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CHAPTER 8

PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPOSITE DECK PANELS



The cast-in-place reinforced concrete deck supported by precast prestressed concrete I-
beam is the common type of prestressed concrete bridge built in the United States. The
beams used in this type of bridge have stirrups projecting from their top flanges that are
embedded in the cast-in-place concrete for the deck to develop composite action.


FIGURE 7.70
Typical details prestressed deck panels girder (top), with prestressing strand projections
(center), and on steel girder (bottom).

AASHTO 9.23 covers general requirements for reinforcement for deck panels. It
mandates
1. Prestressing of deck panels in a direction transverse to the beams on which they
are supported.
2. Roughening of the top surface of the deck panels to ensure composite action with
cast-in-place concrete , and
3. Providing reinforcing bars to equivalent mesh, at least 0.11in
2
/ ft. of deck panel,
transverse to the strands.
AASHTO 9.25.2.2 requires that the prestressing strands be placed symmetrically
and uniformly across the width of the panel, with their spacing limited to the
smaller of 1 times the composite slab thickness or 18 in









TRANSVERSELY AND LONGITUDINALLY PRESTRESSED DECKS
In prestressed concrete bridges, the term prestressing force generally refers to
longitudinal prestressing force that is applied through tendons present in the bottom
flanges and in the webs of girders. In addition to this longitudinal force, the deck, which
forms the top flange of these girders, may also be prestressed in transverse or
longitudinal directions or both. The reason for this prestressing is simply to introduce
precompression to counteract tension cracks caused by loads or any other sources.
A transversely post-tensioned deck will remain uncracked under the action of
normal loads, and any cracks that might form will remain tightly closed because
of the post-tensioning force. Transverse post-tensioning enhances durability of
the deck against temperature and shrinkage cracks by providing precompression
in the top face of the deck, a desirable approach for the design of bridge decks
exposed to an aggressive environment.
A transversely post-tensioned deck provides greater load capacity of the top slab
in the transverse direction. The deck slab thickness is reduced, leading to reduced
concrete quantities and reduced dead-load moments and shears.
Transverse prestressing of decks permits longer spans of slab between girders
(webs), which reduces the number of webs required in wide structures. This
reduces forming costs and concrete quantities. The cost savings for multiweb box
girder bridges cast on falsework results mainly from a thinner top slab and fewer
webs.
Transverse prestressing of decks is particulary advantageous for box girders with
large overhanging flanges because it permits longer lengths of the overhangs.
For wide segments, transverse post-tensioning usually results in reduced overall
structure cost.

FIGURE 7.72
Cross section of Eel River Bridge, California. Redesigned transversely post-tensioned
superstructure (top), and original design without transverse post-tensioning (bottom)
[Tadesko, 1976]




FIGURE 7.73
Transversely post-tensioned cross section of the Denny Creek Bridge, Snoqualmie
National Forest, Washington [PTI 1978].
FIGURE 7.74
Transversely post-tensioned cross section of the box girder for the Biloxi Viaduct,
Biloxi, Mississippi [Phipps and Spruill, 1990].

Most of the transverse post-tensioning of a deck slab is accomplished in one of two
ways: either by 270-ksi in.-diameter strands or by bar tendons. Note that transversely
post-tensioned deck slabs also normally have longitudinal and transverse non-prestressed
reinforcement near the top and bottom of the slab. This reinforcement serves two
functions:
1. It provides the necessary flexural capacity to permit removal of the section from
the forms and to allow handling prior to transverse post-tensionin, and
2. It contributes to the flexural capacity of the slab at the ultimate conditions.
CONTINUITY IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGES
Methods of Achieving Continuity
In prestressed concrete superstructures, continuity is generally accomplished by post-
tensioning at the site. Methods of achieving continuity, i.e.,the type of tend on layout and
the method of framing that should be used, in prestressed concrete superstructure
construction. A brief description of these schemes for achieving continuity follows. Note
that, in general, the tendon profile follows the deflected shape of the girder, or the
moment diagram due to uniform load plotted positive downward.
Monolithic continuity - Monolithic continuity involves cast-in-place construction
FIGURE 7.81
Tendon layout in continous beams with monolithic continuity: (a) prismatic girder, (b)
Nonprismatic girder, and (c) prismatic girder with overlapping tendons [Nawy, 1989].

Nonmonolithic continuity - Nonmonolithic continuity involves precast pretensioned
elements

FIGURE 7.82
Methods of achieving continuity using precast pretensioned girders
(a) Post-tensioning in the negative moment region of a two-span girder,
(b) Full length post-tensioning in a two span girder,
(c) Post tensioning using couplers,
(d) Nonprestressed steel, and
(e) Post-tensioning in nonprismatic beams

OPTIMIZATION OF PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE
SYSTEM

Selection of a particular superstructure types depend on several factors:
Feasibility
Span Capability
Limitation of depth-to-span ratio
System availability from precasters or suppliers
Performance history
Engineers own experience and preferences
Regional trend
Construction time constraints
Aesthetics
Cost
In general, structural problems of optimal design may be identified by:
a. Uncertainty consideration
b. Design variables, such as materials, geometry, and loading
c. Problem formulation, which involves objectives, limit states, and constraints.

Level of Optimization:
Level 1. member optimization
optimization of girder cross section of specific structure types.
Examples:
Optimization of concrete slabs
Single-span steel girders
Single-span Prestressed concrete girders
Single-span Box girders
Single-span multibeam girders
Multispan simple girders
Continuous Prestressed concrete Box girder
Frame bridges
Level 2. Configuration or Layout optimization
Determining the best combination of longitudinal and transverse member
arrangement within the given bridge system.
Level 3. System optimization
Overall features of the structural systems. Various parameters include materials,
structural type and configuration, member cross-section and span length,
combined longitudinal and transverse member arrangement etc.
PRINCIPLES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN
Prestressing
a process of imposing a state on a structural body prior to its placement in
service, to enhance its load-carrying capability and service performance.
Two forms of prestressing:
Pretensioning tendons are being stretched and anchored to abutments before
concrete is poured.
Post-tensioning is the process of imposing prestress by stressing and anchoring
tendons against already hardened concrete,
Classification of tendons:
Bonded refers to tendons that are substantially bonded to the concrete.
Unbonded Force is applied only at anchorages.
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS
Members can be analyzed as homogeneous and elastic under service loads, that all
assumptions of simple bending theory and Naviers formula can be applied:
R
E
y
f
I
M
= =

The stress due to the transverse loads can be calculated by the simple flexure formula:
S
M
I
My
f = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
t
S
Pe
A
P
f
(

=
t
S
eA
A
P
1

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
b
b
S
Pe
A
P
f

(

+ =
b
S
eA
A
P
1


Fiber stresses:






Permitted Moment capacity, or the design strength:












Where:

The quantity q is called the reinforcing index.

For the rectangular beams with reinforcement index greater than 0.36
1
| , the design
flexural strength is limited to,
( )
2 ' 2
1 1
08 . 0 36 . 0 bd f M
c n
| | | | =
For the value . 85 . 0
1
= |
( )
2 '
25 . 0 bd f M
c n
| | =
*
2 . 1
cr n
M M > |
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
/
*
b
c
nc d c pc r cr
S
S
M S f f M
Where:













The average unit stress on concrete area Ac due to these forces can be expressed as



If the average fiber stress in Ac is assumed to be 0.5fc, i.e., half the maximum allowable
compressive stress fc then it can be expressed as






flexural cracks - which are almost perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam,
develop in the regions of large moments
web - shear cracking - the magnitude of principle tension is relatively high compared to
flexural stresses
the net shear in a pre-stressed concrete beam is

the net shearing force to be carried by concrete is reduced by Vp:

The shear strength of a prestressed concrete member is taken as the sum of the shear
strength provided by the concrete and by the web reinforcement. For design purposes
this relationship is written as







The shear Vci is computed from AAHSTO Eq. 9.28:




















Composite Construction
involves construction in which precast member acts in combination with
cast-in-place concrete, that is poured at a later time and bonded to the
member.
Advantages and disadvantages of composite construction:
A major advantage of a composite construction is the economy achieved through
combining precast and cast-in-place concrete while retaining the continuity and
efficiency of the monolithic construction.
Another, is that product of superior quality are obtained through precasting;
plant fabrication is under good condition, forms are reused, strands are tensioned long-
line.
A disadvantage of the composite construction is that the restraint provided by the cast-
in-place slab causes an increase in the prestress losses of the precast element and thus
influences the time-dependent deflection.

As shown in Fig. 7.96, in multiple-span structures, the cast-in-place slab can be poured
continuously over the supports of precast beams placed in series to develop continuity.
The cast-in-place slab also offers an effective means of distributing loads laterally.