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Disciplina

Morfossintaxe da Lngua Inglesa II


Coordenador da Disciplina

Prof. Silvia Malena


4 Edio

Copyright 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edio ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poder ser reproduzida, transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrnico, por fotocpia e outros, sem a prvia autorizao, por escrito, dos autores. Crditos desta disciplina Coordenao Coordenador UAB Prof. Mauro Pequeno Coordenador Adjunto UAB Prof. Henrique Pequeno Coordenador do Curso Prof. Smia Alves Carvalho Coordenador de Tutoria Prof. Joo Tobias Lima Sales Coordenador da Disciplina Prof. Silvia Malena Contedo Autor da Disciplina Prof. Silvia Malena Setor TecnologiasDigitais - STD Coordenador do Setor Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno Centro de Produo I - (Material Didtico) Gerente: Ndia Maria Barone Subgerente: Paulo Andr Lima / Jos Andr Loureiro Transio Didtica Dayse Martins Pereira Elen Cristina S. Bezerra Eliclia Lima Gomes Ftima Silva e Souza Jos Adriano de Oliveira Karla Colares Kamille de Oliveira Formatao Camilo Cavalcante Elilia Rocha Emerson Mendes Oliveira Francisco Ribeiro Givanildo Pereira Sued de Deus Stephan Capistrano Programao Andrei Bosco Damis Iuri Garcia Publicao Joo Ciro Saraiva Design, Impresso e 3D Andr Lima Vieira Eduardo Ferreira Fred Lima Gleilson dos Santos Iranilson Pereira Luiz Fernando Soares Marllon Lima Onofre Paiva

Gerentes Audiovisual: Andra Pinheiro Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante

Sumrio
Aula 01: English Sentences ...................................................................................................................... 01 Tpico 01: Presentation .......................................................................................................................... 01 Tpico 02: Introducing English Sentences............................................................................................. 02 Tpico 03: Types of Sentences .............................................................................................................. 05 Tpico 04: Simple Sentences ................................................................................................................. 08 Tpico 05: Further Reading and Practice .............................................................................................. 11

Aula 02: Sentences - Compound ............................................................................................................. 13 Tpico 01: Compound Sentences ........................................................................................................... 13 Tpico 02: Coordinating Conjunctions .................................................................................................. 16 Tpico 03: More on Coordinating Conjunctions ................................................................................... 21 Tpico 04: Correlatives.......................................................................................................................... 25

Aula 03: Complex Sentences Noun Clauses......................................................................................... 28 Tpico 01: Complex Sentences .............................................................................................................. 28 Tpico 02: Complex Sentences / Noun Clauses .................................................................................... 32 Tpico 03: Noun Clauses Introduced by the Conjunctions IF or WHETHER ...................................................................................................................................... 37 Tpico 04: Review and Expansion of Noun Clauses............................................................................. 41

Aula 04: Complex Sentences Adverbial Clauses ................................................................................. 48 Tpico 01: Adverbial Clauses (time; place; manner)............................................................................. 48 Tpico 02: Adverbial Clauses (purpose; reason; result) ........................................................................ 53 Tpico 03: Adverbial Clauses (condition) ............................................................................................. 58 Tpico 04: Adverbial Clauses (concession) .......................................................................................... 64

Aula 05: Complex Sentences Adjective Clauses .................................................................................. 71 Tpico 01: Definition and Types of Adjective Clauses ......................................................................... 71 Tpico 02: Functions and Uses of Relative Pronouns in Restrictive Clauses ....................................... 75 Tpico 03: Functions and Uses of Relative Pronouns in Non-Restrictive Clauses ............................... 82

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 01: ENGLISH SENTENCES
TOPIC 01: PRESENTATION

In Morfossintaxe da Lngua Inglesa I you studied NOUN PHRASES and VERB PHRASES in the English language. In Morfossintaxe da Lngua Inglesa II you will study SENTENCES and their constituents. You will also study types of sentences.

VERSO TEXTUAL

in Class 1: you will be introduced to Englis Sentences and their types. in Class 2: you will study Compound Sentences. in Class 3: you will study Complex Sentences - Noun Clauses. in Class 4: you will study Complex Sentences - Adverbial Clauses. in Class 5: you will study Complex Sentences - Relative Clauses

Have fun while you learn more about the structure of the English language!

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 01: ENGLISH SENTENCES
TOPIC 02: INTRODUCING ENGLISH SENTENCES

A NOUN PHRASE is a sentence fragment made up of a head which is a noun, an adjective or a pronoun and modifying elements. The head of the noun phrase can be premodified by determiners and/or adjectives and postmodified by other phrases or even clauses. Look at the examples below.
VERSO TEXTUAL

A VERB PHRASE is a phrase that has the syntactic role of a simple verb and is composed of a main verb and auxiliary verbs or verbal particles (Traditional Grammar). In generative grammar, a verb phrase is a syntactic unit that corresponds to the predicate. In addition to the verb, this includes auxiliaries, objects, object complements, and other constituents apart from the subject. Take a look at the following examples.
VERSO TEXTUAL

A noun phrase and a verb phrase together make up a SENTENCE. Read the example below.

VERSO TEXTUAL

Three smart girls of our class went to the United States is a simple sentence. A sentence expresses a complete thought.

PRACTICE 1
Identify whether these are sentences or phrases. If they are phrases, say whether they are noun phrases or verb phrases. 1. Some small houses on the corner 2. Soccer is a game played all over the world. 3. Is raining very hard all over the country side 4. The band that plays this song is coming for a concert. 5. The busy man who never has time for his children
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. Some small houses on the corner NOUN PHRASE 2. Soccer is a game played all over the world. - SENTENCE 3. Is raining very hard all over the country side VERB
PHRASE

4. The band that plays this song is coming for a concert. SENTENCE 5. The busy man who never has time for his children NOUN
PHRASE

CHALLENGE
What is there at the end of each sentence but not at the end of the phrases?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER!

At the end of each sentence there is always a period (.).

TITULO

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam laoreet commodo dui eu posuere. Aenean mollis sem vitae nulla fermentum consectetur. Duis aliquet, erat at vulputate tristique, nulla arcu luctus elit, ac ultricies tortor nulla vel sem. Etiam dapibus molestie ultrices

FORUM
Watch the video and discuss the following questions in the forum. What is a simple sentence? 1. What are the kinds of simple sentences? 2. Show patterns and give examples of each pattern. First click on the link: Simple Sentences [1] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESxFRENglPQ ATTENTION! Before you post your answer in the forum first read topics III and IV.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESxFRENglPQ
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 01: ENGLISH SENTENCES
TOPIC 03: TYPES OF SENTENCES
SENTENCES in English can be SIMPLE, COMPOUND or COMPLEX

SIMPLE SENTENCES have only ONE VERB PHRASE. Look at the example below.

However, some sentences in English have more than one verb phrase. Check the example below.

Both verb phrases have the same subject - three smart girls of our class.

If the sentence above were broken into two, there would be two independent clauses, because each one would express a complete thought.

Since the sentence is made of independent clauses which express a complete thought, we call it a COMPOUND SENTENCE.

COMPOUND SENTENCES can also be made up of independent clauses with different subjects. Take a look at the example below.

The compound sentence above is made up of two INDEPENDENT CLAUSES, and each one has a different subject.

The clauses are independent because each one expresses an independent proposition and/or a complete thought; i.e., each one has an independent meaning. However, some clauses depend on others to express a complete thought. These clauses are called SUBORDINATE. Take a look at the example below

The first clause Three smart boys went to Europe expresses a complete thought. However, in order to make sense of the second clause when they turned eighteen years old we need to relate it to the first clause. Together, the main clause and the subordinate clause make up a COMPLEX SENTENCE.

PRACTICE 2
Identify whether the sentences below are SIMPLE, COMPOUND or COMPLEX. 1. Sometime ago we studied the constituents of a noun phrase. 2. Are you leaving tomorrow or in a few days? 3. When they arrived, everyone else had left. 4. I studied hard but I didnt pass the test. 5. What were you doing while everybody was studying? 6. I dont understand why he hasnt called yet.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. Sometime ago we studied the constituents of a noun phrase. SIMPLE 2. Are you leaving tomorrow or in a few days? SIMPLE 3. When they arrived, everyone else had left. COMPLEX 4. I studied hard but I didnt pass the test. COMPOUND 5. What were you doing while everybody was studying? COMPOUND 6. I dont understand why he hasnt called yet. COMPLEX

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 01: ENGLISH SENTENCES
TOPIC 04: SIMPLE SENTENCES

SIMPLE SENTENCES
A simple sentence describes only one thing, idea or question. It contains a single subject (noun phrase) and predicate (verb phrase). A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. Read the example below.

A simple sentence is not necessarily simple; a simple sentence may be very complicated when its phrases are complex. Look at the example below.

The SUBJECT is the person or thing the sentence is 'about'. Often (but not always) it will be the first part of the sentence. The subject will usually be a noun phrase followed by a verb. Once you have identified the subject, the remainder of the sentence tells us what the subject does or did. This part of the sentence is the PREDICATE of the sentence. The predicate always includes the verb and the words which come after the verb. For example:

THE ANATOMY OF A SENTENCE


A simple sentence may be analyzed into clause constituents. There are five functional categories of clause constituents:
VERSO TEXTUAL

These constituents are arranged in a fixed position in English sentences. The different arrangements of clause constituents account for the different types of clauses. In English, there are seven major types of clauses. Lets take a look at them.
SV Type SV SVO Type SVO Subject The teacher Verb opened (monotransitive) Object(s) the door. (direct object) Complement Adverbial Subject The sun Verb is shining. (intransitive) Object(s) Complement Adverbial

SVOO Type SVOO Subject I Verb bought (ditransitive) Object(s) my mother a present. (indirect object) (direct object) Complement Adverbial

SVC Type SVC Subject The girls Verb look Object(s) Complement pretty. (subject complement) Adverbial

SVA Type SVA Subject My classroom Verb is Object(s) Complement Adverbial in the next building. (subject-related adverbial)

SVOC Type SVOC Subject Students Verb found (transitive) Object(s) the teacher (direct object) Complement very helpful. (object complement) Adverbial

SVOA Type SVOA Subject You Verb can put (transitive) Object(s) your books (direct object) Complement Adverbial on the table. (objectrelated)

PRACTICE 3
Arrange the words in 1 8 in order to make simple sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. chemistry teaching hes in the lab. eating you are now? expensive presents she for Christmas her friends gives . Ted his friends him call. pleasant find him we. isnt our car in the garage. consider yourself you at risk do? the problem they to us about spoke.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Hes teaching chemistry in the lab. Are you eating now? She gives her friends expensive gifts for Christmas. His friends call him Ted. We find him pleasant. Our car isnt in the garage. Do you consider yourself at risk? They spoke to us about the problem.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 01: ENGLISH SENTENCES
TOPIC 05: FURTHER READING AND PRACTICE

FURTHER READINGS
1. Watch the video to learn more about simple sentences and sentence patterns in English. Click on Simple Sentence Diagramming [1] 2. In order to learn more about the constituents of English clauses, read the text More on Clause Constituents (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.) in the folder Material Complementar.

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Make up different simple sentences that fit the patterns below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. S+V S+V+O S+V+C S+V+A S+V+O+O S+V+O+C S+V+O+A

RESEARCH PROJECT

In Morfossintaxe II you will do some collaborative research on one of the topics that will be studied in this course.

CLICK HERE TO FOLLOW THE STEPS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Choose a partner to work with. Together with your partner choose one of the topics below. Research on the topic (use grammar books, web sites, etc) Prepare a written handout and an oral presentation of the topic. Present your topic to your classmates on September, 5th.

CLICK HERE TO SEE THE TOPICS FOR THE RESEARCH PROJECT

1. Subject-Verb Agreement 2. Use of Correlatives (either or; both and; nor neither neither nor; not (only) but) 3. Direct and Indirect speech 4. TO clauses and ING clauses 5. Clauses of Time and Place 6. Clauses of Condition, Concession, and Contrast 7. Clauses of Purpose and Result 8. Comparative Clauses
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REFERENCES
Quirk, R. et all. A COMPREHENSIVE GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. New York : Longman, 1985.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTsEiVjViiI&feature=related
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 02: SENTENCES: COMPOUND
TOPIC 01: COMPOUND SENTENCES

A compound sentence is a sentence that contains two complete ideas or thoughts (called clauses) that are related. A compound sentence structure shows that two thoughts are connected and of equal importance. Look at the example below:

STOP AND CHECK


Remember these four important characteristics of compound sentences: 1. A compound sentence is like a set of twins ( -- gmeos) ; each is a separate person, yet each is connected to the other with the same biological "make-up." That is, each has a subject, a verb, and words to complete the thought. Although they are joined by a linking word, each sentence of the compound is complete in itself and can stand alone. For example:

2. The two parts of the compound sentence need to be linked correctly, with a comma ( -- vrgula) and then a linking word at the place where one sentence ends and the other begins.

3. Because there are two complete sentences in a compound sentence, each has equal weight ( -- peso) in terms of the ideas being presented. That is, you may want to link sentences into a compound to show that their ideas are equally important.

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4. The linking word (conjunction) shows the relationship between the ideas:

In sum, a compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, which are linked by a coordinating conjunction, as in the example below.
VERSO TEXTUAL

The above sentence is a compound sentence as it contains two independent clauses, and they are joined together by a coordinating conjunction with a comma preceding it. In this concern it is important to note that the coordinating conjunction can change the relationship between the clauses. Look at the compound sentences below.

FURTHER READINGS
Click on the link What is a compound sentence? [1] to learn more about compound sentences.

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PRACTICE
1. Join the pair of simple sentences below to turn them into a compound sentence. a. Caitlyn wants to be a lawyer. Samantha plans to be a TV star. b. Tim likes to make people laugh. Jason likes to make people cry. c. The Thompsons work hard. They make a lot of money.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

a. Caitlyn wants to be a lawyer, and Samantha plans to be a TV star. b. Tim likes to make people laugh, but Jason likes to make people cry. c. The Thompsons work hard, so they make a lot of money.

2. Play a game to check what you have learned about compound sentences. Click on the link. For each wrong answer there will be some explanation. BBC- Skillswise- English [2]

FORUM
Click on the link to watch a video about compound sentences. Discuss the following questions in the forum. Compound Setences [3] 1. Whats wrong about the way Crazy Monkeys friend talks about his day? 2. Which sentences are chopped? Give three examples from the video. 3. How does Crazy Monkey instruct his friend to keep the flow of the conversation when he talks about his day? 4. How can we avoid sentences to be chopped according to the video? What can be done? Give examples.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.eslbee.com/sentences.htm 2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/grammar/interestsentences/co mpoundsentences/game.shtml 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PMb3f7mdMY&feature=related
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 02: SENTENCES: COMPOUND
TOPIC 02: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

AND, OR, SO and but are regarded as coordinating conjunctions. They link two or more independent clauses, which together make up a compound sentence. In this topic you will learn more about the uses of AND, OR, AND BUT.

AND
USE 1

1. To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another. Ex: TRAVIS LEFT HIS REPORT TO THE PROFESSOR AND WAITED FOR A RESPONSE.
USE 2

2. To suggest that one idea is the result of another. Ex: Bob heard the explosion police.
USE 3

and he therefore ran for the

3. To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage). Ex: Mike is smart and has a bad temper.
USE 4

4. To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by but in this usage). Ex: She tried with all her strenght and she failed.
USE 5

5. To suggest that the idea of one clause is dependent on the idea of the other, the first stating the condition (being the first clause usually an imperative). Ex: Pay the money, and I'll help with your taxes.
USE 6

6. To suggest a kind of "comment" or explanation on the first clause. Ex:


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He acted in a bad way, and that surprised nobody.

OR
USE 1

1. To suggest that only one possibility is normally interpreted as exclusive (can be replaced by Ex: YOU NEED TO PRACTICE A LOT OR (OR ELSE) YOU WILL FALL.
USE 2
OR ELSE).

2. To suggest the addition of a third clause to make it clear. Ex: WE CAN PREPARE A LIGHT MEAL, sandwich, or we can just have a soup.
USE 3

or we can have a

3. To suggest that precision is required. Ex: If theres any dirty spot in the article you bought, exchange it or talk straight to the manager.
USE 4

4. To suggest a restatement or correction of what was said. Ex: They are not coming for dinner, or (at least) thats what they said.
USE 5

5. To suggest a negative condition. Ex: Hands up, or Ill shoot.

BUT
USE 1

1. To suggest a contrast or an unexpected idea in the second clause. Ex: PAUL WON THE LOTTERY, JANITOR.
USE 2
BUT HE KEEPS WORKING AS A

2. To suggest a repudiation in positive terms of what was said (can be replaced by rather or on the contrary). Ex:
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Im not against the companys goals, attention to the risks.


USE 3

but Im calling

3. To connect two ideas expanding them into two full clauses. Ex: Im not objecting to what you did, objecting to the way you did. but Im (rather)

CHALLENGE
Pay attention to the punctuation between the two independent clauses in the compound sentences below. Notice that in the first sentence, the clauses are separated by comma, while in the second sentence, there are no commas between the clauses. Why?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE CLUE

In the first sentence, who is the subject of the first clause? Who is the subject of the second clause? 1st clause (You) is the subject 2nd clause (I) is the subject In the second sentence, who is the subject of the first clause? Who is the subject of the second clause? 1st clause (You) is the subject 2nd clause (You) is the subject

CLICK HERE TO KNOW THE ANSWER

When the SUBJECTS of the two independent clauses are THE


SAME,

it is NOT NECESSARY to use the comma if the CLAUSES ARE

SHORT.

When the SUBJECTS of the two independent clauses are


DIFFERENT, it is NECESSARY to separate the clauses with a comma.

FURTHER READING
Click on the link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQR3CDXePv4 [1] to watch a video about coordinating conjunctions.

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PRACTICE 1
Combine the pair of sentences below to make compound sentences, using AND, OR, or BUT. 1. The black dog has won many prizes. It doesnt know many tricks. 2. You could cry like a baby. You can clean your room like an adult. 3. Listen to my advice. You will regret. 4. I dont want to eat. I dont want to drink. 5. I want to own my own company. I want to pay all my workers a lot of money. 6. I need to go the store. Im feeling too sick to drive. 7. You can make a big poster. You can make a little clay statue. 8. I want to go the circus. I want to ride a pony.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. The black dog has won many prizes, BUT it doesnt know many tricks. 2. You could cry like a baby, OR you can clean your room like an adult. 3. Listen to my advice, OR you will regret. 4. I dont want to eat, AND I dont want to drink. 5. I want to own my own company, AND I want to pay all my workers a lot of money. 6. I need to go to the store, BUT Im feeling too sick to drive. 7. You can make a big poster, OR you can make a little clay statue. 8. I want to go to the circus, AND I want to ride a pony.

PRACTICE 2
Identify the type or relationship established by the coordinating conjunctions in each sentence below. For example: LETS PAY HIM SOME MONEY, AND HE WONT SAY A WORD ABOUT
IT.

And establishes a condition. 1. He got a car from his parents, but he still takes the bus. 2. We can go by car, or we can go by bus, or we can ride a bike. 3. You need to work hard in this project, or you will lose your job. 4. Im not interfering in your life, but Im calling your attention to the problem.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. BUT Contrast; the idea in the second clause is unexpected. 2. OR The addition of a third clause to make it clear. 3. OR One possibility is exclusive. 4. BUT Repudiation in positive terms.
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FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQR3CDXePv4
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

20

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 02: SENTENCES: COMPOUND
TOPIC 03: MORE ON COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects parts of a sentence. Coordinating conjunctions can join two independent clauses. AND, OR, AND BUT are coordinating conjunctions. However, in English there are other coordinating conjunctions. Other coordinating conjunctions are FOR, NOR, YET, and SO. One way to remember all the coordinating conjunctions is to call them FANBOYS

In the previous topic, you learned some details about AND, OR, and BUT. Now you are going to learn more about the other coordinating conjunctions.

THE OTHER COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS


NOR YET FOR SO
NOR

The conjunction NOR is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neither-nor. Take a look at the example below. He is neither sane nor brilliant. That is neither what I said nor what I meant. NOR can be used with other negative expressions: That is not what I meant to say, nor should you interpret my statement as an admission of guilt. It is possible to use nor without a preceding negative element, but it is unusual: George's handshake is as good as any written contract, nor has he ever proven untrustworthy.
YET

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The word YET functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings: in addition ("yet another cause of trouble" or "a simple yet noble woman"), even ("yet more expensive"), still ("he is yet a novice"), eventually ("they may yet win"), and so soon as now ("he's not here yet"). It also functions as a coordinating conjunction meaning something like "nevertheless" or "but." The word yet seems to carry an element of distinctiveness that but can seldom register. John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton. The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play golf every day. In sentences such as the second one, above, the pronoun subject of the second clause ("they," in this case) is often left out. When that happens, the comma preceding the conjunction might also disappear: The visitors complained loudly yet continued to play golf every day. Yet is sometimes combined with other conjunctions, but or and. It would not be unusual to see and yet in sentences like the ones above. This usage is acceptable.
FOR

The word FOR is most often used as a preposition, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunction. Some people regard the conjunction for as rather highfalutin and literary, and it does tend to add a bit of weightiness to the text. Beginning a sentence with the conjunction "for" is probably not a good idea, except when you're singing "For he's a jolly good fellow. "For" has serious sequential implications and in its use the order of thoughts is more important than it is, say, with because or since. Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause: John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the company's board of trustees. Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train.
SO

Be careful of the conjunction SO. Sometimes it can connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can't. For instance, in this sentence, Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet. where the word so means "as well" or "in addition," most careful writers would use a semicolon between the two independent clauses. In the following sentence, where so is acting like a minor-league "therefore," the conjunction and the comma are adequate to the task:

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Soto has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds of his adoring fans. Sometimes, at the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a kind of summing up device or transition, and when it does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma: So, the sheriff removed the child from the custody of his parents.

PRACTICE
Combine the pairs of simple sentences below in order to make compound sentences. Use coordinating conjunctions.

1. She saw a cat run in front of her. She fell down while roller-skating. 2. There was a meteor shower. The crew did not know how to avoid the meteors. 3. I wanted to buy a baby Chihuahua. I started to save my money. 4. Gillian did not like to read. She was not very good at it. 5. Pam liked Wayne. Leena also liked Wayne. 6. The little boy did not like going to school. He went anyway. 7. Arleen could not play with that boy. Arleen could not play with that other boy. 8. Let's go to the swimming pool. It's hot inside the house. 9. I dont want to practice playing my violin. I dont want to disobey my mother. 10. Rabbits make good pets. They dont make too much noise and they are clean. 11. I didnt do my homework. My parents punished me. 12. I have never visited Asia. I have never visited Africa.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. She saw a cat run in front of her, SO she fell down while rollerskating. 2. There was a meteor shower in space, BUT the crew did not know how to avoid the meteors. 3. I wanted to buy a baby Chihuahua, SO I started to save my money. 4. Gillian did not like to read, FOR she was not very good at it. 5. Pam liked Wayne, AND Leena also liked Wayne. 6. The little boy did not like to go to school, YET he went anyway. 7. Arleens could not play with that boy, NOR could she play with that other boy. 8. Lets go to the swimming pool, FOR its hot inside the house. 9. I dont want to practice playing the violin, YET I dont want to disobey my mother. 10. Rabbits make good pets, FOR they dont make too much noise
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and they are clean. 11. I didnt do my homework, SO my parents punished me. 12. I have never visited Asia, NOR have I visited Africa.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

24

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 02: SENTENCES: COMPOUND
TOPIC 04: CORRELATIVES

Some conjunctions are used in pairs, they are called correlative conjunctions. They are used to show the relationship between ideas expressed in different parts of a sentence. The coordinating correlative conjunctions are: both ... and either ... or neither ... nor not only ... but also

BOTH AND
In order to reinforce the function of and one can possibly use both. SUE HAS VISITED BOTH HER COUSINS AND HER GODMOTHER.

SALLY BOTH LOVES MOUNTAIN CLIMBING AND WANTS TO REACH THE TOP OF MOUNT EVEREST.

Lets compare: STEVEN AND COURTNEY GOT APART. (FROM EACH OTHER). BOTH STEVEN AND COURTNEY GOT APART (NOW THEY CAN MARRY ANOTHER PERSON).

EITHER OR
Either could also be used in front of the first conjoin as a reinforcement. By conjoining we mean what connects parts of a sentence. SUE HAS SEEN EITHER HER COUSINS OR HER GODMOTHER.

EITHER THE FRIDGE IS TOO BIG OR THE DOOR IS TOO SMALL.


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The conjoins may also be smaller constituents: YOU MAY EITHER STAY OR SIT.

NEITHER NOR
The correlative pair neither nor is also possible to be used for reinforcement. SUE HAS SEEN NEITHER HER COUSINS NOR HER GODMOTHER. The sentence above is equivalent to: SUE HASNT SEEN EITHER HER COUSINS OR HER GODMOTHER.

I DID NOT RECEIVE AN INCREASE IN MY SALARY NOR A PROMOTION. I DID NOT CATCH A COLD NEITHER A FLU.

THE STUDENTS NEVER AGREED WITH THE RESULT OF THE EXAM, AND NEITHER COULD ACCEPT THEIR FAILURE. However, there are situations in which the correlatives neither nor constitute a pair. This happens when nor functions as central coordinator and the negation applies to both conjoins. BOB NEITHER PAYS FOR HIS SONS MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, NOR FOR HIS STUDIES.

NOT ONLY BUT ALSO


The correlative pair not only but also can also be used for reinforcement. SHE NOT ONLY SINGS LIKE AN ANGEL, BUT ALSO DANCES DIVINELY.

26

NOT ONLY WAS THE BATHROOM FLOODED, BUT ALSO THE REST OF THE HOUSE. NOT ONLY HAS SHE BEEN LATE THREE TIMES; SHE HAS ALSO DONE NO WORK. Note that when the sentence starts with not only and there is no auxiliary verb in the clause, not only requires the addition of one. NOT ONLY DO THEY NEED CLOTHING, BUT THEY ARE ALSO SHORT OF WATER.

PRACTICE
Click on the link [1] below to practice the use of correlative conjunctions:

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Rewrite the two paragraphs below. In each paragraph, combine the simple sentences in order to make coherent compound sentences. Save it in your portfolio. PARAGRAPH 1: It was a dark and stormy night. The wind was high. The trees waved. The trees crashed against the barn. I looked around me. I saw that I wasnt alone. A man stood behind me. He was tall. He was mean. He had a knife. It was shining in the moonlight. It was long and slender. He reached back. He stabbed with it. I jumped out of the way. I ran away. PARAGRAPH 2: Tom prefers baseball to basketball. Baseball seems more interesting to Tom. Tom feels baseball is a gentlemans sport. Baseball is more structured than basketball. Baseball requires athletes to use more skill than aggression when playing. Tom respects baseball players the most because of this.

REFERENCES
Quirk, R. et all. A COMPREHENSIVE GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. New York : Longman, 1985.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.softschools.com/quizzes/grammar/correlative_conjunctions /quiz3199.html
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

27

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 03: COMPLEX SENTENCES NOUN CLAUSES
TOPIC 01: COMPLEX SENTENCES

CHALLENGE
Look at the sentences below and identify which sentence is simple and which is compound:

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE CLUE

CLICK HERE TO CHECK IF YOU CORRECTLY IDENTIFIED THE SIMPLE AND THE COMPOUND SENTENCES.

As you learned in Class 1 and in Class 2, a simple sentence consists of one clause SUBJECT + PREDICATE (verb + complement) while a compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. In this class, you are going to learn about COMPLEX SENTENCES in English. Lets start by analyzing the two sentences below.
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Sentence 1 Bob studied hard, so he passed the test. What happens if we split the sentence above into two? Sentence 1a: Bob studied hard. Sentence 1b: He passed the test.

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Is there a relationship between Sentence 1a and Sentence 1b? Yes. Sentence 1b is a consequence of Sentence 1a. Sentence 2 Bob studied hard when he took algebra. What happens if we split the sentence above into two? Sentence 2a: Bob studied hard. Sentence 2b: He took algebra. Is there a relationship between Sentence 2a and Sentence 2b? Not really.

Sentences 2a and 2b sound like distinct ideas when separated because, in fact, the relationship between them is established by the conjunction WHEN. When did Bob study hard? When he took algebra. The conjunction WHEN establishes the relationship of time between 2a and 2b. Now, lets analyze Sentence 2 again.

A COMPLEX SENTENCE consists of one main clause (which is also independent) joined by one or more subordinate clauses (also called dependent clauses). In COMPLEX SENTENCES, the subordinate clauses either provide further information about the subject or object, or add an adverb to the main clause. Lets see some examples.
EXEMPLO 1

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EXEMPLO 2

EXEMPLO 3

In Examples 1 - 3 above, the complex sentences start with the main clause followed by the subordinate clause. However, a complex sentence can also start with the subordinate clause, followed by the main clause. For example:

OBSERVATION
When a complex sentence starts with a subordinate clause, we have to use a comma to separate the clauses.

FURTHER READING
- Click on the link below to watch a video about the difference between main clauses (independent clauses) and subordinate clauses (dependent clauses). What is a complex sentence? [1] - In order to review the distinction between simple, compound and complex sentences, click on the following links. The Structure of a Sentence [2] Kinds of Sentences and Their Punctuation [3]
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PRACTICE
1. Play the game to check how much you have learned about sentences so far, by spinning to begin the game. Click on the link. [4] 2. Write the clauses and phrases in the boxes below to complete the following paragraph about sentences in English. 1 2

3 4 5 6

Sentences in English can be short or long. Whether they are short or long, . that sentences can be simple, compound or complex. Simple sentences have only clause. A clause consists of sentence is made of at least two clauses A compound

A complex sentence consists

of one main clause, which is independent, and at least another clause This subordinate clause is introduced by a conjunction or a relative pronoun,
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. it doesnt matter very much. 2. What is important to keep in mind is 3. a subject and only one predicate. 4. which are independent from each other. 5. which is subordinate to the main one. 6. and it might function as the subject, object or adverb of the main clause.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. 2. 3. 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iTfgqZmmG2Q&feature=related http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/sntstrct.html http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentences.htm http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/sensort/index_pre.html
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

31

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 03: COMPLEX SENTENCES NOUN CLAUSES
TOPIC 02: COMPLEX SENTENCES / NOUN CLAUSES
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Topic 1, you learned that COMPLEX SENTENCES consist of one main clause and at least one SUBORDINATE CLAUSE. In Topic 2, you wiill learn about one specific type of subordinate clause the NOUN CLAUSE.

In order to understand what a noun clause is, read the dialogue below.

Lets analyze the first line of the dialogue.


VERSO TEXTUAL

Now lets analyze the third line of the dialogue. MARY TOLD ME THAT SHE WAS IN LOVE WITH PETER.

Lets analyze each clause now.

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As you can observe, the subordinate clause that she was in love with Peter corresponds to secret . Secret is a noun. Therefore, the clause that she was in love with Peter is in place of a noun and functions as the direct object of the verb of the main clause. A subordinate clause that takes the place of noun is called a Noun Clause.

NOUN CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY THE CONJUNCTION THAT.


Some noun clauses are introduced by that. That is a conjunction. Nominalthat-clauses (= noun clauses introduced by that) may function as:
SUBJECT

Example:

DIRECT OBJECT

Example:

APPOSITIVE

Example:

ADJECTIVAL COMPLEMENTATION

OBSERVATION
When the THAT-clause is the direct object or the complement, the conjunction THAT is usually omitted in informal English. For example;

USE OF THAT-CLAUSES
That-clauses are used to express:
OPINIONS

Example: I assume (that) he is telling the truth.


THOUGHTS
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Example: I thought (that) it was going to rain.


FEELINGS

Example: I hope (that) you really do the job.

OBSERVATION
1. In a that-clause there is no comma between the main clause and the that-clause. 2. The past perfect tense can be used in the noun clause to refer to an earlier time. For example:Click here to check
CLICK HERE TO CHECK

I knew that she had robbed the bank. (First, she robbed the bank ; then, I got to know about it) However, if the sentence involves a generalization, the verb in the noun clause does not come in the past perfect. For example : Isaac Newton believed that the same force that caused the apple to fall also kept the moon in orbit around the earth. ( believe is a verb that expresses mental activity ; the sentence expresses a generalization) 3. That-clauses do not stand alone. For this reason, they are introduced by the expression the fact. For example:Click here to check
CLICK HERE TO CHECK

The fact that she was a native speaker made her get the position abroad. (what made her get the position abroad ?) THE FACT also introduces that-clauses after a preposition. For example : However, if the sentence involves a generalization, the verb in the noun clause does not come in the past perfect. For example :

4. In complex sentences which start with clauses such as: It is important ... It is necessary...

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It is vital ... It is essential ... the that-clause requires the use of the subjunctive. In British English, the subjunctive is made by the use of should + infinitive. For example:Click here to check
CLICK HERE TO CHECK

It is important that he should talk to me. It is necessary that the king should be informed immediately. In American English, the subjunctive is made by not conjugating the verb (absence of s in third person singular). For example: IT IS ESSENTIAL that every student have the same opportunities. IT IS VITAL that the company invest in shares.

PRACTICE
Match the clauses in the left column to the clauses in the right column in order to make complex sentences. 1. thought She that I can pass the test. the that he is sick. 3. They realized early. 4. I doubted she didnt do well on the test. 5. The fact that is he is sick 6. I hope to everyone. that he is going to the US. 7. You need to pay attention to 8. happy My son is they needed new shoes. that knew the answer. he is known he arrive fact

2. It is important that

35

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE ANSWERS.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof.Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

36

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 03: COMPLEX SENTENCES NOUN CLAUSES
TOPIC 03: NOUN CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY THE CONJUNCTIONS IF OR WHETHER
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Topic 2, you learned about one specific type of subordinate clause the NOUN CLAUSE and about a specific type of noun clause the THAT-CLAUSE. In Topic 3, you will learn about another specific type of noun clause IF CLAUSES and WHETHER CLAUSES

In order to understand what a IF/WHETHER clause is, read the dialogue below.

Lets now analyze the second line of the dialogue.

Lets analyze each clause of the complex sentence above.

The subordinate clause above is introduced by the conjunction IF. Subordinate noun clauses introduced by the conjunctions IF/WHETHER answer Yes/No questions (Are the students coming ?). Because IF/WHETHER clauses answer Yes/No questions, they are also called

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embedded yes/no questions. However, watch out for the word order in IF/WHETHER clauses. Compare the Yes/No questions in the left column to the noun clause introduced by If in the right column.

WHETHER and IF have the same meaning. However, WHETHER is more formal than IF. Examples: IM NOT SURE IF HE IS AT HOME. IM NOT SURE WHETHER HE IS BUSY RIGHT NOW.

NOTE
When we use if/whether noun clauses, it is also possible to use the phrase OR NOT added to the end of the if/whether clause when they are not very long. For example: I WONDER IF HE LOVES BETTY OR NOT. I WONDER WHETHER HE LOVES BETTY OR NOT. On the other hand, OR NOT could immediately follow WHETHER. The same can not happen with IF. So, OR NOT CAN NOT follow IF. Lets see the following : I WONDER WHETHER OR NOT HE LOVES BETTY. Some changes should be observed when IF/WHETHER clauses are used. Such changes refer to the INTRODUCTORY CLAUSE or INTRODUCTORY VERB in the clause. So, when the introductory clause is in the present, present is used in the second part of the clause. However, if the introductory clause is in the past, past perfect should be used in the second clause. Let us consider the following examples:
1. WHEN THE INTRODUCTORY CLAUSE IN THE PRESENT

2. WHEN THE INTRODUCTORY CLAUSE IN THE PAST

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USES OF IF/WHETHER CLAUSES


When someone is unsure whether something will happen or not, IF is used.

PRACTICE
Answer the following questions using IF/WHETHER clauses. Use verbs such as know, doubt, and wonder in the main clauses. 1. Are you going to graduate at the end of the year? 2. Does Jane work a lot? 3. Did your children come home early last night? 4. Has the teacher corrected all the papers? 5. Were they rich when they were young?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE ANSWERS.

1. I dont know if/whether I am going to graduate at the end of the year. Doubt/Wonder if 2. I dont know if/whether Jane works a lot. Doubt/Wonder if 3. I dont know if/whether my children came home early last night. wonder 4. I dont know if/whether the teacher has corrected all the papers. Doubt/Wonder if 5. I dont know if/whether they were rich when they were young. Doubt/Wonder if
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FORUM
Listen to the song IMAGINE by John Lennon while you also read the lyrics. Click on the link below to watch a video of the song IMAGINE. Imagine Lyrics [1] When you finish, do the following: - Identify: 1 - an example of a noun clause that functions as direct object; 2 - an example of a noun clause introduced by IF; - Analyze: Is the IF clause in ITS EASY IF YOU TRY a noun clause? Why or why not? - Discuss your findings and the answer to the above question in the forum.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5tOgRD4EqY
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

40

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 03: COMPLEX SENTENCES NOUN CLAUSES
TOPIC 04: REVIEW AND EXPANSION OF NOUN CLAUSES

REVIEWING NOUN CLAUSES


You have learned that a complex sentence consists of a main clause and a subordinate clause, as in the example below.

You have also learned that a subordinate clause can take the place of a noun in the sentence. Noun clauses that take the place of nouns are called noun clauses; for example: MARY TOLD ME THAT SHE WAS IN LOVE WITH PETER.

In other words, noun clauses perform the same functions in sentences that nouns do. Noun clauses can be:
VERSO TEXTUAL

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You can combine two independent clauses by changing one to a noun clause. The choice of the conjunction depends on the type of clause you are changing to a noun clause: Click on the buttons bellow.

TYPE OF CLAUSE 1 To change a STATEMENT to a noun clause use THAT: I know + Billy made a mistake = I KNOW THAT BILLY MADE A MISTAKE.

TYPE OF CLAUSE 2 To change a YES/NO QUESTION to a noun clause, use IF or WHETHER: George wonders + Does Fred know how to cook? = GEORGE WONDERS IF FRED KNOWS HOW TO COOK.

TYPE OF CLAUSE 3 To change a WH-QUESTION to a noun clause, use the WH-WORD I dont know + Where is George? = I DONT KNOW WHERE GEORGE IS. The subordinate conjunctions in noun clauses are called noun clause markers. Here is a list of the NOUN CLAUSE MARKERS: THAT ( -- que) IF/ WHETHER ( -- se) Wh-words: HOW ( -- como) , WHAT ( -- o que) , WHEN ( -- quando) , ( -- onde) , WHICH ( -- qual/quais) , WHO/WHOM ( -- quem) , WHOSE ( -- de quem) , WHY ( -- porque) Wh-ever words: HOWEVER, WHATEVER, WHENEVER, WHEREVER, WHICHEVER, WHOEVER, WHOMEVER
WHERE

OBSERVATION
Except for THAT-CLAUSES, noun clause markers CANNOT be omitted. Only that can be omitted, but it can be omitted only if it is not the first word in a sentence. For example: BILLYS FRIENDS DIDNT KNOW THAT HE COULDNT SWIM. BILLYS FRIENDS DIDNT KNOW >HE COULDNT SWIM. BILLYS MISTAKE WAS THAT HE REFUSED TO TAKE LESSONS. BILLYS MISTAKE WAS HE REFUSED TO TAKE LESSONS.

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THAT BILLY JUMPED OFF THE PIER SURPRISED EVERYONE. (that cannot be ommited) Statement word order is always used in a noun clause, even if the main clause is a question. Examples: DO YOU KNOW WHAT TIME IT IS? (Statement word order: it is) EVERYBODY WONDERED WHERE BILLY WENT. (Statement word order: Billy went)

EXPANDING ON NOUN CLAUSES


Noun clauses are also used to report what someone has said or written. Look at the example below:

OBSERVATION
In the sentence MARY SAID THAT SHE DOESNT LIKE MATH, Bob is telling John what Mary has just said ; in other words, Bob is reporting what Mary has said. Reported speech is expressed from the reporters point of view. For this reason, a change in tense in the THAT-CLAUSE, PRONOUNS and ADVERBS is observed mainly when the introductory verb is in the past. Below we can see a change in the THAT-CLAUSE.

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There are some occasions, however, in which the reported speech may not change the tense even if the introductory verb is in the past:

We use reported speech to:


TO REPORT ADVICE

Mom said: Dont quit your job! MOM TOLD ME NOT TO QUIT MY JOB.
TO REPORT NEWS OR MESSAGES

Mike said: Ill call back tonight. MIKE SAID THAT HE WOULD CALL BACK TONIGHT.
TO RESTATE STATEMENTS OR QUESTIONS

The boss advised the employees: Never get late to work. THE BOSS ADVISED TO NEVER GET LATE TO WORK.
TO GIVE WEATHER FORECASTS

The announcer said: Its going to rain tomorrow. THE ANNOUNCER SAID THAT IT IS GOING TO RAIN TOMORROW. As you have seen, when we report someones speech, sometimes we need to make changes in the verb tense. But, there are other changes which are also necessary to make pronoun and adverb changes.
PRONOUN CHANGES

When the SPEAKER and the PRONOUN ARE NOT the same it is necessary to make changes. Direct speech: We know more about your finances than you do, they said. Reported speech: THE OFFICIALS SAID THEY KNEW MORE ABOUT HIS
MONEY THAN HE DID.

Direct speech: Perhaps I have forgotten a few things, he admitted Reported speech: HE ADMITTED THAT HE HAD FORGOTTEN A FEW
THINGS.
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ADVERB CHANGES

Ill call you tomorrow, he said. HE SAID THAT HE WOULD CALL ME THE NEXT DAY. Ill be here on time, he said. HE SAID HE WOULD BE THERE ON TIME.
CLICK HERE TO SEE A TABLE OF ADVERB CHANGES. CLICK HERE TO SEE A TABLE OF ADVERB CHANGES.

PRACTICE
Rewrite the sentences changing Mikes words into reported speech.
1.

Mike told him

2.

Mike asked Mary

3.

Mike asked people

4.

Mike said

5.

Mike insisted

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CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE ANSWERS.

1. Mike told him not to smoke. 2. Mike asked Mary what she had offered in return. 3. Mike asked people if they were sure the music was very loud. 4. Mike said he thought I was mistaken. 5. Mike insisted their prices were unbeatable.

FURTHER PRACTICE
If you are not very confident about using reported speech: - Click on the link and do the exercise on indirect speech. Then check your answer by clicking on the word answer. Reported speech - statements with expressions of time - Exercise 2 [1] - For further practice click on the link: Grammar of that noun clauses [2]

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Make up complex sentences with noun clauses by completing the sentences below. Post your sentences in your Portfolio. 1. The teacher told us that 2. 3. I observed that 4. The students are . 5. It is essential that 6. They are not sure whether 7. I wondered if 8. Janes problem was that 9. Children cannot be . 10. She asked me what time . responsible . . for . . excited is a well-known fact. . that .

REFERENCES
BLAND, Susan Kesner. INTERMEDIATE GRAMMAR: FROM FORM TO MEANING AND USE. Oxford University Press.1996. COBUILD, Collins. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. London. Harpercollins Publisher. 1994. SWAN, Michael. PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE. 2a. edio. Oxford. Oxford University Press.1996.
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FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/reported_speech/statements2.htm 2. http://people.rit.edu/kecncp/Courses/Materials/Grammar/ThatClauses 2.htm#Practice
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

47

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 04: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
TOPIC 01: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (TIME; PLACE; MANNER)
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Class 2, you learned that a complex sentence consists of one main clause (which is also independent) joined by one or more subordinate clauses (also called dependent clauses). You also learned that in complex sentences, the subordinate clauses may provide further information about the subject or object, therefore taking on the function of nouns. In this case, the subordinate clauses are called noun clauses.

Lets review an example of a noun clause.

The clause THAT SHE WAS IN LOVE WITH PETER is taking the place of a noun (what Mary told me). So, THAT SHE WAS IN LOVE WITH PETER is a noun clause. In this Class, you will learn that a subordinate clause may also add an adverb to the main clause. Look at the examples below.
fonte [1]

Yesterday is a one-word ADVERB, on Friday is an ADVERBIAL ((preposition + noun)) and BEFORE I WENT TO BED is an ADVERBIAL CLAUSE. ((conjunction + subject + verb + prepositional phrase)) Yesterday, on Friday, and before I went to bed answer the question : WHEN did you see the movie ? Therefore, before I went to bed is
PHRASE,

an ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF TIME. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES are classified according to the function of the adverbs they take on the position. There are eight types of adverbial clauses :

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In TOPIC 1, you will study adverbial clauses of time, of place and of manner.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME


Adverbial clauses of time take on the function of adverbs or adverbial phrases of time. They are used to refer to a period of time, and are introduced by the conjunctions: WHEN, (quando) BEFORE, (antes) AFTER, (depois) SINCE, (desde) WHILE, (enquanto) AS, (enquanto) UNTIL (at) . Look at the examples below:

SAME TENSE

When we are talking about the past or the present, the verb in an adverbial clause of time has the same tense it would have in a main clause or in a simple sentence. For example:

PRESENT FUTURE

However, if the time clause refers to a time in the future, the simple present is used. Look at the example.

PRESENT PERFECT

When the event mentioned in the time clause happens before the event of the main clause, the present perfect tense is used.

(First you have your lunch, then you come to my office) WHEN, WHENEVER, EVERY TIME, EACH TIME are used to introduce time clauses which refer to something that always happens or happened. For example:

ONCE (uma vez que) may be used to introduce an adverbial clause which refers to something that happens immediately after another. For example:

We usually start story by saying what was happening WHEN a particular event happened. Read the example below.
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ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PLACE


Adverbial clauses of place take on the function of adverbs or adverb phrases of place. They are used to refer to location or position of something and are introduced by the conjunction WHERE (onde/aonde) . For example :

In literary style, WHERE is sometimes placed in front of the main clause. Look at the example below.

When you want to express that something happens or will happen in every place where something else happens, WHEREVER (onde/anode quer que) or EVERYWHERE (em todo lugar) can be used. For example:

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF MANNER


Adverbial clauses of manner take on the function of adverbs or adverb phrases of manner. They are used to refer to someones behavior or to the way someone did something. These are the conjunctions usually used in adverbial clauses of manner : AS, (como) AS IF, (como se) AS THOUGH, (como se) JUST AS, (assim como) LIKE, (como) MUCH AS (muito como) . Look at the examples :

THE WAY, IN A WAY, and IN THE WAY are also used in this type of clause and they are always followed by that.

You can also use the same expressions to make comparisons about the way something is done with the way someone or something else does it. For example:
LIKE

JUST AS

However, in case of a strong comparison, JUST AS is used.

AS MUCH AS
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On the contrary, if it is a fairly weak comparison, AS MUCH AS is used.

When you want to say that something is done in the way that it would/should be done if something were the case, you use AS IF or AS THOUGH. Examples:

AS IF and AS THOUGH are specially used after linking verbs such as feel and look to make a comparison of someones feelings or appearance to feelings or appearance they would have if something were the case. For example:

PRACTICE
1. Combine the following simple sentences to make complex sentences by changing the second sentence into an adverbial clause.

1. We watched the robins. They raised their young in our apple tree. 2. Dad donates his suits to charity. He has worn them a year. 3. The policemen delayed the drivers. The wrecks were cleared. 4. Ann ate an apple. She studied her vocabulary. 5. Frank started medical training. He drove a forklift for a living. 6. Older people love to sit in the park. They feed the birds and visit. 7. I enjoyed camping out. I was much younger. 8. Joe recognized the man. The man had stopped his car to help.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. We watched the robins while they raised their young in our apple tree. 2. Dad donates his suits to charity after he has worn them a year. 3. The policemen delayed the drivers until the wrecks were cleared. 4. Ann ate an apple as she studied her vocabulary. 5. Before Frank started medical training, he drove a forklift for a living.
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6. While they feed the birds and visit, older people love to sit in the park. 7. When I was much younger, I enjoyed camping out. 8. After the man had stopped his car to help, Joe recognized him.

2. Click on the link below to watch a movie segment and then practice combining sentences using BEFORE, AFTER and WHEN. First, watch the movie segment. Then put sentences together using time conjunctions. When you finish, scroll down the page and check your answers. YOULL LOVE THIS ACTIVITY ! Movie Segments to Assess Grammar Goals [2]

FORUM (IN THIS CLASS, THE FORUM WILL HAVE 3 PARTS!)


PART I After watching the movie segment, discuss the following questions with your classmates in the forum. 1. What's your opinion about this kind of wedding? What adjectives would you use to describe it? 2. What went wrong? 3. What do you think will happen next?

FURTHER READING
Click on the link below to watch a presentation of adverbial clauses. What is an adverb clause? [3]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_wTXOrwI10d4/SrQ0cH2yktI/AAAAAAAAAB Q/OMDoe4yBLvc/s1600-h/cubs-apaixonada.jpg 2. http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com/2010/03/dev ils-arithmetic-time-clauses-with.html 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6bfbdqJPiY
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

52

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 04: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
TOPIC 02: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (PURPOSE; REASON; RESULT)
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Topic I, you learned that an adverbial clause takes on the function of an adverb of the main clause. You also studied three types of adverbial clauses: time, place and manner. In Topic II, you will study three other types of adverbial clauses: PURPOSE; REASON; and RESULT.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PURPOSE


Adverbial clauses of purpose take on the function of an adverb of purpose of the main clause. Adverbial clauses of purpose are used to indicate the purpose (propsito ; finalidade) of the action in the main clause. Look at the example below.

The clause in order to pass the exams is the purpose for which we had to study hard. IN ORDER TO, IN ORDER THAT, SO AS TO, SO, SO THAT, TO are used to introduce adverbial clauses of purpose. Other examples of adverbial clauses of purpose :

Pay attention to the two adverbial clauses of purpose above. Theres a slight difference in the way they are structured. Lets Compare them.

OBSERVATION
Observe that in the clause so that we may live, there is a stated subject and a verb, while in the clause so as to wake up early tomorrow, there is not a stated subject. Some connectors ask for a stated subject in the adverbial clauses (so that we may live) ; while with other connectors the subject is not stated (so as to wake up early tomorrow).
IN ORDER TO, SO AS TO, AND TO

IN ORDER TO, SO AS TO, and TO are used to introduce adverbial clauses of purpose without a stated subject. Look at the examples:

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IN ORDER THAT, AND SO THAT

IN ORDER THAT, and SO THAT are used to introduce adverbial clauses of purpose with a stated subject. Examples:

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF REASON


Adverbial clauses of reason are used to explain why something happens. Adverbial clauses of reason answer questions with Why. Example:

The clause because they wanted to improve their pronunciation of English answers the question Why did the student take phonology classes? BECAUSE, AS, SINCE, IN CASE and JUST IN CASE are used to introduce adverbial clauses of reason. BECAUSE, SINCE or AS serve to indicate reason for something. For example:

IN CASE and JUST IN CASE are used in adverbial clauses of reason to antecipate a possible future situation. For example :

OBSERVATION
The clause just in case anything serious happens states the reason why Ill be here, but it also antecipates a possible future situation. However, if the clause provides a reason which antecipated something the past, simple past is used in the reason clause.
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In more formal situations, IN THAT, INASMUCH AS, INSOFAR AS and TO THE EXTENT THAT are used to introduce adverbial clauses of reason that explain why a statemente is true. Look at the example.

In informal situations SEEING THAT is used to introduce adverbial clauses of reason.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF RESULT


Adverbial clauses of result indicate the result of the action of the main clause. Look at the example below.

The adverbial clause so some of the students began to fall asleep is the result of the fact that the lecture was boring. Please, note that adverbial clauses of result always come after the main clause. SO, SO...THAT, or SUCH...THAT are used to introduce adverbial clauses of result. Click in the boxes below to read the sentences below and compare their structures. Examples

SO

SO...THAT

SUCH...THAT

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There are many other ways of talking about the result of an action or situation. In some situations you may prefer to use AND AS A RESULT or WITH THE RESULT THAT. Examples: (Click in the boxes to open)

AND AS A RESULT

WITH THE RESULT THAT

PRACTICE
1. Combine the sentences below in order to make complex sentences with adverbial clauses of purpose, reason or result. 1. Dont speak loud. Perhaps the boss is listening!

2. Do all the activities. You can learn.

3. He went out in the rain. He got a terrible cold.

4. Jane has much work to do. She doesnt know where to start.

5. I cant travel. I dont have money.

6. They didnt watch the movie. They got at the cinema very late.

7. The food was spoiled. Everyone got sick.

8. The teacher gave the assignments. The students needed to practice for the test.

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CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. Dont speak loud. Perhaps the bos is listening!


Dont speak loud in case the boss is listening.

2. Do all the activities. You can learn.


Do all the the activities in order to learn. OR Do all the activities so that you can learn.

3. He went out in the rain. He got a terrible cold.


He went out in the rain and as a result he got a terrible cold

OR He went out in the rain, so he got a terrible cold.

4. Jane has much work to do. She doesnt know where to start.
Jane has so much work to do that she doesnt know where to start.

5. I cant travel. I dont have money.


I cant travel because / since I dont have money.

6. They didnt watch the movie. They got at the cinema very late.
They didnt watch the movie because / since they arrived at the cinema very late.

7. The food was spoild. Everyone got sick.


The food was spoild, so everyone got sick.

8. The teacher gave the assignments. The students needed to practice for the test.
The teacher gave the assignments for the students to practice for the test.

FORUM
PART II Discuss the following question with your classmates and tutor in the forum. - How do we differentiate between adverbial clause of reason and adverbial clause of purpose? The connectors they use are different but both answer the question 'why'.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

57

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 04: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
TOPIC 03: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (CONDITION)
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Topic II, you studied three types of adverbial clauses: purpose; reason; and result. In Topic III, you will study another type of adverbial clauses: CONDITION.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONDITION


Adverbial clauses of condition are used to express that the action in the main clause can only take place if a certain condition is fulfilled. For example:

OBSERVATION
The clause If I am feeling well expresses the condition for the action of the main clause to happen (going to the beach). IF and UNLESS introduce adverbial clauses of condition. Pay attention to the difference in use of IF (SE) and UNLESS (A NO SER QUE) .

Adverbial clauses of condition are used to talk about a situation and its consequences. In other words, conditional clauses are used in the following situations:
VERSO TEXTUAL

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These uses of adverbial clauses of condition account for the three types of conditional clauses : (Click in the types)

TYPE I It is possible and also very probable that the condition will be fulfilled.

FORM: IF + Simple Present, will-Future Example: IF I find her address, ILL SEND HER AN INVITATION. The condition IF I find her address can be fulfilled. USES Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time.

Examples:

TYPE II It is possible but very improbable, that the condition will be fulfilled. FORM: IF + Simple Past, would + Infinitive Example: IF I FOUND HER ADDRESS, I WOULD SEND HER AN INVITATION. The clause IF I found her address states a fact which is not true in the present (= I dont know her address is). USES: Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations. Time: present; the TENSE is past, but we are talking about the present, now. Examples:

Compare:

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TYPE III It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past. FORM: IF + Past Perfect, would + have + Past Participle Example: IF I HAD FOUND HER ADDRESS, I WOULD HAVE SENT HER AN INVITATION. The clause IF I had found her address states a fact which was not true in the past (= I didnt find her address). USES: Nature: unreal Time: Past (so we are talking about a situation that was not so in the past.) Example:

So far you have learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So, sometimes it's possible, for example, that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.
CLICK HERE TO SEE OTHER POSSIBILITIES OF VERB TENSES IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES TYPE I.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE I (PROBABLE)

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CLICK HERE TO SEE OTHER POSSIBILITIES OF VERB TENSES IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES TYPE II.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE II (IMPROBABLE)

CLICK HERE TO SEE OTHER POSSIBILITIES OF VERB TENSES IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES TYPE III.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE III (IMPOSSIBLE)

FURTHER READING
Click on the link [1] (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.) below to readm more about adverbial clauses of condition:

PRACTICE
Make up adverbial clauses of condition by combining the conditions and the consequences below. 1. CONDITION: You help me. CONSEQUENCE: I will give you some money to buy that dress.

2. CONDITION: You voted in favor of President Obama. CONSEQUENCE: You might be happy now.

3. CONDITION: You try it. CONSEQUENCE: You wont see how pleasant it is.(use unless).

4. CONDITION: This was what they did with slaves in the past. CONSEQUENCE: Im glad I wasnt born at this time.(use then)

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5. CONDITION: I didnt find your wallet. CONSEQUENCE: I would bring back to you.

6. CONDITION: I could afford. CONSEQUENCE: Buy a new car.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. CONDITION: You help me. CONSEQUENCE: I will give you some money to buy that dress.
If you help me, I will give you some money to buy that dress.

2. CONDITION: You voted in favor of President Obama. CONSEQUENCE: You might be happy now.
If you voted in favor of President Obama, you should be happy now.

3. CONDITION: You try it. CONSEQUENCE: You wont see how pleasant it is.(use unless).
Unless you try it, you wont see how pleasant it is.

4. CONDITION: This was what they did with slaves in the past. CONSEQUENCE: Im glad I wasnt born at this time.(use then)
If Jane were rich, she would travel around the world.

5. CONDITION: I didnt find your wallet. CONSEQUENCE: I would bring back to you.
I had found you wallet, I would have brought it back to you.

6. CONDITION: I could afford. CONSEQUENCE: Buy a new car.


If I could have afforded it, I would have bought a new car.

FORUM
PART III Click on the link below to listen to different songs in English. In all of them youll find sentences with adverbial clauses of condition. Listen to all songs, and choose the one you like the best. Identify an example of a conditional clause in the song you like the best. In the forum, tell your friends about the song you liked the best, post the example of the conditional clause, and explain the condition. Songs using conditionals (If clauses). [2]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


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1. http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~cschroen/BONES/DEP/ADV/ADVCondition.pdf 2. http://wiseup2008.wordpress.com/2010/03/05/songs-usingconditionals-if-clauses/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

63

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 04: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
TOPIC 04: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (CONCESSION)
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Topic III, you studied adverbial clauses of condition. In Topic IV, you will study another type of adverbial clauses: CONCESSION.

An ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF CONCESSION is a subordinate clause which refers to a situation that contrasts with the one described in the main clause. For example: ALTHOUGH HE WAS TIRED, HE COULDN'T GET TO SLEEP.

OBSERVATION
In the example above, although he was tired is an adverbial clause of concession because it suggests the opposite of the main clause (if you are tired, you should be able to get sleep without any problems!) ALTHOUGH and EVEN THOUGH are usually used to introduce adverbial clauses of concession. For example: ALTHOUGH HE'S QUIET, HE'S NOT SHY. HES NOT SHY, EVEN THOUGH HES QUIET.

OBSERVATION
The sentence "Although he's quiet, he's not shy" begins with a concessive clause- "Although he's quiet" which has an opposite meaning of - "he's not shy" which is the main clause of the sentence. STUDY THESE EXAMPLES: HE HAD ENOUGH MONEY. HE REFUSED TO BUY A NEW CAR. The above two statements can be combined as follows:

OR

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STOP AND CHECK


"In spite of" , "despite" have similar meaning to "although" or "even though". BUTthey DON'T introduce clauses. They have different syntax. They are followed by NOUNS or GERUNDS (verb+ing.) They don't introduce a CLAUSE (subject + verb). Study this example. HE HAD ENOUGH MONEY. HE REFUSED TO BUY A NEW CAR. The above two statements can be combined as follows:

OR

Structure

Examples: DESPITE /IN SPITE OF THE RAIN, HE WALKED TO THE STATION. DESPITE /IN SPITE OF BEING TIRED, HE WALKED TO THE STATION. Remember: 1. Although, even though + subject + verb (Concessive clause) In spite of, despite + noun or verb+ing (Not a concessive clause) However, IN SPITE OF and DESPITE and be used to introduce concessive clauses when we add the fact that to the them (IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT, DESPITE THE FACT THAT). Look at the examples bellow. IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT IT WAS RAINING, HE WALKED TO THE STATION. HE WALKED TO THE STATION DESPITE THE FACT THAT IT WAS RAINING.

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ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH, or WHILE are used to introduce a clause which contrasts to the main clause. I DONT PLAY THE PIANO ALTHOUGH I HAVE STUDIED IT FOR
TWO YEARS.

OR I DONT PLAY THE PIANO EVEN THOUGH I HAVE STUDIED FOR TWO YEARS. WHILST and WHEREAS can also be used to contrast two statements. However, they are fairly formal. TO YOUNGSTERS, APPROVAL MEANS LOVE WHILST DISAPPROVAL MEANS HATE. EVEN IF can also be used to introduce adverbial clauses of concession when the action of the concessive clause does not change the truth of the action in the main clause. For example: SHE WONT FORGIVE ME EVEN IF I APOLOGIZE.

OBSERVATION
In the above sentence, the action of the concessive clause (apologize) does not change the truth of the action in the main clause (not forgive). In other words, I can apologize but this wont make her forgive me. NOT THAT can also be used to introduce an adverbial clause of concession. However, observe the difference between the two sentences below. I WILL QUIT THE JOB EVEN THOUHG NO ONE SEEMS TO CARE
ABOUT MY DECISION.

I WILL QUIT THE JOB NOT THAT ANYONE SEEMS TO CARE ABOUT MY DECISION.

PRACTICE
1. Click on the link below to watch a presentation on adverbial clauses of concession. Then, scroll down the page and do the exercise to practice using clauses of concession. http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/eap/2004/u3/contrastclauses.htm [1] 2. Use although/even though or despite/in spite of to complete the following sentences.

1. 2. 3.

he had a professional attitude, he had a bad humour. his professional attitude, he had a bad humour. the help he gave us, he was fired.

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4. He was fired 5.

he had helped us. in some ways she is a chaming girl, she is a fake. her charming

6. I would advise you never to trust that girl way.


CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. Although / Even though he had a professional attitude, he had a bad humour. 2. Despite / In spite of his professional attitude, he had a bad humour. 3. Despite / In spite of the help he gave us, he was fired. 4. He was fired although / even though he had helped us. 5. Although / Even though in some ways she is a chaming girl, she is a fake. 6. I would advise you never to trust that girl despite / in spite of her charming way.

3. For each of the following sentences, decide which semantic type the subordinate clause is, from the choices given:

1. After going to London, they went to New York.

Purpose Concessive Conditional Reason Result Temporal

2. The weather was getting cold, so we had to sit by the fireplace.

Purpose Concessive Conditional Reason Result Temporal

3. Henry held it with care in order not to break it.

Purpose Concessive Conditional

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Reason Result Temporal

4. There can be no progress unless we work hard.

Purpose Concessive Conditional Reason Result Temporal

5. He could take care of mom tonight, since he would not go to the party.

Purpose Concessive Conditional Reason Result Temporal

6. When he arrived there he bought many souvenirs for his friends.

Purpose Concessive Conditional Reason Result Temporal

7. Mary was feeling tired although she didnt work very hard.

Purpose Concessive Conditional Reason Result Temporal

8. If I were you, I would not open that door. Purpose Concessive Conditional
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Reason Result Temporal

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Write 2 adverbial clauses for EACH type informing the type and the conjunction to complete the chart. Save your work in your Portfolio. PORTFOLIO_ACTIVITY_CLASS_IV (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.).

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REFERENCES
SINCLAIR, John. COLLINS COBUILD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. London and Glasgow: William Collins sons & Co. Ltd. 1990. O, NEIL, Robert. SUCCES AT FIRST CERTIFICATE. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 1996.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/eap/2004/u3/contrastclauses.htm
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

70

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 05: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
TOPIC 01: DEFINITION AND TYPES OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
VERSO TEXTUAL

In Class 3, you learned that a COMPLEX SENTENCE consists of one main clause (which is also independent) joined by one or more subordinate clauses (also called dependent clauses). You also learned that in COMPLEX SENTENCES, the subordinate clauses may provide further information about the subject, the object (NOUN CLAUSES Class 3), or the adverb of the main clause (ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Class 4).

In CLASS 5, you will learn that subordinate clauses can take on the function of an adjective and modify a noun in the main clause. In this case, they are called ADJECTIVE CLAUSES. Adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns WHO, WHICH, THAT, and WHOSE and so are also referred to as relative clauses. Lets analyze an adjective clause.

OBSERVATION
The clause that she is driving is an adjective clause which modifies car. Its a CLAUSE because it has a SUBJECT (she) and a PREDICATE (is driving); its an ADJECTIVE CLAUSE because it modifies a noun. Note that adjectives usually PRECEDE the nouns they modify; adjective clauses ALWAYS FOLLOW the nouns they modify. A complex sentence which contains one adjective clause and one main clause is the result of combining two clauses which contain a repeated noun. You can combine two independent clauses to make one complex sentence containing an adjective clause by following these steps: Click on the buttons bellow.

1 STEP 1. You must have two clauses which contain a REPEATED noun (or pronoun, or noun and pronoun which refer to the same thing). Here are two examples:
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THE BOOK IS ON THE TABLE. + I LIKE THE BOOK. THE MAN IS HERE. + THE MAN WANTS THE BOOK.

2 STEP 2. DELETE the repeated noun and REPLACE it with a RELATIVE PRONOUN in the clause you want to make dependent. THE BOOK IS ON THE TABLE. + I LIKE WHICH THE MAN IS HERE. + WHO WANTS THE BOOK

3 STEP 3. MOVE the relative pronoun to the beginning of its clause (if it is not already there). The clause is now an adjective clause. THE BOOK IS ON THE TABLE. + WHICH I LIKE THE MAN IS HERE. + WHO WANTS THE BOOK

4 STEP 4. Put the adjective clause immediately AFTER the noun phrase it modifies (the repeated noun): THE BOOK which I like IS ON THE TABLE. THE MAN WHO WANTS THE BOOK IS HERE. There are two types of adjective clauses RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES. Each type has as a distinct use and meaning.
RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES, also called identifying or defining adjective clauses, distinguish a particular person or thing from others. A RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSE is characterized by the use of relative pronouns WHO, THAT, WHICH or WHOSE and serves to identify the noun it describes. Lets analyze the following: A PERSON WHO WORKS IN THE COUNTRYSIDE DRESSES LIKE A COWBOY. The clause who works in the countryside restricts the type of person I am talking about (I am not talking about everyone, but specifically about a person who works in the countryside; this person dresses like a cowboy).
NON-RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

NON RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES, also known as nondefining adjective clauses, add extra information about the nouns they modify.This piece of information is not essential or necessary to identify
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the noun so that it can be omitted. Observe the use of commas in nonrestrictive clauses. MY COUSIN, WHO DRESSES LIKE A COWBOY, LIKES TO GO TO
RODEOS.

The clause who dresses like a cowboy is non-restrictive because the information in the clause doesnt restrict or limit the noun (cousin) it modifies. In fact, about my cousin. who dresses like a cowboy adds extra information

CLICK HERE TO SEE A CHART WITH A COMPARISON BETWEEN RESTRICTIVE AND NON-RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES. CLICK HERE TO SEE A CHART WITH A COMPARISON RESTRICTIVE AND NON-RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
BETWEEN

PRACTICE
1 - For each sentence below, decide if the adjective clause (in bold) is restrictive or nonrestrictive. 1. Students WHO HAVE YOUNG CHILDREN are invited to use the free daycare center . 2. I left my son at the campus daycare center, WHICH IS FREE TO ALL full -time students. 3. John Wayne, WHO APPEARED IN OVER 200 MOVIES, was the biggest box-office attraction of his time. 4. I refuse to live in any house THAT JACK BUILT. 5. Every journalist has a novel in him, WHICH IS AN EXCELLENT PLACE FOR IT. 6. The thing THAT IMPRESSES ME THE MOST ABOUT AMERICA is the way parents obey their children. 7. A physician WHO SMOKES AND OVEREATS has no right to criticize the personal habits of his patients. 8. The beer THAT MADE MILWAUKEE FAMOUS has made a loser out of me.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

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FORUM
Watch the video called Whats an adjective clause? and discuss the following in the forum: 1. Characteristics of adjective clauses. 2. Give your own examples of adjectives clauses analyzing them in terms of restrictive (defining) and non-restrictive (non-defining) clauses. Click on the link below to watch the video [1].

STOP AND CHECK


Remember that you and a partner have to prepare a presentation on one of the topics assigned in Class 1. The presentation is due on the day before the final test. Please, check the guidelines for the presentation in MATERIAL DE APOIO.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SFQWaCFCJLA&feature=related
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

74

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 05: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
TOPIC 02: FUNCTIONS AND USES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES

Relative pronouns introduce subordinate adjective clauses. They are THAT, WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, WHICH, WHERE, WHEN, and WHY. They are used to join clauses to make complex sentences. They are used at the beginning of the subordinate clause which gives some specific information about the main clause. Look at the examples: THIS IS THE HOUSE THAT Jack built. I DON'T KNOW THE DAY WHEN Jane marries him. THE PROFESSOR, WHOM I RESPECT, WAS TENURED.

OBSERVATION
In English, the choice of the relative pronoun depends on the type of clause it is used in. As you have already learned, there are two types of adjective clauses: restrictive (defining) relative clauses and non-restrictive (non-defining) relative clauses. In both types of clauses the relative pronoun can function as a subject, an object, or a possessive.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES


Restrictive relative clauses (also known as defining relative clauses) provide some essential information that explains the main clause. The information is crucial for understanding the sentence correctly and cannot be omitted. Restrictive clauses are opened by a relative pronoun and ARE NOT separated by a comma from the main clause.

FUNCTIONS OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES


The table below sums up the functions of relative pronouns in restrictive clauses:

Now read the sentences below in which the RELATIVE PRONOUNS that introduce restrictive adjective clauses are used as subjects, objects, and possessives. Click on the buttons bellow.

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SUBJECTS Relative pronoun used as a subject:

OBJECTS

Relative pronoun used as an object: In the position of the object of a clause, the relative pronoun MAY
BE OMITTED

when it refers to a person or thing. Look at the examples

below.

POSSESSIVES Relative pronoun in the possessive case: The relative pronoun for the possessive case is WHOSE. It is always followed by a noun that is the subject or object of the relative clause and refers to persons or animals or things. Look at the examples below.

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USES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES


WHOM

In American English, WHOM is not used very often. WHOM is more formal than WHO. Compare the sentences below: Grammatically Correct: THE WOMAN TO WHOM YOU HAVE JUST SPOKEN IS MY TEACHER. Common in Speech: THE WOMAN ( WHO) YOU HAVE JUST SPOKEN TO IS MY TEACHER. However, WHOM may not be omitted if preceded by a preposition: I HAVE FOUND YOU THE TUTOR LOOKING.
WHOSE
FOR WHOM YOU WERE

WHOSE is the only possessive relative pronoun is in English. It can be used with both people and things: THE FAMILY
WHOSE HOUSE BURNT IN THE FIRE WAS

GIVEN A SUITE IN A HOTEL.

THE BOOK WHOSE AUTHOR IS BEING SHOWN IN THE NEWS HAS


BECOME A BESTSELLER.

THAT, WHO, WHICH COMPARED

The relative pronoun THAT can only be used in defining clauses. It can also be substituted for WHO (referring to persons) or WHICH (referring to things). THAT is often used in spoken language; WHO and WHICH are more common in written English. Look at the examples below. Spoken, less formal WILLIAM KELLOGG WAS THE MAN THAT LIVED IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY AND HAD SOME WEIRD IDEAS ABOUT RAISING CHILDREN. Written, more formal WILLIAM KELLOGG WAS THE MAN WHO LIVED IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY AND HAD SOME WEIRD IDEAS ABOUT RAISING CHILDREN. WHICH, referring to things, may be used in the defining clause to put additional emphasis on the explanation. Again, the sentence with which is
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more formal than the one with that: Note that since it is the defining clause, there is NO comma used preceding which: Less formal THE CAF THAT SELLS THE BEST COFFEE IN TOWN HAS RECENTLY BEEN CLOSED. More formal THE CAF WHICH SELLS THE BEST COFFEE IN TOWN HAS RECENTLY BEEN CLOSED.

SOME SPECIAL USES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN DEFINING CLAUSES


THAT/WHO Referring to people, both THAT and WHO can be used. THAT may be used to refer to someone in general: HE IS THE KIND OF PERSON THAT/WHO WILL NEVER LET YOU DOWN. I AM LOOKING FOR SOMEONE THAT/WHO COULD GIVE ME A RIDE TO CHICAGO. However, when a particular person is being spoken about, who is preferred: THE OLD LADY WHO LIVES NEXT DOOR IS A TEACHER. THE GIRL WHO WORE A RED DRESS ATTRACTED EVERYBODY'S ATTENTION AT THE PARTY. THAT/WHICH There several cases when THAT is more appropriate than and is preferred to WHICH:

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CLICK HERE TO SEE EXAMPLE

CLICK HERE TO SEE EXAMPLE

CLICK HERE TO SEE EXAMPLE

CLICK HERE TO SEE EXAMPLE

CLICK HERE TO SEE EXAMPLE

PRACTICE
1 - Combine the sentences in each set into a single, clear sentence with one restrictive adjective clause. Use the appropriate pronoun and indicate its function in the clause and what it refers to. For example:

Follow the model above

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1.

The

alarm

clock woke the sleeper by gently rubbing his feet. The alarm clock was invented by Leonardo da Vinci. 2. Some children have not received flu shots. These children must visit the doctor. school

3. The woman appeared on TV. The womans children died in the car accident.

4. She is the teacher. Every student wants to study with her. 5. Ill tell you this: You will be speaking English fluently soon.

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CLICK HERE TO COMPARE YOUR NEW SENTENCES WITH SOME SAMPLE COMBINATIONS.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

81

MORFOSSINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA II


CLASS 05: COMPLEX SENTENCES ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
TOPIC 03: FUNCTIONS AND USES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES
VERSO TEXTUAL

As you know, in English, the choice of the relative pronoun depends on the type of clause it is used in. As you have already learned, there are two types of adjective clauses: restictive (defining) relative clauses and non-restrictive (non-defining) relative clauses. In both types of clauses the relative pronoun can function as a subject, an object, or a possessive.

As you also know, NON-RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES provide some additional information which is not essential and may be omitted without affecting the contents of the sentence. All relative pronouns EXCEPT THAT can be used in non-restrictive clauses; however, the pronouns MAY NOT be omitted. Non-restrictive clauses ARE separated by COMMAS.

FUNCTIONS OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES


The table below sums up the functions of relative pronouns in nonrestrictive clauses:

RELATIVE PRONOUN USED AS A SUBJECT:

RELATIVE PRONOUN USED AS AN OBJECT:

RELATIVE PRONOUN USED AS A POSSESSIVE:

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SOME SPECIAL USES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES


WHICH If you are referring to the previous clause as a whole, use WHICH:

OF WHOM, OF WHICH Use OF WHOM for persons and OF WHICH for things or concepts after numbers and words such as most, many, some, both, none: I SAW A LOT OF NEW PEOPLE AT THE PARTY, SOME OF WHOM SEEMED FAMILIAR. HE WAS ALWAYS COMING UP WITH NEW IDEAS, MOST OF WHICH
WERE ABSOLUTELY IMPRACTICABLE.

PRACTICE
1 - Combine the sentences in each set into a single, clear sentence with one non-restrictive adjective clause. Use the appropriate pronoun and indicate its function in the clause and what it refers to. For example:

Follow the model above. 1. Jimbo is living in Thailand now. Jimbo got divorced last year. 2. Clare is a good teacher. I don't like Clare very much. 3. Almeria very dry. is

The beaches of Almeria are wonderful.

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4. The school was built in 1907. The school has about 800 students. 5. The government handled the diplomatic crisis badly. The government is facing corruption charges.

CLICK HERE TO COMPARE YOUR NEW SENTENCES WITH SOME SAMPLE COMBINATIONS.

2. Click on the link below to watch a movie segment and then practice using restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses. First, watch the movie segment. Then do the activities. When you finish, SCROLL DOWN
THE PAGE AND CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com/2010/01/american -beauty-restrictive-x.html [1]

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
The sentences below are from a paragraph of a student's description of her high school music teacher. Combine the sentences in each set into a single clear sentence, and arrange your new sentences into a coherent
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paragraph. Sentences that can be turned into adjective clauses are in italics. Post the paragraph in your portfolio. Portfolio_activity_class_V (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.)

FURTHER READING
For Further reading on relative clauses. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses#h01 [2] http://www.onlinetutorforenglish.com/Grammar/noun-adjective-clauses02-12-2009.php [3]

REFERENCES
AZAR, Betty Schrampfer. UNDERSANDING ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Second edition. New Jersey, Prentice Hall regents, 1989.
AND

USING

BLAND, Susan Kesner. Intermediate Grammar: FROM FORM TO MEANING AND USE. Oxford University Press.1996. COBUILD, Collins. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. London. Harpercollins Publisher. 1994. SWAN, Michael. PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE. 2a. edio. Oxford. Oxford University Press.1996.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com/2010/01/ame rican-beauty-restrictive-x.html 2. http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses#h01 3. http://www.onlinetutorforenglish.com/Grammar/noun-adjective-clauses -02-12-2009.php
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Malena Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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