) Onde Charles Babbage exibiu The Difference Engine em 1855? __________________________ d) Qual foi o primeiro dispositivo de clculo utilizado pelo homem? ___________________________ e) At que sculo o baco foi utilizado como dispositivo de clculo? __________________________ f) Quem inventou, em 1804, o tear programado? ________________________________________ g) O que Blaise Pascal inventou em 1642? _____________________________________________ h) Quando ficou pronto o primeiro computador digital, o MARK 1? ____________________________ i) Quando Vannevar Bush construiu o primeiro computador analgico? ________________________ LEITURA E INTERPRETAO a) Junte-se a outros colegas e discutam o que vocs sabem acerca da histria do computador e dos mtodos de clculo. b) Depois da discusso, organize os pargrafos abaixo numerando os parnteses em ordem crescente, conforme a cronologia. O ttulo do texto j est marcado. (A: _____) It was during the Second World War that the modern age of computers began. In 1930, Vannevar Bush built the first analog computer, which was used to help aim guns in World War II. In the period between 1938-1942, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry designed and built the first electronic digital computer, the ABC, which provided the basis for the development of the ENIAC. (B:_____) After that, in 1822, Charles Babbage built a machine called The Difference Engine, which he showed at The Paris Exhibition in 1855. Next, Babbage envisioned and designed The Analytical Engine, a machine which could complete programmed arithmetic operations. Unfortunately, Babbage never finished his work, but many of his ideas were used as the basis for the modern computer. (C: _____) The modern computer as we know it today is a result of lots of research and inventions of the past. The following paragraphs will show you the evolution of this miraculous machine. (D: _____) In the period called the Scientific Revolution, which began circa 1540 and lasted until 1687, many scientists tried to find ways of calculating. As a consequence, other computational devices were invented. In 1642, Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical calculator. In 1673, Gottfried von Leibniz invented another calculating device.

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(E: _____) The Scientific Revolution was followed by the Industrial Revolution, which started in England and brought many advances in technology. Several machines were developed in this period, and these machines later had a great impact on the development of computers. (F: _____) During the same period that Babbage was working on his machines, Lady Ada Lovelace invented an arithmetic code for Babbages machine based on a binary system similar to the one used with modern computers. For this reason, she is considered to be the first programmer. (G: _____) The first calculating device used by man was the ten fingers of his hands. This explains why we still count in tens and multiples of tens. Then the abacus was invented, a device which uses small beads or stones to make calculations. This tool was used until the 16th century. It is still used today in some parts of the world to make arithmetical calculations. (H: _____) In 1804, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom which was programmed to make certain patterns on cloth. This program was a series of holes punched in paper cards according to a code, and it is very similar to the process used in punched cards of the first modern computers. (I: 1 ) The Pre-History of Computers

(J: _____) Between 1943 and 1946, funded by the U.S. Army, John Mauchly and J. Eckert built the first major eletronic digital computer using vacuum tubes. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was huge and weighed about 30 tons. (K: _____) The developments which took place during World War II led to the advances made in the period that followed the war. The period after the war led to the subsequent generations of computers, which may be described as the modern age of computers. (L: _____) In 1944, Howard Aiken and some engineers from IBM completed MARK 1, an electro-mechanical calculating device controlled by punched cards. This first digital computer could figure out long lists of mathematical problems and was used military ballistics. c) Responda as seguintes perguntas: 1) Das informaes apresentadas no texto, quais voc j conhecia? _________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Que informao nova sobre a histria do computador voc achou mais interessante? _________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Sabemos que o computador uma mquina moderna. Por que o autor intitulou o texto The Pre-History of Computers? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4) Das oraes abaixo, qual voc considera a idia principal do texto? Por qu? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ a) Os avanos tecnolgicos da 2 Guerra Mundial levaram a era moderna do computador. b) MARK 1, o primeiro computador digital, possua sistema de cartes perfurados e foi fabricado pela IBM para fins militares. c) Lady Lovelace considerada a primeira programadora do mundo por ter inventado o cdigo binrio. d) As idias de Charles Babbage foram usadas como base para os computadores modernos, o que o torna o pai do computador. e) A Revoluo Industrial teve um grande impacto na tecnologia usada para o desenvolvimento dos computadores. f) Antes da inveno do baco, o dispositivo de clculo eram os dedos das mos. g) O primeiro computador digital a vlvula foi o ENIAC.

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h) A era moderna do computador nasce em 1930 com o primeiro computador digital, de Vannevar Bush, usado para fins militares na 2 Guerra Mundial. i) O tear programado, inventado por Jacquard em 1804, tem o mesmo princpio dos cartes perfurados dos primeiros computadores. j) O computador atual o resultado de vrias pesquisas e invenes do passado. k) A Revoluo Cientfica (1540-1687) levou a inveno de vrios dispositivos de clculo. 5) A partir do exerccio anterior, como voc definiria o que deve ser a idia principal de um texto? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ LEITURA E INTERPRETAO SKIMMING a) Utilizando essa tcnica, procure no texto What is a Computer? as seguintes informaes. Nos espaos em branco, escreva os nmeros das linhas em que elas se encontram: 1) ________ O computador processa dados e fornece os resultados em forma de informao. 2) ________ um erro acreditar que todo mundo hoje em dia saiba usar o computador. 3) ________ O processo de computao envolve trs etapas bsicas. 4) ________ O mundo da computao criou uma linguagem prpria. 5) ________ Hoje em dia quase todo mundo tem uma idia do que seja um computador. 6) ________ Algumas dessas palavras vm sendo usadas pelo mundo afora, pois foram tomadas de emprstimo da lngua inglesa por vrias outras lnguas. 7) ________ Algumas sociedades contemporneas desconhecem o computador. 8) ________ A etapa final permite ao usurio ver os resultados do processamento. 9) ________ Mesmo nos pases ditos desenvolvidos, existem pessoas que no sabem o que um computador e no se importam em saber. WHATS IS A COMPUTER? 1 Nowadays, in most modern societies, almost everybody has an idea about what a computer is. We depend on computers in every aspect of our lives whether we know how to use one or not. But does everyone really know how a computer works inside? A computer is an electronic machine which processes data and provides the results of the 5 processing as information. There are three basic steps in the computing process. The first one is input, which consists of feeding data into the computers memory. Then comes the processing: the program is run and the computer processes the data by performing a set of instructions. The third and final step is the output furnished by the computer, which allows the user to see the results either in printed from or on the screen. 10 The world of computers has created a specific language of its own. English words such as software and hardware are used worldwide and have been borrowed by many different languages. Software is information in the form of data and programs, and hardware refers to the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system. Despite the constant presence of computers in most modern societies, it is a great mistake to 15 believe that everybody in the world is computer-literate, i.e., is familiar with computers and knows how to use them properly. In some contemporary societies, many people still have no idea about the existence of computers, and even in the so-called developed countries, there are lots of people who do not know or do not care about what a computer is.

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b) O autor conclui o texto afirmando que algumas sociedades contemporneas e muitas pessoas dos pases desenvolvidos desconhecem o computador ou no ligam para ele, sem dar exemplos. Em sua opinio, quais seriam essas sociedades e essas pessoas? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ c) Escreva na primeira coluna os nmeros correspondentes s palavras definidas na segunda. a) ________ computer b)_________ input c) _________ processing d) _________ output e) _________ screen f) _________ software g) _________ hardware h) _________ data 1) Data fed into the computers memory. 2) Information. 3) Machine that processes data. 4) Electronic and mechanical parts of a computer. 5) Device that shows the results of the processing. 6) The results shown on the screen or in printed form. 7) Programs. 8) Series of actions that a computer performs to arrive at a OS USOS DO ING Palavras cuja formao composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes gramaticais: LEARNING = Pode significar aprendendo; aprender ou aprendizagem, dependendo de como apresentada na sentena. (gerndio) They are learning how to get more information. = (aps o verbo to be) Eles esto aprendendo como conseguir mais informaes. (verbo/infin.) This is a way of learning about management. = (aps preposies) Esta uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento. (Adjetivo) This is part of the learning process. = (parte de um grupo nominal) Isto parte do processo de aprendizagem. (Substantivo) Learning is essencial to life. Aprendizagem essencial vida. EXERCCIOS Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ING como: (substantivo, gerndio, adjetivo ou verbo infinitivo) a. They are learning Computer Science. __________________________. b. Teleprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer. __________________________. c. The calculating machine was invented many years ago. __________________________. d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks. __________________________.

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e. He works 10 hours without stopping. __________________________. f. The printer is printing documents. __________________________. g. I prefer typing to writing. __________________________.

Register and get AVG for FREE AVG Free Edition - Registration Complete We received your data. In a couple of minutes, depending on the load of our servers, we will send you an email containing your download link. Without this link, you will not be able to successfully download and install AVG Free Edition. After successfully started the download, your unique License Number will be activated and sent to you in another electronic letter. Please make sure that the address confirm@grisoft.com is added to your accepted e-mail address list. In the meantime, you might be interested in the FAQ (frequently asked question) list or the online Documentation, both of them can be found in the "I need help" subsection. Are you looking for more features, functionality and flexibility than AVG FREE offers? Buy AVG Professional. We have received the VB100% in the test of Virus Bulletin in June 2004 on Windows XP platform. ICSA laboratories. 100% detection rate of AVG Anti-Virus System is continuously certified by independent (www.avg.com) EXERCCIOS Grife todas as palavras cognatas encontradas no texto, circule as familiares e responda: 1) Sobre o que trata o texto? __________________________________________________________ 2) Qual o produto em questo? _____________________________________________________ 3) Aps baixar o arquivo com sucesso, o que acontecer com seu Nmero de Licena? _________________________________________________________________________ 4) Qual produto oferecido caso voc esteja procurando mais caractersticas, funcionalidade e flexibilidade? ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5) Quando a empresa recebeu o Boletim de Vrus?__________________________________ 6) Em qual programa o Boletim foi recebido? _____________________________________ 7) Qual o percentual do padro de deteco do Sistema anti-vrus?___________________

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MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS Substantivo a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substncia. possvel localiza-la no texto prestando ateno em certas palavras que acompanham substantivo. Emprega-se antes de substantivo: Artigos: a, an = um, uma the = o, a, os, as Pronomes Possessivos adjetivos MY Your His Her Its Our Their Meu, minha, meus, minhas seu, sua, seus, suas dele (para pessoa) dela (para pessoa) dele, dela (para coisas ou animais nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas deles, delas

Emprega-se geralmente antes de substantivos: Numerais Cardinais: One, two, three, etc. Pronomes Demonstrativos: This These That Those este, esta, isto estes, estas esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas

QUANTIDADES Many muitos, muitas (a) few poucos, poucas much muito, muita (a) little pouco, pouca some algum, alguns, alguma, algumas any qualquer, quaisquer every todo, toda, todos, todas, cada a lot of muito (a), muitos (as)

REFERNCIA CONTEXTUAL A referncia contextual tambm representa um recurso auxiliar na compreenso das idias de um texto. As chamadas palavras de referncia substituem palavras que esto no texto (ou fora dele) e podem classificar-se da seguinte maneira: pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos); numerais ordinais; palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificao.

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Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idia) que j foi mencionada, ou ainda vai ser mencionada numa determinada sentena, geralmente utilizamos recursos lingsticos para no tornar a sentena repetitiva. Exemplos: The magazine which is on the desk is old. A revista que est sobre a mesa velha. Paul and Sue are good friends. They always help us. Paul and Sue so bons amigos. Eles sempre nos ajudam. John works in my office. We like him very much. John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele. Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes PRONOMES;

Exerccios John works in my office. We like him very much. John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele. Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes PRONOMES. Object Pronouns Me You Him Her It Us You Them Possessive My Your His Her Its Our Your Their Object Ann knows me. Ann knows you. Ann knows him. Ann knows her. Ann knows us. Ann knows them. Possessive Adjectives Its mine. Its yours. Its his. Its hers. Its ours. Its theirs. Adjectives Possessive Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs

Subject Pronouns I You He She It We You They Subject I know Ann. You know Ann. He knows Ann. She knows Ann. We know Ann. They know Ann.

Possessive Pronouns Its my money. Its your money. Its his money. Its her money. Its our money. Its their money. Exerccios

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A) Finish the sentences with mine/yours/ours/theirs/hers/his: 1. Its your money. Its _______________ 5. Its their house. Its _______________ 2. Its my bag. Its ________________. 6. Theyre your books. Theyre ________. 3. Its our car. Its ________________. 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre ________. 4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre ____________. 8. Its his coat. Its ______________. B) Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem: 1. Most people are happy in their jobs. _________________________________________________________________________. 2) Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia. _________________________________________________________________________. 3) Where are the tickets? I cant find them. _________________________________________________________________________. 4) We are going out. You can come with us. _________________________________________________________________________. 5) Margaret likes music. She plays the piano. _________________________________________________________________________. 6) Ann is going out with her friends tonight. _________________________________________________________________________. 7) I like tennis. It is my favorite sport. _________________________________________________________________________. 8) I am talking to you. Please, listen to me. _________________________________________________________________________. PRONOMES RELATIVOS (Who / Which / That)

Who is for people (not things)

A Programmer is a person who writes programs. The man who phoned will call you later again.

I know everybody who work in my company. Which is for things (not people)

This is the printer which you asked me. I dont have the CD-Rom which you need. Is this the new computer which you bought? That is for things or people:

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I know everybody that work in my company. (You can use that for people, but who is more usual) This is the printer that you asked me. Portanto, temos: (Para pessoas) Who He is the system analyst who/that prepares instructions. That (pessoa) (Para coisas) Which This is the manual which/that you need. That (coisa) EXERCCIOS 1. Complete com who ou which: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. I met a woman who can speak six languages. Whats the name of the man ________ lives next door? Whats the name of the river ________ flows through the town? Where is the picture ________ was hanging on the wall? Do you know anybody _______ wants to buy a car? You always ask questions _______ are difficult to answer. I have a friend _________ is very good at repairing cars. I think everybody ________ went to the party enjoyed it a lot.

2. Volte ao texto Virtual Reality e retire 1 pronome relativo do 1 pargrafo, 1 pronome relativo do 2 pargrafo e 3 pronomes do 3 pargrafo, e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem: 1 pargrafo: pronome: _____________ refere-se a: _______________ 2 pargrafo: pronome: _____________ refere-se a: _______________ 3 pargrafo: pronome _________ _________ _________ refere-se a _____________ _____________ _____________

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THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser vivo (pessoa ou animal, as expresses possessivas (caso possessivo ou genitivo) so formadas do seguinte modo: a) Acrescentando-se s ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular. The body of the man. The mans body. (O corpo do homem) b) Acrescentando-se s tambm no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no plural mas no terminar em s. The family of the children. The childrens family. (A famlia das crianas) c) Acrescentando-se apenas um apstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver no plural terminado em s. The school of the girls. The girls school. (A escola das garotas) Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, no se usa a expresso com s mas sim a que feita com de (of) como em portugus: The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc. No entanto, a expresso com s pode ser usada (assim com o of) quando o substantivo/ possuidor tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes geogrficos, como a Terra, o Sol, o mar, nomes de pases, cidades, etc. f.e. The population of the world = The world population Complete as frases com a forma possessiva dos substantivos entre parnteses, conforme o modelo: Exemplo: Richard is the boss of John. Richard is Johns boss. Geralmente usamos -s para pessoas: Marys computer O computador da Mary. Marys personal computer O PC da Mary. Johns laser printer A impressora do John. The managers equipment O equipamento do gerente. Friends or Friends : A casa do meu amigo = My friends house. A casa dos meus amigos = My friends house. Portanto, temos: My mothers car My fathers car My parents car

Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc. The high technology of Brazil. Tecnologia de ponta do Brasil. Whats the name of this village? Qual o nome desta vila? Madrid is the Capital of Spain. Madrid a Capital da Espanha.

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The memory of the computer. (not the computers memory) Drill Faa a correo da sentena quando necessrio: 1. I stayed at the house of my sister. - my sister house 2. What is the name of this village? - Ok__________ 3. Do you like the color of this coat? - _____________________ 4. Do you know the phone number of Bill? - ________________________ 5. The job of my brother is very interesting. - _______________________ 6. Write your name at the top of the page. - _________________________ 7. When is the birthday of your mother? - _________________________ 8. The house of my parents isnt very big. - ________________________ 9. The walls of this house are very thin. - __________________________ 10. The manager of the hotel is on holiday. - _______________________ Passe as sentenas para o Caso Genitivo:

The laptop of my sister. ______________________________________. The computer of my secretary. ______________________________________. The printer of my boss. ______________________________________. TEXTO PARA LEITURA, COMPREENSO E EXERCCIOS DE VOCABULRIO

HARDWARE The central processing unit, or CPU, is the heart of a computer. In addition to performing arithmetic and logic operations on data, it controls the rest of the system. Most CPU chips and microprocessors have four functional sections: (1) (2) (3) (4) the arithmetic/logic unit; temporary storage locations; the control section; the internal bus.

Input devices let the users enter commands, data, or programs. Computer keyboards are the most common input devices. Another common input device, the mouse, is a mechanical device with buttons on the top and a rolling ball in its base. Other input devices include joysticks and trackballs. Light pens can be used to draw or to point to items or areas on the display screen. A digitizer pad translates images drawn on it with an electronic pen. Touch screens allow users to point to items or areas on the screen. Optical scanners read characters on a printed page and translate them into binary numbers that the CPU can use. Voice-recognition circuitry digitizes spoken words and enters them into the computer.

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Memory-storage devices. Most digital computers store data both internally (main memory) and externally (auxiliary storage units). A computer temporarily stores information internally on silicon random-access memory, or RAM, chips. Another type of internal memory consists of a series of read-only memory, or ROM, chips. Some auxiliary storage devices floppy disks, hard disks and magnetic tape store data by magnetically rearranging metal particles on disks and tapes. Output devices let the user see the results of the computers data processing. The most common output device is the video display terminal (VDT), or monitor, which uses a cathode-ray tube (CRT) to display characters and graphics on a screen. Modems (modulator-demodulators) and disk drives are input/output devices. Printers generate hard copy, a printedversion of information stored in one of the computers memory systems. Excerpted from Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia 1993, 1994. SCANNING Encontre no texto acima as informaes que completam o diagrama.

CPU ____________________ ____________________ Funes ____________________

DISPOSITIVO DE ENTRADA _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ I/O _______________ _______________

HARDWARE
ARMAZENAMENTO DE MEMRIA _____________________ Interno _____________________ Externo _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ DISPOSITIVO DE SADA __________ou_______ ___________________

NETWORK LAST MODIFIED: THURSDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2002

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A group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including: local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks: topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. See the Network topology diagrams in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia. protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network . architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers. Questes sobre o texto e estudo do vocabulrio: 1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. a. b. Encontre no texto os seguintes Grupos Nominais em Ingls: Sistema de computador - ______________________________ Rede de computadores - ______________________________ Linhas telefnicas - __________________________________ posio geomtrica - _________________________________ As seguintes caractersticas - __________________________ Retire do texto as duas expresses que esto no Caso Genitivo e d as suas tradues: __________________________ - _________________________ __________________________ - _________________________

3. De acordo com o texto, o que Network e quais so os tipos de redes de computadores? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

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4. O que a Local-area Network e Campus-area Network? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Cite as trs caractersticas que categorizam diferentes tipos de Rede? ___________________ - ____________________ - __________________ 6. Em que consiste o Protocol? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 7. Traduza: Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers. ___________________________________________________________________________________ PESQUISA DE VOCABULRIO

DISK DRIVE DISPLAY UNIT FLOPPY DISK HARD COPY HARDWARE - SOFTWARE - KEYBOARD MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR PRINTER PROGRAM PROGRAMMER SCREEN SOFT COPY STORAGE MIDIA WORK STATION WORD PROCESSING WINCHESTER
1. The part of a computer system that carries the instructions and programs; the opposite of hardware: ______________________. 2. All the physical part of a computer such as monitor, CPU, drives, keyboard, printer, the opposite of software: ______________________. 3. Language that programmers use to give the computer its basic instructions: ________________________. 4. A step-by-step series of ________________________. instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task:

5. The object that prints out the paper copies of documents: ________________________. 6. It is an input device similar to a typewriter: _________________________. 7. It is similar to a TV and displays information: _______________________________, __________________________ or ___________________________. 8. Consist of monitors, keyboards and printer divided by two or more people: ________________________. 9. Collective term for hard disk, floopy disk, tapes, cards on which computers store information: _________________________. 10. A thin flexible disk that stores data magnetically: ______________________________. 11. Storage midia located into the CPU: _____________________or _________________. 12. A person who writes the software programs: ____________________________. 13. An automated means of creating and editing texts: _____________________________. 14. Refers to printed copies on paper: ____________________________. 15. The information that appears on the screen before it is printed out: ________________.

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16. The place where you insert the floopy disk or CD-ROM: ________________________.

PRINTING CONCEPTS When users print, the computer completes several steps that involve a set of components including executable files, drivers, device interfaces, and dynamic-link libraries, which work together to create the printed output. Understanding how this process works helps you understand what happens when you print a document and how to solve printing problems. Printing has two parts: printing process and the print components . The two parts make the printing process possible. When printing to an Internet print server, the print server adds to the standard print process by creating an interface for users. VOCABULARY To print = imprimir Print = impresso Printer = impressora Set = jogo, conjunto, grupo, To set up = iniciar, instalar, estabelecer-se Drive = unidade de disco Standar = padro Device = dispositivo 1) Leia o texto PRINTING CONCEPTS e responda as questes a seguir: a) Sobre o que trata o texto? ________________________________________________________ b) Quais so as duas partes da impressora?____________________________________________ c) O que estas partes possibilitam? ___________________________________________________ d) Qual e o conjunto de componentes citados no texto? ___________________________________ e) O que o servidor de impresso adiciona quando imprime para um servidor de impresso de Internet? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Localize as palavras familiares no texto acima e d a traduo. ________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3) Circule todas as palavras cognatas.

Whats an Algorithm? An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem. Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. If the problem is a familiar one, standardized algorithms may be available from program libraries. But if standard algorithms are not available or suitable, a new algorithm must be written and then added to the program library. An algorithm must be

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specified exactly, so there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number of steps. A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can understand, but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages. Observe a sentena: Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it.

1) A classificao da palavra solving : a) b) c) d) substantivo (soluo) gerndio (resolvendo) particpio (resolvido) verbo/infinitivo (resolver)

2) O pronome it (ltima palavra) refere-se a: a) b) c) d) problem identified select method

3) Observando o uso do verbo modal must a traduo apropriada da sentena a seguir : it must have a finite number of steps. a) ele (algoritmo) poderia ter um nmero finito de passos. b) ele (algoritmo) no precisa ter um nmero finito de passos. c) ele (algoritmo) deve ter um nmero finito de passos. d) ele (algoritmo) no pode ter um nmero finito de passos. e) ele (algoritmo) talvez tenha um nmero finito de passos.

Mainframe, Minicomputer and Microcomputer A mainframe is a large computer system comprised of a large central processing unit, separate memory banks, multiple data-storage devices and peripherals. It is found in computer installations which process immense amounts of data. This powerful machine has a larger repertoire of more complex instructions which can be executed more quickly. A minicomputer is much smaller than the mainframe computer. It was developed to perform limited functions in scientific environments with less computing capacity. It became possible to reduce the size of the computer with the replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors and the development of multicircuit `chips. A microcomputer is the smallest of the three sizes of computers. The central processor of a micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device, that is, the elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions are manufactured as a single chip. The microprocessor literally contains a computer on a chip that can pass through the eye of a needle. 4) Complete as sentences com mainframe/minicomputer/microcomputer: a) b) c) d) e) _________________________ is the smallest of all. _________________________ has less computing capacity. _________________________ performs limited functions. _________________________ is a large computer system. _________________________ executes instructions more quickly.

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5) Retire do texto dois pronomes relativos (um da definio de mainframe, e outro da definio de microcomputer) e indique as respectivas palavras a que se referem: a) ______________ -- ________________________ b) ______________ -- ________________________ 6) Assinale a alternativa em que h um Grupo Nominal: a) b) c) d) e) executed more quickly multiple data-storage devices perform limited tubes by transistors called the microprocessor

Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disk Magnetic tape it is one of the principal input/output recording media used with computers and is mainly used for storing intermediate results of computations and for compact storing of large amounts of data, in an ordered sequence. It is much cheaper to store information on tape than in the computer main memory or on a disk memory device, but it takes longer to locate a particular data item if it is stored on tape: data must be stored and accessed sequentially. Magnetic disk it consists of a series of concentric paths or tracks each capable of storing data in magnetically coded form. It looks like a phonograph record and a series of disks is mounted on a vertical shaft. One or more access arms move into the disk to read or write the data stored on it. Disks may be hard (made out of aluminum) or floppy (made out of plastic). Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit or they may be made up as removable disk packs. Disks may be made even more efficient by using laser beam to read and write data. As questes 7 e 8 devem ser respondidas em Portugus. 7) Qual a definio, conforme o texto, de Disco Magntico? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________. 8) Quais so os dois principais usos das Fitas Magnticas? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________. 9) Indique a ordem em que essas idias ocorrem no texto: Magnetic Disk ( ) disks may be hard or floppy. ( ) disks may be more efficient. (1 ) disks consists of a series of concentric paths. ( ) disks may be made up as removable disk packs. ( ) disks may be mounted on a vertical shaft. ( ) disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit. 10) Indique se as afirmaes so verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F): a) Magnetic tape is the only way for inputting data. ( )

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b) It is used for storing data sequentially. c) It is much cheaper to store data on disks. d) It takes longer to locate data stored on tapes. e) Data on tape is stored in an ordered sequence. ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

11) Indique os dois erros do Presente Simples com crculos e d as formas verbais corretas: Some mail systems uses a large disk space, but they doesnt determine any amount before its use. Formas corretas: a) _________________ b) ___________________ 12) Destaque das frases abaixo, os verbos na Voz Passiva: Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit and they may be made up as removable disk packs. _____________________________ - _____________________________ 13) Circule na sentena a palavra que se encontra no Comparativo e d o seu significado em Portugus: It is much cheaper to store information on tapes than in the computer main memory _________________ = ____________________________ 14) Observe o segmento abaixo: Magnetic Tape is mainly used for storing(1) intermediate results of computations and for compact storing(2) of large amounts of data. A palavra storing (1) significa: a) b) c) d) armazenar armazenando armazenamento armazenado A palavra storing (2) significa: a) armazenar b) armazenando c) armazenamento d) armazenado

Third-Generation-1964-1971:Integrated-Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Fourth-Generation-1971-Present:Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

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As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. Exerccios sobre o texto 1) Na 3 gerao de computadores; o que aconteceu com os Transistors? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2) O que o Sistema Operacional permitia fazer nos computadores da 3 gerao? ________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3) Na sentena: Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.; destaque as palavras que esto no Comparativo e d os seus significados na frase: ____________________ = _____________________ ____________________ = _____________________ 4) No segmento The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.; transcreva um verbo no Passado Simples e um na Voz Passiva e d os seus significados: Passado Simples: __________________ = __________________________. Voz Passiva: ______________________ = __________________________. 5) O que fazia o chip Intel 4004, desenvolvido em 1971? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6) Retire do segmento abaixo: uma expresso no Comparativo e uma na Voz Passiva: As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. _____________________ = _____________________________ _____________________ = ____________________________ DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Last modified: Wednesday, September 25, 2002

A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications: computerized library systems automated teller machines flight reservation systems computerized parts inventory systems

From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information. Requests for information from a database are made in the form of a query, which is a stylized question. For example, the query

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SELECT ALL WHERE NAME = "SMITH" AND AGE > 35 requests all records in which the NAME field is SMITH and the AGE field is greater than 35. The set of rules for constructing queries is known as a query language. Different DBMSs support different query languages, although there is a semi-standardized query language called SQL (structured query language). Sophisticated languages for managing database systems are called fourth-generation languages, or 4GLs for short. The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMSs include a report writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report. Many DBMSs also include a graphics component that enables you to output information in the form of graphs and charts. Exerccios sobre o texto 1) De acordo com o texto, o que o Sistema de Gerenciamento de Banco de Dados ? ________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________. 2) Cite, em Portugus, os 4 exemplos de Aplicativos de Banco de Dados mencionados no texto: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ 3) No trecho abaixo: From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, network, flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.; Identifique o verbo modal que aparece 3 vezes e d os seus respectivos sujeitos. ________ = ____________________ ________ = ____________________ ________ = ____________________ 4) O que a query language e qual o significado em Portugus? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5) No segmento Sophisticated languages for managing database systems are called fourth-generation languages; a palavra managing significa: a) gerenciando b) gerenciar c) gerenciamento d) gerenciado 6) Passe a sentena do exerccio acima para o Portugus: ____________________________________________________________________________________

ABOUT CHIPS Does anybody here know anything about chips?

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Nobody expected such a question during an art class. Not from an old teacher of music. And he added, I must confess that I know nothing about chips. I really dont know anything at all. Sometimes I feel like a Jurassic teacher. A quiet girl with curly hair asked shyly, What do you want to know, professor? I have some information about it. Lucy was her name. Everybody remained silent. No one sang. Nobody played. Lucy stood up and spoke up; A computer consists of hundreds of parts, including a monitor, a mouse, disk drives and a keyboard. Inside the computer is a circuit board. It houses all sorts of microchips, including those for ROM (read-only memory) and RAM (random-access memory). Mounted on the circuit board is a microprocessor, which is housed n a protective container and connected to rows of gold-plated pins. Inside the microprocessor package is the chip itself. This tiny square of silicon is packed with transistors that process instructions and data for the computer. A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it has the size of a fingernail. After this explanation everybody clapped their hands. The teacher said. Where have you learned all this, Lucy, my dear? Well, she said, Ive read it from an old magazine at the library. VOCABULARY to remain = permanecer to house = conter/armazenar gold-plated = coberto com ouro tiny = muito pequeno Questes 1) Assinale a alternativa correta: a) Os alunos ficaram surpresos com a pergunta da menina. b) O professor no sabia nada sobre tecnologia. c) A menina ficou decepcionada com o professor. d) O antigo professor gostaria de deixar a escola. 2) O professor se considera: a) ignorante sobre computao b) um especialista em computao c) muito antiquado sobre msica d) um grande leitor de revista de informtica 3) Lucy ensinou seu professor sobre chips provavelmente porque ela: a) L muito livros na biblioteca b) Tem algum interesse em computadores c) studou o assunto em outra escola d) queria se aparecer 4) O material bsico do chip : a) silicone b) transistor c) silicon d) gold-plated pin e) data 5) Na sentena: A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it has the size of a fingernail. ; o pronome it refere-se a: a) million

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b) second c) instructions d) chip e) fingernail 6) Na sentena: Does anybody here lnow anything about chips? destaque os pronomes indefinidos e d os seus significados: ________________________ = __________________________________ ________________________ = __________________________________ 7) Destaque os verbos modais das sentenas abaixo e passe-as para o Portugus: I must confess that I know nothing about chips. _______________________________________________________________ A chip can processo 500 million instructions every second. _______________________________________________________________ 8) Relacione as informaes numerando as colunas: a) The list on the screen which shows the things that you can do. b) A small sign on a computer screen which shows your position in a text c) A system for sending written messages by computer d) A number of computers connected together in a larger system e) Instructions that are put into a computer in order to cause mistakes and destroy information MODAL VERBS (VERBOS MODAIS) H uma srie de verbos em ingls que expressam idias gerais. J que o objetivo do ingls instrumental diferente (estratgias de leitura), atenha-se s regras e tradues abaixo, pois elas sero suficientes para nosso propsito. ( ) network ( ) cursor ( ) menu ( ) virus ( ) e-mail

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CAN: Usamos CAN (do) para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou que algum tem a

habilidade/capacidade para fazer algo. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (CAN NOT / CANNOT ou CANT). Exemplo: Can you swim very fast? No I cant, but I can play chess. COULD: algumas vezes o COULD o passado do CAN. Ns usamos Could para dizer que algum tinha habilidade geral para fazer alguma coisa. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (COULD NOT ou COULDNT). Usamos Could especialmente com os seguintes verbos: TO SEE TO HEAR TO SMELL TO TASTE TO FEEL TO REMEMBER TO UNDERSTAND

Exemplo: My grandfather could speak five languages. MUST / MUSTNT: Usamos MUST para dizer que ns temos certeza que alguma coisa certa. Exemplos: 1. Fish must live in water. (necessidade) 2. Everybody must uphold laws. (obrigao) 3. He must be your father. (Deduo forte) 4. You mustnt tell anyone what I said. (proibio) MAY: Usamos MAY e MIGHT para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou seja, com 50% de certeza.. Tambm usamos para pedir permisso (de algo incerto, com baixa probabilidade ou mais formal). No existe diferena importante entre MAY e MIGHT. Podemos dizer, por exemplo: Paul may be in his office. OU Paul might be in his office. (probabilidade) May I dance with your girlfriend? No, you may not. (permisso com baixa probabilidade) SHOULD / SHOULDNT: Geralmente usamos SHOULD quando pedimos ou damos uma opinio sobre alguma coisa. (frequentemente usamos I think/I dont think/do you think). Exemplos: I dont think you should work so hard. Mike shouldnt drive really. He is too tired. EXERCISES: Traduza as seguintes sentenas para o portugus e escreva nos parnteses a idia expressada pelos verbos modais em destaque. 1. We might have several problems in case inflation rises sharply. (_________________) _______________________________________________________________________ 2.They can manufacturer high-tech equipment, but they may have problems to ship it. (_________________) (___________________) __________________________________________________________________________ 3.How much should we purchase from that supplier? (_________________) __________________________________________________________________________ 4.A foreign company can encourage its employments to study languages.

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(_________________) __________________________________________________________________________ 5.We mustn`t do this because it`s against the laws. (_________________) __________________________________________________________________________ 6.Some terms may be included in such exemptions. (_________________) __________________________________________________________________________ 7.She must be in trouble in the traffic because she never comes to work late. (_________________)______________________________________________________________________ ____ 8.People should be in contact with a foreign language more often, otherwise they won`t memorize new vocabulary and structures. (_________________) ____________________________________________________ 9.Companies should develop equipment, processes and goods that are ecologically clean. (_________________) __________________________________________________________________________

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PUZZLE Existem dezessete palavras no quadro abaixo. Encontre-as e indique a traduo de cada uma delas, relacionando as colunas (as que no souber deixe em branco). Comece localizando os cognatos. E N G I N E N T R I E S V M O A O P R I C E C A R R I E S E T T D E V E L O P E D A R R N O E D B M E W S P M K D Y T V P L U T A R M D A G V E M O I E A X T B V A A C P F V U H R R R C O M P U T E R O I C A O F R F S V C U A A O R C H N N O Q D T I E U E C G E E S D M R B R O D S S S M R I S E L E M A T R R A L F E A T U R E D T R B E A D S S D M N G U N I T O O T H E D W H E E L S T G I Y T M A R E S O U R C E S I S I N C E T H E N M L O I F T

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VOCABULARY 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) COMPUTER DATA FEATURE TO STORE TO PERFORM BEADS RODS DEVICES TOOTHED WHEELS TO HANDLE CARRIES DIGIT ENGINE PROGRAM SINCE THEN DEVELOPED VERY MUCH ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) rodas dentadas; engrenagens ) contas (pequenas bolas com orifcio ) caractersticas; trao ) dados ) muito; bastante ) mquina; motor; mecanismo ) computador ) guardar; armazenar ) desenvolvido ) dgito; qualquer numeral de 0 a 9 ) manipular; lidar com ) desempenhar ) varetas; hastes ) desde essa poca ) programa (srie de instrues) ) transportes; transferncias ) dispositivos

COMPUTERS: START POINT A computer is a machine capable of executing computations on data. The distinguishing feature of a computer is its ability to store its own instructions and to performance thousands of operations each second. The Abacus, on which information is stored by moving beads along rods, was one of the earliest calculating devices. Blaise Pascal developed an adding machine in 1642 that used toothed wheel to handle carries from on digit to the next. Charles Babbage developed the concept of a stored program computer when he designed a calculating engine in 1833. The first electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), which was built for the U.S. Army in 1945. In the same year John Von Neumann introduced the modern concept of a stores program computer, in which the computer memory can store both programs and data. Since then computer technology has developed very much. (Adaptado de Galante, Ingls bsico para informtica,1992, p.9) Responda s questes de acordo com o texto: 1) Quem desenhou uma mquina calculadora e em que ano? ________________________________ 2) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrnico digital e em que ano foi construdo? _________________ 3) Ligue as colunas de acordo com a traduo. Dados ( ) Hard disk Teclado ( ) Floppy disk Disquete ( ) Data Disco rgido ( ) Memory Memria ( ) Keyboard 4) Coloque verdadeiro (V) ou falso (F): No grupo nominal electronic digital computer podemos afirmar que: a) computer e digital so modificadores ( ) b) electronic e digital so modificadores ( ) c) electronic e computer so modificadores ( ) d) computer o ncleo ( ) e) electronic o ncleo ( ) 5) Escreva um breve resumo relatando sobre o que trata o texto. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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6) Retire do texto cinco (05) palavras cognatas com traduo: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 7) Retire do texto um (01) falso cognato e sua traduo.___________________________ 8) Assinale abaixo, o nico facilitador e/ou estratgia que NO foi utilizada na leitura do texto. Justifique sua resposta. Dicas tipogrficas; Cognatos e palavras familiares; Scanning; Skimming; Conhecimento de mundo. 9) D a traduo da sigla ENIAC. __________________________________________________________ 1) Relacione os cognatos e falsos cognatos encontrados no texto: COGNATOS FALSOS

2) Qual o assunto principal abordado no texto?_____________________________________________ 3) Qual a definio de computador?_____________________________________________________ 4) Cite as siglas existentes no texto.______________________________________________________ 5) Em que ano Charles Babbage desenhou uma mquina calculadora?__________________________ 6) Qual foi um dos primeiros dispositivos de calcular e como funcionava? ____________________________________________________________________________________7) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrnico digital?______________________________ 8) Em que ano foi construdo?________________________________________________

IMPERATIVO A forma imperativa, utilizada para ordenar ou pedir algo, possui a mesma forma do infinitivo do verbo, sem to: To repair: consertar Repair the terminal. Please repair the equipment. Repair the engine, please.

Para formar o imperativo negativo, coloca-se do not (dont) antes do verbo: To press: pressionar Dont press this button. Please dont press the button. Dont press this button, please

Com Let us (Lets) = vamos: Usado antes do infinitivo do verbo, sem to, para sugerir ou convidar algum para uma ao conjunta. Lets load the peripherals. Lets stop.

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Lets go. EXERCISES: Relacione as colunas de acordo com a traduo: 1) DRAG 2) PRESS 3) CLICK 4) CLOSE 5) MOVE 6) GRAB 7) SELECT 8) OPEN 9) PUSH 10) PULL 11) DELETE 12) RUN 13) INSTALL 14) INSERT 15) INCLUDE 16) CHANGE 17) CANCEL ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) INCLUA MUDE PRESSIONE APAGUE ARRASTE PUXE CLIQUE EXECUTE CANCELE FECHE MOVA INSIRA EMPURRE SELECIONE PEGUE INSTALE

) ABRA

WHAT IS DESKLOOP? Imagine yourself at the center of a virtual loop where all the windows you use are spread out around you. Whichever window you need to view can be centered in front of you with a click of a button. Take this idea and zoom into your pc environment. With Deskloops, all the windows you have open are aligned side by side in a loop-like order. No more countless windows arranged one on top of the other in a confusing manner. You can access all the information you need and navigate through it easily. The loop can be rotated clockwise and counterclockwise simply by moving the cursor to the edge of the screen and using right click. Think of the loop as a dynamic rubber band; with each newly opened window the loop automatically grows. With every closed or minimized window, the loop becomes smaller. Anytime you want to return to the desktop, double click on Deskloops tray icon and the windows will shift aside in one swift motion. http://www.xilokit.com/deskloops/deskloops.html http://www.xilokit.com/deskloops/Deskloops_UserGuide.pdf EXERCISE

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Leia o texto acima e faa os exerccios a seguir: a) Circule todos os verbos na forma imperativa. b) De a traduo de todas as palavras em negrito, inclusive o titulo.

c) Relacione os cognatos e familiares encontrados no texto.

SOFTWARE SOFTWARE (Computer), computer program; instructions that cause the hardware (machine) to do work. Software can be divided into a number of categories based on the types of work done by programs. The two primary software categories are operating system which control the workings of the computer, and application software which addresses the multitude of tasks for which people use computers. Operating System includes programming languages and utility programs. Application Software includes software that executes accounting, word processing, data management, communications and graphics. Two additional categories are network software which enable groups of computers to communicate and language software which provide programmers the tools they need to write programs. See also OPERATING SYSTEM; PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE.

Fonte: Sistema Operacional Windows Server 2000.


Excerpted from Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Complete o diagrama com informaes retiradas do texto:

SOFTWARE
CATEGORIAS

SISTEMA
OPERACIONAL
________________

CARACTERSTICAS ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

SOFTWARE DE
LINGUAGEM
COMUNICAO

_____________

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SOFTWARE PIRACY Software piracy is the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted computer software. The most common forms include copying for personal use, for use among employees of a company, and for resale. The latter includes manufacturing of counterfeit packages that pretend to be originals. Piracy is the most widespread computer crime. The Software Publishers Association (SPA), the principal trade group of the personal computing software industry, estimated that in 1994 the industry lost $8.08 billion worldwide due to illegal copying of operating systems, education, entertainment, or personal productivity software. Excerpted from The 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 1995 Grolier Incorporated. All rights reserved. Questes sobre o texto: 1. Quais foram todos os tipos de pirataria mencionados no texto? _______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. De acordo com o texto, a pirataria considerada um crime? Retire do texto a sentena que afirma ou nega isso? ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) O que a SPA? O que esta sigla significa? _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) Observe a palavra grifada: The latter includes the manufacturing of counterfeit packages that pretend to be originals. Ela um cognato ou um falso-cognato? Qual o seu real significado? ________________ ______________________________________________________________. Text:

VIRTUAL REALITY Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems by which users can experience a simulated three-dimensional reality (3D). This simulated reality is known as virtual reality (VR). Sometimes the term cyberspace is used as synonym with VR. Since the 1970s, technologists have learned how to produce animated computer images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings. The images can also be subjected to changing light conditions and to simulated effects of gravity and other forces. The results can look as real as actual motion pictures. The further aim of technologists is to make it for person t enter and actually manipulate VR. This is being achieved by having an observer who wears a headgear through which computer images are displayed on small screens in front of the eyes. At the same time, gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting

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apparent changes of body orientation in VR. A simpler form of these VR techniques is seen in the flight simulators used for training pilots. Adapted from: Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1996 Questes sobre o texto: (Compreenso)

1) O que os pesquisadores da rea de tecnologia de imagem computacional esto desenvolvendo? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. 2) O que Realidade Virtual? Qual a sua sigla (em Ingls)? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. 3) D um sinnimo de Virtual Reality? _____________________________________

4) Quando iniciaram-se as pesquisas com VR? Como eram feitas? ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) O que pretendiam as pesquisas posteriores? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Vocabulrio Tcnico 6) Encontre no texto as palavras ou expresses que se referem s seguintes definies: a. People who work in technology area: ____________________________ b. Three-dimensional reality: ____________________________________ c. Another name for monitor or display: ___________________________ Gramtica Contextualizada ING 7) Classifique os INGs encontrados no texto em gerndio, substantivo ou verbo: a. Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems _____________________________ __________________________ b. images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings __________________________ c. This is being achieved by having an observer who ____________________ ______________________ d. gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting changes ____________________ e. flight simulators used for training pilots. _______________________

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Internet

Internet started in 1969, in a military project in which 21 computers were linked. This means that a person in one oh those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network. This project was called ARPANET. During the 70s and 80s, computer technology developed vary fast. Networks were developed, like the ARPANET.You will do everything through Internet: shopping, electronic forums, debates etc. The Internet will be the necessary basis for our everyday life. (Adapted from Sun, Amos) Questions Leia o texto acima, aplique as estratgias de leitura e responda: 1) O que o texto afirma sobre a Internet? Escolha apenas uma alternativa correta e traduza na linha abaixo. a) will be a military reality in the future b) will be important for everyone c) is made of 21 computers d) can be used to develop technology very fast e) teachers computer skills traduo: _______________________________________________________________________________ 2) Explique o que ARPANET. Resposta em portugus. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3) De acordo com o texto a frase computers were linked pode ser traduzida como: a) computadores esto ligados b) computadores eram desligados c) computadores no eram conectados d) computadores esto conectados e) computadores estavam conectados 4) Explique o que aconteceu entre os anos 70 e 80? ________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 5) traduza a frase: a person in one of those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network. ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

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JAVA Who is the champion in the world about plataforms! If you said windows, youre wrong. The champion in technology is Java. It was created by sun to work in receptors of cable TV, adapted for Internet and later to PDAs, cell phones and similars. Java is a program language. Softwares that are writen in this language can be executed in any dispositive, since it has the operational system. This independence is possible due to the fact that this technology is based in a complex software that permits to execute any order. The name arose from a conversation among programmers in a coffee shop Java is one kind of coffee from Java island. From the name, others have arisen at the same time: Java beans Hot Java- only to exemplify. The stylistic cup is the famous reference. And there is one thing that only programmers know. The first four bytes of any file class are in hexadecimal, OXCAFEBABE. Finally, about micro Edition, we have Java me, more known as Jame. Java logo (created by sun) (adapted from Internet Magazine, by Niuza Barone Peres, June, 2006) Comprehension questions. 1. Who is the champion in technology? ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is Java? ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Como surgiu a marca e aonde? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Em que esta tecnologia baseada? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Circule os Cognatos e relacione as familiares encontradas no texto. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Qual empresa criou a tecnologia mencionada no texto? _____________________________________________________________________________________

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HOW IS COMPUTER USED? A computer is used first as a number processor, to continue to perform accurate and quick computations. Second, as data processor, to handle, process, and print huge quantities of data. Third, as an information analyzer, to aid and improve decision-making. And finally, as a knowledge processor, to make available to the public vast banks as information through electronic channels called networks. Examples of these four major users are: Adding up the daily transactions at a bank (number processing) Printing the charge account statements of a major department store (data processing) Projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer (information analyzing); Planning a vacation schedule (knowledge processing). Source: (Galante, Ingls para informtica.) VOCABULARY Accurate = careful and exact = precisas, certeiras. Quick = speedy, rapid = velozes, rpidas. Huge = immense, enormous = enormes, colossais, imenso, vasto. Decision-making = tomada de posio / tomada de deciso. Available = acessible = disponveis, acessveis. Networks = redes (de comunicao). Adding up = achar a soma de Charge account statements = relatrios de contas de crdito e dbito. Vacation schedule = escala ou programao de frias. Aid = auxiliar. Major = principal To handle = manipular EXERCISES 1) Escreva abaixo os principais usos de um computador. First as___________________________________________________________________ Second as_________________________________________________________________ Third as__________________________________________________________________ Finally as_________________________________________________________________ 2) Ligue os exemplos e os usos. (a) planning a vacation schedule ( ) data processing (b) printing the charge account statements ( ) number processing (c) projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer ( ) knowledge processing (d) Adding up the daily transactions at a bank ( ) information analyzing 3) Escreva as palavras familiares encontradas no texto e suas tradues. FAMILIAR TRADUO

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4) Siga o exemplo. (to process, processor, processing) a) to analyse,_______________________________________________________________ b) to project, ______________________________________________________________ c) to print, ________________________________________________________________ d) to plan, ________________________________________________________________ 5) D a traduo das palavras do exerccio anterior.

6) Qual a fonte do texto?

1) Escreva um breve pargrafo explicando o que voc entendeu sobre o texto.

How to remove malicious software from your computer? Published: August 30, 2005 Finding and extracting unwanted program Despite your best efforts, you may occasionally download a program you don't want. Here are some ways to remove it. (Note that you may not be able to remove some programs.) Run the Malicious Software Removal Tool Make sure your anti-spyware software is current, and then scan your system, following the instructions on your screen. If you've downloaded something that's wreaking havoc on your systemslowing it to a crawl, causing it to crash frequently, etc.try using the Malicious Software Removal Tool. This tool checks computers using Windows XP, Windows 2000, and Windows Server 2003 for specific malicious software and helps you remove it. Disable a program by using Add-On Manager (Windows XP Service Pack 2 only) If your anti-spyware program and the Malicious Software Removal Tool don't solve the problem, you may be able to disable the troublemaker through Add-On Manager. 1.Open Internet Explorer. 2.On the Tools menu, click Manage Add-ons. 3.In the list of add-ons, click to select the one you want to disable, and then click Disable in the Settings section in the bottom half of the Manage Add-ons box. Look for add-ons you didn't accept or don't recognize. 4.Click OK. Tip: Add-ons are programs that extend the capabilities of Internet Explorer, for example, toolbars or programs that let you accomplish tasks such as making hotel reservations or searching the Internet. But there are also add-ons you wouldn't want, such as those that redirect your search to their own Web site or change your homepage.

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2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved 1) Aplicando a tcnica de skimming responda sobre que o texto trata? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

2) O que : Malicious Software Removal Tool? Responda em portugus. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3) De acordo com o texto, o que Add-ons: responda em portugus. ________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 4) Por quais dois motivos um usurio pode no querer algum tipo de Add-ons? Em portugus. ________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Quais as sugestes que o texto apresenta para solucionar o problema? Cite todos. Responda em portugus. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Wireless Networking The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to communicate using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly speaking, any technology that does this could be called wireless networking. The current buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs. This technology, fuelled by the emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as IEEE 802.11, has produced a number of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and schools as well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as in warehousing or point-of-sale handheld equipment. There are two kinds of wireless networks: a. An Hoc or Peer-to Peer wireless network consists of a number of computers each equipped with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can communicate directly with all of the other wireless enabled computers. They can share files and printers this way, but may not be able to access wired LAN resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special software. (This is called "bridging") Figure 1: Ad-Hoc or Peer-to Peer Networking. Each computer with a wireless interface can communicate directly with all of the others.

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b. A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. In this type of network the access point works like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers or existing Internet Connectivity. There are two types of access points: Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN, Apple's Airport Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. (See Figure 2). Hardware access points offer comprehensive support of most wireless features, but check your requirements carefully.

i.

ii. Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. (See Figure 3) The Vicomsoft InterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic Software Access Point, and include features not commonly found in hardware solutions, such as Direct PPPoE support and extensive configuration flexibility, but may not offer the full range of wireless features defined in the 802.11 standard.
With appropriate networking software support, users on the wireless LAN can share files and printers located on the wired LAN and vice versa. Vicomsoft's solutions support file sharing using TCP/IP. Figure 2: Hardware Access Point. Wireless connected computers using a Hardware Access Point.

Figure 3: Software Access Point. Wireless connected computers using a Software Access Point.

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Leia o texto e responda: 1) O que uma rede de trabalho sem fio? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2) Em que consiste a rede de trabalho sem fio Hoc ou Peer to peer? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Uma rede de trabalho sem fio pode tambm usar um ponto de acesso, ou uma estao base. Como este ponto de acesso trabalha? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 4) Quantos tipos de rede de trabalho sem fio existem, de acordo com o texto? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Escreva o que as figuras 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente representam? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 6) Retire do texto dez 10 cognatas e 10 familiares. 7) Circule abaixo todos os facilitadores e/ou estratgias utilizados na anlise e interpretao do texto.

d) Skimming b) Cognatos e palavras familiares Conhecimento de mundo c) Scanning


a) Dicas tipogrficas 9) Com base no texto, circule a alternativa em que todas as palavras so falsos cognatos. a) refers, term b) more, file

e)

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c) using, interface a) directly, generally e) business, wireless

10) Retire do texto cinco (05) afixos (prefixos ou sufixos) com traduo. AFIXO TRADUO

11) Retire do texto cinco (05) grupos nominais com traduo. GRUPO NOMINAL TRADUO

12) De acordo com o texto, a quem os pronomes em destaque se referem? That:______________________________________________________________________ They:______________________________________________________________________ Which:_____________________________________________________________________ 13) D a traduo das palavras abaixo 1. To change ____________________________ 3. To develop ___________________________ 5. To handle ____________________________ 7. To improve ___________________________ 9. To plan ______________________________ 11. To save ______________________________ 13. To supply ____________________________ 15. User ________________________________ 17. Way ________________________________ 19. Wizard ______________________________ 2. To connect ___________________________ 4. To feed______________________________ 6. To have ______________________________ 8. To perform ___________________________ 10. To run _______________________________ 12. To set up _____________________________ 14. Tool ________________________________ 16. Very much ___________________________ 18. Wireless _____________________________ 20. Workgroup ___________________________

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Photo

Your CV Example: NAME: Gavin H Alvarez _____________________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS: 26 Dryfield Road Cambridge CB2 2DS _____________________________________________________________________________________ TELEPHONE NUMBER: 01223 3268452 _____________________________________________________________________________________ E-MAIL ADDRESS: gavinhalvarez@btinternet.com _____________________________________________________________________________________ DATE OF BIRTH: 14 June 1984 _____________________________________________________________________________________ EDUCATION 1995 2000 Graves High School for Boys Graves Avenue Cambridge CB3 4RG _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2000- 2002 Cam College of Engineering and Technology Birch Road Cambridge CB6 7YT _____________________________________________________________________________________ QUALIFICATIONS 2000 GCSEs: English, Maths, General Science, Design and Technology, French, Spanish, Art, and History _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2001 Level 1 Engineering and Technology foundation course _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2002 Level 2 Computing course specializing in software development _____________________________________________________________________________________ WORK EXPERIENCE AUGUST SEPTEMBER 2000 Temporary job as IT assistant at Norriss Aeronautics, Cambridge. _____________________________________________________________________________________ OCTOBER 2000 JUNE 2002 Saturday and holiday job testing computer games at Silicompany, Cambridge. _____________________________________________________________________________________

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OTHER INFORMATION INTERESTS Bi-lingual in Spanish and English; clean driving licence

Developing computer games, member of college football team, photography, and playing the guitar _____________________________________________________________________________________ REFEREE Ms Daisy Valentine (course tutor) Cam College of Engineering and Technology Birch Road - Cambridge CB6 7YT _____________________________________________________________________________________ Before you start 1 Have you ever had a part-time or work experience job? Tell your class: what your job was how you got it

Reading 2- Read the curriculum vitae (CV) quickly and choose the correct answers to the questions below. 1 What is a CV? a) A description of someones family, education, likes and dislikes. b) A description of someones education, work experience, and skills. 2 How is a CV arranged? a) under headings b) like a letter 3 Read the CV again and decide if the sentences (1-7) below are true (T) or false (F). 1 Gavin Alvarez lives in Cambridge. ( ) 2 He is a student at Cam College. ( ) 3 He passed his GCSEs in 2001. ( ) 4 He has had Saturday and holiday jobs since 2000. ( ) 5 He left Cam College in 2000. ( ) 6 He is quite good at languages. ( ) 7 He isnt interested in technology. ( ) Writing 4 Write your own CV in English using qualifications you already have, or ones that you think you might get in the future. Use Gavins CV as a model for your writing. Name Address Telephone number

e-mail address

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Date of birth Education Qualifications Work experience Other information Interests Referee

VOCABULARY APPROACH: KEYBOARD SYMBOLS AND PUNCTUATION MARKS

A) Look at the keys across the top of the computer keyboard and complete the sentences. 1. ~ This is called a ______________________________________ 2. ` This is called a ______________________________________ 3. ! This is called an ______________________________________ 4. @ This symbol means a______________________________________ 5. # This symbol means ______________________________________ 6. $ This is called a ______________________________________ 7. % This symbol means ______________________________________ 8. ^ This symbol is called a ______________________________________ 9. & This symbol is called an _____________________ and means _______________ 10. * This symbol is called an ______________________________________ 11. ( ) These two marks are called ______________________________________ 12. - This is called a ______________________________________ 13. + This symbol is called a ______________________________________ 14. = This symbol is called an ______________________________________ B) 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Look around the computer keyboard and complete the sentences. { } These marks are called ______________________________________ [ ] These marks are called ______________________________________ : This is called a ______________________________________ ; This is called a ______________________________________ " " These marks are called ______________________________________ " " In British English, these marks are called ______________________________________ ' This is called an ______________________________________ , This is called a ______________________________________ . This is called a period ______________________________________ . In British English, this is called a ______________________________________ ... Three periods together are called an ______________________________________ ? This is called a ______________________________________

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27. / This is called a ______________________________________ 28. \ This is called a ______________________________________ 29. < > These marks are called ______________________________________

1) 3) 5) 7) 9) 11) 13) 15) 17) 19) 21) 23) 25) 27) 29)

VERTICAIS ampersand angle brackets asterisks back slash brackets colon dollar sign equal sign forward slash or virgule grave or grave accent inverted commas parentheses period question mark semicolon

CROSSWORD HORIZONTAIS 2) and 4) apostrophe 6) at 8) braces 10) circumflex 12) comma 14) ellipsis 16) exclamation mark 18) full stop 20) hyphen 22) number 24) per cent 26) plus sign 28) quotation marks or quotes 30) tilde

Complete com as palavras da tabela acima(1/5/11/21/23/29 e 4/8/10/15/28)

Complete as lacunas com as palavras abaixo: BLOGGER / COMPUTER / CHAT / USER / END USER / BLOG A _______________ is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. This term is a shortened form of weblog. It comprises text, hypertext, images, and links (to other web pages and to video, audio and other files). It uses a conversational style of documentation. A person who posts these entries is called a ___________.

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_____________is a real-time communication between two users via computer. Once has been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user's monitor. Most networks and online services offer its feature. ___________ is an individual who uses a computer. This includes expert programmers as well as novices. An _________is any individual who runs na application program. A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a ___________________ are: It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program)

Referncias
BOECKNER, Keith & BROWN, P. Charles. Oxford English for Computing.Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996. CASTLEMAN, R. K. Digital Image Processing. USA: Prentice Hall, 2000.

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CRUZ, Dcio Torres & SILVA, Alba Valria & ROSAS, Marta. Ingls.com.textos para informtica. Salvador: O Autor , 2001. GALANTE, T. P. Ingls para Processamento de Dados. So Paulo: Atlas, 1996. MARTINS, Elisabeth P. & PASQUALIN, Ernesto & AMOS, Eduardo. Graded English. So Paulo: Moderna,1993. MUNHOZ, Rosngela. Ingls Instrumental Estratgias de Leitura . Mdulo I. So Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2000. ________.Ingls Instrumental Estratgias de Leitura. Mdulo II. So Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2001. Internet: sites diversos