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THERMAL RATINGS OF HV CABLE ACCESSORIES J. Becker (Belgium) J-L. Parpal (Canada) M-H. Luton (France) R. Schroth (Germany) B.

Parmigiani (Italy) S. Katakai (Japan) H.Geene (Netherlands) J. Svahn (Sweden) J. Head (United Kingdom)

CONTENTS
1 2 3 SUMMARY.....................................................................................................................................................................2 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................................2 THERMAL RATINGS OF ACCESSORIES ........................................................................................................3 3.1 3.2 4 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS............................................................................................................................................ 3 CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................................................. 3

THERMO-MECHANICAL RATINGS OF ACCESSORIES..........................................................................4 4.1 4.2 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS............................................................................................................................................ 4 CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................................................. 4

SYSTEMS DESIGN ASPECTS................................................................................................................................5 5.1 5.2 THERMAL RATINGS OF ACCESSORIES....................................................................................................................... 5 THERMO-MECHANICAL RATINGS OF ACCESSORIES ............................................................................................... 5

CONCLUSIONS ...........................................................................................................................................................5

ANNEX 1. THERMAL CALCULATIONS IN HV AND EHV CABLES AND JOINTS ...................................7 ANNEX 2. OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON THERMAL ASPECTS OF ACCESSORIES (AS A RESULT OF A QUESTIONNAIRE UNDER THE MEMBERS OF THE TASK FORCE)....................................................................................................................................................................................11 ANNEX 3. GUIDE TO AID DEVELOPMENT ENGINEERS FOR TESTING THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF JOINTS................................................................................................................................................15 ANNEX 4. GUIDE TO AID DESIGN ENGINEERS IN THE CORRECT DESIGN OF SYSTEMS: THERMAL AND THERMO-MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF ACCESSORY PERFORMANC E..................................................................................................................................................................16

1 Summary On request of IEC TC 20 a Task Force TF 21(B1)-10 was launched by SC 21 in 2001 with the scope to review whether or not existing HV cable test specifications would appropriately specify and verify the crucial thermal and thermo-mechanical characteristics of accessories. TF B1-10 finished its work on schedule in 2003 with the following conclusions: Thermal ratings of accessories need not be specified separately from cables, as they are considered identical due to the presence of cable inside the accessory. The successful completion of IEC thermal tests at a complete cable system can be considered as simultaneous verification of the adequate thermal design of both, cables and accessories, provided that comparable or higher conductor temperatures as rated for the cable are achieved inside joints. These test conditions shall be realized by applying only cable conductor current heating. The thermal performance of terminations in normal operation is not considered critical; therefore they do not have to reach the rated temperature for the cable during test. External thermo-mechanical forces can be reproduced in the IEC prequalification test only for the specific installation conditions applied. The thermal limits of accessories and external thermo-mechanical forces in service operation cannot be reproduced comprehensively by standardized tests, but have to be taken into account for each individual case by the systems design engineering.

The abstract of the work is published in Electra No 212 February 2004. 2 Introduction It is common practice to base the calculation of the current carrying capacity of HV/EHV underground transmission lines on the thermal ratings of the cable, taking into account the losses in the cable and the heat transfer to its environment. International standards as IEC specifications 60840 and 62067 have defined the thermal ratings of extruded HV/EHV cables by their maximum cable conductor temperatures for different insulations. The thermal ratings of accessories are not explicitly mentioned as they were generally considered to have equal or better levels than those of the cable. Questions have been raised, whether and how the thermal and thermo-mechanical ratings of accessories, i.e. terminations and joints, should be defined and how these should be taken into account in the design of cable systems. In 2001 a Task Force TF 21-10 was established with the following scope: to specify the terms thermal and thermo-mechanical ratings of accessories to review existing test specifications with regard to appropriate verification of thermal and thermo-mechanical performance of accessories to consider, if applicable, improved or new test procedures for thermal and thermomechanical verification of accessories to prepare recommendations to IEC, whether and how specific thermal and thermomechanical tests should be combined with and/or integrated into existing test specifications for extruded HV and EHV cables (e.g. IEC 60840 and IEC 62067) to prepare guidelines how to apply the findings of basic laboratory tests to the multitude of practical configurations.

3 Thermal ratings of accessories The thermal rating of an accessory is defined as the maximum temperature of the conductor or conductor connector contained within the accessory (whichever is the higher) allowed in normal operation. 3.1 Basic considerations Thermal ratings of extruded HV/EHV cables are defined in IEC specifications 60840 and 62067 by maximum cable conductor temperatures for different insulations. Thermal ratings of accessories are not explicitly mentioned as they were generally considered to have equal or better thermal ratings than those of the cable. Thermal aspects are verified in IEC specifications by heating cycle voltage tests and by prequalification tests on complete EHV cable systems (cable + accessories). The heating current in the test loop is defined by the maximum temperature in the cable conductor remote from the accessories. Thermal designs of accessories are extremely diverse and within the responsibility of each manufacturer. Terminations installed in normal conditions are not considered as a hot spot for the cable due to more effective heat transfer to the environment (e.g. air circulation for outdoor terminations, axial conductor heat transfer in GIS and transformer terminations). In steady state test conditions (i.e. when a single cable is installed in air in a test loop) joints will develop higher conductor temperatures than the remote cable, due to their larger dimensions (annex 1). Longer thermal time constants for joints may result in lower conductor temperature in the first part of a heating period than for the cable, but higher temperatures at the end of the heating period, followed by delayed cooling after disconnecting the current (annex 1). Depending on the time constants and duration of the cooling period, joints may not cool down completely to the ambient temperature, resulting in a gradual increase of conductor temperatures in subsequent cycles (annex 1). Additional thermal insulation may extend the thermal time constant for the cable. Most existing standards require current heating for cable and accessories (annex 2). 3.2 Conclusions Thermal ratings of accessories need not be specified separately from cables, as they are considered identical due to the presence of cable inside the accessory. Common test specifications can only assess the basic thermal performance of accessories, rather than compliance with rated cable conductor temperatures. Many joints have worse heat dissipation characteristics than cables, thus developing during thermal IEC tests higher internal conductor temperatures than the remote cables. Higher than rated conductor (insulation) temperatures are not allowed inside accessories during service operation. For type/prequalification tests it is acceptable for maximum temperature in accessories to be higher than in the cable. The successful completion of IEC thermal tests on a complete cable system can be considered as simultaneous verification of the adequate thermal design of both cables and accessories, provided that comparable or higher conductor temperatures as rated for the cable are achieved inside joints. The thermal performance of terminations in normal operation is not considered critical; therefore they do not have to reach the rated temperature for the cable during test. Conductor heating by means of current should be applied during type and prequalification tests. No external means of heating or sheath current heating should be applied, as this

will tend to reduce the conductor temperature within a joint in comparison to the temperature of the remote cable conductor. Some cable systems with additional thermal insulation may require extended heating (and cooling) cycles.

4 Thermo-mechanical ratings of accessories The thermo-mechanical rating of an accessory is defined as the ability of the accessory to withstand mechanical forces, which are developed due to operation of the accessory and associated cable at the maximum temperature allowed in normal operation. The forces are internal and external. Only the level of external forces is specified, being symmetrical and asymmetrical conductor forces (arising from the connected cables) (Fig. 1). 4.1 Basic considerations Thermo-mechanical ratings of accessories are neither mentioned nor explicitly specified in IEC specifications. Thermo-mechanical forces in accessories can originate from: components inside the accessories: internal forces. external sources, mainly cable: external forces. Internal thermo-mechanical forces (expansion, retraction, pressure etc.) are reproduced in actual thermal IEC tests, provided that maximum (rated) conductor temperatures (cycles) are adequately achieved. Figure 1.Measurement of thermo-mechanical forces External thermo-mechanical forces on accessories are induced by external components and their installation. Depending on the test arrangements used, specific external thermo-mechanical forces can be reproduced by IEC prequalification tests. These, however, cannot be representative for the complete variety of possible service installations. The definition of the mechanical withstand strength of each individual accessory against external forces is with the manufacturer. This strength is determined by mechanical components such as insulators, anchor joint casings, etc. It is considered sufficient to verify the adequate mechanical strength of such components by separate certificates rather than testing of complete accessories. 4.2 Conclusions Internal thermo-mechanical forces can adequately be verified by thermal IEC tests, provided that maximum conductor temperatures are adequately achieved. External (thermo-) mechanical forces, in special installation conditions, cannot be reproduced comprehensively in standardized tests. Maximum admissible symmetrical and/or asymmetrical forces are indicated by accessories manufacturers and attested by certificates rather than verified at complete individual accessories. 4

Thermo-mechanical ratings of accessories need not be specified explicitly in IEC specifications, but left as a subject of agreement between customer and manufacturer. Systems design aspects

5.1 Thermal ratings of accessories Thermal limits of accessories in service operation, (i.e. obeying maximum rated cable conductor temperatures in accessories too) have to be secured by systems design engineering taking into account: 1. the accessorys basic thermal characteristics provided by the manufacturer (annex 3). 2. appropriate installations such as wider phase spacing (Fig. 2), special backfill, ventilation of manholes, etc. (annex 4). 3. severe environmental conditions for terminations (e.g. hot climates, transformer terminations in hot oil). 5.2 Thermo-mechanical ratings of accessories External thermo-mechanical (and other mechanical) forces on accessories have to be considered by systems design engineering taking into account: the value of admissible mechanical forces acting on the accessory, to be provided by the accessorys supplier. the thermo-mechanical characteristics (e.g. bending moments, allowable thrust) of the Figure 2. Joints in manholes, installed with wider spacing cables involved, to be provided by the cables supplier. the actual installation conditions, (annex 4). 6 Conclusions Thermal ratings of accessories need not be specified separately from cables, as they are considered identical due to the presence of cable inside the accessory. The thermal performance of terminations in normal operation is not to be considered critical; therefore they do not have to reach the rated temperature for the cable during test. The successful completion of IEC thermal tests at the complete cable system can be considered as simultaneous verification of the adequate thermal design of both, cables and accessories, provided that comparable or higher conductor temperatures as rated for the cable are achieved inside joints. These test conditions will be achieved by applying cable conductor current heating only. For the heating of cables and accessories during type test, the following clause is recommended to IEC:

For IEC 62067 clause 12.4.7 becomes: The cable shall have a U-bend with a diameter as specified in 12.4.4. The assembly shall be heated by conductor current until the cable conductor reaches a steady temperature 5C to 10C above the maximum conductor temperature in normal operation. No additional external heating or heating by sheath current shall be allowed. If for practical reasons the test temperature cannot be reached, additional thermal insulation can be applied, which then must be described in the test report. The heating shall be applied for at least 8h. The conductor temperature shall be maintained within the stated temperature limits for at least 2h of each heating period. This shall be followed by at least 16h of natural cooling to a conductor temperature within 15 C of ambient temperature, with a maximum of 45 C. The conductor current during the last 2h of each heating period shall be recorded. The cycle of heating and cooling shall be carried out 20 times. The final paragraphs of the section to remain unchanged.

In the case of IEC60840/Ed3/CDV clause 12.3.6: the same wording is recommended as given above except that 12.4.4 is changed to 12.3.3 and within 15C of ambient is replaced by within 10C of ambient in accordance with the existing wording. For the Impulse voltage test and hot partial discharge test, the same method of heating shall be applied. External (thermo-) mechanical forces in normal installation condition may be reproduced in the prequalification test for EHV systems. However, external (thermo-) mechanical (and other mechanical) forces, in special installation conditions, cannot be reproduced comprehensively in standardized tests and should therefore be considered by systems design engineering. Completely new generation of accessories (e.g. dry outdoor terminations) might need further considerations, regarding thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects. Annexes 1. Thermal calculations in HV and EHV cables and joints Example 1: dynamic temperature calculations in a 132kV cable and joint Example 2: thermal behavior of a 400kV joint during IEC loading cycles in air Overview of international standards on thermal aspects of accessories Guide to aid development engineers for testing the thermal properties of joints Guide to aid design engineers in the correct design of systems: thermal and thermomechanical aspects of accessory performance

2. 3. 4.

Annex 1. Thermal calculations in HV and EHV cables and joints


Example 1: dynamic temperature calculations in a 132kV cable and joint Joints and cables have different thermal properties. The basic differences can be expressed in: thermal resistances thermal time constants

Model for calculations a r Tc Tc : conductor temperature in the cable Tj : connector temperature in the joint r : radial heat flow a : axial heat flow
To verify the differences in the joint and cable temperature during one heating cycle, dynamical calculations were made for an 800mm2 132kV XLPE cable. First, the heating current is calculated to obtain a stable cable conductor temperature of 95 C. Based on the heating current, the temperature was calculated inside the joint and cable for a period of 10h after switching on the current. The results are given in Figure 3 at a conductor heating current of 1800A.
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2m

a r Tc

Tj

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Temperature (C)

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joint cable

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0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (hours)

Figure 3. Typical heating curve of a 132 kV 800 mm Cu cable and joint

Conclusion
In stationary conditions, the joint reached a higher temperature than the cable, as a result of higher thermal resistance of the joint. In the first 6 hours of the heating cycle, the temperature in the joint is lower than in the cable due to the longer thermal time constant of the joint.

Annex 1. (continued)
Example 2: Thermal behavior of a 400 kV joint during IEC loading cycles in air

1 Introduction In order to evaluate the temperature difference between a 400 kV cable and the relevant premoulded joint during the heating cycle voltage test, specified in IEC 60840 and 62067, thermal calculations have been carried out using the finite element method. The test loop assumed for the calculation is installed in air and includes 20 m of cable and a 400 kV premoulded joint complete with its anticorrosion protection. The length of cable is such that the presence of the joint does not affect the asymptotic temperature of the cable. Due to the use of the FEM method, the joint is subdivided in finite elements where both radial and longitudinal heat transmission is taken into account. During the heating cycle test the cable conductor is heated by conductor current in order to reach in 6 hours a conductor temperature of 95 C (far from the joint), followed by 2 hours where the current is reduced in order to maintain the cable conductor temperature between 95 C and 100 C, then the current is switched off for 16 hours still maintaining the voltage on. This cycle under constant voltage of 2 Uo is repeated for 20 times. The calculation has been made for 400 kV XLPE cables with a 1600 mm2 and a 2500 mm2 copper conductor. Both conductor losses and dielectric losses have been considered in the calculation. 2 Loading cycle temperature profile calculation 2.1 2500 mm2 Cu 400 kV cable and joint During the loading cycles a constant current of about 3450 A is circulated in the conductor, so that a temperature of 95 C is reached in the cable conductor after 6 hours, starting from a uniform ambient temperature of 20 C. Then the current is reduced in order to maintain the temperature in the cable conductor between 95 C and 100 C for two hours. Subsequently the conductor current is switched off for 16 hours. The results of the calculations of the cable and joint daily cycles are shown in Figure 4. It can be observed that initially the joint ferrule temperature is slightly lower than 95 C, then it increases and reaches a stable value of about 101 C after four cycles. 2.2 1600 mm2 Cu 400 kV cable and joint The initial conductor current in order to bring the cable conductor temperature to 95 C after 6 hours (including dielectric losses) is of about 2500 A. The results of the joint and cable load cycle calculation are shown in Figure 5. It can be observed that the temperature of the joint has the same behavior as in Figure 4, i.e. the periodic asymptotic temperature in the joint is reached after 4 cycles, but its value is a little smaller (99 C instead of 101 C). 4 Conclusions During IEC loading cycles, with only conductor current heating, the joint ferrule temperature of a 400 kV joint follows the cable conductor temperature with a certain delay due to the higher thermal time constant of the joint compared to the cable. However, after about 4 cycles also the joint reaches stable periodic conditions with a maximum temperature generally slightly higher than that of the cable conductor. These conclusions depend on the design of the joint. Joints longer than the one considered in these calculations or with thicker insulation would present a higher time constant, so that stable cycle conditions for the joint would be reached after more than 4 cycles, but certainly within the 20 IEC cycles. The higher periodic temperature in the joint is also due to the fact that, during the type test, the joint is provided with the thick outer protection foreseen for the underground installation (as in the case of these calculations), while for actual installations in air the casing is normally unprotected.

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Figure 4. Loading cycles (8 hours on, 16 hours off) on a 400 kV 2500 mm Cu cable and joint

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Figure 5. Loading cycles (8 hours on, 16 hours off) on a 400 kV 1600 mm Cu cable and joint

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Annex 2. Overview of international standards on thermal aspects of accessories (as a result of a questionnaire under the members of the Task Force)
Standards, relevant statements on thermal ratings and testing of accessories Standard BS 7912 (UK) Contents and comments BS 7912 (Implementation of HD 632): the method for heat cycling assemblies containing accessories is The assembly shall be heated until the cable conductor reaches a steady temperature 5C to 10C above the maximum conductor temperature in normal operation. The heating arrangements shall be selected so that the cable conductor attains the temperature specified in this sub clause, remote from the accessories and as far as practicable, also within the accessories. EATS 09-16 is the more widely used document which effectively expands on the requirements of the above BS. The latest revision of this, which is still in draft form states: The load cycle test shall be carried out as in clause 16.4 of BS 7912 except that the details of heating given in the last two sentences (i.e. the 2 sentences quoted from BS 7912 above) shall be replaced by the following: The heating arrangements shall be selected so that the cable conductor attains the temperature specified above, remote from the accessories, and as far o as practicable, the conductor temperature in accessories shall reach at least the rated temperature of the accessory plus 5 C to 10 o C. The rated temperature of the accessory shall have been declared previously by the supplier (the value shall be no lower than the maximum cable conductor temperature in normal operation). Alternatively, the test installation shall be heated by conductor current alone, until the cable conductor remote from the accessories reaches a steady temperature of 5 o C to 10 o C above the maximum cable conductor temperature in normal operation. No thermal insulation or means of cooling or further forms of heating shall be used. NEN 3629 (Netherlands) Thermal properties According to this standard, in normal operation a conductor temperature of max 90C and during short-circuit (duration max 5 sec) of 250C is acceptable. Heating cycle voltage test with 30 cycles. IEEE 48-1990 (USA) IEEE standard test procedures and requirements for high-voltage alternating-current cable terminations 4. Rating Note : regarding the continuous current rating (ampacity). The application of various types of cable terminations requires engineering consideration as to the ampacity of the completed installation. A cable termination by itself cannot be assigned a design or nominal current or ampacity rating since this

EATS 09-16 (UK)

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parameter is completely dependent upon the type of cable insulation, the maximum allowable cable conductor temperature for the type of cable insulation involved, and the anticipated maximum ambient temperature of the medium surrounding the termination . The supplier of cable terminating devices or material should be consulted for the ampacity of the design for the intended application with specific type and size of cable. . 7.4.2 Cyclic aging test (Conductor heating is required. There shall be no current in the cable metallic shield.) 7.4.2.3 During the current-on period, the cable conductor temperature midway between the terminations shall be within 5 C of the cables maximum rated emergency operating temperature for a period of 6h. Note: the cyclic aging test is not intended to establish current rating for a termination (see section 4. Rating) IEEE standard for cable joints for use with extruded dielectric cable rated 5000-138000V and cable joints for use with laminated dielectric cable rated 2500-50000V 4.2 Unusual service conditions The manufactures should be consulted for recommendations. 5.2 Current ratings The current rating of the cable joint shall be equal to or greater than the current rating of the cables for which the cable joint is designed. 5.3 Temperature limitations The joint shall be designed for operating with the conductor and connector within the joint at the same maximum temperature limitations as those for the conductors of the cables being joined. 7.7 Cyclic aging test for extruded dielectric and transition joints 7.7.2 Extruded cable joints rated 46-138kV (Joints are tested in water and dry. Conductor heating is required.) There shall be no current in the cable metallic shield.

IEEE 4041993 (USA)

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The following information shall be recorded in the test report: a) The maximum temperature of the outside of the joint housing in water b) The maximum temperature of the outside of the joint housing in air c) The temperature of the outside surface of the cable in air d) The temperature at which the joint is qualified SEN 24 14 34 (Sweden) Joints and terminations, rated voltage 1-420 kV. Testing Valid since May 1977. Expired 1998. Not replaced by any other Swedish standards. ...type tests shall be carried out with the largest size of cable conductor... ...shall be loaded with the highest permissible current...and sufficiently long time to reach temperature equilibrium. The risemust not assume values that can damage the materials used, or endanger the environment (fire risk). Cyclic load tests...shall be carried out on terminations...criteria in the cable standard shall then apply. Testing of a complete cable joint...shall be carried out in accordance with the...cable

SS 424 14 17 (Sweden)

Power cables XLPE-insulated cables with extruded over sheath and rated voltage 12-420 kV Testing Load cycling: Conductor temperature: 100-105o C. Achieved by a suitable method (no specifications) Heating during at least 8 h and natural cooling during at least 16 h. The conductor temperature shall be between 100o C and 105o C during the last 2 h of the heating period.

NF C 33-061 September 1999 (France) NF C 33-062 September 1999 (France)

Insulated cables and their accessories for power systems. Joints for single-core cables with polymeric extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30kV (U m = 36kV) up to 500kV (Um = 525 kV) Insulated cables and their accessories for power systems SF6 insulated metal enclosed terminations for single-core cables with polymeric extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30kV (Um = 36kV) up to 500kV (U m = 525 kV)

6 Type tests: "In case of temperature of the conductor is specified, its value shall be obtained by circulation of adequate current in the cable conductor" " For tests requiring an increase of the cable conductor temperature, this temperature can be obtained, if necessary, by thermal insulation of the cable, in order not to induce a current ampacity either too high or too low, non representative of normal operation." Long term test: Thermal cycles: Cycle time: 8h of heating and 16h of cooling. Current applied to raise the conductor to a temperature up to 0C to 10C higher than the maximum normal operating temperature, for the first 167 cycles and up to 0C to 5C higher than the maximum emergency overload temperature, during the remaining 83 cycles.

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NF C 33-063 September 1999 (France)

Insulated cables and their accessories for power systems Outdoor terminations, with porcelain insulator, for single-core cables with polymeric extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30kV (U m = 36kV) up to 500kV (Um = 525 kV) Insulated cables and their accessories for power systems Indoor or outdoor polymeric terminations, without porcelain insulator for single-core cables with polymeric extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30kV (Um = 36kV) up to 150kV (Um = 170 kV) Insulated cables and their accessories for power systems Self supporting outdoor polymeric terminations or terminations with a composite housing, without porcelain insulator for single-core cables with polymeric extruded insulation for rated voltages above 150kV (Um = 170kV) up to 500kV (Um = 550 kV) 6 Type tests: idem above. Long term test Thermal cycles: Cycle time: 8h of heating and 16h of cooling. Current applied to raise the conductor to a temperature up to 10C higher than the maximum normal operating temperature with a tolerance of +/-4C

NF C 33-064 September 1999 (France)

C 33-065 February 2001 (France)

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Annex 3. Guide to aid development engineers for testing the thermal properties of joints
Introduction The aim of the guide is to give the development engineer some recommendations on how to measure the thermal characteristics of a prefabricated joint in transient and steady state conditions. Test installation The test loop has to contain at least 15 m of cable and one joint. The distance between the joint and cable ends has to be at least 5 m. No direct contact of the cable or joint with the lab floor is allowed. It is important that cable and joint should be subjected to the same thermal ambient conditions. No additional thermal insulation should be applied. Thermocouples (or other temperature sensors) should be installed in the following positions: at the cable, at least 5 m from the joint and 5 m from the cable end, o on the conductor o on the metallic sheath o on plastic outer sheath at the joint in the middle, o on connector in the joint o on metallic casing or metallic screen o on insulating cover near to the test loop to record the ambient temperature Thermal test The heating current shall be applied for at least 24h until the cable conductor, remote from the accessories, reaches a steady temperature of at least 5C above the maximum conductor temperature in normal operation for the cable. During the entire heating period, the temperatures shall be recorded. No other means than current heating shall be used. Test results From the recorded heating curves the following characteristics can de calculated: The thermal resistance between conductor and outer covering of the joint (deduced from the ratio between the steady state temperatures) The thermal resistance between the conductor and outer covering of the cable (deduced from the ratio between the steady state temperatures) Thermal time constant of the cable Thermal time constant of the joint

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Annex 4. Guide to aid design engineers in the correct design of systems: Thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects of accessory performance
Introduction The aim of the guide is to give the design engineer some recommendations regarding important thermal and thermo-mechanical characteristics to check on accessories. When possible or appropriate, the guide indicates the way to control or measure the described characteristics. References This guide has been established taking into account the recommendations and guidelines included in the following documents: Cigr WG 21-09 : Electra No. 140, February 1992 Considerations of ageing factors in extruded insulation cables

Cigr WG 21-17 : Technical brochure No. 194, October 2001 Construction, laying and installation techniques for extruded and self contained fluid filled cable systems Cigr WG 21-06 : Technical brochure No. 177, February 2001 Accessories for HV cables with extruded insulation, Section 1: A guide to the selection of accessories Cable systems Way of laying Thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of accessories are directly linked to the way of laying of the cable they equip. Cables can be laid in the following environments, which are classified as rigid, flexible or semi-flexible systems. Induced thermo-mechanical thrust on accessories depends strongly of this classification as described more precisely in the technical brochure published by WG 21-17. Rigid systems 1. 2. 3. 4. Laid direct and buried in ground Troughs Tower/ shaft (close cleats) Jointing chamber (close cleats)

Flexible systems cable horizontally snaked or vertically waved 5. Tunnel 6. Above ground 7. Tower/ shaft 8. Jointing chamber Semi-flexible systems cable constrained 9. Bridge 10. Unfilled ducts The cable system including the accessories has to sustain any of the thermal or thermo-mechanical constraints, which could happen under: 1. Normal operation 2. Transient operation: Short-circuit (phase to phase or phase to earth) Overload Earthquake Table 1 summarises main properties to take into account by the design engineer to avoid any failure linked to a bad design regarding thermal or thermo-mechanical properties.

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Annex 4 (continued) Table 1: Characteristics to control or tests to perform for assessing the reliability of accessories on cable systems
Constraints Constraints Classification Mechanical Thermal Thermo mechanical X Test to perform/ characteristics to control IEC tests

Steady-state operation

Mechanical forces linked to snaking Longitudinal dilatation of the cable axial thrust (conductor thermo-mechanical thrust) and retraction Cable components retraction (insulation, metallic screen, outer sheath)

Calculations of the thrust (see WG 21-17) or specific tests made by the cable manufacturer Short-term and long term test including accessories with thermal cycles and a representative configuration of laying and clamping. Design of the clamp To be known and taken into account for the design Support design, flexible link from power apparatus and terminations Same as previously described for steady state operation. Adjustment of level of constraint and test duration Calculations Tests Cleating design Test report has to be clear about the way of laying (in particular for the prequalification test)

Radial thermal expansion of the cable components Maximum temperature (surroundings of cable or accessories) Vibrations Overload Same constraints as above for steady-state operation but higher level of constraints Mechanical properties of the support

X X X X

Earthquake

Special environments

Transformers (raised temperature) Outdoor termination Solar radiation Angle of installation of terminations Transition between ducts and manholes Transition between flexible and rigid systems (open air)

X X X X X X A specific care has to be taken for the transition part between 2 different ways of laying as described in the technical brochure from WG 21-17 p 86

Others

Transition between flexible and rigid systems X (buried) Note: effects due to short-circuits have not been included in the table but it should be noted that when designing a cable link it is necessary to take into account the behavior under short circuit conditions.

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