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This is to certify that the report is been submitted by RUPAK BHATTACHARJEE, to the fulfillment of the vocational training in Signal and Telecom System from South Eastern Railway (Kharagpur) is a bonafied work carried out by her under my super vision and guidance, during the period 10th june 2013 to 22nd june 2013 . The data embodied in the report is obtained by her during the training period in the exchange and control system.

Signature Date:__________ Place:___________ Mr. B.K. Pal Sr. Section Engineer Tel Exchange, Kharagpur


The Kharagpur TCI exchange handles the telephone exchange (IDX 1200) and the Kharagpur railways telephone network .This IDX1200 handles around 3500 subscribers of Kharagpur division. Apart from the telephone network the TCI exchange also handles the PRS , UTS and FOIS network of Kharagpur Bhadrak(Excluding Bhadrak ) , Kharagpur Asanboni (In Tata line) , Kharagpur Shalimar (which includes Howrah station southern division) , PanchkuraHaldia Digha Baripada divisions. The TCI exchange not only maintains but it also handles the network monitoring of all these divisional networks.














The IDX 1200 exchange was installed in the railway TCI exchange Kharagpur in May 1990 . This exchange handles around 3500 subscribers. The IDX 1200 consists of two different unit named as Unit-1 and Unit-2. The Unit-1 again consists of three different units named as MSE (miscellaneous equipment), CME (common control equipment) and LTE (line trunk equipment). MSE (Miscellaneous equipment) This unit consists of the power supply which is -48v dc, a series of fuses for each LTE , 2 hard disk drives for the stored program control, 1 floppy disk drive 5.5 and a computer inter phase with com port which can transfer data at the speed of 9.06 kbps CME (Common control equipment) As the name suggest this unit handles the control part and the inter connection between all the units . It consists of 30 slots in which control cards are inserted , these cards performs various and individual jobs . The cards which are present in the CME are :CPU0,IOC2-01,MM0,MM4MD,TSWCOE,TNSE01,TSWCIE,SLB0,DKCO01, IFCBO-01,IUCO-01,LIF-01,DTCO,SSC01,LIF01,CCNS1001,IUCO-01, IFCBO01,DKCO-01,SCBO,TSWCIE,TNSE,TSWCOE,MM4MD,MM0,MN0, IOC02-01,CPU0 PD-MM0 : Memory which uses 256 kb DRAM, having capacity of 2 MB Per PCB PCTSWA: Has the timeslot memory(TSM) and switch control memory to interchange the time slots. PC-TNS : It is the tone sender . Sends up to 30 types of audible tone signals and includes the IP for communication between LTE and CME.

IC-IOC1 : Has three RS232 e inter phase outlets to typewriters, line printers, MODEMs and PC etc and can independently control each communication rate etc PD-CPU0 : Fixedly mounted in the CME unit . The CPU which has duplicated inter phase using 16 bit microprocessor CCM-XX : Communication control module xx CFT : Conference trunk CIDT : Central office indicator trunk CLKD : Network synchronization clock CLKX : Clock route cross circuit COID : Central indicator panel CPU\MM :Central processing unit \ main memory DTC : Data transmission controller DTE : Data terminal equipment DTI : Data terminal equipment inter phase EMGT : Emergency change over trunk IOC1&IOC2 : I\O control equipment IUC : Internal unit connection control unit LSLIC : Long subscriber line interphase circuit OGTL : Outgoing trunk L PBRT : PB receiver trunk PDTA : Private digital trunk APDTB : Private digital trunk B

POT : Position trunk SSC : System supervision control circuit TELT : Telephone inter phase trunk TNS : Tone sender TSWA : Time division switch A TSWC : Time division switch C VGTA : Voice guidance trunk A LTE (Line trunk equipment) There can be as many as 8 LTE units in each unit (Unit -1 or Unit -2) . This unit contents SLICA or SLICE cards , each of this card can handle 8 subscribers. The card layout of the unit is POW || 01||HWIFC
Up to 20 PCBs of SLICAE

|| CFTE ||
BWTXE used for trunk conference trunk

||DOTEFor operator control of LTE

CME and LTE. PC-HWIFC : Configures PCM voice channels into highways to connect to the TDS (TSW) (having loop back function per channel) assigns the other channels to the subscribers line circuit and trunk contains the HWIP for the communication HWIFC : Highway inter phase circuit SLICA : Subscriber line inter phase card A SLICB : Subscriber line inter phase card B SLICE : Subscriber line inter phase card E


The MDF is abbreviated Main Distribution Frame . It is connected between the line side and the exchange side . It is so connected because it there is any intrusion of surge voltage from the line side it stops the surge voltage and doesnt allow it to go to the exchange . In other words it can be said that it acts as a fuse between the line side and the exchange side . There are many types of MDFs the most commonly used ones are called as Rack MDF nowadays Krone MDF s are also pretty frequently used . These MDFs acts as protective devices . The Test panel is used for testing each line in the test panel the line side and the exchange side is shorted .



FIG: The test panel with the exchange side and line side shorted

When a line is to be tested then a fiber or plastic peg is inserted between the shorted plates after that the voltage, capacitance, earth of the line is checked




FIG: After insertion of peg

Introduction to OFC
Basic idea
The idea of communication with light is not new. When we send a "message with hand sign or raised eyebrow, you are communicating by using light. The other person sees this gesture with his eyes because light waves carry the image of your hand gestures to his eyes which act as the optical receiver. Thus a communication is established through light.


Optical fibre is generally made of glass and it is made into very thin fibres of hairs size. It is a non metallic conductor and this can transmit light energy from one end to the other end by utilising the phenomena of 'Total internal reflection of light'. In conventional cables (copper cables) electric energy is transmitted through metallic conductors. An optical fibre communication system consists of a transmitter which converts the multiplexed electrical signal into an optical signal. (Ref Fig 1.3). A source of light launches the optical signal through a coupler. The fibre carries this signal to the receiver. where another coupler couples the light from the fibre to the detector. The transmitter uses either a LASER DIODE or a LIGHT EMITTNG DIODE (LED) for electrical to optical conversion. The receiver uses either a PIN diode or an

AVALANCHE PHOTO DIODE (APD) for optical to electrical conversion. Long lengths of cables are joined by splicing the fibres. Fig :Principles Of Multiplexing (Analog Signals To Binary Impulses)


1. ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE COMMUNICATION a. Low transmission loss resulting in large spaceing between repeaters

Fig. Frequency Vs Attenuation In Various Types of Cable b. Wide bandwidth resulting in very large channel capacity Characteristics Length bandwidth product c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Twisted pair cable 1 - MHz-Kin coaxial cable 50-MHz-Km optic fibre cable. several GHz-Km

Immunity to electromagnetic & radio frequency interference Small size makes fibre cable lighter in weight & so easy to handle Safety Signal security No cross talk Easier availability of raw materials Flexibility in system upgradation High resistance to chemical effects and temperature variations

2. LIMITATIONS IN USING OPTICAL FIBRE CABLES a) Difficulty in splicing (Jointing) b) Highly skilled staff would be required for maintenance c) Precision and costly instruments would be required

d) Tapping is difficult. In railways difficulty to tap it for emergency and gate communication e) Costly if under- utilised f) Special interface equipments required for Block working accept UNIPOLAR CODES i.e return to zero codes only 3. APPLICATION OF OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATION IN RAILWAYS a) b) c) d) Long haul circuits for administrative branch and data transmission circuits Short -haul circuits for linking of telephone exchanges Control communication Signalling application for fail safe transmission


Fig. Principle Of Transmission Through Optical Fibre Cable

a) Light ray 1 enters the FIBRE and strike core-cladding surface at an angle greater than the critical angle. This is totally reflected back into the CORE. As angle of incidence and angle of reflection are equal the reflected light will again be reflected. The light will continue to travel zigzag manner down the length of the FIBRE.
b) Light ray 2 strikes core-cladding surface at c <(Critical angle) this ray travels into the cladding It strikes outer the surface of cladding at an angle greater than the critical angle. So it is reflected back into cladding. It will then reenter, the core pass through the cladding on the opposite side and is reflected again into the cladding. The light in the cladding is attenuated rapidly therefore this ray does not contribute to the light energy at the distant end .

c) Ray 3 strikes the core-cladding surface at an angle < c and so it is refracted into the cladding. It strikes cladding air surface also at an angle <c So this ray travels into the air and does not contribute to light propagation in the fibre. This principle of transmission of ray (1) is used in optical fibre transmission.


Introduction: With the implementation of computerized passenger reservation system on Northern Railway in year 1985-86 at New Delhi, a modest beginning was made which has completely revolutionized the process of passenger reservation service on Indian Railways. To begin with the computerized reservation at Delhi was implemented on small VAX-750 computer with just 30 terminals. The success and the public enthusiasm which resulted. Prompted Railways not only to quickly cover entire Delhi area but to extend computerized reservation facility at many other cities. Today it is a matter of great pride and satisfaction that highly complex but successful network of computerized reservation is available at more than 20 major towns including 4 metros of India, covering almost 25% of the reservation facility available on IR. PRS is equipped with latest state of art technology both in the field of computer and data communication systems. As a matter of policy and due to technical reasons, it was decided to have PRS computers only at Delhi, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta and Secunderabad which cover bulk of reservation volume and to have remote terminals at other major cities connected to host PRS computers through data links. Today all PRS hosts are CRIS to network all the computers to provide an integrated reservation system on IR. Features of the PRS system: The Hardware: Calcutta: In culcutta, PRS has been implemented in 1986-87 starting with twin VAX 8650 CPU cluster and terminals have been extended in the local area to Fairly Place, GRC, NKG, HWH, SLDH etc. suing cable connections and also a sophisticated digital UHF TDMA network of TRT/France design. The CPU is under up gradation by adding one more VAX 6310 CPU this year to connect remote terminals from Patna, Bhuvaneshwar, Cuttack and Guwahati. The PRS software: The application package, running under the VMS operating system on DECs VAX computers has been developed by M/s. CMC in Fortran 77 and is a total custom-built data-base system in itself with all functions such as terminal monitoring, terminal cursor control., data-field length verification, all data validations, allocation logic, database operations including record locking, journaling, recovery functions etc. being looked after by the application program itself. All communications from the terminals to the application is on a character by character basis. The PRS application software is named as IMPRESS (Integrated Multi Passenger Reservation system). In case of Cyber system at Secunderabad, PRS application package, also in Fortran runs under NDSV operating system.

Data Links: A large No. of data links are required to support remote PRS terminals. Since Railways own microwave network is not able to meet channel requirement, most of the data links are leased from DOT. In case of DOT leased circuits, local lead at each end is always a weal link. To avoid so called last mile problem, wherever feasible, dedicated cables have been provided. Most of these links, are able to work at 4800 bps. It may be noted that data links leased from DOT are the most expensive commodity and expenditure is of recurring nature. PRS Networking: Another area under active planning is Networking of the PRS computers. This is to be distinguished clearly from the present facilities made available for return reservation etc. by providing remote terminals of one PRS node at the location of other nodes and vice-versa. The true networking will allow the computers to communicate to each other and remote transactions can be submitted from all the terminals owned by the local node. This has thrown up a number of challenges requiring in depth study of various areas ranging from commercial rules to network architecture. Network Topology: A mesh topology is being planned for networking of various PRS computers. In fact, a pair of leased data circuits is already available between various PRS hosts Few network architectures have been under consideration, however, final aim is to have a network conforming to ISOs OSI standards (Open system inter connect). In this architecture lower three layers conform to X.25 specifications. To begin with DECs DECNET architecture can be implemented which can later migrate to OSI standards.


More than 1.2 core Rail passengers travel in unreserved coaches and trains every day and thus form the bulk of rail users. For this category of passengers Railways have introduced the facility of Computerized Unreserved Ticketing System was initially provided at 10 stations of Delhi area in the first stage as a pilot project on 15 August 2002 . Another 13 stations of Delhi area were provided with UTS counters in the second stage on 2 nd Oct, 2002. It has since been extended in an integrated manner to more than 180 stations all over the country. UTS system has been planned to take over the Printed Card Tickets or tickets issued by self Printing Ticket Machines gradually. UTS will provide the facility to purchase Unreserved Ticket 3 days in advance of the date of journey. A passenger can buy a ticket for any destination from the UTS counter for all such destinations which are served by that station. The cancellation of tickets has also been simplified. Passengers can cancel their tickets one day in advance of the journey from any station provided with a UTS counter. On the day of journey, the ticket can be cancelled from station from which the journey was to commence. Indian Railway is constantly looking for new ideas to simplify and streamline procedures for the convenience of passengers. In this endeavor they have introduced several path breaking technologies on the Railway system over the years. These technical innovations have included the computerization of reserved passenger tickets amongst several other facilities for passengers. As we introduce new facilities on the railway system, we are tempted to take a peek into the past. The legacy of the 150 years of railways in India is not only filled by the memories of the steam run trains puffing over the countryside, it is also of cardboard tickets, one for the fare and the other for reservation and of course, the memories of sending telegrams for return reservation to the station master from where one was to begin the return journey. With the introduction of the computerization of reserved tickets, these memories have been relegated to the past. It is now considered to be a basic minimum requirement to acquire confirmed reservation for traveling, at one's convenience and proceed on a journey carrying a confirmed ticket for the return journey. This has been achieved only in the last quarter of the last century. In addition to this facility, unreserved tickets will continue to be available through the manual system and the Self Printing Ticketing Machines, wherever such facilities are available. With the introduction of this system, the Railways will also benefit in several ways. These are : Keeping pace with the latest technology Encouraging passengers to purchase their tickets in advance To have online accountability of tickets sales. To have a rational analysis of the demand of passengers on various routes in advance, so as to augment trains as per requirement.


RAIL NET An Overview

Rail net is the name of the Corporate Wide Information System (CWIS) of Indian Railways. It is aimed to provide computer connectivity between Railway Board, Zonal Railways, Production units, RDSO, Centralized Training Institutes, CORE, and MTP/Kolkata etc.

Rail net has been established with these objectives in mind: Eliminate the need to move paper documents between different documents and Change from Periodic Reporting to Information on Demand. Rail net will expedite and facilitate quick and efficient automatic status update between Railway Board and Zonal Railway, as well as between divisions and Zonal Railway. Internet gateways have been established at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Secunderabad for access of Internet through Rail net. The Rail net Work was proposed to be completed in three phases. Phase I is planned to connect all the zonal Railway and production units with Railway Board. Phase II consists of connecting the divisions to the zonal Railways as well as connection the following to the Railway board. RDSO/LKO CORE/ALD MTP/CAL CTIs viz. IRISET, IREEN, IRICEN, RSC, IRMEE Major Training centers Phase III will connect the divisions with the important places like important stations, stores depot etc. Phase I of Railnet was commissioned by IRCOT1 through a contract agreement with Tata Infotech. IRCOT had done the following: Procurement, Installation and commissioning of Server, Router, switches, modems etc. Testing and commissioning of Data Links. Loading and configuration of system software. Training of Railway personnel. The maintenance of Railnet infrastructure and the web pages is done by the concerned Railways. IRCOT has arranged proper training for officers as well as supervisors so that the maintenance becomes easy.


Railnet General Arrangement

The general arrangement of the equipments used in Railnet is shown in the diagram above. The WAN link (or the Railnet link) terminates at the router. The router in turn is connected to the switch. All the computers including the server is connected to the switch. Additional hubs/switches may be connected to this switch so as to extend the Railnet LAN further. Railnet users can exchange emails on the Internet. Commercial Dept. is extensively using Railnet for their Complaint Center. Railways have launched their web pages and they keep up to date information in these web pages. A Railnet authorized user can browse the Internet through Railnet. A Railnet user can share resources with a co-user on Railnet.

IP Planning
Railnet uses the TCP/IP protocols that powers Internet as well. Because of the proven strength of these protocols, Railnet can be easily scaled for Internet as well. There will be no compatibility problem in scaling and the technology will be able to scale well for a large network. Railnet has used the private IP address of The IP addressing scheme is uniform and consistent. The following table shown the network addresses of some of the major Railnet servers.


Railnet Center Railway Board Northern Railway Western Railway Eastern Railway Southern Railway South Central Railway IRISET

Network Address

The Major Railnet equipments also has been given fixed numbers and the configuration of the whole of Railnet depends on proper addressing. The following table shows the IP addresses of the major equipments.

Railnet Equipment Router Railnet Server E-Mail addressing

IP Address 10.X.2.1/16 10.X.2.19/16

With the coming of Railnet, we have registered the Internet domain name railnet.gov.in and it is being used for Railnet mails. The table below gives the generic email addresses for some of the places of Railnet.

Place SCR Railway Board IRISET FOIS Introduction

Email address user@scr.railnet.gov.in user@rb.railnet.gov.in user@iriset.railnet.gov.in

Indian Railways carry about 1.36 crores of passengers and 12 lakhs tons of goods every day. It runs about 8000 passenger trains and 5500 goods trains daily. Indian Railways has always played a major role in direct contribution to the socio-economic development of the nation. In this endeavor to undertake this massive and voluminous task as Life Line of the Nation IR has always been making continuous efforts to improve the quality of service and aim to achieve newer and higher heights of performance. Innovative ideas are being introduced in operations like Jumbo Rakes and Unit trains to transport bulk commodities. However, despite these efforts, IR no longer being the monopolized industry in the public distribution system to command the market, has been loosing out on business and its market share to other transportindustries. There has been a long standing demand of the industry for transparency in sharing of information to give the customers an up-to date business like environment. Railways in this millennium have decided not only to perform the traditional tasks of carrying passengers and goods efficiently, but also to change the mindset of working in a closed system. The great concern to improve on its market share has prompted Railways to have a multi pronged approach to the freight policy, as Continuous Cargo Visibility has always been a critical component of the Supply Chain Distribution Management System.

To achieve this, out of the stated multi pronged new freight policy, a lot of emphasis has been laid on establishing a computerized FREIGHT OPERATIONS INFORMATIONS SYSTEMS (FOIS). Mission Statement of FOIS
To give a total transparent system with continuous Cargo visibility and an up-to date business environment to the Customers with instant access to information regarding their consignments in transit for just in time inventory. FOIS in an online real-time system based on current state of art technology and efficient communication system. It has a management tool to optimize utilization of costly assets and resources by improving the distribution of Rakes/wagons, scheduling and outing traffic. It provides continuous cargo visibility and enables the freight customers to have instant access to information regarding the current status of their consignment in transit for just in time inventory.

FIG: Existing FOIS Network


Nera WorldPhone Inmarsat Mini-M

Nera WorldPhone Marine is a satellite phone developed for use at sea on smaller vessels. It provides voice, fax and limited data capabilities based on Inmarsat's Mini-M system.

Quick Overview
Voice Fax (2.4 kbps Group 3 telefax) Data (2.4 kbps - ASD) Inmarsat Mini-M Phone and fax at sea Combined with a compact maritime antenna, which maintains accurate satellite tracking even in rough conditions, Nera's best selling Nera WorldPhone becomes a cost-effective communications tool at sea with near global coverage Data Rates : Voice Group 3 fax Data Interfaces : Ext. tel./fax outlets Data Power Environmental : Storage Operational antenna Operational phone 4.8 kbps 2.4 kbps 2.4 kbps (Hayes compatible interface) outlets2 x RJ11, 2-wire with echo cancellation and touch-tone dialing diallingDataD-SUB, 9 pins, RS232, Hayes AT compatible DC power jack w/2.1 mm centre pin 10-32 VDC -50C - +80C -35C - +55C -25C - +55C

Power consumption : Receive typical15 W Transmit typical50 W Environmental : Weight Phone: 1.4 kg including battery Antenna: 3.8 kg Dimensions Height 26 cm, Diameter 27.5 cm antenna Dimensions phone 23 x 19 x 4.4 cm


Inmarsat Mini-M System

Inmarsat Mini-M is a satellite communications system that provides highly-reliable telephone, data and facsimile communication to and from mobile subscribers anywhere within the worldwide coverage area of the Inmarsat 3 Spot Beam system. System Satellites The satellites are positioned in a geostationary orbit above the equator at approximately 35700 km altitude. In geostationary orbit, each satellite moves at the same rate as the earth, and so remains in the same relative position to the earth. The satellites cover approximately of the earth each, called Ocean Regions. AOR-W AOR-E IOR POR Atlantic Ocean West Region Atlantic Ocean East Region Indian Ocean Region Pacific Ocean Region

Nera World Phone Inmarsat Mini-M Coverage Map


The WorldPhone terminal consists of : Telephone Unit (TPU) Universal AC adapter (WorldPhone Portable only) Antenna Unit (AU) including RF trabnsceiver. Power Supply (WorldPhone Marine and Voyager only) The operating functions are conducted on the telephone panel. Only a single coax cable links the Telephone Unit and the Antenna. Calls from Mobiles To make an outgoing call, you use a standard international telephone number with the 00 prefix. The mobile automatically includes information to identify the MES an the particular port that originates the call. The WorldPhone has four pots : the basic Telephone Unit w/handest, and three connectors that are configured for telephone, data and telefax. The LES uses the end terminal identifying information (OI) for billing purposes. The mobile transmits the dialing information on a channel specially assigned by the NCS, to the LES, which also has been instructed to tune to the same channel. LES routes the call over the public tele-communications networks to the intended destination. When the called party responds, the call proceeds. Calls to Mobiles The WorldPhone terminal receives incoming calls via the IMN phone numbers. IMN numbers are assigned to the following ports: Basic Telephone Unit (handset) Telephone (TEL port) Telefax service (FAX port) Data service (DATA port) NIMS service Calls are made as ordinary international (Satellite) calls by dialing the internation prefix (normally 00) followed by 870 and the IMN number, e.g., 00 870 9434059502. The common Ocean Region access no. 870 connects the call to the dialed WorldPhone regardless of the Ocean Regiion the user currently communicates through.

Power DC Input : 10 32 V Polarity independent Input Protection : If the TPU is powered directly from external battery Source, a protection fuse < 8A is required. Typical Power : Transmit 12W, Standby 0.5W Consumption Max. Current : (during charging) 15V, 2A Current limit 2.3A Max. rated power : 30W AC/DC Adapter : 100 240V, 47 63 Hz, 30VA AC Input Frequency 1625.5 to 1660.5 MHz (transmitting) 1525.0 to 1559.0 MHz (receiving) Troubleshooting : 1. If The WorldPhone cannot find the satellite: Check for correct position of the antenna. Check that no obstacles block the free sight to the satellite. Check that the coax cable is connected properly.
If accessible, try another antenna unit. The warning Not available appears in the display. 2. The WorldPhone function abnormally: Turn off power and disconnect power cable/battery. Connect power cable/battery, and switch on again. 3. Unsuccessful call attempt: The called party is busy (Subscriber busy appears on the display). Call the Net service provider. If unsuccessfully, wait for some time and try again. The WorldPhone is not properly commissioned. Check with the Net service provider.


4. Problems with telefax: Remember to press # as last digit before starting transmission. Verify that the service is commissioned, see step 5. Connect an external standard telephone to the FAX port and verify that you have a dial tone. Be aware of system transmission delays. The OFF-HOOK time should therefore be as long as possible (e.g. 2 minutes). When the fax machine is called, ringing time should be set to minimum (e.g. immediate answer). Try a different fax machine. Check that the port is configured for telefax service (and not voice). 5. Problems with data communication: Verify connect bit rate on PC and the telephone unit. Try to connect to the server through a terminal emulator. Check the PC program settings, and if necessary extend the timeout intervals. Contact the PC applications vendor for help.


FIG: Terminals of NERA Worldphone