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51. The molarity of solution containing 50 g of NaCl in 500 g of a solution and having a density of 0.

936 g/cm 3
is
(1) 1.5 M (2/) 1.6 M
(3) 1.8 M (4) 1.2 M
quantity mass charge
Sol. Number of moles = = = =
molar quantity molar mass molar charge
number energy
= = molarity×litres of solution
molar number , N A molar energy
mass of the solute
Moles of the solute =
molar mass of the solute
mass of the solution
Volume of the solution =
density of the solution
Moles of the solute
Molarity, M = 3
Volume of the solution in litres or dm
mass of the solute density of the solution
= ×
molar mass of the solute mass of the solution
Mass of the solute, NaCl = 50 g.
Molar mass of the solute, NaCl = 58.5g/mol
Mass of the solution = 500 g
Density of the solution = 0.936 g/cm3
50 g
58.5 g /mol
Molarity, M = = 1.6 M
500 g dm 3
×
0.936 g /cm3 1000 cm3
dm 3
Note: A factor of 3 is used to convert the volume in dm 3 as the volume by the given data
1000 cm
would be in cm 3
52. The density (in g mL–1) of a 3.6 M sulphuric acid solution, 29% H2SO4 (molar mass = 98 g mol–1) will be:
(1) 1.45 (2) 1.64
(3) 1.88 (4/) 1.22
Moles of the solute
Sol. Molarity, M = 3
Volume of the solution∈litres∨dm
mass of the solute
molar mass of the solute
=
mass of the solution
density of the solution
mass of the solution×mass percent
Mass of the solute =
100
Molarity×mass of the solution×molar mass of the solute
density of the solution = =
mass of the solute
Molarity×mass of the solution×molar mass of the solute
mass of the solution×mass percent
100
density of the solution (in g mL–1) =
Molarity×mass of the solution×molar mass of the solute dm 3
×
mass of the solution×mass percent 1000 cm3
100
Let the mass of solution be x
Molarity, M = 3.6 mole / dm 3
Mass percentage = 29
Molar mass  H 2 SO 4  = 98 g/mol
3.6 mole / dm3×x×98 g / mol dm 3
×
density of the solution (in g mL–1) = x×29 1000 mL = 1.22 g mL–1
100
53. Density of a 2.05 M solution of acetic acid in water is 1.02 g/mL. The molality of the solution is :
(1) 1.14 mol kg–1 (2) 3.28 mol kg–1
(3/) 2.28 mol kg–1 (4) 0.44 mol kg–1
Sol. Moles of the solute = Molarity×Volume
Mass of the solute = Moles of the solute×molar mass of the solute =
Molarity×Volume×molar mass of the solute
Mass of the solution = Volume of the solution×Density of the solution
mass of the solvent = Mass of the solution – mass of the solute =
Volume of the solution× Density of the solution−Molarity×Volume×molar mass of the solute
Moles of the solute
Molality, m = =
Mass of the solvent in Kg
Molarity×Volume of the solution
Volume of the solution×Density of the solution− Molarity×Volume of the solution×molar mass of the solute 
Since volume of the solution is the common term in the numerator and denominator, the over all formula
Molarity
becomes, Molality, m =
Density of the solution− Molarity×molar mass of the solute
Molarity of the solution = 2.05 mole /dm 3
Density of the solution = 1.02 g/mL = 1.02 kg /dm 3
Molar mass of the solute, CH 3 COOH = 60 g/mole = 60×10−3 Kg / mol
2.05 mole/ dm3
Substituting the values, Molality =
1.02 kg /dm 3−2.05 mole / dm 3×60×10 −3 Kg / mol
= 2.28 mol kg–1
54. How many unit cells, are present in 5.85g of NaCl?
(1/) 0.025 NA (2) 10–1NA
(3) 4 × NA (4) 0.4 NA
Sol. Number of formula units of NaCl present in 58.5 g NaCl = NA
NA
Number of formula units of NaCl present in 1 g NaCl = ×5.85
58.5
4 formula units of NaCl form 1 unit cell
NA 1 NA
×5.85 units of NaCl form × ×5.85 unit cells
58.5 4 58.5
= 0.025N A unit cells

55. At 25°C, the total pressure of an ideal solution obtained by mixing 3 mole of A and 2 mole of B, is 184
Torr. What is the vapour pressure (in torr) of pure B at the same temperature (Vapour pressure of pure A at
25°C is 200 Torr)?
(1) 180 (2/) 160
(3) 16 (4) 100
Moles of A nA
Sol. Mole fraction of A, A = =
Moles of AMoles of B n An B
Moles of B nB
Mole fraction of B, B = =
Moles of AMoles of B n An B
PT = P oA  AP oB  B
PT − P oA A
P oB =
B
o nA
P T − P A×
n An B
=
nB
n An B
P T = 184 Torr P oA = 200 Torr
Moles of A, n A = 3; Moles of B, n B = 2
Substituting we get,
3
184Torr – 200 Torr ×
32
P oB =
2
32
= 160 Torr
56. The mass of a non-volatile solute (molecular mass = 40) which should be dissolved in 114 g octane to
reduce its vapour pressure to 80% will be:
(1) 20 g (2) 30 g
(3/) 10 g (4) 40 g
mass of solute
Sol. Moles of solute =
molar mass of solute
Mass of solvent
Moles of the solvent =
molar mass of solvent
Mass of solvent
molar mass of solvent
Mole fraction of the solvent, solvent =
Mass of solvent mass of solute

molar mass of solvent molar mass of solute
P solution = P osolvent solvent
Mass of solvent
o molar mass of solvent
P solution = P solvent ×
Mass of solvent mass of solute

molar mass of solvent molar mass of solute
P solution = 80% of P osolvent
Mass of solvent
o molar mass of solvent
0.8 P osolvent = P ×
solvent
Mass of solvent mass of solute

molar mass of solvent molar mass of solute
Mass of solvent
molar mass of solvent
0.8 =
Mass of solvent mass of solute

molar mass of solvent molar mass of solute

mass of solute =  Mass of solvent



Mass of solvent
molar mass of solvent×0.8 molar mass of solvent 
×molar mass of solute

=  114 g

114 g
114 g /mol ×0.8 114 g / mol 
×40 g / mol

= 10 g
57. The elevation in boiling point for 13.44 g of CuCl2 dissolved in 1 kg of water as solvent will be (Kb = 0.52
K kg mol–1; molar mass of CuCl2 = 134.4 g/mol):
(1) 0.05 (2) 0.10
(3/) 0.16 (4) 0.20
mass of the solute
Sol.  T b = iK b×
molar mass of the solute×mass of the solvent in Kg
Kb = 0.52 K kg mol–1
Vant Hoff factor for CuCl2 = 3
Molar mass of CuCl2 = 134.4 g/mol
Mass of CuCl2 = 13.44 g
Mass of the solvent = 1 kg
13.44 g
Hence  T b = 3×0.52 K kg / mol×
134.4 g / mol ×1 Kg
= 0.156 approximately = 0.16
58. A solution containing 7 g of a solute (molar mass 210 g mol –1) in 350 g of acetone raised the boiling point
of acetone from 56°C to 56.3°. The value of ebullioscopic constant of acetone in K kg mol–1 is:
(1) 2.66 (2/) 3.15
(3) 4.12 (4) 2.86
mass of the solute
Sol.  T b = iK b×
molar mass of the solute×mass of the solvent ∈ Kg
T b×molar mass of the solute×mass of the solvent ∈ Kg
Kb =
mass of the solute×i
 T b = 56.3 – 56 = 0.3 C
o

Molar mass of the solute = 210 g mol–1


Mass of the solute = 7 g
mass of the solvent, acetone = 350 g = 0.350 kg.
Vant Hoff factor for a non electrolyte = 1
0.3o C ×210 g / mol×0.350 Kg
Kb =
7 g×1
= 3.15 K kg/mol
59. An aqueous solution freezes at –0.186°C (Kf = 1.86 K kg mol–1, Kb = 0.512 K kg mol–1). The elevation of
boiling point of the solution is
(1) 0.186 (2) 0.512
(3) 0.512/1.86 (4/) 0.0512
Sol. T f = K f ×molality
T f
molality =
Kf
 T b = K b×molality
T f
 T b = K b×
Kf
 T f = 0.186°C
Kf = 1.86 K kg mol–1, Kb = 0.512 K kg mol–1
0.186 K
 T b = 0.512 K kg / mol ×
1.86 K kg / mol
= 0.0512 K
60. What should be the freezing point of aqueous solution containing 17 g of C 2H5OH in 1000 g of water (Kf
for water = 1.86 deg kg mol–1) ?
(1/) –0.69°C (2) 0.34°C
(3) 0.0°C (4) –0.34°C
Sol. T f = K f ×molality
mass of the solute
T f = K f×
molar mass of the solute×mass of the solvent ∈ Kg
o
The new freezing point = Original freezing point, T f −T f
Kf for water = 1.86 deg kg mol–1
Original freezing point, T of for water = 0°C
Molar mass of the solute, C 2 H 5 OH = 46 g/mol
Mass of the solute = 17 g
mass of the solvent, water = 1000 g = 1.000 kg.
Vant Hoff factor for a non electrolyte = 1
17 g
 T f = 1.86 deg kg / mol ×
210 g / mol ×1.000 kg
= 0.69°C
The new freezing point = 0°C – 0.69°C = - 0.69°C
61. A solution containing 10 g per dm3 of urea (mol. wt. =60) is isotonic with a 5% solution of a non-volatile
solute. The molar mass of this non-volatile solute is:
(1) 250 g mol–1 (2/) 300 g mol–1
(3) 350 g mol–1 (4) 200 g mol–1
mass of urea
Sol. Concentration of urea, c1 =
molar mass of urea×volume of solution∈litres
mass of solute
Concentration of solute, c2 =
molar mass of solute×volume of solution∈litres
Osmotic pressure,  = cRT
Osmotic pressure at concentration c 1 , 1 = c 1 RT
Osmotic pressure at concentration c 2 ,2 = c 2 RT
2 c 2 RT c2
= =
1 c 1 RT c1
2 = 1
hence, c 2 = c 1
mass of solute
hence, =
molar mass of solute×volume of solution in litres
mass of urea
molar mass of urea×volume of solutionin litres
mass of solute×molar mass of urea ×volume of urea solution∈litres
molar mass of the solute =
volume of solutionin litres×mass of urea
mass of urea = 10 g
molar mass of urea = 60 g/mol
volume of urea solution = 1dm3
let the mass of the solution of the unknown solute = 100g
assuming the density of the solution to be 1 g / cm3 , volume of the solution = 100 cm3 = 0.1 dm 3
mass of the solute = 5% of 100 g = 5 g
5g×60g / mol ×1dm 3
molar mass of the solute = 3
0.1dm ×10g
= 300 g mol–1
62. The osmotic pressure of a solution at 0°C is 4 atm. What will be its osmotic pressure at 546 K under similar
conditions?
(1) 4 atm (2) 2 atm
(3/) 8 atm (4) 1 atm
Sol. Osmotic pressure at temperature T 1 , 1 = cRT 1
Osmotic pressure at temperature T 2 , 2 = cRT 2
2 cRT 2 T2
= =
1 cRT 1 T1
T
 2 =  1× 2
T1
1 = 4 atm
T 1 = 0°C = 273 K
T 2 = 546 K
546 K
2 = 4 atm×
273 K
= 8 atm
63. 0.002 molar solution of NaCl having degree of dissociation of 90% at 27°C has osmotic pressure equal to :
(1) 0.94 bar (2) 9.4 bar
(3/) 0.094 bar (4) 9.4×10–4 bar
Sol. Vant Hoff factor, i = 1−n  where  is the degree of dissociation and n is the number of
particles each unit of solute dissociates into.
Osmotic pressure  = icRT
Osmotic pressure  = 1−n  cRT
Temperature, T = 27°C = 300 K
bar dm 3
Gas constant, R = 0.0831
mol K
Degree of dissociation,  = 90% = 0.9
For NaCl, n = 2
Concentration, c = 0.002 M = 0.002 mol /dm 3
bar dm 3
Osmotic pressure  = 1 – 0.92×0.9×0.002 mol / dm 3×0.0831 ×300 K
mol K
= 0.094 bar
64. A 0.2 molal solution of KCl freezes at –0.68°C. If Kf for H2O is 1.86, the degree of dissociation of KCl is
(1) 75% (2/) 83%
(3) 65% (4) 92%
Sol. Vant Hoff factor, i = 1−n  where  is the degree of dissociation and n is the number of
particles each unit of solute dissociates into.
 T f = i× K f ×molality
 T f = 1−n × K f ×molality
T f
–1
 = K f ×molality
n−1
 T f − K f ×molality
=
K f ×molality×n−1
Kf for water = 1.86 K kg mol–1
n for KCl = 2
 T f = 0.68 K
Molality = 0.2 mole/kg
0.68 K−1.86 K kg / mol × 0.2 mole / kg 
 = = 0.83 or 83%
1.86 K kg / mol ×0.2 mole / kg ×2 – 1
65. van’t Hoff factor of Hg2Cl2 in its aqueous solution will be (Hg2Cl2 is 80% ionized in the solution):
(1) 1.6 (2/) 2.6
(3) 3.6 (4) 4.6
Sol. Hg 2 Cl 2  Hg 2
2 2Cl

Hence n = 3
 = 80% or 0.8
Vant Hoff factor, i = 1−n  where  is the degree of dissociation and n is the number of
particles each unit of solute dissociates into
Vant Hoff factor, i = 1 – 0.83×0.8
= 2.6
66. Which of the following solutions will exhibit highest boiling point?
(1/) 0.01 M Na2SO4 (2) 0.01 M KNO3
(3) 0.015 M urea (4) 0.015 M glucose
Sol. The solution which has the maximum number of particles will have the maximum colligative property.
The moles of particles is given by the formula i×concentration where i is the vant Hoff factor and the
concentration could be molarity, molality or mole fraction.
For completely dissociated strong electrolytes, the vant Hoff factor is equal to n, the number of particles the
substance dissociates in.
For 0.01 M Na2SO4, i = n = 3 so the moles = 3×0.01 = 0.03
For 0.01 M KNO3, i = n = 2 so the moles = 2×0.01 = 0.02
For 0.015 M urea (a non electrolyte), i = n = 1 so the moles = 1×0.015 = 0.015
For 0.015 M glucose (a non electrolyte), i = n = 1 so the moles = 1×0.015 = 0.015
The maximum value is for 0.01 M Na2SO4 hence it will exhibit highest boiling point.
67. The vapour pressure of a dilute aqueous solution of glucose is 750 mm of mercury at 373 K. The mole
fraction of solute is:
(1) 1/10 (2) 1.7.6
(3) 1/35 (4/) 1/76
Sol. According to the Raoult's law, the total vapour pressure of the solution, PT = P oA  AP oB  B
Lowering in vapour pressure,  P = theoretical pressure – observed pressure
lowering in vapour pressure
Relative lowering in vapour pressure =
original vapour pressure of the solvent
Vapour pressure of pure water at 373 K (it is the normal boiling point of water) = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg
Observed vapour pressure of solution = 750 mm Hg
 P = 760 – 750 = 10 mm Hg
68. During osmosis, flow of water through a semipermeable membrane is:
(1) from solution having higher concentration only
(2) from both sides of semipermeable membrane with equal flow rates
(3/) from both sides of semipermeable membrane with unequal flow rates
(4) from solution having lower concentration only
Sol. The flow of solvent in osmosis is in both the directions. But the flow is more from the solution which has
the higher concentration of the solvent (that is the dilute solution) hence the net flow of the solvent is from
the dilute solution towards the concentrated solution.
69. A solution has an osmotic pressure of 0.821 atm at 300 K. Its concentration would be:
(1) 0.66 M (2) 0.32 M
(3) 0.066 M (4/) 0.033 M
Sol. Osmotic pressure,  = cRT

concentration, c =
RT
 = 0.0821 atm
Temperature, T = 300 K
Gas constant, R = 0.0821 atm lit K-1 mol-1
0.0821 atm
concentration, c = −1 −1
0.0821 atm lit K mol ×300 K
= 0.033 M
70. The relationship between the values of osmotic pressure of 0.1 M solution of KNO3 (P1) and CH3COOH
(P2) is:
(1) P1 = P2 (2) P2 > P1
P1 P2
(3) = (4/) P1 > P2
P1 P 2 P 1P 2
Sol. KNO3 is a strong electrolyte hence its vant Hoff factor is 2. Whereas CH 3COOH is a weak electrolyte and
hence does not get dissociated completely. Hence the colligative properties measured for same
concentration will be more for KNO3.
71. If 0.1 M solution of glucose and 0.1 M urea solution are placed on two sides of a semipermeable membrane
to equal heights, then it will be correct to say that:
(1/) there will be no net movement across the membrane
(2) glucose will flow towards urea solution
(3) urea will flow towards glucose solution
(4) water will flow from urea solution towards glucose solution
Sol. The two solutions have the same concentration hence they would have the same osmotic pressure. This
would mean that they would show equal flow of solvent and no net flow will take place.
72. A 0.6% urea solution would be isotonic with :
(1/) 0.1 M glucose solution
(2) 0.1 M KCl solution
(3) 0.6% glucose solution
(4) 0.6% NaCl solution
mass of urea
Sol. Concentration of urea, c1 =
molar mass of urea×volume of solution∈litres
Osmotic pressure,  = cRT
Osmotic pressure at concentration c 1 , 1 = c 1 RT
Osmotic pressure at concentration c 2 , 2 = c 2 RT
2 c 2 RT c2
= =
1 c 1 RT c1
2 = 1
hence, c 2 = c 1
Mass % of urea = 0.6
0.6
Mass of urea in 1000 ml = ×1000 = 6 g
100
Molar mass of urea = 60 g/mol
6g 1
concentration of urea = ×
60g/ mol 1dm 3
= 0.1 mole/lit
73. The osmotic pressure of equimolar solution of BaCl2, NaCl and glucose will be in the order:
(1) glucose > NaCl > BaCl2
(2/) BaCl2> NaCl > glucose
(3) NaCl > BaCl2 > glucose
(4) NaCl > glucose > BaCl2
Sol. The solution which has the maximum number of particles will have the maximum colligative property.
The moles of particles is given by the formula i×concentration where i is the vant Hoff factor and the
concentration could be molarity, molality or mole fraction.
For completely dissociated strong electrolytes, the vant Hoff factor is equal to n, the number of particles the
substance dissociates in.
For equimolar solutions the trend of colligative properties like osmotic pressure would be the same as the
order of their vant Hoff factors.
Vant Hoff factor for glucose = 1, for NaCl = 2, for BaCl2 = 3
Hence the order is, BaCl2> NaCl > glucose
74. Which one of the following salts would have the same value of the Van't Hoff factor as that of K3Fe(CN)6?
(1) Al2(SO4)3 (2) NaCl
(3) Na2SO4 (4/) Al(NO3)3
Sol. K 3 Fe CN 6  3K Fe CN 64−
Al 2  SO 4 3  2Al 33SO 2−
4

NaCl  Na Cl −
Na 2 SO 4  NaSO 2−
4

Al  NO 3 3  Al 3 3NO−3
For completely dissociated strong electrolytes, the vant Hoff factor is equal to n, the number of particles the
substance dissociates in.
hence for K 3 Fe CN 6 it is 4, for Al 2  SO 4 3 it is 5, for NaCl it is 2, for Na 2 SO 4 it is 3, for
Al  NO 3 3 it is 4
75. Which of the following compounds corresponds to van’t Hoff factor to be equal to 2 in dilute solution?
(1/) KCl (2) BaCl2
(3) K2SO4 (4) C6H12O6
+ −
Sol. KCl  K + Cl
n=2
76. In an NaCl crystal, there are
(1/) 8 Cl– ions at the corners of 6 Cl– ions on the faces
(2) 6 Cl– ions at the corners of 6 Cl– ions on the faces
(3) 8 Cl– ions at the corners of 8 Cl– ions on the faces
(4) 6 Cl– ions at the corners of 8 Cl– ions on the faces
Sol. NaCl arrangement is a face centred cubic arrangement (cubic close packing) of the anion in which the
anions are present at the corners and the face centres of the cube while the cation occupies all the
octahedral voids that is all the edge centres and the body centre of each unit cell. In this case the unit
cell would consist of 14 anions (8 at corners and 6 at face centres) and 13 cations (12 at edge centres
and 1 at body centre).This arrangement can also be considered to be the face centred cubic
arrangement (cubic close packing) of the cation in which the cations are present at the corners and the
face centres of the cube while the anion occupies all the octahedral voids that is all the edge centres and
the body centre of each unit cell. In this case the unit cell would consist of 14 cations (8 at corners and 6
at face centres) and 13 anions (12 at edge centres and 1 at body centre).
77. Which of the following sets of lattice parameters and crystal angles belongs to the orthorhombic systems?
(1) a = b = c; ===90o
(2) a=b≠c ; ==≠90o
(3/) a≠b≠c ; ===90o
(4) a=b≠c ; ==90o , =120o
78. The percentage of volume occupied by the fcc structure is
(1) 54 (2) 68
(3/) 74 (4) 26
Sol. In a face centred cubic unit cell the atoms are present on the corners and the face centres. Each corner
of a cubic unit cell is a part of eight unit cells. Hence each of the eight atom present at the eight corners
is shared amongst eight unit cells. The atoms at the centre of the face of the cube is a part of two cube
1
hence its contribution is .
2
The contribution of the corner of a cubic unit cell is 1/8. Hence number of atoms per unit cell for a body
1 1
centred cubic cell = 8× 6× =4
8 2
In case of a face centred cubic unit cell the atoms at the face diagonal of unit cell touch each other. This
makes the face diagonal of the unit cell four times the radius of the particle making the unit cell. Hence
face diagonal = 4r =  2 a
4
a= r = 2 2 r
2
Volume occupied by one atom
∴ Packing fraction =
Volume of unit cell

4 3 4
r  r3 2 
= 3 = 3 = = 74%
3 6
a3  2 2 r
79. The coordinate number of the fcc structure for metals is 12, because
(1) each atom touches four others in the same layer, three in the layer above it and three in the layer below
it
(2/) each atom touches four others in the same layer, four in the layer above it and four in the layer below it
(3) each atom touches six others in the same layer, six in the layer above it and six in the layer below it
(4) each atom touches three others in the same layer, six in the layer above it and four in the layer below it
80. The distance between the body centred particle and one corner particle in NaCl type structure if edge length
= 0.424 nm is:

(1)
 3 ×0.424 (2/)
 3 ×0.424
4 2
0.424 0.424
(3) (4)
2 4
Sol. The body diagonal of a cube, BD =  3×edge length
= 3 a
=  3×0.424 nm
The distance between the body centred particle and one corner particle in NaCl type structure
Body diagonal
is
2
 3 ×0.424
2

81. Which of the following statements is correct in the context of tetrahedral void?
(1) Each tetrahedral void is surrounded by eight spheres and each sphere is surrounded by four voids
(2/) Each tetrahedral void is surrounded by four spheres and each sphere is surrounded by eight voids
(3) Each tetrahedral void is surrounded by two spheres and each sphere is surrounded by eight voids
(4) Each tetrahedral void is surrounded by eight spheres and each sphere is surrounded by eight voids
Sol. Each particle in a close packed arrangement is a part of 8 tetrahedral voids. Each tetrahedral void has
contribution from 4 particles.
82. The octahedral void has a coordination number of
(1) one (2/) six
(3) eight (4) four
Sol. Octahedral void is made by 6 particles.
83. In a three dimensional hexagonal close-packed layer, there are on an average
(1) two voids belonging to each sphere
(2) one void belonging to each sphere
(3/) three voids belonging to each sphere
(4) six voids belonging to each sphere
Sol. In any close packed arrangement like CCP or HCP there are two tetrahedral and one octahedral void for
each particle.
84. The Schottky defect is associated with compounds in which
(1/) the coordination number is high and space for interstitial ions is consequently small
(2) the coordination number is high and space for interstitial ions is consequently high
(3) the coordination number is low and space for interstitial ions is consequently high
(4) the coordination number is low and space for interstitial ion is consequently low
Sol. Schottky defects arise when one positive ion and one negative ion are missing from their respective
position leaving behind a pair of holes. These are more common in ionic compounds with high
coordination number and having almost similar size of cations and anions.

85. If we mix a pentavalent impurity in a crystal lattice of germanium, what type of semiconductor formation
will occur?
(1) p-type (2/) n-type
(3) Both (1) & (2) (4) none of these
Sol. Silicon and germanium belong to group 14 of the periodic table and have four valence
electrons each. In their crystals each atom forms four covalent bonds with its neighbors
(Fig. 1.30 a). When doped with a group 15 element like P or As, which contains five valence
electrons, they occupy some of the lattice sites in silicon or germanium crystal (Fig. 1.30 b).
Four out of five electrons are used in the formation of four covalent bonds with the four
neighboring silicon atoms. The fifth electron is extra and becomes delocalised. These
delocalised electrons increase the conductivity of doped silicon (or germanium). Here the
increase in conductivity is due to the negatively charged electron, hence silicon doped with
electron-rich impurity is called n-type semiconductor.
86. The edge length of an fcc unit cubic cell is 508 pm. If the radius of the cation is 110 pm, the radius of the
anion is
(1) 288 pm (2) 398 pm
(3/) 144 pm (4) 618 pm
sol. This is a sodium chloride (NaCl) arrangement.
It is a face centred cubic arrangement (cubic close packing) of the anion in which cation occupies all the
octahedral voids that is all the edge centres and the body centre of each unit cell.
In this arrangement the anions are present at the corners and the cation in the centre of edge. Hence
the edge length becomes equal to
a = 2r 2r − . = 2 r r − = 2×bond length
edge length
inter ionic distance, r r − = bond length =
2
radius of the anion, r − = bond length – radius of cation = bond length – r 
edge length a
= – r= – r 
2 2
edge length, a =508 pm
radius of cation, r  = 110 pm
508
radius of the anion, r− = – 110 pm = 144 pm
2

87. An ionic solid with the Schottky defect contains in its structure
(1/) equal number of cation and anion in its structure
(2) anion vacancies and interstitial anions
(3) only cation vacancies
(4) cation vacancies and interstitial anions
Sol. Schottky defects arise when equal number of positive and negative charges are missing from their
respective position. If the charge of the ions is the same then equal number of cations and anions are
missing from their respective positions leaving behind pairs of holes. These are more common in ionic
compounds with high coordination number and having almost similar size of cations and anions.

88. In a bcc structure of lattice parameter a, the minimum distance between any two atoms is
a
(1/) 3 (2) 2 a
2
a a
(3) (4)
2 2
Sol. The body diagonal of a cube, BD =  3×edge length
= 3 a
In bcc structures the particles on the body diagonal touch each other. Hence the body diagonal is twice the
Body diagonal
bond length. So the minimum distance between any two atoms is
2
a
= 3
2
89. A compound formed by elements A and B crystallizes in a cubic structure where A atoms are at the corners
of a cube and B atoms are at the face centres. The formula of the compound is
(1) A2B2 (2/) AB3
(3) AB (4) A3B2
Sol. Each corner of a cubic unit cell is a part of eight unit cells. Hence each atom present at the corners is
shared amongst eight unit cells.
1
Hence the contribution of the atom at the corner of the cube =
8
A face-centred atom in a cube is shared by two unit cells.
1
Hence the contribution of the atom at the centre of the face =
2
atom A is present at each corner of the cube.
1
As there are 8 corners in a cube, the number of corner atom per unit cell = 8 x = 1.
8
Atom B is present at each face centre of the cube.
1
As there are 6 faces in a cube, number of face-centred atoms per unit cell = 6 x = 3.
2
Hence, the formula of the solid is A1 B3 or AB 3
–4
90. If NaCl is doped with 10 mole % of SrCl2, the concentration of cation vacancies will be:
(1) 6.02×1016 mol–1 (2/) 6.02×1017 mol–1
(3) 6.02×1014 mol–1 (4) 6.02×1015 mol–1
Sol. Sr and Na have similar ionic radius. Hence Sr2+ can displace Na+ from the lattice. But the charge of Sr is
2+ +

double of Na hence it displaces 2 Na+ and occupies one position. Hence the number of vacancies of cation
will be equal to the number of Sr2+ ions in the lattice.
The number of SrCl2 added in 100 mole of NaCl = 10–4 mole.
The number of SrCl2 added in 1 mole of NaCl = 10–6 mole.
The number of cationic vacancies in 1 mole of NaCl = 10–6 mole = 6.02×1017
91. An element (atomic mass = 100 g/mol) having bcc structure has unit cell edge 400 pm. Then density of the
element is
(1) 10.376 g/ cm3 (2/) 5.188 g/ cm3
3
(3) 7.289 g/ cm (4) 2.144 g/ cm3
molar mass
Sol. Mass of a particle =
Avogadro ' s number
M
= 23 −1
6.022×10 mol
The total contribution in the unit cell = z
mass of the unit cell = total contribution×mass of one particle
M
= z×
6.022×1023 mol −1
Volume of a cubic unit cell = edge length3 = a 3
Z×M
 =
N A×a 3
The element has body centred cubic lattice hence z = 2
edge length, a = 400 pm = 4×10−8 cm
M = 100 g mol −1
2×100 g mol −1
 = 23 −1 −8 3
6.022×10 mol ×4×10 cm
= 5.188 g cm −3
92. Potassium has a bcc structure with nearest neighbor distance 4.52Å. Its atomic weight is 39. Its density will
be:
(1) 454 kg m–3 (2) 804 kg m–3
(3) 852 kg m–3 (4/) 910 kg m–3
molar mass
Sol. Mass of a particle =
Avogadro ' s number
M
= 23 −1
6.022×10 mol
The total contribution in the unit cell = z
mass of the unit cell = total contribution×mass of one particle
M
= z×
6.022×1023 mol −1
Volume of a cubic unit cell = edge length3=a3
Z ×M
= 3
N A×a
K has body centred cubic lattice hence z = 2
edge length, a = 4.52 A = 4.52×10−10 m
M = 39×10 −3 kg mol −1
2×39×10−3 kg mol −1
= 23 −1 −10 3
6.022×10 mol ×4.52×10 m
−3
= 908 kg m
93. A solid AB has NaCl type structure with edge length 580.4 pm. The radius of A+ is 100 pm. What is the
radius of B–?
(1/) 190.2 (2) 540.13
(3) 525 (4) 78.12
sol. This is a sodium chloride (NaCl) arrangement.
It is a face centred cubic arrangement (cubic close packing) of the anion in which cation occupies all the
octahedral voids that is all the edge centres and the body centre of each unit cell.
In this arrangement the anions are present at the corners and the cation in the centre of edge. Hence
the edge length becomes equal to
a = 2r 2r − .=2 r r −=2×bond length
edge length
inter ionic distance, r r − = bond length =
2
radius of the anion, r −=bond length – radius of cation=bond length – r 
edge length a
= – r = – r 
2 2
edge length, a =580.4 pm
radius of cation, r  = 100 pm

radius of the anion, r− =  580.4


2 
– 100 pm = 190.2 pm
94. If Z is the number of atoms in the unit cell that represents the closest packing sequence –ABC ABC –, the
number of tetrahedral voids in the unit cell is equal to :
(1) Z (2/) 2Z
(3) Z/2 (4) Z/4
sol. In any close packed arrangement of particles (face centred cubic arrangement that is cubic close
packing or hexagonal close packing) the number of tetrahedral voids is double the number of particles
making the arrangement where as the number of octahedral voids is equal to the number of particles
present in the arrangement. The –ABC ABC – arrangement represents face centred cubic
packing. Hence the number of tetrahedral voids in the unit cell having Z atoms is 2Z.
95. CsBr has bcc structure with edge length 4.3 Å. The shortest inter ionic distance in between Cs+ and Br– is :
(1/) 3.72 (2) 1.86
(3) 7.44 (4) 4.3
sol. This is the CsCl arrangement. In this arrangement it is the simple cubic lattice of anion in which the
cation occupies all the body centred voids that is all the centres of the unit cell. Since the cation is
always bigger than the void it occupies the anions are not allowed to touch each other. The ions which
touch each other are on the body diagonal. There are two anions and one cation between them. So the
body diagonal is 2 times the bond length.
Body diagonal, BD = 2r 2r − .=2 r r −=2×bond length
body diagonal of a cube =  3×edge length=  3 a
body diagonal
inter ionic distance, r r − = bond length =
2

=
3 a
2
a = 4.3 Å

bond length =
 3×4.3 = 3.72 Å
2
96. Which of the following will show highest freezing point?
(1/) 0.05 M NaNO3 (2) 0.075 M CuSO4
(3) 0.06 M (NH4)2SO4 (4) 0.04 M BaCl2
97. The number of atoms/ molecules contained in one face centred cubic unit cell of a mono atomic substance
is:
(1/) 4 (2) 6
(3) 8 (4) 12
sol. the C.C.P. Lattice is the face centred cubic arrangement in which the atoms are present at the corners of
the cube and the face centres.
Each corner of a cubic unit cell is a part of eight unit cells. Hence each atom present at the corners is
shared amongst eight unit cells.
1
Hence the contribution of the atom at the corner of the cube =
8
A face-centred atom in a cube is shared by two unit cells.
1
Hence the contribution of the atom at the centre of the face =
2
1
The total contribution of the corners = 8× =1
8
1
The total contribution of the face centres = 6× =3
2
The total contribution in the cube = 1 + 3 = 4
98. In zinc blende (ZnS) structure, the coordination number of Zn2+ ion is
(1) 2 (2) 6
(3/) 4 (4) 8
Sol. The zinc blende structure is a cubic close packing of the sulphide ions in which zinc ions occupy alternate
tetrahedral voids. The coordination number of Zn2+ is 4 as it occupies tetrahedral voids.
99. For an ionic crystal of the general formula A+B– and coordination number 6, the radius ratio will be
(1) greater than 0.73
(2/) between 0.73 and 0.41
(3) between 0.41 and 0.22
(4) less than 0.22
Sol. For the cation to have a coordination number 6 it should be in octahedral void. The ratio for the octahedral
void is 0.414 – 0.732
100. For a covalent solid, the units which occupy lattice points are
(1/) atoms
(2) ions
(3) molecules
(4) electrons
Sol. In case of covalent network solids like diamond, graphite or silica, the lattice points are occupied by the
atoms.