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low or zero, go for four reasons 1- Supply is not coming - check for power supply component providing supply. 2- Supply is short circuited by components connected on supply pin. Even check for live dirt, Solder on tracks, components touching with other components. 3- IC itself is shorting internally - disconnect IC supply pin -voltage becoes normal. replace IC . 4 - if nothing of above , it is your fault , you are missing something . If supply voltage is high go for two resons – 1- Supply is coming high – in this case ic will over heat .first repair ps for high output faults . 2- Consumption is low - in this case ic will not heat . Ic is not consuming power. IC is open or some fault which prevents ic from consuming power . If supply voltage is close to normal voltage, than measure the voltage on output pin - it must be approximately half of the supply voltage. IF voltage is normal & ic donot over heats , check for signal faults by injecting signal , if signal does not pass check components on sifnal path .IF voltage on output pin is low or high than first check components on pins of ic , if all the components are o.k. only than replace IC . If voltage is available on supply pin but no voltage on other pins , ic is not having switch off or protection , than ic is open from supply side. If voltage on all pins except ground pins are high , ic is open from ground side . If ic heats and out put from ic is low or distorted, than first check for overloading or short on ic output .If no short is found than replace ic may be internal short.
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If signal is not coming out , ic is not heating , check for stand by , mute , protection pins if no such function is active , than check signal path , even this is also ok than replace ic . If yoy have regular use of same IC than make one circuit in which you can put your ic and check quickly. If ic is having some special function than using CRO may help you, locate the fault easily . If ic is used in the digital circuits than truth table of ic can only help to find fault, either by voltage or analysis of waveform will help to locate fault. If ic is programmable controller, than go for software check first, if software is ok than only go for hardware check. In digital circuits check for clock circuits , data lines , clock lines , strobes , control lines, enables , etc terminals first , if you have CRO than go for wave form check. Try to get IC’s block diagram it will help you lot. Try to understand power and signal paths and controlling circuit, how they all perform the job decided for ic. If IC is having analog and digital sections in a single ic, their earthings may be separate, so use respective grounds for measuring voltages. Replace shields and heat sinks after work is finished in their original lay out. Do not touch ic terminals with bare hands of cmos ics, you may damage ic. Observe antistatic protection rules and devices for safety. While soldering observe for soldering time and temperature of the device, decided by the manufacturer. Make use of special tools made for special soldering and handling of device.