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ete Steel timber 3000 to 4000psi compressive strength in-thick integral concrete, or 1 to 2in thick asphalt concrete or latexmodified concrete (AASHTO,1992a:CRSI,1993;PCI,1975) 20 t0 60ft span range for concrete bridges(NBI) 60 to 120ft span range for steel bridges(NBI)

MATERIALS OF THE CONSTRUCTION The two materials used for the construction of reinforced concrete bridges are concrete and reinforcing steel. Various reinforced concrete bridge deck sections: a) Slab b) Voided slab c) T-beam d) A three-cell box e) A four-cell girder DESIGN METHODS Structural design of reinforced concrete bridges can be performed by the service load design load (AASHTO 8.15) or by the strength (or load factor) design method (AASHTO 8.16). This design approach is stipulated in AASHTO 8.14. AASHTO 8.14.1.3 further stipulates that the strength and serviceability requirements of the strength design are satisfied by the service load design if the service load stresses are limited to values prescribed by AASHTO 8.15 (discussed in the following sections). For analysis of a cracked rectangular reinforced concrete section, the neutral axis factor, k, is given by:

(6.1)

The California DOT specifications (CALTRANS, 1993a) stipulate the following values of n: fc = 2000-2400 psi = 2500-2900 = 3000-3900 = 4000-4900 = 5000 or more Allowable concrete stresses: Mc =1/2fckjbd2 Allowable steel stresses: Mc=Asfsjd (6.3) (6.2) n = 15 = 12 = 10 =8 =8

1. The depth of the slab or of a rectangular beam 2. Area of reinforcing steel required: (6.5) Where b = 12 in. for slab (6.6) (6.7) Where fc = allowable stress in concrete fs = allowable stress in steel reinforcement Slab thickness, h , should be varied in increments of in (AASHTO 8.9.2) Allowable stresses (AASHTO 8.15): Flexure Allowable stresses in concrete Extreme fiber stresses in compression Extreme fiber stress in tension for plain concrete 0.40 fc 0.21 fr (6.4)

The modulus of rupture, fr, should be obtained from the tests. In the absence of test results, the following values of the modulus of rupture should be used: Normal-weight concrete Sand-lightweight concrete Bearing stress, fb 7.5 6.3 0.30

A higher value of the bearing stress is permitted when the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the loaded area; in such a case the allowable bearing stress on the loaded area may be multiplied by a factor of Allowable stress, fs, in steel reinforcement Grade 40 reinforcement Grade 60 reinforcement 20,000psi 24,000psi but not one greater than 2.

Certain states or agencies may specify their own allowable stress values, which may be lower than those specified previously. For example, the California Department of Transportation specifies that the following stresses(CALTRANS, 1993a): Extreme fibre stress in compression transversely reinforced deck slabs: 1,200psi Grade 60 reinforcement for transversely reinforced deck slabs: 20,000psi

Allowable stresses (AASHTO 8.15.2): Shear Shear stress in a reinforced concrete beam can be calculated from Eq.6.8: (6.8) Allowable stresses and design for shear are covered AASHTO 8.15.2. In members subjected to flexure and shear, the allowable shear is given by Eq.6.9: (6.9)

A more detailed calculation of the allowable shear stress can be made from Eq.6.10: ( ) (6.10)

where M = design moment occurring simultaneously with V at the section being considered, and Vd/M 1.0 AASHTO specifications stipulate two conditions for providing shear reinforcement:

1. Shear reinforcement is to be provided when the design stress, V, exceeds Vc (AASHTO 8.15.5.3) 2. Minimum shear reinforcement is to be provided when the design shear exceeds one-half the allowable shear stress (AASHTO 8.19).

Design for shear. When the design exceeds the allowable shear stress, the excess shear must be carried by shear reinforcement. However, this excess shear is limited in such a way that the excess shear stress, , does not exceed (AASHTO 8.15.5.3.9);

if it does, a larger beam cross section is indicated. The required shear reinforcement, perpendicular to the beams longitudinal axis (vertical stirrups), can be calculated from Eq. 6.11: (6.11) where Av = cross-sectional area of all legs of stirrup s = spacing of stirrups AASHTO 8.19.3 stipulates that the stirrup spacing should not exceed the smaller of d/2 or 24in. These spacings are to be reduced by half, to the smaller of d/4 or 12 in., if the excess shear stress, , exceeds .

The minimum shear reinforcement is calculated by the following expression, with stirrup spacing limited to d/2 or 24 in.: (6.12)

The load factor design method calls for designing reinforced concrete members by the strength design method, for which the relevant design requirements are covered in AASHTO 8.16, and the design assumptions are stipulated in AASHTO 8.16.2.

In spite of similarities in the application of strength design principles to buildings and bridges, different load factors are used in two cases because of differences in the variability of loads involved. For example, for the two cases because of differences in the variability of loads are 1.4 and 1.7, respectively (ACI,1995), whereas those for a bridge are to be taken as 1.3 for the dead load and 6.5/3 (1.3 x 5/3) for live load plus impact(AASHTO, 1992a):

Design Parameter Flexure Shear Axial compression with spirals ties Bearing on concrete 0.9 0.85 0.75 0.7 0.7

a b c

(6.15a) (6.15b)

(6.16)

Equation 6.16 gives the nominal strength of the section, which, multiplied with , the strength reduction factor, is equated to the factored design loads, Mu (AASHTO Eq.8.16): ( ) (6.17)

The constant 0.588 in the right-hand-side parenthetical term in Eq.6.18 is rounded off to 0.59 in the ACI building code (ACI,1995) and to 0.6 in AASHTO Eq.8.15. Thus ( The value of the balanced steel ratio, ) (6.19) , obtained from compability of balanced

strains in concrete (c = 0.003, AASHTO 8.16.3.1.2) and reinforcement ( ) at ultimate conditions, is given by AASHTO Eq.8.18: ( Since ) (6.22) , , and

), its value is known in advance. For computational are tabulated for various

values of 0.5 , a value which may be used for the initial design trial. Note that the depth of Whitneys rectangular stress block, a, is related to the depth of the neutral axis, c, by

the relationship a =

, where

Service load stresses Stresses under service load conditions should not exceed the allowable stresses, as presented in the earlier sections.

Fatigue stresses limits AASHTO 8.16.8.3 stipulates that the range between a maximum tensile stress and the minimum stress in straight reinforcement should not exceed ff , given by AASHTO Eq. 8.60: ( ) (6.24) Where ff = stress range, ksi fmin = algebraic minimum stress level, ksi (tension positive and compression negative) r/h = ratio of base radius (r) to height (h) of rolled-on traverse deformations, equal to 0.3 when the actual value of r/h is not known. This fatigue limit is waived when the deck slab, with primary reinforcement perpendicular to traffic, is designed in accordance with AASHTO 3.24.3, Case A.

Distribution of flexural reinforcement To control flexural cracking of concrete, tension reinforcement should be well distributed within the maximum flexural zones. This requirement is critical only when the yield strength of flexure reinforcement exceeds 40,000 psi. In such case, the bar sizes and their spacing at the maximum positive and negative sections should be so chosen that the stress in reinforcement steel under service load conditions does not exceed the following value (AASHTO 8.16.4, Eq.8.61):

(6.25)

where A = effective area, in.2, of concrete surrounding the flexure tension reinforcement and having the same centroid as the reinforcement, divided by the number of bars or wires.

dc = thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme tension fibre to the center of the closest bar or wire, in., limited to 2 in. maximum for calculations

It is instructive to note that this requirement is similar to that required for the reinforced concrete buildings (ACI, 1995). The Gerly-Lutz formula for crack width is expressed in a modified form (Nawy,1972,1985; Lutz, 1974): where number of bars if all are of the same diameter, or the total area of reinforcing steel divided by the area of the largest bar if more than one size is used. (6.26)

AASHTO Eq.6.61 is the Gergely-Lutz formula (Gergely and Lutz, 1968) derived from the general formula based on a statistical study of test data of several investigations (Nawy,1985): (6.27)

Two bars

Three bars

Four bars

depth factor, average value = 1.20 fs = maximum stress (ksi) in steel at service load level, 0.6fy to be used if no computations are available Note: fs = 0.6fy For computational simplicity, a parameter, z, is introduced in Eq. 6.27 (Nilson and Winter, 1986): (6.28) The z-w relationship of Eq.6.28 can be expressed as (6.29)

Note that the units of z are kips per inch. The AASHTO specifications (AASHTO, 1992a) prescribe the following upper and lower limits on the value of z: z = 170 kips/in. for members in moderate exposure condition z = 170 kips/in. for members in severe exposure condition

REINFORCEMENT Compression reinforcement used to increase the strength of flexural members is to be enclosed by ties or stirrups of at least #3 bar for longitudinal bars that are #10 or smaller, and at least #4 bar for #11, #14, #18, and bundled longitudinal bars. The minimum size of bars should be #5(AASHTO 8.18.1.2). The use of #3 bar is generally not practical for longitudinal reinforcement in slab construction.

Minimum reinforcement AASHTO 8.17.1 requires that any section of a flexural member where tension reinforcement is required by analysis, the actual reinforcement provide should be sufficient to develop a moment at least 1.2 times the cracking moment, calculated on the basis of modulus of rupture for normal weight concrete (AASHTO 8.15.2.1): (6.30) (6.31) where S = section modulus, based on uncracked section

Spacing limits Spacing limits for reinforcing bars for bridges, different and generally more conservative than those for reinforced concrete buildings recommended by the ACI(1995), are covered in AASHTO 8.20: 1. For cast-in-place concrete, the clear distance between parallel bars in a layer should not be less than 1 times the bar diameters, 1 times the coarse aggregate, or 1 in. 2. Where bars are place into two or more layers, the bars of the upper layers should be placed directly above the ones in the lower layers. The clear distance between the bars into two layers should not be less than 1in. 3. Bundling of bars in a group is permitted. For bars #10 and smaller, a maximum of four bars can be bundled; for bars #11, #14 and #18, the number of bars in a bundle is limited into two. When the spacing limitation are based on the diameter,

a unit of bundle bar should be treated as a single bar of a diameter derived from the equivalent total area (AASHTO 8.21.5).

Protection against corrosion AASHTO 8.22 requires the following minimum clear cover (in inches), outside of the outermost steel, for protection of reinforcing bars from the environment:

Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth Concrete exposed to earth or weather Primary reinforcement Stirrups, ties, and spiral Concrete deck slabs in mild climates Top reinforcement Bottom reinforcement Concrete deck slab that have no positive corrosion protection and are frequently exposed to deicing salts Top reinforcement Bottom reinforcement Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground Primary reinforcement Stirrups, ties, and spirals Concrete piles cast against or permanently exposed to earth

2 1

2 1

2 1

1 1 2

Transverse Reinforcement AASHTO 3.24.10 stipulates that all reinforced concrete slabs be provided with distribution reinforcement, near the bottom fibre, placed perpendicularly to the main reinforcement, to distribute loads laterally. The amount of such reinforcing steel is governed by the orientation of the reinforcement with the respect of the direction of the traffic: For main reinforcement parallel to traffic (AASTO Eq.3.21): Percentage of reinforcement where S = effective length. For main reinforcement perpendicular to traffic (AASTO Eq.3.21): Percentage of reinforcement

but 50%

(6.32)

but 67%

(6.33)

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS Diaphragms In T-beam construction, they are provided between the beams at the ends and at some intermediate points along the span, and they are cast integrally with the slab and the webs. At the intermediate points, they provide lateral support to beams, and when the abutment does not extend above the bridge-seat level, the end diaphragms support the backfill.

Deck Joints To provide for expansion and contraction of the deck due to temperature and the other causes, it is common practice to provide expansion joints in a bridge deck at the expansion ends and at other desirable locations. Details for the expansion and construction deck joints are spelled out in AASHTO Div. II, 8.9. In humid climates in areas subjected to freezing, joints should be sealed to prevent erosion, filling with debris, and freezing-induced spalling.

Bearings Bearings are devices provided at the abutments o piers and positioned between the bottom flanges of the beam and the top of the bridges seats. Basically, they serve the following important functions: 1. Uniformly distribute the concentrated horizontal and vertical loads due to beam reactions over bearing stress to eliminate highly localized stress and resulting structural damage 2. Allow movements between the superstructure and the substructure (abutments and piers), and minimize the effects of loads due to volume changes resulting from shrinkage, creep and temperature 3. For longer spans, allow rotations at the support that will be caused by the deflection of the loaded beam

Sidewalks, Curbs, Parapets and Railings Sidewalks are usually provided for pedestrian traffic on bridges, generally carrying urban express ways, and wherever necessary. They should be in such width as required by the controlling and concerned agencies, but preferably not less than 4ft (ACI, 1969). When sidewalks are provided, they should be separated from the bridge roadway by the use of a suitable railing (AASHTO 2.7.3).

Curbs and parapets are safety barriers provided parallel to longitudinal axis of the bridge on both sides of the roadway, designed to prevent a moving vehicle from leaving the roadway. But maybe designed to form a combination curb and gutter section. Curbs are of two general types: parapets (nonmountable) and mountable curbs (also called brush curbs). Curbs are generally not less than 2ft 6in. high, and may be used combination with the curbs. Curbs and sidewalks are poured after the hardening of the deck. Both should have vertical slits or other provisions of discontinuity to prevent them from resting deck bending moments; this avoids any structural cracking. Railings are safety devices provide to contain the vehicles. AASHTO specifications (1989, 1992b) provide current guide specifications for highway bridge railings.

Medians Lanes carrying the opposing traffics should preferably be carried on two separate structures. However, when the width limitations dictate the use of the same bridge for lanes of opposing traffic, they should be separated by traffic separators known as medians, usually of parapets sections 12 to 27 in. high.

Drainage The drainage should be both traverse and longitudinal, should be provided on a bridge roadway. Traverse drainage is provided by a suitable crown in a deck (about 1/8 in. ft), and the longitudinal drainage by camber or gradient (AASHTO 1.5). For longitudinally horizontal bridges, a camber of 0.5 to 1 percent is generally provided to carry the water in the gutters to the ends of the span.

Roadway Width The width of the roadway on a bridge is defined as the clear width measure at the right angles to the longitudinal centreline of the bridge between the bottom of the curbs, or in their absence, the distance between the nearest faces of the bridge railing (AASHTO 2.1.2). The roadway widths are at least the distances between the approach guardrails, if guardrails are provided, or they equal the length of the roadway section, including shoulders. Where a curbed roadway sections approaches a bridge, the same section is carried across the bridge (AASHTO, 1992a, Article 2.3.1).

DESIGN OF SLAB BRIDGES Slab bridges are characterized by simple or continuous concrete slab spanning in the direction of traffic. The wearing surface, say 25 to 35 lb/ft2, is added to obtain the total dead load. The live load moment and the shear is calculated according to the methods describe by Chapter 4 and are multiplied by the factor (1 + I) to account for the effect of impact. The differences of reinforcing for continuous slab bridges designed for HS15 or HS20 loading, having 20-ft, 30-ft, and 40-ft end spans are only 0.3, 0.6 and 1.5 lb/ft2 of the deck area, respectively. It is recommended for short span to design for HS20 loading (PCI, 1975). Moments and shear at intermediate points. It is customary to determine the maximum moment and shears at several points along the span, usually at every tenth points (L/10). Example: in this 40 ft span bridge, the maximum moment occurs at 17.67 ft from one of the supports.

16k 14 5

16k 14 35

16k

4.375

2.625

0.875

Influence line for Mmax at 5ft from the left support. Solution: MD = 1.052 x x 4.375 x 40 = 92.05 k-ft

ML = 16(4.375 + 2.625) + 4 x 0.875 = 115.5 k-ft ML+I = 115.5 x 1.3 ML = 1.3(92.05 + 1.67 + 150.15) = 150.15 k-ft = 445.64 k-ft

16k 14 10

16k 14 30

16k

7.5

4.0

0.5

Influence line for Mmax at 10ft from the left support. Solution: MD = 1.052 x x 7.5 x 40 ML = 16(7.5 + 4.0) + 4 x 0.875 ML+I = 186.0 x 1.3 ML = 1.3(157.8+ 1.67 + 241.8) = 157.8 k-ft = 186.0 k-ft = 241.8 k-ft = 730.1 k-ft

Flexural reinforcement will be cut off, calculate of the nominal moment capacity of the T-section with only 3bars in the bottom layer and with only six bars in the in the bottom two layers. All bars however will be extende to full development.

Mn with 3 # 11 bars d = 29.54 in. As = 0.85 a= Mn = Asfy = 456.7 k-ft Mu = Mn = 0.9 x 456.7 = 411.03 k- ft Mn with 6 # 11 bars ab = Asfy = 0.765 in = ( )

The bars can be cut off as follows: 1. At 10 ft from the support Mu = 730.1 k-ft, whereas the Mu of the section with six # bars is 764.45 k-ft . hence, out of the eight total # 11 bars, the top two # 11 bars can be theoretically stopped at this point.

2. At 5ft from the support, Mu = 445.64 k-ft, whereas the Mu of the section with three # 11 bars in the bottom layer is only 411.03 k-ft (smaller); hence,the additional three #11 bars cannot be cut off at this point. Calculate the maxmum moment at 4 ft from the support and check if the bars can be cut off at this point.

16k 14 4

16k 14 36

16k

3.6

2.2

0.8

Influence line for Mmax at 4ft from the left support. Solution: MD = 1.052 x x 3.6 x 40 ML = 16(3.6 + 2.2) + 4 x 0.8 ML+I = 96.0 x 1.3 ML = 1.3(75.7 + 1.67 + 124.8) = 75.7 k-ft = 96.0 k-ft = 124.8 k-ft = 369.3 k-ft

This is the smaller than the (411.03 k-ft) of the section with three # 11 bars. Hence, of the six #11, the three #11 bar in the bottom layer will be extended the full length of the beam to satisfy the requirements of AASHTO 8.242.2.1 the least one third shall extend along the same face of the member into the support.

Development lengths. The required development length of flexural reinforcement are governed by AASHTO 8.24 and 8.25 *the basic development length (AASHTO 8.25.1)Ldb is

Ldb =

= 39.46 in.

0.0004db fy = 0.0004 x 1.14 x 40,000 = 22.56 in. or 12 in (AASHTO 8.25.4) Ldb = 39.46 in say 40 in---governs. The two #11 bars must be extended 40 in. in the direction of decreasing moment, beyond the point of maximum stress.

*According to AASHTO 8.24.1.2.1 15 bar diameter, 15 db = 15 x 1.14 = 21 in 1/20 of clear span, L/20 = 40 x 12/20 =24 in Effective depth, d = 26.69, say 27 ingoverns

*AASHTO 8.24.2.2 continuing reinforcement (6#11 bars) must have development length at least equal to ld (40 in) beyond the point where they no longer required to resist tension.

* AASHTO 8.24.2.3 requires that the bar size should be such that ld computed for fy per AASHTO 8.25 satisfies the following equation.

Ldb Where:

1.3 (M/V) + la

M= computed moment capacity, assuming all positive tension reinforcement at the section as fully stressed V= maximum shear force at the section La= embedment length beyond the center of support 1.3= coefficient giving 30 percent increase in the value of M/V in the development length limitation, to account for the confinement of the end reinforcement by compressive reaction, which tends to prevent splitting and bond failure along the bars

Flexural capacity of three #11 bars (Mu = 411..03 k-ft) and maximum shear force at the support (Vu = 120.3 kips) had been calculated earlier. The value of la is kept 6 in (AASHTO 8.24.2.1)

Ldb

The actual

*when flexural reinforcement is cut off in some points in the tension zone of beam provision of AASHTO must be satisfied to prevent premature flexural cracks in the vicinity of the cut ends.

a. extra stirrups will be provided along each terminated bar over a distance from the termination point equal to of the effective depths of the member, 0.75 x 26.69 = 20 in. b. the excess stirrup area Av, required is not less than. Av = c. the spacing s, should not exceed d/8 , where is the ratio of the area of

reinforcement cut off to the total area of the reinforcement at the section. In present section d= 26.69 in, the values of d/8 are as follows:

8#11 bars, As= 12.5 6#11 bars, As= 9.37 =(12.5 9.37)/12.5 = 0.21, d/8 3#11 bars, As= 4.68 = 5.68/9.37 = 0.5, d/8 = 7.4 in = 15.9 in

Distribution of flexural reinforcement. To control the flexural cracking of concrete, tension reinforcement should be well distributed within the maximum flexural zones. exceeds 40000 psi provision of AASHTO 8.16.8.4 must be satisfied. Design of exterior girders. Exterior girder have the same cross section as the interior ones. By AASHTO 3.23.2.3.1.4 = 307.1 k-ft = 255.8 k-ft = 1.3[ D+ (L+l)]

= 1.3(1.0 x 307.1 + 1.67 x 255.8) = 954.6 k-ft The required nominal capacity of the beam, Interior beam, = 1069.6 k-ft (calq earlier) = / = 954.6/0.9 = 1060. k-ft

= wL = x 1.557 x 40 = 31.14 kips Maximum liveload shear in the exterior girder due to service load plus impact was calculated earlier as 34.0 kips. Therefore, = 1.3[ D+ (L+l)]

= 1.3(31.14 + 1.67 x 34.0) = 114.3 kips Interior was calculated to be 120.3 kips which is greater than the value of for the

exterior girder.

DESIGN OF BOX GIRDER BRIDGES 1937- Construction of the first reinforced concrete bridge in the United States. The popularity of box girder bridges( reinforced and prestressed) has increase in western states particularly in California where 90 percent of the bridges built on the state highway system are concrete box girder and about 80 percent of them are prestressed. Although cast-in-place box girder have been built for span of 460 ft, for simple span are economical 95 to 140 ft range, limited by excessive dead load deflections [Degenkolb,1977]. This make them ideally suited for highway interchange structures for which the general span range is 50 to 150 ft. for longer span, prestressed concrete box are more economical. Lightweight concrete is used to reduce the deadweight of the superstructure in cases where the normal weight concrete is too heavy from the practical standpoint. The differences in the physical properties of normal weight ad lightweight aggregates cause their design to vary (Modulus of rapture multiplier for their shear strength). Advantages 1. The relative shallow depth requirement of a box girder bridge is a definite advantage whe headroom is limited, a condition frequently encountered in urban areas. 2. Monolithic construction of the superstructure and the substructure offers structure advantage as well as enhanced aesthetics. 3. They provide ideal space for utilities such as gas and water pipelines; power telephone and cable ducts; storm drains; and sewer which safely placed inside the large cells and hidden from view. 4. High torsional stiffness. 5. Easy aesthetic treatment through smooth finishing of the soffit and the sides. , modular ratio n, for deflection and the

6.8.2.1 Structural behaviour A reinforced concrete box girder is essentially a T-beam with the transverse bottom flange similar to the top flange, resulting in a closed, torsionally stiff multicell

configuration. Figure 6.8 shows configurations of several commonly used multicell box girder bridges [Libby and Perkins, 1976]

Top deck. Supported on webs (also referred as girders). interior web. Resist shear and often only a small portion of moment. Vertical moment while exterior web. May be vertical, inclined curve or otherwise profiled as shown in fig. 6.6.and if inclined their sloped should preferably be 1:2

6.8.2.2 Proportion

Depth. for constant depth of box girders, AASHTO 8.9.2 minimum depth span ratio of 0.060S for simple span and 0.055S for continuous span.

Top slab thickness. No recommendation for minimum thickness of the top slab except that they satisfy the design requirements. However many designer use greater deck thickness, varying from 6 to 9 in as required by the standards and manual in use. Cover in AASHTO 8.22. Bottom slab thickness. Bottom slab or soffit essentially performs three important functions: 1.) It contains reinforcement for positive moment. 2.) It function as compression flange for the negative moments for continuous box girders, 3.) It provides the desired architectural features of the girder.

Web. There is no provision in the AASHTO specification governing the spacing and thickness of web (or girder). The primary purpose is to resist shear and Resist shear and often only a small portion of moment.

Fillet. Requirements for fillet are covered by AASHTO 9.8.2.3, which requires that adequate fillet be provided at the intersection of all surfaces within the cell of a box girder, except the junction of the web at the bottom flange. The usual practice is to provide 4 in by 4 in.

Reinforcement. By AASHTO 8.17.2.3 1. A minimum distributed reinforcement of 0.4 percent of the flange are should be placed in the bottom slab parallel to the girder span. Spacing should not exceed in 18 in. 2. A minimum distributed reinforcement of 0.5 percent of the cross-sectional area of the slab, based on the least thickness, should be placed in the bottom slab transverse to the girder span, and distributed on both faces of the slab. Spacing should not exceed in 18 in. 3. Girder reinforcement most commonly used sized. #11 bar when it is design by service load method. #14 bar and #18 bar may be warranted if the number of smaller bars causes undesirable congestion. #10 and #11 bar when it is design by load factor design method

Diaphragm. Diaphragm are not required in box girder unless the box girders are sharply curved. AASHTO 8.12.3 stipulates that diaphragm are not required for straight box girder bridges and curve if the inside radius of 800 ft or greater.

Construction. In the case of multispan structures, two or more span is made continuous over the intermediate supports. Two alternatives are in use: 1.) Pour the soffit and web together without a construction joint between them, 2.) have the soffit poured first, followed by the pouring of the webs and the top slab.

6.8.3 Design Procedure and Example Example: Design a reinforced concrete box girder for a simple s[pan of 100 ft for a two lane highway bridge for HS20 loading. The typical cross section is shown in fig. E6.3a.

Use

Calculation: The minimum depth satisfy AASHTO 8.9.2 = 0.055S = 0.055 x 100 = 5.5 ft The bottom flange thickness, t, is computed according to AASHTO 8.11.2: Clear span between girder wens = 9.5 1.0 = 8.5 ft. t= = 6.375 in or 6 in.

Reinforcement parallel to girder. (To satisfy the requirement of AASHTO 8.17.2.3.1) the width between the outside faces of thbe exterior web is 29.5 ft. = 0.004 x 6.375 ( 29.5 x 12 ) = 9.03 DESIGN OF SLAB BRIDGES Method of design: 1. The service load method 2. The load factor design EXAMPLE: DESIGN OF A TYPICAL CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGE

SINGLE-SPAN

REINFORCED

Design a two-lane reinforced concrete slab bridge for a clear span of 20ft to carry HS20 loading. A provision of 30 lb/ft2 of dead load should be made in the design for the future wearing surface. The following data are given: fc = 3000psi 40 ft Calculations. The design of a slab bridge essentially consists of two parts: 1. Design of the slab 2. Design of the longitudinal edge beams. Design by the service load method: Design of slab. Assume 6 in. to the center of the bearings from the face of the abutments: L = S = 20 + 2 x (6/12) = 21 ft The minimum slab thickness is given by AASHTO 8.9.3 (Table 5.3 in this text) for deflection control: tmin = = ( ( ) ) Grade 40 reinforcement clear width =

= 1.24 ft

Therefore, try a 15 in. thick slab Self-weight of slab Wearing surface Total load = 1 x 1.25 x 150 = 187.5 lb/ft2 = 30.0 lb/ft2 = 217.5 lb/ft2

Dead-load moment MD = wL2/8 = 0.2175 x (21)2/8 = 11,990 lb-ft To calculate live-load moment, the weight of one rear wheel of the HS20 truck (16 kips) is distributed over a width, E, per AASHTO 3.24.3.2: E = 4 + 0.06S = 4 + 0.06 X 21 = 5.26 < 7.0 ft The weight on a unit width of slab = = = 3,042 lb This 3042-lb load is treated as a concentrated load on a span of 21 ft, and the corresponding live-load moment is

Compare this with moment due to HS20 lane loading. The lane load (both the uniform and the concentrated) is distributed over a width of 2E; thus,

The total live-load moment due to lane loading is ML = 3.352 + 8.98 = 12.332 kip-ft < 15.97 kip-ft (truck loading) Therefore, the truck loading governs. Use ML = 15.97 kip-ft (the larger value):

Impact: Hence, use I = 0.3 (maximum value). Thus, MI = 0.3 x 15.97 = 4.79 kip-ft = 32.75 kip-ft

For fc = 3000 psi, n = 9 (Table A.14, Appendix A). For the design of rectangular sections, k = 0.351 and j = 0.883 (Table A.16, Appendix A). Thus, from Eq. 6.4,

Assuming #8 for main reinforcing bar, and 1 in. as clear cover, the total required slab thickness is h = 13.2 + 0.5 + 1 = 14.7 in. Use h = 15 in., required for deflection control. Then, the effective depth is d = 15 0.5 1.0 = 13.5 in. From Eq. 6.5,

Therefore, provide #9 @ 7 in. o.c., As = 1.71 in.2 (Appendix A, Table A.19). Distribution reinforcement (AASHTO 3.24.10.4) Percentage of reinforcement = 100/ = 100/ = 21.82% < 50% max.

Therefore, As = 0.2182 x 1.65 = 0.36 in.2 Provide #6 @ 15 in. o.c., As = 0.36 in.2, directly above and perpendicular to the main reinforcement. Temperature reinforcement (AASHTO 8.20.1)

in each direction. Provide #4 @ 18 in. o.c. in each direction bellow the top face of the slab. All reinforcement details are shown in Fig. E6.1a. Shear and bond (AASHTO 3.24.4). Slab designed for bending by the previous method is considered satisfactory in shear and bond; hence, no further checking is necessary. Check for minimum reinforcement (AASHTO 8.17.1.1)

Fatigue stress limits (AASHTO 8.16.8.3). Fatigue stress limits are to be checked for the service load conditions as provided by AASHTO Eq. 8.60. ( ) The minimum stress level, fmin, is caused by dead loads only. From service load design calculations, MD = 11.99 kip-ft.

From Table A.15 (Appendix A), for n = 9 and = 0.0106 (by interpolation), k = 0.351 and j = 0.883. Therefore, the minimum stress, fmin, is

The maximum stress is caused by the live load plus impact; the corresponding moment, including the dead-load moment, is Mtotal = 32.75 kip-ft. The corresponding stress in the main reinforcement is

Thus, the actual stress range is ff = 19.28 7.05 =12.23 ksi. According to AASHTO Eq. 8.60,

Hence, the fatigue stress limit requirements are satisfied. Design of longitudinal edge beams. AASHTO 3.24.8 stipulates that edge beams be provided for all slabs having primary reinforcement parallel to traffic. Three alternatives are suggested for providing edge beams: 1. A slab section additionally reinforced 2. A beam integral with and deeper than slab 3. An integrally reinforced section of slab and curb The first alternative an additionally reinforced section of the slab as the longitudinal edge beam is 24 in. x 15 in. Provide a curb 10 in. high (standard depth), which gives the total height of the beam as 25 in. (for computing the self-weight). Self-weight (including the curb) Weight of railing (assumed) Total dead load = = = 625 lb/ft = 15 lb/ft = 640 lb/ft

The required beam depth, with b =24., can now be calculated from Eq. 6.4. With k =0.351 and j = 0.883 for n = 9 (Table A.16, Appendix A),

With 1 in. cover and #8 as the main reinforcing bar, hrequired = 13.53 + 1 + 0.5 = 15.03 in., Say 15 in., as provided. The required reinforcement can now be calculated from Eq. 6.5:

Therefore, provide four #9 bars, As = 4.0 in.2 > 3.47 in.2 (Table A.20, Appendix A). Check for minimum reinforcement (AASHTO 8.17.1.1). From Eq. 6.30:

Fatigue stress limit (AASHTO 8.16.8.3). Fatigue stress limits will be checked for the service load conditions. The permissible stress range is given by AASHTO Eq. 8.60: ( ) The minimum stress level, fmin , is caused by dead loads only. From service load design calculations, MD = 35.28 kip-ft.

From Table A.15 (Appendix A), for n = 9 and = 0.0123 (by interpolation), k = 0.373, j = 0.875. The minimum stress, therefore, is (from Eq. 6.5)

The maximum stress is caused by the live load plus impact; the corresponding moment, including the dead load moment, is Mtotal = 68.88 kip-ft. The corresponding stress in the main reinforcement is

Thus, the actual stress range, According to AASHTO Eq. 8.60, the permissible stress range is . Hence, the fatigue stress limit requirements are satisfied.

FIGURE E6.1b Reinforcement details (slab and the edge beams). Reinforcement details are shown in Fig.E6.1b. #5 dowels @ 18 in. o.c., along with two #5 hanger bars, are provided for the entire lengths of longitudinal edge beams. Design by the load factor method: Design of slab. The following service load moments were calculated earlier:

MD = 11.99 kip-ft ML = 15.97 kip-ft MI = 4.79 kip-ft These moments will be appropriately factored for a Group I loading combination per AASHTO 3.22.1 (see Table 3.12, Chapter 3). [ Where: ]

[ ] = 60.66 kip-ft. for flexure, = 0.9 Thus, (AASHTO 8.16.1.2). For a slab, b = 12 in., d = 13.5 in. (based on the minimum depth requirements, determined earlier). Thus,

lb/in.2), = 0.0100, from which As = 0.010 x 12 x 13.5 = 1.62 in.2 Therefore, provide #9 @ 7 in. o.c., As = 1.71 in.2 (as in the case of the service load design method). Distribution reinforcement. This requirement is the same as in the case of service load design. Provide #6 @ 12 in. o.c. directly above and perpendicular to the main reinforcement. Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement. This requirement is the same as in the case of service load design. Provide #4 @ 18 in. o.c. n each direction under the top face of the slab. Check for minimum reinforcement (AASHTO 8.17.1.1). Calculating are the same as provided earlier for the service load design. Fatigue stress limits (AASHTO 8.16.8.3). Fatigue stress limits are to be checked for the service load conditions. Calculations are the same as provided earlier for the service load design. Design of longitudinal edge beams. From calculations for the service load design, one has the following values of design moments: MD = 35.28 kip-ft ML = 33.60 kip-ft

Thus, [ [ ] ]

2

= 362.2 lb/

As = bd = 0.0098 x 24 x 13.5 = 3.17 in. Therefore, provide four #9 bars, As = 4.0 in.2 >3.17 in.2 (Table A.15, Appendix A). Check for minimum reinforcement (AASHTO 8.17.1.1). These calculations are the same as provided earlier for the service load design. Fatigue stress limits (AASHTO 8.16.8.3). A fatigue stress limit is to be checked for the service load conditions. Calculations for this are the same as provided earlier for the service load design. Since there has been no change in any type of reinforcement as a result of design by the load factor design method, the reinforcement details remain the same as those for design by the service load method (Fig.E6.1b).

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