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The Dhammaraja: Textual Utterances and an Examination into Geese Behavior Dr.

Dion Peoples Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University Are ancient principles suitable for the modern, technologically-advanced world? The Aggaa Sutta of the Digha Nikaya discusses the Maha-Sammata, or the person who is the peoples choice, the lord of the fields, the one that also gladdens others with Dhamma. Such a person is elected as the chief of the people. Often, we are forced to endure periods of our lives under rulers that we never elected they have been in power before we were born or before we were eligible to vote, or finally they were of the opposition that we do not validate as our own leader. For many people, whoever is in power is not the representative that the majority of people prefer. Its additionally odd that citizens are forced to pledge their allegiance to these people, against their better judgment or from fear of being arrested if not performed. Quite often there is an air of false pretenses that encircle the leader around the citizenry. There is a culture of fear in nations with such principles. Therefore, I was asked to write an article about the idea of the Dhammaraja. I have no other context for the theme of this topic or for the gathering, so forgive me and comprehend why, if, I have strayed from the main theme. What are the characteristics of a Dhammaraja1, characteristics that were taken from the MahhasaJtaka? Are these terms absolute or do they change according to some social context? 1. Dna: Kings should give in beneficial ways; be involved in charity, liberality, generosity resultantly, they should not crave or be attached to their wealth and property, and equalization efforts are done through various basic social welfare projects including giving useful advice and even forgiving people. 2. Sla: Kings should possess moral virtues or be of a high moral character upholding and never breaking any religious or national laws. 3. Pariccga: Kings should personally sacrifice everything for the good of other people, including being prepared to give up wealth, comfort, name, fame, life all in the national interest. 4. jjava: Kings should possess loyalty, honesty and integrity part of this involves being free from fear and be sincere in his intentions, never deceiving the public. 5. Maddava: Kings should possess open-mindedness, kindness and to not be arrogant. 6. Tapa: Kings should be diligent in their royal duties - engage in austere habits, never living an indulgent life, rather live simply and possess sensual-restraint or selfcontrol. 7. Akkodha: Kings should not be envious, be free from ill-will, and not be antagonistic, bearing no grudges this is being a compassionate ruler, if he is thinking clearly. 8. Avihis: Kings should thrive on affliction or in non-violent behavior and nonviolent actions, not harming anyone and promote peaceful principles internally and with neighboring nations, and abroad (if possible). 9. Khanti: Kings must be patient, have forbearance, be tolerant and have comprehension into many endeavors through this form of understanding, matters are known and rational decisions can be made. He should persevere: against greed,

Phra Dhammapitok (P.A. Payutto): Dictionary of Buddhism (Bangkok: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, 2000), pp. 285-287 and the various terms are defined somewhere within: http://dictionary.buddhistdoor.com/en/search -accessed and defined on 2 August 2013 using multiple dictionaries to shape the definitions.

hatred and delusion; against harsh language; and maintain the dignified royal composure. 10. Avirodha: Kings should be steadfast in righteousness, never opposing the will of the people and not obstruct any measures that benefit the peoples welfare within the kingdom this means: correcting the behaviors of wrong-doers and reward those who do good. These are the ten characteristics for a Buddhist King to take upon as his own virtues, during his reign, for the welfare of his kingdom and people if he can do or perform these characteristics: his family, his citizens and even other people in other nations will respect him as a role-model and a sort of teacher for others. There are lists found on the internet, pertaining to the worlds richest monarchs, and a Buddhist king is amongst the elite.2 Interestingly, if you actually read the Maha-Hasa Jtaka the Great Goose Story (J: #534), it refers you, the reader, to the Culla-Hasa Jtaka (J: #533) The Junior Goose Story, which further begs the reader to investigate the Hasa Jtaka (J: #502) the Goose Story. What are these goose stories all about? Maybe all along, modern Buddhist leadership have been duping the subordinated class, the common masses of the citizenry of the nation. Are these abstract principles just relicts of bygone eras? Do these ideas sound paternalistic or is it some form of adaptive feudalism? Almost any idea can be adapted and interpreted into a new context, but it does help to know where these ideas that we are working with are sourced from. The three goose stories will be investigated:

Contextual Comment on the Photo: I searched the internet for a picture that could most literally be something of a golden or ruddy goose, as mentioned in the Jtakastories, and this was the most striking of the images. Perhaps this species is the type found in ancient India.

#502, Hasa Jtaka: This old-world story deals with the renunciation of the Venerable nanda. The elder bhikkhus in the sangha were sitting around discussing the virtues of nanda; then later the Buddha interjects that this was not the first time that nanda had renounced his former householder-life for the sake of service into the

http://www.almanachdegotha.org/id229.html - accessed on 12 August 2013; but there seems to be some discrepancies in the list found here: http://www.forbes.com/thailand-billionaires/ - accessed on 12 August 2013 & also as found here: http://www.forbes.com/sites/investopedia/2011/04/29/the-worlds-richest-royals/ - accessed on 12 August 2013 3 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/A_couple_of_Tadorna_ferruginea.jpg accessed on 2 August 2013, perhaps the only real image of something resembling a literally golden goose. This site was useful for additional images: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birds_of_India - also accessed on 2 August 2013.

Buddhas sangha of world renunciates. The Buddha recollects the account of King Bahuputtaka, of Benares (Father of Many Sons, later mentioned as having five score and one), and states that he was the chief-goose, a golden-goose, of a flock of 90,000 wild geese. The queen of Bahaputtaka, Khema, had a dream: a dream where a woman was craving to listen to the Golden Goose give a sermon to his flock. The king knew of such a flock where this might be possible, putting his wifes dream into reality, he had a lake built in her honor, and planted a lot of enticing crops to tease the flock into shifting their residence into this newly formed land. Additionally, he sent out a proclamation into every major direction for hunters to catch geese, and relocate them into this newly established realm. Some geese were trapped in snares. The great leader of the geese was caught in a noose and stick, and was being stretched by his neck, but still had the insight to look around to see where other geese where being taken. Some geese were able to flee or fly away from the hunters, and were never taken as captives, yet Sumukha never wanted to leave from the side of the Golden Goose (Dhataraha). In fact, according to the account given in the text, when the hunter was trying to ensnare Dhataraha, Sumukha was noisily proclaiming the virtues of the Golden Goose, Dhataraha. The hunter was overcome with guilt or grief and decides to set the geese free, loosened the noose, and washed the blood from off the body of the golden goose, and even set-right the dislocated joints or tendons of the bird. Therefore, because of this kindness, and because of the proclaimed perfections of the Golden Goose, his body was instantly healed and there was much joy being proclaimed by Sumukha. The Golden Goose decides, as a gesture of kindness, to investigate this newly created realm, and came to the realm under his own free will. Upon seeing this, the King was pleased, and gave the best goose-food he could. The goose ate from the kings hand, and proclaimed to the king that he should rule justly. The Golden Goose further proclaims that the King should rule with virtue, and cherish his sons until they grow wise, like seedlings in the rain. In this story, the Buddha is the Golden Goose, nanda was the chief-Goose, Channa was the hunter, Sriputta was the King, the flock was the Sakya tribe, some unmentioned bhikkhuni (but later identified as Khem) was the Queen.

Contextual Comment on the Photo: taking the defensive posture to chase away an antagonist.

#533, Cullahamsa Jtaka: This old-world story again deals with the renunciation of nanda, from the householders life, into the Buddhas sangha of world-renunciates. Elder bhikkhus were sitting amongst themselves discussing the virtues of nanda. They were discussing how the venerable nanda continues to lay his life on the line for his cousin, the Buddha. Through the stories of real miseries, like the real-world events of

http://larry5154.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/goose.jpg accessed on 2 August 2013

Devadatta trying to usher the downfall of the Buddha, through the assassination attempts: the falling (dropped) stone/boulder and the rampaging elephant - because of these assassination attempts, the Buddha had nanda gather monks from the eighteen temples that surrounded Rajagaha for a great gathering, to witness the defeat of the rampaging elephant. nanda attempts to place his own life on the line, but the Buddha rejects the offer and pacifies the elephant through encouraging the elephant to do good deeds, acts or even thoughts of charity. The heretics that set up the plot were defeated. So, the Buddha tells the old-world story, of the righteous King Sakua of Mahisaka, in the city of Sakua. Hunters were being paid to capture birds and sell them in the city, where there was also a great bird-park with a nice lotus-filled lake, Mnusiya, some twelve leagues in circumference. Some hunters would capture various species, and set them free in this bird-park. As named above, Dhataraha and Sumukha were among the flock of 96,000 geese (although the conclusion of the Jtaka reduces the number to 90,000), and they entered, as a flock, into the rich feeding ground of the Mnusiya. Going there reluctantly, Dhataraha was ensnared, but bore the pain, without making a sound, which could alarm others, feeding and enjoying themselves; but when they had gotten their fill, he released his anguish. Sumukha flew around but could no longer see the Golden Goose something must have happened to the goose-king? Finally, he sees the golden goose trapped and bloodied, and though he is told to flee by Dhataraha, Sumukha stays and gives an impassioned speech a speech much like a lover would give to ones burdened partner: I either then must die with thee or live a life forlorn; far better it is to die at once, than live with your loss to mourn The hunter heard the passionate speech and was overcome with emotion, so much so that he released and tended to the Golden Goose. Soon after being tended, the golden goose was healed, as if nothing had happened. Later, Sumuka speaks in a human voice to the hunter, and begs to see the King. After meeting the king, the birds were excellently fed, asked to sit upon golden chairs, and the royalpresence asked for a discourse from the Goose King. After the discourse was finished, the Golden goose recommended that the King follow the five precepts and rule righteously to win the hearts of the people. Then, basically the geese were free to go, and after the leaders of the birds were back into the flock, joyous sounds erupted from amongst the winged animals.

Contextual Comment on the Photo: Geese-fights are a common wintersport for Russians.

#534, Mahhamsa Jtaka: This old-world story reflects upon the Hamsa Jtaka, where the Queen has her dream of the golden geese. Yet, on this occasion, the Queen is frantically searching for these geese after her dream, longing to hear the Dhamma, as spoken by them. She even dupes the King, Sayama (of Benares), into believing that she

http://xaxor.com/images/other/111161/traditional_goose_fighting_in_russia_05.jpg accessed on 2 August 2013

will die if she does not have the opportunity to hear the Dhamma from the geese sitting upon the golden throne, covered by a white umbrella (objects described in the previous story). So, if she gets to hear the geese, she will live, allegedly. So the King summoned his Brahmins and asked them if such animals existed, and they said: according to tradition, such animals exist, somewhere in the Himalayas, and they can be strategically lured away if you construct a lotus-filled lake about three leagues in diameter, and include other bird-enticing plants so that they would enjoy the location. Then, strategically call it a sanctuary, so that common people will not be allowed to enter, and place hunters around the lake to eventually trap the Golden Goose in a horse-hair noose. The golden goose was indeed snared after many days, and Sumukha faithfully remained near his comrade. Sumukha begged the hunter to take him instead of Dhataraha, and at last uttered that if the goose-king was killed then the hunter would have to face hell or similar states of suffering. Being fearful of hell, the hunter took the pair of golden-geese to the King, and awaited his fate as a failed-huntsman. The old-world story continues along, and of later significance: Dhataraha compares his rule over his flock to that of King Samyamas rule over his own kingdom. The have similar ways to do things, but then diverge when Dhataraha issues the following criteria: Almsgiving, justice, penitence, meek spirit, temper mild, peace, mercy, patience, charity, with morals undefiled. It is further mentioned that the king being addressed was filled with anger, and needed to be appeased by Sumukhas speech. The final message in this Jtaka is that when the heart is filled with love, then someone can succeed in anything that they choose to do.

Contextual Comment on the Photo: Geese are quite the delicious birds a testament that is proven by consumption of geese across many cultures.

Literature Summary: We have three instances of behavioral-projection upon geese. Geese (plural), or a goose (singular) is a medium to large-sized water-loving bird found on many of the worlds continents. Geese are an ancient species of birds skeletal-fossils have been found dating back to 12 million years ago. Humans have used geese as guard-animals because they are very aggressive birds, not afraid to attack humans. The geese depicted in these old world tales are very caring and loving, alert and defensive (in the sense of protecting an injured friend). So, what can we learn by studying animals? Are there any benefits to the study of animals towards some relationship with humans? A Nobel Prize was awarded to such studies in 1973.7 These ideas are only some of the traits that
6 7

http://buddydon.blogspot.com/dead_geese.jpg accessed on 2 August 2013 For instance, see the research pertaining to http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1581 accessed on 3 http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1582, reaccessed on 11 August 2013

Konrad Lorenz: August 2013, and:

scientists have ascertained about geese behavior.8 Recall that psychological projection is a concept that serves as an immature defense mechanism: the unconscious rejection of ones unacceptable attributes through ascribing them to other objects or other people. Projection tends to come to the fore in normal people at times of crisis, personal or political, but is more commonly found in the neurotic or psychotic in personalities functioning at a primitive level as in paranoia or borderline personality disorder.9 First, what is the depiction of geese in the three Jtakas? The three stories are about Venerable Ananda protecting the physical well-being of the Buddha, and it is illustrated through the metaphors of a chief bird in a flock of geese protecting its golden leader. This is not abstract behavior, but a trait common to the species.10 Here, we must also assess any negative actions that the king engaged upon, so another look is needed: Relevant Jtaka: Hamsa-Jtaka; MahavamsaJtaka Hamsa-Jtaka; MahavamsaJtaka Hamsa Jtaka; CullahamsaJtaka Hamsa Jtaka; CullahamsaJtaka Negative Action by the Human
King fell for the deception of his queen, and built a goose-enticing lake due to her superstitions King orders hunters to trap geese, to appease the superstition of his wife, the queen. Hunter follows the orders of the king, to trap or kill a certain goose, for his personal gain. Hunter thinks that if he takes the geese to the king, he may get some grand reward. In this sense he is not motivated by virtues but delusionally motivated by greed, and the fear that if he does not bring the geese to the king then he may be considered as a thief. Goose asks the King a series of questions, and one is: Is your queen of equal birth obedient, sweet of speech, fruitful, fair, famous, waiting on your wishes and doing them all? To which the king answers to the affirmative. This though, is a lie or a misrepresentation towards the goose, because the Queen has actually been manipulative. Goose gives talk to hunter, who soon frees and tends to the injured goose, and then takes the birds to the King. Goose, in response to being freed, will persuade the king to give various rewarding riches to the hunter. Goose gives five admonishments to the king: 1. Dont put things off (dont delay) 2. Dont let your knowledge fade 3. Try to see some truth in falsity to become wiser 4. Try to appreciate being virtuous 5. Cherish your sons

Response by the Geese:

Goose states: under cover of a lie, each act of sinful greed forfeits rebirth as man or god, and straight to hell he must lead.

Hamsa Jtaka


Be vigilant and rule your kingdom in righteousness. 11

The 1973 Nobel Prize winner in Physiology, Konrad Lorenz12, has stated that the above may just be uncritically presumed positions this was quite common in the ancient times. He suggests that there is nothing false about any of these ancient analogies; they can be informative but lack the necessary scientific specifics, and as a result: people may
8 9

For a generalized presentation, see: http://www.worldanimalfoundation.net/f/Goose.pdf - accessed on 13 August 2013 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_projection - accessed on 4 August 2013 10 For instance, see: http://www.preservewildlife.com/geeseworld.htm - accessed on 2 August 2013, this activity is only done for a mate or family-member. Geese are also very defensive by nature. It is also in the nature of the leader of a group of geese to chase out or outcaste an injured goose, to protect the rest of the flock. The interesting website continues to illustrate a number of behavioral patterns for the species. 11 King Bhumipol Adulyadej committed himself to this slogan when he became the King of Thailand. See: http://www.thailandtoday.org/monarchy/elibrary/article/167 - accessed on 5 August 2013. 12 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1973/lorenz-lecture.pdf - accessed on 3 August 2013

fall victim to the generalized positions. He warns against unrational/irrational-factors. He speaks about how geese marry each other and get very jealous about other potential birds. Male geese (ganders) must chase or distract jealous mates/females from attacking other females therefore, we comprehend that falling in love and jealousy has some sort of function. There are other reoccurring behavioral patterns. There have been additional scientific observations about the organizational behavior of geese, since those ancient observations. Recently, it has been learned from geese: Leader groups of geese will chase and outcast an injured goose to protect the rest of the group from predators.13 This suggests that there is a sense of knowing that another is injured, but since there are no viable options for animals to medically assist others, they are pushed away, so that they dont draw the attention of predators. While this may protect the larger group, the outcaste is at a disadvantage and falls easier as the victimized prey for a predator. Humans have hospitals for their injured, animals leave their weakened to the whims of predators for the sake of the greater group. While watching the video14, it was learned that family of geese in larger groups spend lesser time in vigilant behavior, while families in smaller groups spend more moments in vigilant-behavior vigilance as opposed to feeding. It may be difficult to determine what is actually vigilance and raising the neck to make the food go down to the stomach or to allow blood to flow back properly back into the body from the brain and from the heart to the brain easier following the lowering of the brain again to resume the feeding activity. It appears that when some are feeding there is someone remaining vigilant. Some species of geese intermix into the flocks of other geese, so a large number of them together, could be different species, some eat or search for food, while others watch for threats. Also larger species of geese are more aggressive or dominant than smaller geese.15 Each male can service two to six females (depending on the male).16 - I cannot prescribe polygamy, despite any sensual urge/lust I may have. Polygamy has been sanctioned in ancient India, and until recent times, it was not frowned upon by the social elites in Buddhist Southeast Asia, and it is additionally sanctioned in Muslim nations, despite any civil-law to the contrary, many observe the religious allowance. In Buddhist nations, our priority here, polygamy was seen in the royal-courts of many monarchs in the Thai dynasties. It was only in recent times, within the last 100 years that this practice has officially diminished. In modern civil law, there is no crime against having multiple children with a wife, divorcing a woman to marry another, and have additional children with the next woman, and to further repeat the cycle with others in a sense this spreads out the royal blood-line and allows for the possibility of future additional and suitable heirs to the throne. Adult snow geese collected in coastal marshes had larger bodies, thicker bills, longer skulls, and longer culmens [upper ridge-portion on a birds beak] than did those collected in rice-prairies17 I never observed male geese walk to or guard nests during female incubation recesses. Males were out of the cameras view during all female incubation recesses with 4 exceptions; in all 4 cases, males never stood on their mates nest..., (p. 15)18 (p. 19): selection for male nest attendance may be weaker in geese than in swans.

13 14

http://www.preservewildlife.com/geeseworld.htm accessed on 2 August 2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeJHW5n-PXY accessed on 11 August 2013 15 http://www.deltawaterfowl.org/research/results/Jonsson_Jon.pdf - accessed on 2 August 2013 16 http://www.avianweb.com/africangeese.html accessed on 2 August 2013 17 http://www.deltawaterfowl.org/research/results/Jonsson_Jon.pdf accessed on 2 August 2013 18 http://www.deltawaterfowl.org/research/results/Jonsson_Jon.pdf

Male presence near nests was similar for both species; males were out of the cameras view, on average, for 40% of the time. Male geese probably use these absences from their mates to feed, drink, or seek out forced extra-pair copulations...19 Some species of geese are involved in brood/nest-parasitism.20 This means that parent-birds deposit their eggs in another nest of another bird, leaving that egg to develop under the warmth and care of another mother. This eliminates the responsibility of the realparents to build a nest and to take care of the baby-birds, freeing them up from feeding responsibilities and other acts of social behavior in geese. In humans, this is similar to fornicating and becoming pregnant, but being able to care for the newborn, and leaving it with some relative to care for it; or donating the sperm and egg, but leaving it (medically implemented) inside another woman and her body, to develop the new child. This raises a number of ethical-behaviors, ranging outside the scope of this brief paper. Geese find out quickly that it pays handsomely to be team players. Second, wise leadership: when the leader at the apex of the V gets tired, it is relieved by another goose. Leaders rotate, empower, delegate, and even step down when it's in the best interest of the team. How often do we see this taking place among organizational leaders? Wise leaders ensure that their followers are well trained and developed in order to achieve true empowerment and smooth succession processes. Third, humane behavior: if a goose drops to the ground when it gets hurt or sick, two of its colleagues go down with it to take care of it until it either gets healthier or dies. In this fast-paced and competitive age, we seldom see managers going out of their way to help colleagues who are in trouble. In organizations, morale, productivity, and loyalty increase when employees are treated humanely.21 Geese are migratory birds, so if the ancient Indians are scrutinizing the golden-goose species, they are only observing the species for a brief time, and cannot gain appropriate levels of knowledge about the species, because they are unable to gather this information for an entire year, and collect data and samples on an annual or seasonal basis. Therefore, the behavioral patterns depicted in the Tipitaka are comprised of only partial or inconsistent truths. Geese exhibit different behaviors: group behavior, family behavior, and flight behavior.22 Geese seem to have no apparent leader.23 its constantly shifting and changing. This is a result of the fact that the birds in the flock are taking turns flying in the lead position in order to give the other birds a chance to rest near the back of the line. This also ensures that the flock evenly distributes the workload so that they can easily make the long journey to their target destination. Similarly, when leading a team or group of employees, its important that theres an understanding that everyone on the team has each others back and that the workload will be shared to make sure that no one wears out before the team can reach their objective. For the Canada geese, the act of flying in V-formation has certainly been vital to their ability to migrate over vast distances as the seasons change. As with so many other examples

19 20

http://www.deltawaterfowl.org/research/results/Jonsson_Jon.pdf http://www.behavecol.com/pages/pdf/books/Sedinger_Vol19(2).pdf accessed on 3 August 2013 21 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1529336 an abstract, from an article that I cannot access, because it must be paid for website accessed on 2 August 2013, entitled: Leadership lessons from Canada geese; and from another website, which mentions the V or U-formation of geese and the role of shifting personal to take the leadposition, which can also be done by a female: http://suewidemark.com/lessonsgeese.htm - accessed on 13 August 2013. 22 http://www.seafwa.org/resource/dynamic/private/PDF/SMITHEY-43.pdf - accessed on 2 August 2013 23 http://www.wbu.com/chipperwoods/photos/geese.htm & http://med.fsu.edu/uploads/files/FacultyDevelopment_LessonsGeese.pdf - accessed on 13 August 2013

in nature, this behavior can also serve as a valuable reminder for businesses on how to approach leadership and team collaboration.24 Some action patterns of the Magpie Goose are clearly ritualized as signal actions, whilst others, although not so ritualized, are none the less characteristic of particular moods of the bird. It is considered that the action patterns form a simple language such that individual geese are aware and can often anticipate the actions of other geese. Particular attention is given to fighting actions, which appear on the second day of a goose's life, and to concerting, at first a threat display but later also used in pair maintenance, where it appears very similar in function to the triumph display of true geese. The family, comprising the reproductive group and its offspring, is the fundamental entity in Magpie Goose flocks. Males may be paired to one or two females, but they dominate their mates and offspring and defend a territory around them from other geese. Magpie Goose flocks are built up of families, each of which acts independently except in an alarm situation, when the flock acts as an entity. Flocks build up at feeding, roosting and watering sites, and although constant in location are probably composed of a different combination of families each day. The flock behavior of Magpie Geese closely parallels that of the true geese. No alarm stimuli have been found which are innately recognized by Magpie Geese. The fact that alarm stimuli are learnt, taken with the unstable nature of the flocks, suggests that it may be very difficult to produce a magic wand which effectively scares the birds from rice crops.25 Its the female goose that leads in a flight away, and it is the female that initiates the sex-rituals.26

Conclusion: Geese are a migratory species. Observation of a particular species is only a partial-seasonal observation, and not all habits of a species would be properly learned by a particular stationary human-population. People are unable to properly scrutinize group and family behaviors of a particular species when only certain stages of the species is being observed during the particular season. Within geese-examinations, there are a few dynamics: family dynamics and gaggle (group) dynamics. Larger group leaders may exile a particular injured bird; yet a family member may try to defend the life of that injured bird. In this respect, the group leader is trying to exile the injured bird to protect the larger group from predators. If the injured is casted out from the group, it becomes an easier target for a predator. The protecting family member remains at risk of being critically injured from this unwillingness to depart from the side of the injured animal. It was written in the Mahahamsa-Jtaka: Being a mere bird, as he is, he can do what for men is impossible. For they cannot remain in constant friendship. Oh, what a wise, eloquent, and holy creature is this! Ganders (male geese) are even known to fornicate with multiple partners, yet, many remain in permanent breeding pairs, so polygamy seems somewhat sanctionable as an activity within the species. Ganders even avoid taking care of the eggs in the nest of its mate. Some geese (the females) will even lay their eggs in another nest of a goose (nest parasitism), which forces another mother and male to raise those goslings as their own babies. Is this type of activity a form of sanctioned socialistic

http://www.tanveernaseer.com/migrating-geese-a-lesson-in-leadership-and-collaboration/ - accessed on 3 August 2013; further, one should read the comment section of this post, where people are perceiving human traits in geese, and projecting their ideals unto the birds. This leads towards further misconceptions or contradictions that exist between scientific observations and religious-texts. The Jtakas project that there is a leader, and the rest follow dictatorial; whereas the common observer is suggesting that geese are ego-less social creatures working for the benefit of the group. 25 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1963.tb02476.x/abstract - accessed on 3 August 2013 26 http://www.preservewildlife.com/geeseworld.htm - accessed on 6 August 2013

or communal behavior? Additionally, people can search on Youtube for geese attacks against humans it seems that this is a common experience where people and geese interact I have even charged by a goose before. With all of the above being said, it is necessary to reassess the goose as the model for kingship. If the following is reconsidered, what now exists, and how do we proceed. Reassessment of the Ten Characteristics of a Dhammaraja: Pali Term Dna: Implications:
Parent geese lead their young to the water, but the goslings feed almost immediately once lead away. There is not much that geese provide for others, unless one ascertains that sentry-duty and protection-services are a sort of gift for the relevant group. Humans have a different code of morality, one that takes into consideration that if you make a baby with your partner, you have the responsibility to raise it together as mother and father to the child, geese-ethics may be similar to humans, in the sense that there are irresponsible parents, and others are forced to look after the offspring. There is questionable ethics involved in the scenario about exiling or casting-out the injured. When does a king decide to relinquish his throne, in favor of the next-in-line? How much honesty is there in a kingship that seldom makes public appearances, and only gives important addresses on special occasions yet the people are supposed to trust a leader that is seldom seen but has a government of ministers and their minions who may be out oppressing the populace? Who takes ultimate responsibility for the actions? Is there any crime involved in making such accusations? People may fear retribution, and corruption grows. Kindness should not be taken as a weakness. Luxurious habitats are well-known amongst royalty, and living humbly is not among their common traits. If royalty engages in austere religious habits, never living an indulgent life, rather live simply and possess sensual-restraint or self-control this is relatively unheard of; yet being wealthy and managing ones wealth, it appears that the royalty do well enough for themselves. Kings should be free from ill-will, and not be antagonistic or even envious, bearing no grudges. Some nations manage a concept of lese-majeste, which seems to be antagonistic to the principle of akkodha. Exuding non-violent behavior and engaging in only non-violent actions never harming anyone, and promote peace internally and with neighboring nations, and abroad (if possible) is the best deemed behavior; although given the non-violent principle, many monarchs have sought to justify or rationalize their violent behavior. Kings should benefit humanity and rule with loving-kindness; and these potentially violent activities or the actual violent activity becomes justified. Niccolo Machiavellis The Prince resurrects other ideas, and suggests that royalty should be feared; Sangharajas give special allocations to their monarchs for defensive-activity (essentially: violence) to eliminate threats from within its borders (as if they are a defilement like greed, hatred or delusion that needs eliminated from the body.) Patience is seen as an honorable kingly virtue, as well as forbearance and tolerance, and have comprehension into many endeavors through this form of understanding, matters are known and rational decisions and perfections can be attained. No one should ever oppose social harmony or the will of the people and not obstruct any measures that benefit the peoples welfare within the kingdom (but be very well of harmful mob behavior). Royalty should take on the ideas of the people and learn to solve various social problems.

Sla: Pariccga: jjava: Maddava: Tapa:



Khanti: Avirodha:

Kings have different challenges that affect their rule, and each king because of the diverse challenges react differently. These goose-like ideas provide benchmarks to attain towards, or serve as a sort of analogy. However, like the Nobel Prize winner Konrad Lorenz warned: analogies can be misleading, and he studied geese, idealized by Jatakas.