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Comparison Between Different Models During Short Circuit Interruption Test of Circuit Breaker

B. Vahidi, Senior member, IEEE, M. Janati, S. H. Hosseinian

Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology Tehran, Iran
Abstract-The paper describes a comparison between different models during short circuit interruption test of circuit breaker by using Matlab-Simulink. In this study combined model of SF6 circuit breaker, Kema model of arc and Schwarz model is compared.



For the analysis of simple switching transients and for carrying out large system studies, it is often sufficient to model a circuit breaker as an ideal switch. When studying arc-circuit interaction, wherein, the influence of electric arc on the system elements is of importance, a through knowledge about the physical processes between the circuit breaker contacts is absolutely necessary [1]-[4].

MODELING II. In this paper three model used for simulation 1-combined model of circuit breaker [3] 2-Kema arc model 3-Schwarz arc model A. Structure of Combined Model The combined model consist of four phases: closed circuit breaker phase, arc burning phase, arc extinguishing phase with current zero crossing, and opened circuit breaker phase. Considering these, four different circuit breaker models were put together to form a combined model [3], [5]. Figure 1 shows the simulated combined model on MatlabSimulink.

Figure 1. Model for simulation the combined model of SF6 circuit breaker.

Parameters are [3]: The maximum voltage Umax and the voltage at maximum current UImax .

Umax = 8695 V UImax = 4700 V Imax = 54000 A

Math function illustration is as follow: v = n = 1.26 u = ib In order to represent the burning arc between contacts of the circuit breaker during the opening phase, a static arc model made of the voltage-current characteristic and additional time function e(t) is used, as in (1) ub (ib , t) = ub (ib ).e(t ) (1) Where u b is the arc voltage and i b is the arc current. The modified Lorentz static arc model [3], represented by (2) with the three parameters U s , Is and n is used to represent the voltage-current characteristic of the arc model. ib
ub (ib ) = U s . Is i n 1+( b ) Is

3 = 2
= 1 2 k 1 = 2 3 k 2 A 3 A = 2 k 3

where; g = the total conductance of the arc gn = the conductance of the n-th arc u = the total voltage across the arc un = the voltage across the n-th arc


B. Kema Arc Model Three modified Mayr arc models in series [5]. i = the current through the arc
dg 1 = A1 g 1u 2 1 g dt 1 1 1 1 1 A 2 = 2 g 2u2 1 g 2 2 dt 2 2 1 A 3 = 3 g 3 u 2 1 g 3 3 dt 3 3 3


An = the (cooling) constant of the n-th arc

= the time constant of the n-th arc n



= the Cassie-Mayr control of the n-th arc; = 1 results

in a Cassie arc and = 2 results in a Mayr arc kn = the free parameters



C. Schwarz Arc Model A modified Mayr arc model of which the 'time constant' and the cooling power are dependent on the arc conductance.

g g

1 1

1 g 2

1 g 3


1 dg dlng 1 = = g dt dt g

ui 1 Pg b


u =u + u + u 1 2 3
g g g 1 2 3 g g +g g +g g 2 3 1 3 1 2


g = the arc conductance u = the arc voltage

i = gu =


= the arc time constant

= 1.4375 1 = 1.9 2

= the parameters that influences the conductance dependency of

P = the cooling constant b = the parameters that influences the conductance dependency of P



In order to compare the three above mentioned models they are simulated on Matlab by using different test circuit. A 110 kV circuit breaker with short circuit current rating of 43 kA is used for simulation. A. Direct test circuit Figure 2 shows direct test circuit that used for simulation. The circuit parameters are as: Us = 110 kV R22 = 2.9 R1 = 29.8 Ls = 6.2 mH L22 = 5.28 mH C21 = 1.98 F C1 = 1.98 F Cd = 1.2 F TB = tested breaker
Figure 3. TRV for different model by using direct test circuit.

B. Synthetic test circuit Figure 4 shows the synthetic test circuit that used for simulation. The circuit parameters are as: Us = 33.84 kV U0 = 41 kV Ls = 2 mH L1 = 32.65 mH


L22 = 32.85 mH

Rs = 29.8



R1 = 360


R22 = 120 Cs = 2 F C0 = 5.5 F C22 = 1.46 F C1 = 1.9 F


Figure 2. Direct test circuit

Cd = 21 nF

The three above mentioned model are placed as tested breaker (TB), and transient recovery voltage (TRV) for models are shown in figure 3.










In this paper three models are used to simulate the high voltage circuit breakers under short circuit test. By using two different test circuit configurations the TRV are obtained and the results for all the models in the same test circuit is the same. But the peak values of TRV for different test circuit are not same. REFERENCES
[1] L. van der Sluis, Transients in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, 2001. [2] L. vander Sluis, W. R. Rutgers, and C. G. A. Koreman, A physical arc model for the simulation of current zero behavior of high voltage circuit breakers, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 7, pp 10161022, 1992. [3] G. Bizjak, P. Zunko, and D. Povh, Combined model of SF6 circuit breaker for use in digital simulation programs, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 19, pp 174-180, 2004. [4] B. Kondala, and G. Gajjar, Development and application of vacuum circuit breaker model in electromagnetic transient simulation, Power India Conference, 2006. [5] P. H. Schavemaker, Arc model blockset for use with Matlab -Simulink and power system blockset: Users guide, Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2001.





Figure 4. Synthetic test circuit.

The three above mentioned model are placed as tested breaker (TB), and transient recovery voltage (TRV) for models are shown in figure 5.

Figure 5. TRV for different model by using synthetic test circuit.