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A GLOBAL FORCE 2012/13

ROYAL NAVY FLEET GUIDE


(as of 24/04/2013)

SURFACE FLEET

Amphibious Ships - Landing Platform Dock

Amphibious Ship - Landing Platform Helicopter

ALBION BULWARK

L14 L15

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

19,500 tonnes 176 metres 30 metres 325 RN + 300 Troops Royal Marines, Landing Craft, Goalkeeper gun system, close-range guns

OCEAN L12

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

21,500 tonnes 208 metres 35.7 metres 265 RN + up to 700 air group and troops Royal Marines, Air Group, Landing Craft, Phalanx gun system, close-range guns

Amphibious Ship - Landing Platform Helicopter

Type 45 Destroyers

ILLUSTRIOUS

RO6

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

20,000 tonnes 210 metres 36 metres 682 RN + up to 366 air group and troops Royal Marines, Goalkeeper gun system, close-range guns, Air Group

DARING DAUNTLESS DIAMOND DRAGON DEFENDER DUNCAN

D32 D33 D34 D35 D36 D37

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

7,350 tonnes 152.4 metres 21.2 metres 191 4.5 inch gun, Sea Viper anti-air missile system (Aster 15/30 missile), Phalanx gun system, Close-range guns, Lynx or Merlin helicopter can receive Chinook/SKASaCs

Type 42 Destroyers

Type 23 Frigates

D97 EDINBURGH (Decommissioning June 2013)

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

4,460 tonnes 141.1 metres 15.2 metres 269 4.5 inch gun, Sea Dart anti-air missiles, Phalanx gun system, close-range guns, Lynx helicopter

ARGYLL LANCASTER IRON DUKE MONMOUTH MONTROSE WESTMINSTER NORTHUMBERLAND RICHMOND

F231 F229 F234 F235 F236 F237 F238 F239

SUTHERLAND SOMERSET KENT PORTLAND ST ALBANS

F81 F82 F78 F79 F83

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

3,500 tonnes 133 metres 16.2 metres 173 4.5 inch gun, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, Seawolf anti-air missiles, Stingray anti-submarine torpedoes, close-range guns, Lynx or Merlin helicopter

Hunt Class Mine Countermeasures Vessels

Sandown Class Mine Countermeasures Vessels

River Class Offshore Patrol Vessels

LEDBURY CATTISTOCK BROCKLESBY MIDDLETON CHIDDINGFOLD ATHERSTONE HURWORTH QUORN

M30 M31 M33 M34 M37 M38 M39 M41

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

740 tonnes 60 metres 10 metres 42 30mm close-range gun, Seafox mine disposal system

PENZANCE PEMBROKE GRIMSBY BANGOR BLYTH RAMSEY SHOREHAM

M106 M107 M108 M109 M111 M110 M112

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

540 tonnes 52.7 metres 10.5 metres 38 30mm close-range gun, Seafox mine disposal system

TYNE SEVERN MERSEY

P281 P282 P283

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

1,677 tonnes 79.5 metres 13.6 metres 30 20mm close-range gun

Offshore Patrol Vessel (Helicopter) Clyde

P2000 Patrol Boats

Gibraltar Patrol Boat Squadron

Ocean Survey Vessel

CLYDE P257

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

1,962 tonnes 81.5 metres 13.6 metres 38 30mm close-range gun

ARCHER P264 P270 BITER SMITER P272 PURSUER P273 TRACKER P274 RAIDER P275 EXPRESS P163 EXPLORER P164 EXAMPLE P165 EXPLOIT P176

BLAZER DASHER PUNCHER CHARGER RANGER TRUMPETER

P279 P280 P291 P292 P293 P294

SABRE P285 SCIMITAR P284

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

24 tonnes 15.9 metres 4.4 metres 5 .762 GP machine gun

SCOTT

H131

Displacement Length Beam Complement

13,500 tonnes 131 metres 21.5 metres 63

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

40 tonnes 20.0 metres 5.8 metres 13 .762 GP machine gun

ROYAL FLEET AUXILLIARY

Coastal Survey Vessels

Antarctic Patrol Ship

Fleet Tankers

ECHO ENTERPRISE

H87 H88

Displacement Length Beam Complement

3,470 tonnes 90 metres 16.8 metres 44

GLEANER H86 Displacement Length Beam Complement

26 tonnes 14.8 metres 2.9 metres 5

PROTECTOR

A173

Displacement Length Beam Complement

5,000 tonnes 99 metres 18 metres 88

WAVE KNIGHT WAVE RULER

A389 A390

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

31,000 tonnes 196 metres 30.2 metres 80 RFA + 22 RN (flight) Phalanx gun system, close-range guns

Continued on inside back cover

A GLOBAL FORCE 2012/13


Editors Editor-in-chief Managing editor Assistant editor Art director Art editors Production and distribution manager Sales director Managing director Chief operating ofcer Chief executive President Chairman Pauline J Aquilina, Simon Michell Barry Davies Jane Douglas Emily Eastman Jean-Philippe Stanway Herita MacDonald, James White
ROYAL NAVY A GLOBAL FORCE 2012/13

Elizabeth Heuchan Martin Cousens Andrew Howard Caroline Minshell Alan Spence Paul Duffen Lord David Evans

A GLOBAL FORCE 2012/13

RNGF 2013_cover_FINAL_6.7mm spine.indd 3

04/06/2013 16:34

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CONTENTS

FOREWORDS 11 A sustainable future for the Royal Navy


Right Honourable Philip Hammond MP, Secretary of State for Defence

13

Options and optimism


Admiral Sir George Zambellas KCB DSC ADC, First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff

EDITORS INTRODUCTION 14 Welcome to A Global Force


Pauline J Aquilina, Editor

OPERATIONS 15 Diary of events 2012


A look at the activities of the Royal Navy over the past year

25

Response Force Task Group deployment: COUGAR 12


The COUGAR 2012 deployment helped to cement relationships with allies and delivered a range of activities

18

Operational overview
Detailing the scope of Royal Navy operations during 2012/13 through a world map

27

Royal Navy support to Afghanistan


Alan Dron reveals the full extent of the Senior Services participation in Operation HERRICK

20

The Fleet
Message from Vice Admiral Philip Jones CB, Fleet Commander

30

Operation OLYMPICS
Simon Michell highlights the role of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Fleet Auxiliary in this massive undertaking

22

Generating the nations contingent capability


Robert Fox explores the Royal Navys agile and exible contingency force that counters international dangers

FIGHTING ARMS 33 Operational capability


Message from Rear Admiral Peter Hudson CBE, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Capability)

35

Deploying a new class of destroyer


The Type 45 Daring-class ships are already providing formidable capability to the United Kingdoms defence

38

Surface vessels update


Guarding overseas territories is a standing task that requires meticulous planning and cooperation

41

The Royal Navys smaller vessels


The Royal Navy operates a variety of smaller vessels that carry out important tasks for the nation on a daily basis

45 48

The Submarine Service


Message from Ian Corder, former Rear Admiral Submarines

Patrolling the seas


The next generation of ballistic missile submarines must be prepared to maintain the Continuous at-Sea Deterrent

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

AN INNOVATIVE FORCE IN

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CONTENTS

73

The Royal Fleet Auxiliary


Message from Commodore Bill Walworth CBE, Head of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary

75

Integrated support
Commodore Bill Walworth CBE explains to Ian Goold how the Royal Fleet Auxiliary operates as part of naval forces

78

Delivering capability to the Royal Navy


An overview of how the Royal Fleet Auxiliary is assuming greater responsibility for ensuring global maritime security

EQUIPMENT 81 Materiel Support


Message from Vice Admiral Andrew Mathews KCB, Chief of Materiel (Fleet)

84

Carrier strike
Britain looks set to rebuild a major aircraft capability by the end of the decade, reports Nick Childs

88 51 The United Kingdoms nuclear deterrence


The Royal Navy has been entrusted to deliver the UKs nuclear capability under Operation RELENTLESS

F-35 Lightning II: plan B up and running


The Royal Navys next multi-role jet aircraft programme is taking shape as British personnel begin training

54

Astute: bringing a new class of submarine into service


Christina Mackenzie tells the story of Britains new generation of nuclear-powered attack submarines

92

The Type 45 Daring destroyers


As the Type 42 air defence destroyers leave service, the Type 45 Daring warships are ready to make an impression

96 57 The Royal Marines


Message from Major General Ed Davis CBE, Commandant General Royal Marines

Astute submarines
The transformation of the Royal Navys nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarine force is making signicant strides

59

Reforming the LCG into the RFTG


A look at how the regeneration of the Royal Marines amphibious role has been progressing

62

Supporting Afghanistan 40 Commando


The Royal Marines were back in Afghanistan in 2012 as part of HERRICK 17, and continue to contribute in this theatre

65

The Fleet Air Arm


Message from Rear Admiral Russ Harding OBE, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Aviation and Carriers)

67

Introducing the Queen Elizabeth-class with its Lightning II F-35Bs


The Royal Navy is gearing up fast for the introduction of the Queen Elizabeth-class carrier and her powerful ghters

70

Joint and combined helicopter operations


Cooperation between the British Army Air Corps and the Royal Navy represents a new era in joint operations

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

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CONTENTS

99

Wildcat on the prowl


The next-generation anti-surface vessel helicopter is well on the way to entering service, and will be a potent weapon

102 The Merlin Capability Sustainment Programme


The Merlin helicopter aircraft is being revamped by Lockheed Martin to keep it in the skies for another 20 years

106 Developing frigates


Modularity, exportability and adaptability are the three key pillars of the frigate replacement programme

PEOPLE 110 Putting people rst


Message from Vice Admiral David Steel CBE, Second Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Personnel and Training

123 Protecting our nations interests


An overview of the responsibilities of the Royal Navy in maintaining the UKs prosperity and security

112 Recruitment matching requirements with resources


Jill Taylor explores how the recent defence cuts have affected the shape of the maritime services

124 The Royal Navy and Royal Marines Charity (RNRMC)


Robert Robson, Chief Executive of the RNRMC, highlights the strong growth in charitable activities over 2011

115 FOST training


A broad spectrum of Royal Navy preparation is conducted by the Flag Ofcer Sea Training organisation

HERITAGE 126 National Museum of the Royal Navy


A message from Professor Dominic Tweddle, Director General of the NMRN,

118 A more prominent role for the Reserves


Government policy will see the Armed Forces having a greater dependence upon the Reserves in the future

121 A new communications and engagement strategy for the Royal Navy
The new strategy is designed to improve awareness and understanding of the crucial role played by the Royal Navy

128 Falklands 30
Martin Temperley explores the pivotal role and enormous effort of the Royal Navy in the Falklands operation

131 Operation CORPORATE remembered


Simon Michell reports on the very special year of remembrance that was 2012

134 The Royal Navy celebrates the Queens Diamond Jubilee


The Royal Navys important role in the national commemorative events that took place in 2012

138 The Battle of the Atlantic


Dr Malcolm Llewellyn-Jones investigates the turning point in this critical campaign of the Second World War

140 The Fleet Air Arm in the Battle of the Atlantic


Sue Eagles explains the role of the Fleet Air Arm in enabling the Allies to launch the invasion of Europe

142 Index of advertisers

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

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FOREWORD

11

A sustainable future for the Royal Navy


Right Honourable Philip Hammond MP, Secretary of State for Defence

he vital contribution that the Royal Navy makes to the United Kingdoms national security is as varied as the threats are diverse. Whether it is Royal Marines and Sailors serving in Afghanistan, our maritime operations all over the world or delivering our nuclear deterrent sustained for over 44 years without a moments break Britain is safer because of the outstanding work of the Royal Navy, and the civil servants and those in industry who support them. Last summer, in addition to all of its other commitments, the Navy, along with the rest of the Armed Forces, helped provide the security for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. I saw for myself, onboard HMS OCEAN on the Thames and HMS BULWARK and RFA MOUNTS BAY off the South Coast, the utility of contingent maritime capabilities. Indeed, contingent forces are becoming increasingly important in a world in which, as the Strategic Defence and Security Review describes, threats are many, varied and uncertain. We are entering a new phase which, with the end of combat operations in Afghanistan approaching, requires us to move towards a contingent posture. Our response to this unpredictability is Future Force 2020: a blueprint for the powerful, adaptable, deployable and, crucially, sustainable Armed Forces we need. The maritime component will include the worlds most advanced multi-role jets ying from 65,000 tonne aircraft carriers, support ships to sustain them, a eet of brand new Astute submarines, Type 45 destroyers, helicopters, Viking all-terrain vehicles and Type 26 Global Combat Ships the mainstay of the future Fleet. For our nation to continue to benet from the security that such forces bring, the foundation on which Future Force 2020 is built has to be a sustainable budget. Signicant progress has been made in this area. For the rst time in a generation the Defence Budget has been balanced. This has required tough decisions, including the decommissioning of some platforms and a reduction in manpower. As a result, however, the Royal Navy and the industry, much of it UK-based, that supports it can be condent that the formidable maritime equipment programme will be delivered with the right capability. Sustainable Armed Forces must also continue the vanguard of balancing efciency and effectiveness; maintaining the teeth with a smaller tail. Navy Command will receive new delegated budget responsibilities from April 2013 as part of the drive to improve efciency and accountability. This means the Royal Navy will have greater responsibility for its own future, allowing it to consider how best to continue its long tradition of providing exible capabilities. Sea power is ingrained in the British psyche. The Royal Navy is with good reason one of our most respected institutions. Our challenge is to ensure that, as we transform defence together, the Navy remains a cornerstone of our national security.

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

FOREWORD

13

Options and optimism


Admiral Sir George Zambellas KCB DSC ADC, First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff

s always, it is the Royal Navys utility that drives our business and, in this respect, the past year is no exception. The Secretary of States foreword captures accurately the breadth of the Royal Navys achievements on operations around the world and, through continuing transformation, with such efciency. So let me focus on the future. Building on the Royal Navys long and distinguished history, I see its evolution in terms of a Service that not only operates routinely and comfortably on our oceans and in key international straits, but also, when required, closer inshore by affecting what happens on the land, as much as at sea or in the air. After all, it is in the vicinity of the shoreline that people and politics meet, and therefore where the needs to prevent crises and respond to the unforeseen are most likely to materialise. This is an evolution in which the delivery of the Naval Equipment Programme, in partnership with Industry, remains key. The Secretary of State has spelled out our long, unbroken and continuing role in Deterrence. In addition, we have other complex acquisition projects Type 45 destroyers, Astute Class submarines, both Carriers, Type 26 Global Combat Ships, new aircraft, protected vehicles and our future support shipping all of which account for a sizeable proportion of the Defence Equipment budget. This is a welcome and strategic commitment by our Nation, which will govern the future size and shape of the Royal Navys contribution to the UKs security at home and overseas. Yet equipment alone does not dictate the Navys evolution as a ghting force. There is also the glue that connects it up: better intelligence, communications, off-board surveillance, joint training, to name but a few enablers. But, even with the glue, the Royal Navy of Future Force 2020 will ultimately be determined by the attitude, optimism, creativity and condence of the men and women who have chosen to pursue a career in the Service, as well as the civil servants and those in Industry who support it. Equally, the Navys future depends on the support of our families. Turning this ambition of a Navy that provides the Government with even more options when seeking to inuence events and livelihoods at sea and on land into reality, will not happen overnight. But I am clear that this ambition forms the basis why the Royal Navy will, in support of our national interests, continue to win at and from the sea. As these pages illustrate, the Royal Navy has a battle-ready, maritime expertise based on centuries of success, and the courage to shape its exciting future with condence. I believe that is good for us all Navy, NATO and Nation.

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

14

EDITORS INTRODUCTION

DEAR READER,
Welcome to the Royal Navys 2012 /13 A Global Force yearbook. As ever, the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary have been extremely busy protecting the nations national interests at home and overseas. Over the period covered in this issue, the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary had sailors, marines and air crew at sea or deployed across the globe, in Afghanistan, the North and South Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Gulf and the Indian Ocean. The RN continued to assist with the training of our partners around the world and we worked hard to maintain freedom of navigation for all to international sea lanes. Moreover, we contributed to the effort to reduce the threat of piracy and we worked with our allies to stamp out illegal acts at sea, such as narcotics and weapons smuggling, the trafcking of humans and terrorist activity. The RN delivered all the standing tasks required of us and kept a watchful eye over our overseas territories to make sure they were safe and supported. I hope you will enjoy reading about the range of activities, highlights and successes that we have achieved since our last publication. Pauline J Aquilina Editor, A Global Force

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

OPERATIONS

15

Diary of events 2012


JANUARY MARCH

HMS PROTECTOR sails for the Antarctic

HMS ILLUSTRIOUS completes sea trials as a high readiness helicopter and commando carrier. Type-45 destroyer, HMS DARING, starts debut deployment to the Persian Gulf. RFA FORT VICTORIA foils pirate assault in Indian Ocean and arrests 13 pirates. Royal Marines hold Olympic security exercise with police on the Thames. Fishery protection vessels arrest trawler after illegal nets are discovered. The Royal Navys new ice patrol ship, HMS PROTECTOR, sails for the Antarctic.
FEBRUARY

Nuclear deterrent submarine HMS VENGEANCE starts preparations for major ret. HMS VICTORY is transferred from MoD to a charitable trust but remains a commissioned Royal Navy ship. Royal Marines transit to Cold Weather training in Norway aboard HMS BULWARK. Royal Navy SAR helicopters help re service to bring massive moorland re under control in Scotland. Second World War V2 missile found near Harwich made safe by Portsmouth Royal Navy bomb disposal unit.
Royal Marines come ashore in Norway

APRIL

43 Commando Fleet Protection Group, reformed at Faslane, becomes the largest unit in the Royal Marines. Portsmouth-based frigate, HMS WESTMINSTER, visits Mombasa to train with Kenyan forces and boost trade links. Royal Navy parades through London in honour of their successful operation off and over Libya in 2011. Europes biggest military exercise, Joint Warrior, climaxes with Royal Marine assault on the west coast of Scotland. Commando Helicopter Force hosts 30th anniversary dinner in honour of Falklands Sea King (Junglies) helicopter veterans.
AW159 Wildcat trials on HMS IRON DUKE HMS ILLUSTRIOUS heads for exercise Joint Warrior

HMS ARGYLL joins a major exercise in Gulf to protect energy supplies. Danish forces train on HMS ILLUSTRIOUS during a visit to Copenhagen. Britannia Royal Naval College participates in the Thames Pageant. Government orders a new generation of 37,000-tonne Tide-class RFA vessels. Wildcat naval helicopter completes 20 days of trials on board HMS IRON DUKE.

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

16

OPERATIONS

MAY

JULY

The F-35B Lightning II undergoes tests

Type-45 destroyer, HMS DIAMOND, res her Sea Viper missiles for the rst time, successfully destroying a target drone. UK Government conrms its intention to build two carriers with ski jumps and the selection of the F-35B STOVL multi-role jet aircraft. German Naval Sea King crew practise landing on HMS OCEAN during a three-day goodwill visit to Hamburg. The Olympic ame lands at RNAS Culdrose and is greeted by then Fleet Commander Admiral Zambellas and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg. UK Government awards contracts for UK companies to design the next generation of nuclear deterrent submarines.
JUNE

829 Naval Air Squadron and its Merlin helicopters set off for six-month counter-piracy duties in the Gulf. Lynx Mk7 ZD282 is the last to y with the Junglies as 847 squadron switches to the Mk9 ahead of its return to Afghanistan. HMS OCEAN takes up station on the Thames in preparation for her security role during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Royal Navy Sea Kings from 854 NAS arrive at RAF Northolt to contribute to the aerial shield for the summer sporting events. In all some, 2,600 Royal Navy personnel were to participate in security duties. Attack submarine HMS TURBULENT is decommissioned just six months shy of 30 years in front line service. HMS BULWARK, RFA MOUNTS BAY, RN P2000 patrol boats and landing craft take up position off Weymouth as part of the Olympic/Paralympic maritime security shield.
AUGUST

RN provides Royal Barge Honour Guard for the Queens trip down the Thames to celebrate her 60 years on the throne. Second and nal tranche of naval redundancies announced with lower numbers than originally anticipated. Royal Navy divers and their Italian counterparts blow up a Second World War German mine off Sardinias busiest port. The third Type-45 destroyer, HMS DIAMOND, sets sail on her maiden deployment to the Gulf to carry out maritime security patrols. The Armed Forces commemorate the 30th anniversary of the liberation of the Falklands. The chief of Staff of the Libyan Naval Force visits HMS RALEIGH and the Britannia Naval College to review training methods.
RANGER and TRUMPETER escort the Royal Barge

Lt Peter Reed wins an Olympic gold medal

Royal Navy rower, Pete Reed, wins a gold medal as part of awesome foursome Team GB coxless fours. Survey ship HMS ECHO makes historic trip to Libya, becoming the rst Royal Navy vessel to visit the country after the fall of Gadda. Portsmouth-based Type 23 frigate, HMS WESTMINSTER returns from Gulf after seizing a 14 million drug cache and disrupting three potential pirate attacks. F-35B test aircraft drops its rst practice bomb over a range in the eastern US seaboard in trials of the internal weapons bay. Malta convoy veterans honoured as black anchor is unveiled in Valetta as a memorial to their sacrice 70 years ago. RN unveils the design of its next-generation frigate, the Type 26, after two years on the drawing board. Royal Marines Band joins nearly 1,000 other performers at the Edinburgh Tattoo in celebration of the Queens Diamond Jubilee. HMS DUNCAN, the sixth and nal Type 45 destroyer puts to sea for the rst time.

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

OPERATIONS

17

SEPTEMBER

NOVEMBER

First Merlin Mk3 helicopter own by an all-RN crew takes to the skies in preparation for the Commando Helicopter Force transition to Merlins in 2016. Survey ship HMS ENTERPRISE sails to the Gulf with new 9m (30 ft) Spitre survey boat on board to update charts for the UK Hydrographic Ofce. Royal Navy buys HM Ships MERSEY, SEVERN and TYNE River-class Cod Squad shery patrol vessels outright after a decade on loan from BAE Systems. HMS AMBUSH, the second of the Astute-class submarines leaves her BAE Systems Cumbrian boatyard for Faslane. 650 men from 40 Commando take command of Nar-e-Saraj area of Helmand, Afghanistan at the beginning of a six-month deployment. The Cougar 2012 RFTG deployment in the Mediterranean commences, involving over 3,000 sailors and marines as well as units from the British Army and Royal Air Force.
OCTOBER

AAC Apache helicopters train on HMS ILLUSTRIOUS

NATOs largest exercise, the UK-led Joint Warrior gets under way off the coast of Scotland. HMS DIAMOND joins two RN mine countermeasures ships and an RFA as 30 navies take part in the largest minehunting exercise in the Persian Gulf IMCMEX12. The rst eight crew members for the new aircraft carrier HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH assemble at Rosyth. 37 million contract agreed with BAE Systems to overhaul and upgrade the entire eet of Royal Marine Viking tracked vehicles. The Type 45 destroyer HMS DEFENDER is handed over to the Royal Navy at a ceremony in Portsmouth. An Royal Navy Lynx Mk8 helicopter deploys to the French frigate SURCOUF during patrols as part of the EUs antipiracy Operation ATALANTA. Joint Anglo/French Exercise Corsican Lion kicks off in the Mediterranean as part of the Combined Joint Expeditionary Force preparations.
HMS DEFENDER sails into her new home in Portsmouth

The largest section of the new aircraft carrier, HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH, sails down the Clyde to begin its 600-mile voyage to Rosyth. Secretary of State for Defence publishes Future Reserves 2020: Delivering the Nations Security Together. British Army Apache helicopters from 656 Squadron Army Air Corps undertake live-ring exercise from HMS ILLUSTRIOUS. RFA ARGUS joins up with Dutch frigate VAN AMSTEL during counter-narcotics operations in the Caribbean. The Response Force Task Group completes the Cougar 12 deployment and ships start to return to their bases.
DECEMBER

Admiral Viktor Chirkov was hosted by the Royal Navy

HMS Duncan, the sixth and nal Type-45 destroyer, completes sea trials and prepares for handover to the Royal Navy in spring 2013. MoD signs 1.2 billion contract for the production of HMS Audacious the fourth of seven Astute-class attack submarines. First Royal Navy pilot begins ight training on the F-35B Lightning II multi-role jet aircraft due to operate from the Queen Elizabeth carriers. Admiral Chirkov, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Federation Navy, completes a four-day tour of Royal Navy establishments and ships. Prime Minister David Cameron announces the casting of the Arctic Convoy Star to be awarded to veterans of the Russian convoys during the Second World War.

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

18

OPERATIONS

Twiceyearly Joint Warrior training with allies and partners UK/EU sheries protection. See Smaller vessels

Joint UK/US counter-narcotics operations and support to overseas territories in the Caribbean. See Surface vessels update

Two airborne search and rescue (SAR) bases

Support to 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. See Operation OLYMPICS

Support to overseas territories in the Atlantic and antipiracy operations. See Surface vessels update

Operational overview 2012/13

Defending the Falkland Islands and Antarctic territories. See Surface vessels update

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

OPERATIONS

19

Stabilisation operations as part of the ISAF coalition in Afghanistan. See Naval support to Afghanistan and Support to Afghanistan

RFTG Cougar 2012 deployment in the Mediterranean and Gulf. See Generating the nations contingent capability

Mine countermeasures and maritime security operations. See Smaller vessels

Antipiracy operations with international partners

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

20

OPERATIONS

The Fleet
Message from the Fleet Commander, Vice Admiral Philip Jones CB

012 was more than any other I can recall - the year in which the Naval Service really grasped a unique opportunity to reach out to the society from which we are drawn, and which we serve. Our scale of engagement with the public and the way people all over the UK responded to it, was pretty special from the Diamond Jubilee and the Pageant on the Thames, to our provision of maritime security for the Olympics. I think the many elements of the Fleet involved in these UK-based activities played their part in getting an important and inuential message across about the importance of the sea and how the Fleet protects UK interests globally. From the perspective of my responsibilities for generating naval forces, it was good to see the successful Trident missile ring by one of our Vanguard-class submarines off Kings Bay, the acceptance of the rst UK Lightning II aircraft, and the maiden deployments of a string of Type 45 Daring-class destroyers. Yet, the headline highlight for me has to be the Fleets consistent delivery on operations across the board. It rarely attracts the attention it deserves, but it is the relentless dedication and professionalism of the many thousands of sailors and marines who spent much of 2012 deployed away from the UK on operations that is truly remarkable.

bouts of instability. A range of UK interests are engaged there security, trade, energy so its no surprise that we are focused on it. Security in and around the Gulf is a fundamentally maritime responsibility, one we share with many others: the Gulf States themselves, the US and others operating as part of coalition forces in the region. The evolving nature of the contribution we make is also signicant: the Royal Navys Type 45 Air Defence destroyers operating alongside US Navy Carrier Strike Groups; our attack submarines taking part in Anti-Submarine Warfare exercises; the surveillance work of our Merlin helicopters; and, a key asset, the Royal Navy Mine Counter Measures (MCM) Force stationed in Bahrain, which continues to work closely with our partners in the region to provide reassurance and training. The Gulf keeps us busy.
THE ATLANTIC

RESPONSE FORCE TASK GROUP

I was delighted with COUGAR 12. The Response Force Task Group generated efciently, and integrated well before heading into the Mediterranean as the UKs maritime force for contingency. A powerful mix of capabilities was embarked across the Task Group, including the Army Air Corps Apache Attack Helicopters, used to such good effect from HMS OCEAN in operations off Libya in 2011. This time, HMS ILLUSTRIOUS was there in the helicopter-carrier role. COUGAR gave the opportunity to validate our specialist battle staffs and to exercise our Littoral manoeuvre capability through a range of amphibious activities; but it also gave us the chance to hone our other war-ghting skills especially anti-submarine warfare and maritime aviation with international partners. Notably, of course, with the French, under the auspices of the Combined Joint Expeditionary Force.
THE GULF

Its no secret that the Middle East and the Gulf region in particular remains very much at the forefront of the Navys thinking and activity where it has been for many years. The reasons arent difcult to work out: many, many thousands of UK citizens live there, close to a strategic chokepoint in an area susceptible to

We continue to support the Standing Commitments mandated by the Ministry of Defence throughout the Atlantic North and South. In the North Atlantic, that has meant, not for the rst time, committing a Royal Fleet Auxiliary to the range of tasks for which we are responsible, primarily Hurricane Relief and the UK maritime contribution to our counter-narcotics work. These operations presence, surveillance, information-sharing and the interdiction of suspected drug smugglers take place within a wider framework of international maritime cooperation, orchestrated through the US Joint Inter-Agency Task Force (South), based in Key West, Florida. In the South Atlantic, we continued to full our longstanding commitment to the security of the South Atlantic Islands, alongside our Army and Royal Air Force counterparts with Type 42 and Type 45 destroyers, Royal Fleet Auxiliary tanking support, the Falkland Island Patrol Vessel, HMS CLYDE and, of course, the Ice Patrol Ship, HMS PROTECTOR. Of particular note this year has been HMS DAUNTLESS, whose deployment down South was in the context of an ambitious programme of engagement under the auspices of AURIGA 12. This demonstrated what can be achieved over a wide area by one ship operating alone, conducting a variety of operations and exercises including wider regional engagement, key leadership engagement, capacity building, maritime security operations, counter piracy and counter narcotics operations, in addition to supporting UK Trade & Investment through UK trade and defence sales, while also being a venue for diplomatic support. Additionally, the ship provided support to potential humanitarian disaster relief operations during the peak of the hurricane season,

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Sea King Mk7s from 854 NAS joined HMS ILLUSTRIOUSs tailored air group for the COUGAR 12 deployment

and to remote South Atlantic Ocean Territories. This was not only a proving-ground for our ability as a navy to support Type 45 operating at range in the harshest of conditions, but it also demonstrated the Type 45s exceptional exibility.
HOME WATERS

As I have mentioned above, I was delighted by the performance of our sailors and Royal Marines, our colleagues in the Royal Fleet Auxiliary and civil service, and industry partners throughout a summer of public events in the UK, which attracted a truly global audience. The involvement of the Armed Forces in the Diamond Jubilee and Olympics caught the national mood and will live with all of us for some time to come, I suspect. However, high-prole and welcome as this activity undoubtedly was, it does not detract from the important work being carried out elsewhere without fanfare by the Naval Service in the UK this year. The operational prole has included, as always, the surveillance, patrolling and protection of our waters and maritime resources, search and rescue and nuclear security, as well as being on standby to help mitigate the impact of the fuel shortages in the spring. But I should also draw attention to the continuous effort that characterises the Fleets force-generation effort here in the UK.
THE FUTURE

As Fleet Commander, my job is to deliver a ghting Fleet that can meet the demands of government policy for defence, security and international engagement. While the job description is straightforward, the task itself is more complicated. Generating maritime forces involves the balancing and orchestration of many moving parts qualied and experienced people; ships, submarines and aircraft; the performance of their on-board (and increasingly, off-board) weapons and sensors and then tting all that within a design for operations that might envisage us operating with other nations, our sister services and so on. My priorities have to be guided by that, because for the Fleet, success

is inevitably measured rst and foremost in terms of operational performance. At the same time, it is no good delivering on operations if you cannot sustain that effort for the long haul when necessary in the Gulf, in the Atlantic, protecting our national waters, providing the nuclear deterrent. So after operations, my priority is leadership of our people making sure that they have what they need to be effective, to develop their war-ghting skills, to be able to recuperate from operations and get the most from time with their families and loved ones. There are other imperatives to bear in mind, not least the delivery of the capabilities that we need in order to maintain a battle-winning edge. The trick is to be prepared to veer and haul in order to nd the optimal balance, but my number one priority is operational delivery. Id like to extend my message to include our families, veterans and civilian colleagues, because I think I hope it is as relevant to them as it will be to our serving sailors and Royal Marines. If 2012 had a dening theme, it was that it showed the very public side of the Naval Service. The Diamond Jubilee and the Olympics offered exceptional opportunities for us to show a global audience what we do, every day, to protect the UK and its worldwide interests. However, it was not the whole story, because virtually every aspect of our operational activity in 2012 wherever we have been operating has attracted a welcome degree of public attention and, I think, has helped to increase the public understanding of what we do. This utility, this operational capability has not been lost on other nations, either. But it doesnt come easily and we make great demands on our people and their families. So Ive got two messages for those in the Fleet. First and foremost, Id like to thank them for their service. Secondly, they should be proud of what they do, every day for Britain, and the style in which they do it. I believe that we are entering an era of great opportunity for our Service; make the most of it by being prepared to use your authority and experience as the UKs maritime domain experts .

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Generating the nations contingent capability

Robert Fox explains how the Royal Navy has developed an agile and exible contingency force to counter international dangers under its Response Force Task Group concept

COUGAR 12 saw the deployment of more than 6,000 British and French personnel from all three services the French led by a carrier group headed by FS Charles De Gaulle, and the British Amphibious Task group led by HMS BULWARK and HMS ILLUSTRIOUS in the role of a helicopter carrier.
RFTG IN ACTION

ate in October 2012, Royal Marines led by men of 539 Assault Squadron charged ashore on a beach in Corsica. They were anked and supported in Exercise CORSICAN LION by colleagues of the elite French Marine Infantry. CORSICAN LION was the centrepiece of the major autumn Exercise Programme, COUGAR 12, to prove the new Combined Joint Expeditionary Force (CJEF) the principal maritime part of the Anglo-French Military Agreement of 2010.

For the Royal Navy, COUGAR 12 was the major 2012 outing of the new Response Force Task Group (RFTG) the major formation for exible response by UK maritime forces to a broad spectrum of threats and emergencies. These threats might range from natural and man-made disasters and the sudden need for humanitarian relief, through to armed intervention in a hostile environment.

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Interoperable procedures are practised when an Italian Sea King visits HMS ILLUSTRIOUS

A Royal Navy Commando puts evasion techniques into practice during Exercise ALBANIAN LION

A Royal Marine landing craft conducts cross-decking drills with a French landing craft in the background

According to the UK Task Group Commander in the exercise, Commodore (Cdre) Paddy McAlpine, OBE, ADC, both the British and French forces put in a stunning performance. The French carrier strike group and our amphibious task group continued to provide a potent task force and the lessons we identied bode well for the future, Cdre McAlpine conrmed. The exercise was not conned to western Mediterranean waters. It concluded with an exercise with the Albanian Navy and a visit to Algeria. Towards the end, the Type 23 frigate HMS NORTHUMBERLAND deployed to duties east of Suez and joined the anti-piracy patrols off the coast of Somalia. As COUGAR 12 progressed, other Royal Navy ships participated in providing security in the Gulf, off the coast of Somalia and in the South Atlantic a mark of the Navys global

reach. The units and ships in the Mediterranean, which could be reinforced at a few days notice, were on alert for a sudden deterioration of the crisis in Syria. The concept of the RFTG is enshrined in the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) of 19 October 2010. To paraphrase the relevant section of the reports coverage of Naval Forces, the Royal Marines will provide one key element of our high readiness response force. They will be able to land and sustain a commando group of up to 1,800 personnel from the sea, along with their protective vehicles. They will receive logistics and command/ control support from specialist ships, including a landing and command ship. This, the SDSR proposes, would allow the UK to conduct an operation on the same scale as that of the 2000 Sierra Leone operation.

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On 2 November 2010, the publication of the SDSR 2010 was quickly followed by the Anglo-French military agreement, which further crystallized the concept of the RFTG as the cornerstone of the CJEF. Events were soon to drive common thinking well beyond the lessons that were learnt from the British intervention in Sierra Leone in 2000 as the template for the RFTG and the CJEF. The rst major amphibious exercise of the new arrangement with the French forces COUGAR 11 had barely begun when the crisis in Libya broke. British as well as French units were detached to assist in the Anglo/French-led operations to enforce a UN-backed no-y zone against Colonel Gaddas forces. Crucial lead elements were the aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle and the helicopter and commando carrier HMS OCEAN, with British Army Apache WAH-64D Longbow attack helicopters equipped with AGM-114 Hellre missiles ying from its decks on missions against air defence and other installations.

The introduction of the Type 45 air defence Daring-class destroyers hugely enhances the surveillance range of the force
The lessons from the successful multinational operations in Libya were still being absorbed when a further declaration of military cooperation was made after a highly successful summit at Lancaster House on 17 February 2012. In the light of experiences in Libya, the two governments made further steps, to make the CJEF a real asset for our military operations in the future, as an early entry force capable of facing multiple threats up to the highest intensity. The force would be able to operate bilaterally,

or within wider alliances such as NATO, the United Nations and the European Union. The French and British governments agreed a ve-year cycle of major exercises and that the CJEF would have its own command and headquarters by 2016. The order of battle for the Royal Navys RFTG is based on the current naval equipment programme. The lead ship at present is the new Landing Platform Dock (LPD) either HMS ALBION or HMS BULWARK, according to availability. The main helicopter force is to be embarked in a dedicated helicopter carrier, at present HMS ILLUSTRIOUS. These lead elements are supported by at least two ships of the current force of 19 destroyers and frigates, and at least one, and possibly two, of the Bay-class Landing Ship Dock. The introduction of the Type 45 air defence Daring-class destroyers hugely enhances the surveillance range of the force, which is particularly valuable in congested areas such as the Gulf and the Red Sea. The force will also have support in surveillance and protection from the new force of seven Astute SSN (hunter-killer) submarines, which have now begun to enter service with the Royal Navy Fleet. The RFTGs capability and range will be further enhanced by the introduction of the Type 26 Global Combat Ship within the next 10 years. However, the biggest game changer will be the introduction of the new Queen Elizabeth II class of aircraft carriers with the F-35 Lightning II. A switch back to the short take-off, verticallanding (STOVL) type, as opposed to the conventional carrier version of the aircraft, means that the rst of the ships is now expected to be operational by the end of 2018. Further to this, the move means that both carriers are likely to be commissioned and may even be capable of operating together. The keynotes to the Navys Response Force Task Group are exibility and adaptability in size, shape and range. Global threats require global reach which the Navys Response Force has already shown it has every intention of meeting.

A British Army Air Corps Apache attack helicopter embarked on HMS ILLUSTRIOUS highlights the joint nature of the COUGAR deployment

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A Royal Navy gunner trains his Minigun on a target at night as part of COUGAR 12 training serials

Response Force Task Group deployment: COUGAR 12

The 2012 COUGAR deployment helped to cement relationships with allies and conrm a credible amphibious contingent capability that can be deployed on high- and low-intensity operations. We take an insiders view of the range of activities that were delivered by the deployment

he UKs Response Force Task Group (RFTG) is a scaleable, very high readiness and credible maritime force, commanded by Commander United Kingdom Task Group (COMUKTG), Commodore Paddy McAlpine, OBE, ADC. The Task Group (TG) is capable of responding to crises and world events with an integrated force of ships, submarines, aircraft and Royal Marines. It is able to deploy globally in order to deter threats, reassure regional powers and stabilise potential hotspots. This UK

contingent capability that the RFTG offers is challenging and must be trained for, as it provides a political choice. The greatest value of the Navy will be found in the events that fail to occur because of its inuence. The Royal Navy provides engagement without embroilment no other service brings that, so the key output of this inuence will remain that the Royal Navy has always been as good at preventing wars as it has at winning them. Following its successful deployment to Operation DEFERENCE and Operation ELLAMY in 2011, the RFTG deployed on COUGAR 12 in October 2012 in order to interoperate with key UK allies and demonstrate the Royal Navys amphibious capability. The deployment consisted of a series of exercises that simulated potential simple and non-enduring military interventions, while supporting a cross-government narrative through wider regional engagement and maritime security. The Task Group sailed to prepare to exercise its response to a wide range of tasks, including

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the delivery of humanitarian aid and disaster relief and Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEOs) as a exible, versatile, and interoperable maritime force. The Cornwall coast provided the backdrop for extensive unit-level training and force integration at the start of the deployment, providing the opportunity to practise the complex art of amphibious operations. The Task Group then sailed for the Mediterranean, taking advantage of opportunities to prove its interoperability with Danish, French and Spanish warships en route, enabling the promotion of international partnerships.
INTEGRATING CARRIER OPERATIONS

Exercise CORSICAN LION 12 was the agship exercise for the Royal Navy in 2012. A key component of the 2010 UK and France Defence Cooperation Treaty, the Combined Joint Expeditionary Force concept provides an early entry military force capable of leading and conducting non-enduring complex intervention and humanitarian operations. The exercise included the French Carrier Strike Group, commanded from the French Flagship Charles De Gaulle, with an Anglo-French Amphibious Task Group that was

COUGAR 12 demonstrated the exibility, versatility and interoperability of the Royal Navy
commanded from the Royal Navy Flagship HMS BULWARK. Over the course of a week around Corsica, this rst step in developing contemporary Anglo-French maritime interoperability exceeded expectations. The French Carrier Strike Group integration with UK platforms provided a valuable vehicle for the UK and France to integrate further their carrier operations. It also provided a rst-rate vision of how the RFTG will look when the Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carriers and the F-35B Lightning II jets are in service as we work towards Future Force 2020. The ability to deploy an integrated capable force with our allies is key to projecting inuence at sea, from the sea, or on land, and to European defence cooperation overall. Working together gives the UK and France the exibility and capability to conduct intervention

Royal Marines prepare to board a Commando Helicopter Force Sea King Mk4 Junglie during ALBANIAN LION

operations and, if necessary, military strikes, while supporting cross-government needs by conducting regional engagement, maritime security, evacuation, delivering humanitarian aid, or carrying out disaster relief. After a short replenishment in Toulon, the RFTG sailed east to conduct an Anti-Submarine Warfare exercise with the French Submarine Amethyste under operational control of COMUKTG. The US 6th Fleet tanker, United States Navy Ship John Lenthall, replenished the force at sea before the TG went on to conduct wider regional engagement with HMS BULWARK and HMS ILLUSTRIOUS, visiting Corfu and Sicily respectively. Concurrent to this, HMS MONTROSE, RFA MOUNTS BAY and MV HARTLAND POINT conducted pre-cursor operations for the main Landing Force exercise of the deployment Exercise ALBANIAN LION 12. This was the key Lead Commando Group training for COUGAR 12, designed to demonstrate the full spectrum of Littoral Manoeuvre capability, that took place in Albania for two weeks of November. It enhanced an existing Z Coy, 45 Cdo RM exercise with support from the maritime ank through an over-the-horizon Pre-Landing Force and Lead Commando Group assault, leading to sustainment ashore and capacity building with Albanian Forces. While the Pre-Landing Force was operating at reach from the remainder of the TG, the Lead Commando Group remained in depth at sea, while a Tactical Liaison Recce Team deployed to conduct close inter-governmental liaison with the Foreign and Commonwealth Ofce and to consider a regional crisis-management plan and an NEO. The end of the exercise was marked by a successful visit by the president of Albania to HMS ILLUSTRIOUS. This amphibious exercise helped to strengthen the strategic partnership between the UK and Albania, with the Royal Navys Lead Commando Group at the fore in a highly challenging operational scenario. Throughout the COUGAR 12 deployment, the RFTG supported the NATO Operation ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR in the Mediterranean. This was an ideal opportunity for the RFTG to integrate into a multi-national surface warfare environment. Operation ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR is a NATO-supported operation in response to the threat of terrorism in the Mediterranean region, as it presents a natural barrier between NATO territory and many troubled regions. It is also designed to maintain the Mediterranean as an unrestricted legal trafc route that is not vulnerable to exploitation by terrorist groups that may aim to disrupt this critical trade area. Following the two major exercises the RFTG visited Valletta, Malta. HMS ILLUSTRIOUS hosted an ofcial reception attended by TRH the Earl and Countess of Wessex and the Maltese British High Commissioner. The reception preceded RFA MOUNTS BAY hosting HRH the Earl of Wessex in his role as Commodore in Chief of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. COUGAR 12 was a highly successful deployment, rekindling the amphibious capability and demonstrating the exibility, versatility and interoperability of the Royal Navy while forward deployed, ready for contingent operations. It strengthened strategic relationships with key UK allies and has furthered the UKs interests around the Mediterranean. It provided assurance and operationally versatile war-ghting capabilities that can ght independently or as part of a multi-national force.

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Royal Navy support to Afghanistan

From medics to infantrymen, helicopter crews to communications specialists, and logistics managers to explosive ordnance disposal experts, the Royal Navy contributes vast numbers of its personnel to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. Alan Dron reveals the full extent of the Senior Services participation in Operation HERRICK

W
The Royal Marines deployed to Afghanistan once again in 2012 as part of HERRICK 17

hen the Royal Navys 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde) deploys to Helmand province as it has done in 2006, 2009 and 2011, the Royal Navys presence in the Afghan theatre grows to more than a third of the British uniformed contingent. Furthermore, on the last three occasions that the Brigade was in Afghanistan, the Royal Navy took command of the Joint Force Medical Group (JFMG), which tends to the wounded during the campaign. The Royal Marines continue their support to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission even when 3 Cdo Bde has gone. In 2012, for

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The Royal Navy plays a prominent role in the Joint Force Medical Group, having led it on three occasions this decade

example, the 700-strong 40 Commando returned to the conict as part of Combined Force NES (the Nar-e-Saraj district of Helmand province), undertaking a six-month roulement during HERRICK 17 to an area that is still highly contested by the Taliban. However, it is frequently overlooked that the Royal Navys support to Afghanistan extends beyond the Royal Marines and the JFMG. As well as contributing infantry to the effort, a signicant portion of Royal Navy involvement in Afghanistan comes in the shape of helicopter support. Although most people think of the Lynx and Chinook (operated by the Army and RAF respectively) when helicopter support in Afghanistan is mentioned, Royal Navy Sea Kings are still an important part of the UKs helicopter force. Currently, 845 Naval Air Squadron (NAS) is supplying Sea King Mk4 troop carriers, while 857 NAS operates the Sea King Mk7 Airborne Surveillance and Control (ASAC) variant. 845 is one of two frontline Sea King squadrons of the Commando Helicopter Force. The Mk4, known as the Jungly after the Commando helicopter squadrons historic role in the 1960s Borneo campaign, is used to transport not only troops but also their supplies, and can carry loads as large as a Land Rover. The Mk7 ASAC uses its Searchwater 2000 radar, housed in its distinctive black inatable bag on the side of the fuselage, to track the movement of insurgents and pass intercept coordinates to friendly troops. A critical part of this work is dedicated to tracking down insurgents who plant the deadly Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) that have accounted for as much as 80 per cent of British casualties.

Although the Sea King is now an elderly design, a massive amount of modications have been made to allow them to operate effectively in hot weather and theyre now considered pretty capable in that climate, says Captain Mike Walliker. However, he adds, people forgot that Afghanistan could be extremely cold in winter, which meant the helicopters had to operate in climatic extremes. Other maritime support comes in the form of ships taken up from charter, which have Royal Fleet Auxiliary captains. At a level above individual posts there are a series of teams, including groups such as medics or members of the Fleet Diving Squadron. The latter provides a good proportion of bomb disposal and counter-IED operators in-country.
OTHER SUPPORT ROLES

The Royal Navys presence in Afghanistan takes many forms. Individual Reserve and Regular naval personnel serve in roles such as medical or communications specialists, or help to mentor and strengthen the Afghan National Army. Most of these individual posts are held by Royal Marines because of the nature of the campaign, but naval ofcers also handle joint-operations roles or rotational posts, doing jobs that just require a certain level of grey cells, such as planning, explains Captain Walliker. One such person was Commander Steve Tatham, ofcer in charge of 15 (UK) Psychological Operations (Psy Ops) Group.

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Its not often that a serving Royal Navy ofcer nds himself in charge of seven radio stations in a theatre of operations, but the personnel of the unit are using methods at the softer end of the effects base, as Captain Walliker puts it, in order to try and positively inuence Helmands population. The stations play a mixture of popular Afghan music and talk programmes, with residents invited to phone in and give their opinions of everything from the local healthcare and educational provision to politicians. They can even drop off requests for music in a special box stationed outside the camp gates. The overall aim is to promote civil society. Radio is an ideal way of doing this in an area where up to 80 per cent of the inhabitants is illiterate.
WINNING THE FIRMIN SWORD OF PEACE

The Navys rst high-threat IED operators train for a six-month deployment to Helmand Province

Tatham found himself on the BBC, explaining the role of 15 Psy Ops Group after it won the Firmin Sword of Peace award for its efforts. The Sword is given to the unit or establishment of each Service judged to have made the most valuable contribution to humanitarian activities by establishing good, friendly relations with the inhabitants of any community at home or overseas. Most of our work in Helmand is about talking to Afghans, and

Providing information that is demonstrably accurate can assist in giving local residents a more sympathetic view of foreign forces
explaining and encouraging them to engage in the debate about whats happening in their country, Commander Tatham explains. Although Afghans were aware that the radio stations were operated by ISAF, this did not dissuade them from listening in and participating. Just the opposite surveys have shown our radio stations are trusted and very popular indeed, because were not frightened to engage in discussion about difcult issues. We will happily take phone-ins about the state of governance, and about security. In fact, the Taliban ring in occasionally and we will engage in debate with them. Theyll ring in and complain that we shouldnt be discussing issues. And they will make veiled, or sometimes less-than-veiled, threats. Often theyll get engaged in forthright discussions with people, and its very useful because very quickly the lunacy of their position becomes blatantly transparent, and its an own goal for them, says Commander Tatham. Indeed, complaints from local residents rapidly followed whenever the stations went off air. Royal Navy reservist Lieutenant Gemma Winterton ran one of the stations, Radio Tamadoun (Radio Civilisation), in addition to producing leaets. Its about understanding behaviour and people, though were not psychologists, she told the BBC. One leaet campaign, for example, was to teach people in Helmand including children not to pull improvised explosive devices out of the ground, because it is a real problem out there. It all helps in trying to improve local
The Royal Navy continues to provide muchneeded helicopter support to the ISAF force in Afghanistan, including its Sea Kings

residents perception of ISAF. Even if it does not bring people round to ISAFs side, providing information that is demonstrably accurate can at least assist in giving them a more sympathetic view of the foreign forces providing assistance to the Afghan government. This just shows that Royal Navy personnel do not need anti-ship missiles or torpedoes to make an impact.

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Operation OLYMPICS

The part played by the UK Armed Forces in supporting the UK Police and other agencies to safeguard the London 2012 Olympics was the largest peacetime operation since the end of the Second World War. Simon Michell highlights the role of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Fleet Auxiliary in this massive undertaking

erhaps the most visible Royal Navy presence at the London 2012 Olympic Games was Lieutenant Pete Reed MBE, who retained the Gold he rst won in the 2008 Beijing Olympics competing in the coxless fours. Admirable as his efforts were, behind the scenes a further 2,600 sailors and marines were also making their presence felt, helping to ensure that the Summer sporting spectacular was played out safely and free from attack. There is no doubt that the London 2012 Games presented a compelling target for a number of terrorist organisations and from what the Royal United Services Institute dubbed Lone Wolf Terrorists, who had returned to Britain after ghting in places such as Afghanistan, Somalia and Yemen. There is precedence for this type of threat. Attacks have been made on the Olympics in the past, including the 1972 Munich Games, where Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and killed members of the Israeli team. There was also a reported potential plot to blow up a nuclear reactor during the Sydney Olympics. Holding a huge public event of this nature unfortunately carries considerable risk. That is why the armed forces were co-opted to help the police and other security elements to bring their particular expertise and equipment to the overall task of

protecting facilities and people. All in all, about 17,000 military personnel from the Royal Navy, British Army and Royal Air Force took part in Operation OLYMPICS, each applying their own specic specialities, but in an integrated and coordinated manner. The Royal Navy contributed a helicopter carrier, patrol ships, fast boats, helicopters, assault troops and divers. The Royal Navy contribution was perhaps the most wide ranging. At the sporting venues, some 1,000 sailors and marines provided physical security to complement the private security rm G4S, the Army, RAF and police. The Royal Navys largest ship, the helicopter carrier HMS OCEAN, was moored at Greenwich in the Thames having carefully edged its way past the iconic ood barrier to act as a maritime logistics hub in support of the police security operation. It was home to some 550 military personnel, including Royal Marine snipers as well as Fleet Air Arm and Army Air Corps Lynx helicopters. OCEAN was prepared for her Olympic deployment by Babcock under an extensive programme that included upgrades to fuel stowages and improvements to ight-deck communication systems to support ying operations, as well as extensive work on the accommodation facilities to prepare for the additional personnel that were hosted during the event. This was in addition to the installation of a London berthing arrangement, to allow the ship to moor up in the Thames and accept a large pontoon moored alongside with gangways providing access to the ship. OCEAN was, however, not the only naval vessel to come to the Thames. Three P2000 Archer-class patrol boats, HM Ships BLAZER, EXPRESS and PUNCHER took station on the river, as did Royal Marines offshore raiding craft and landing craft vehicle personnel, which provided deterrence and interception capabilities.

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The Laser Radials speed past HMS BULWARK as she guards Weymouth Bay

Further to its water-based support, the Royal Navy also participated in the complex air-security operations, including the air exclusions zones that were put in place during the events. While RAF Typhoon jets were on guard to intercept any potential attack from fast-moving aircraft, Royal Navy and Army Air Corps Lynx helicopters on board OCEAN were on hand with their sniper teams to take on slower-moving general aviation aircraft that might have been used to prosecute an attack from the air. These were complemented by air and ground crew from 854 Naval Air Squadron and their Sea King Mk7 airborne surveillance and control helicopters, with their powerful side-mounted radar that is able to detect both air and ground targets. The Mk7 Sea Kings were part of a layered defence system that included RAF E-3D Sentry AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System), as well as groundbased radar systems. While all this activity was going on above the waves, Royal Navy divers carried out underwater searches of key strategic locations ahead of the Olympic Torch otilla and throughout the games. They also helped out by retrieving any equipment that was inadvertently dropped overboard.
WEYMOUTH BAY SAILING REGATTAS

security command centre. From her operations room, the crew directed the movements of Royal Marines raiding craft and civilian launches and boats. In order to keep a close eye on what was happening in the waters in and around the Bay, live imagery was supplied by special cameras that were tted to Fleet Air Arm

The task in Weymouth Bay was to ensure that the regattas could take place without disruption. This was of a different order to the Thames work, which was carried out in a narrow strip of water, albeit along a long stretch from Greenwich to Dartford. At Weymouth, the Royal Navy assisted the Dorset Police, Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA), Royal National Lifeboat Institute (RNLI) and UK Border Agency (UKBA) in keeping watch over the busy sea lanes around the UKs south coast. The Royal Navy amphibious assault ship, HMS BULWARK, played host to the

The Royal Navys double Olympic Champion, Lt Pete Reed MBE, proudly displays the gold medals he won at Beijing and London

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HMS OCEAN, moored up on the river Thames during the Olympics, was used as a base for security operations

Merlin helicopters constantly on patrol overhead. Once the Olympics were over, BULWARK moved to Portland Harbour to act as the command centre for the security of the Paralympics.

Lynx helicopters on board HMS OCEAN were on hand with their sniper teams to take on slowermoving general aviation aircraft
One of the most remarkable features of the maritime element of Operation OLYMPICS was the role that was played by the newly established National Maritime Information Centre (NMIC), which was set up under the October 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review. Based at the Permanent Joint Headquarters in Northwood, London, NMIC was responsible for monitoring the

thousands of ships that transited the waters along the south coast over the duration of the Games. It then coordinated the distribution of information to the numerous agencies involved so that an efcient response could be undertaken. It is globally accepted that not only were the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games a resounding sporting success, but also the huge security operation that was put in place was exceedingly well planned, coordinated and executed. The Royal Navys part in this has been noted by the Brazilian Government, which has signed a cooperation agreement that will enable the Royal Navy to share its experience so that the Rio 2016 Games can benet from the lessons learnt. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, former First Sea Lord, commented on the agreement: The memorandum points out that there is an opportunity to work together, so that we can share the lessons that the Navy learned at the Olympics in London, and, professionally, allow companies to work together and share common practices to develop common skills, here in Brazil and in the United Kingdom.

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Operational Capability
Message from Rear Admiral Peter Hudson CBE, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Capability)

here is no doubt in my mind that the pace of Royal Navy (RN) operations is not going to ease over the next few years. If anything, it might well ramp up as the nations defence posture shifts from its main emphasis in Afghanistan, back to preparing our Armed Forces to meet the unexpected and unplanned a concept we call contingency. It is my role to make sure that the eet, in all its guises from submarines to aircraft, ships to Royal Marines is delivered with the best equipment that we can afford, so that when manned with the right people, trained to the right standards, we can meet and sustain that potential rise in tempo. I therefore welcome the changes which are due to be implemented this year, as a consequence of the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) and the recommendations of the Levene Report, which should enhance the RNs ability to control its destiny to a better extent than we have in the past. Having recovered from the bruising period that followed the 2010 SDSR we now have a clearer picture of what is demanded of us.

Accordingly, my team and I have an obligation to make sure that work under way to bring in new ships, to extend the lives of existing vessels, and to improve equipment and infrastructure supports the outputs demanded of us all to time, to cost and to the right level of performance. Despite the nancial constraints imposed across defence in this time of national austerity, we have still achieved numerous successes. The new hunter-killer submarines of the Astute class are getting ever closer to beginning their operational lives. The rst-of-class, HMS ASTUTE, is nearing the end of a comprehensive trials period and is expected to become fully operational early in 2013. HMS AMBUSH has joined her in the trials and she too will soon be ready for operations. The Daring-class Type 45 destroyer programme is nearing the end of the manufacture phase and already three have deployed on operations HM Ships DARING, DAUNTLESS and DIAMOND. Not only that, in 2012 we saw the completion of the new Upper Harbour Ammunition Facility at Portsmouth so that the Type 45s

On 5 July 2012, HMS DIAMOND replaced her sister ship, HMS DARING, on operations in the Persian Gulf

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as well as other vessels no longer have to visit Marchwood Port in Southampton to embark weapons. This 18 million investment will save money and improve the RNs operational capability in the future. Naturally, the biggest and most important build programme currently under way is for the new aircraft carriers. Here too, huge strides have been achieved and the rst of two ships, HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH, will be aoat in the not too distant future and shortly thereafter she will take to the seas to begin her own trials programme. The SDSR profoundly changed the shape of the Fleet Air Arm, with the helicopter eet reduced in size and the Harrier jet withdrawn from service. That said, the new F-35 Lightning II multi-role jet has begun its test phase and will join the rst carrier before the end of the decade. Moreover, the hugely impressive new Wildcat helicopter conducted landing trials on board HMS IRON DUKE in February 2012, aircrew training begins this year and the programme is well on track to fully enter service in early 2015. The delivery of the Seafox remotely controlled underwater vehicle to all mine-hunters was also completed in 2012. All this new kit cannot be put to best use if the sailors who operate it

transferred to the RN from the Royal Air Force into the shipoptimised Mk4 variant in order to compensate for the imminent retirement of the Sea King Mk4 eet. On the land, a contract with BAE Systems will put new life and improved systems into the Royal Marines eet of 99 Viking all-terrain vehicles that were so heavily used during a demanding four-year stint of service in Afghanistan. And, last but not least, with considerable work under way to develop a new generation of ballistic missile submarines, the process of establishing how to extend the lives of the existing four Vanguard boats has begun, so there is no risk of disruption to the Continuous At Sea Deterrent posture.
FUTURE CAPABILITIES

Despite the nancial constraints imposed across defence in this time of national austerity, we have still achieved numerous successes
have not been properly trained, so the launch of the Maritime Composite Training Systems (MCTS) at HMS COLLINGWOOD and in Devonport at the back end of 2011 has had an enormous impact on the ability of the Flag Ofcer Sea Trainings team to deliver the right quality of training for the service. It is an important facility that is already heavily used.
ENHANCING CAPABILITY

At the same time that new equipment has been introduced, much hard work has been undertaken to maintain the quality of some of our older systems, land-vehicles and aircraft so that they maintain a sharp edge, t for operations into the future. Upgrades to the MCM Force have included installing new Caterpillar engines in the rst of eight Hunt-class minehunters with the process very nearly completed on HMS CHIDDINGFOLD. The Type 23 frigates are in the midst of their own incremental upgrade and refurbishment process, with HMS IRON DUKE replacing her 996 radar with a brand new Artisan (997) radar, as well as a new command and control (C2) system. Like the Hunt-class, the Type 23s will shortly receive more capable, and efcient new engines and generators. They will also be tted with the new Sea Ceptor anti-missile missile installed to replace Seawolf and a series of upgrades to accommodation, defensive aids ts and guns. They will still be in service in the 2030s; therefore it is essential that appropriate investment in improving their capability is undertaken. In the air, the upgraded Merlin Mk2 anti-submarine warfare helicopters will re-enter service in 2013, and it is expected that we will commence the conversion of the Merlin Mk3 helicopters

Having spent the last two decades preparing for the introduction of replacements for our ageing attack submarines, air defence destroyers, aircraft carriers and assault ships, the Royal Navys capability, certainly in terms of equipment, has been transformed. If we are to maintain our position as one of the worlds most effective and capable maritime forces that process must continue. We are, therefore, now preparing for the design, build and introduction of the Type 26 Global Combat Ship to replace the Type 23s; thus preserving a exible, adaptable and efcient eet. Finally, as we get ready to welcome the new aircraft carriers at the end of the decade, we must ensure that we have the appropriate support vessels to supply the food, ammunition and solid stores that they will demand. Having signed the contract in February 2012 to build four new double-hulled tankers (the Tide class) for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA), we are now moving to phase two of the Military Aoat Reach and Sustainability (MARS) programme and looking at new vessels to replace the RFA Fort-class supply ships. Likewise, analysis will examine how to adapt to changes in the way that mine-warfare is conducted and how we can exploit the growth in underwater technology and commercial systems. Ultimately, the ships will need to be replaced, but in the interim we intend to radically reform the way in which we prosecute the mine threat. We are conducting this analysis in coordination with the French as part of the Mine Warfare, Hydrographic and Patrol Craft (MHPC) programme a further sign of the deepening relationship between our two navies.
TRANSFORMING THE ORGANISATION

I referred earlier to the Levene Report, which has had a transformational impact on the way the Armed Forces are organised to deliver military effect. The essence of these reforms means that the HQ will have a far greater say in the way it manages structures, capability, makes choices and assigns nancial resources, so that the custodians of the countrys maritime power have greater authority in how it should be delivered. The money will remain scarce, but alongside colleagues in Defence Equipment & Support, we believe we can deliver and sustain world-class capabilities, as is betting of a world-class Navy. Radical as these modications are, the RN has consistently proved it is capable of taking change in its stride and I am extremely condent that the maritime domain, which includes industry and the Ministry of Defence, will take up the challenge with the same enthusiasm, professionalism and good humour that I have witnessed throughout the last 12 months.

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Deploying a new class of destroyer


With the Type 45 Daring-class ships now entering service, Simon Michell provides a review and explains the formidable capability that these ships are already delivering to the United Kingdoms defence

A
HMS DRAGON, the fourth Type 45 destroyer, leaves the Clyde on her way to Portsmouth

s HMS EDINBURGH the last of the Royal Navys Type 42 destroyers comes to the end of her nal deployment, a new generation of destroyers has entered service. The six Daring-class Type 45 destroyers, three of which began operational deployments in 2012, are the most advanced surface ships the Royal Navy has ever operated, and bring with them a game-changing capability. Their core role is as air-defence warships, which means they protect task groups, individual ships, and even land-based facilities from enemy aircraft and missile attack.

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Third-in-class of the Type 45s, HMS DIAMOND, en route to the Gulf

They are, however, extremely versatile vessels that can handle a range of maritime tasks, from conventional warfare to general maritime security, anti-piracy, counter-narcotics, disaster relief and counter-terrorism duties. The Type 45s are equipped with 48 anti-aircraft missiles, known as Sea Vipers, for the core air-defence role. However, they also carry two short-range Phalanx anti-aircraft cannons, as well as two 30mm machine guns, Rigid Hull Inatable Boats, and a Lynx Mk8 or Merlin helicopter armed with anti-ship and antisubmarine weapon systems. These are complemented with an incredibly powerful radar system known as Sampson, and a computer-management system that links the radar, other sensors, communications and weapon systems together. Thanks to the powerful combination of this advanced technology they are also able to monitor and control aircraft in the air.
HMS DARING DEBUTS

HMS DARING integrated with the Combined Task Force 150, which is tasked with maintaining maritime security by combating, among other things, piracy and terrorism
the Suez Canal, into the Red Sea and the Gulfs of Aden and Oman. Once there, she joined in the international effort to ensure that the waters in one of the worlds most strategically important regions are constantly patrolled, always navigable, and that the illegal acts at sea that are a feature of this region are contained. HMS DARING integrated with the Combined Task Force 150, which is charged with maintaining maritime security by combating, among other things, piracy, terrorism, and the smuggling of humans, drugs, and weapons. As part of this force, DARING was able to introduce herself to the coalition navies from Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan and Yemen, and invite their crews on board to take a look around and receive a brieng on the ships capabilities.

Eleven years after she was ordered, nine years after the rst steel was cut, six years since she was launched and three years after she made her debut in Portsmouth, HMS DARING began her maiden operational deployment in January 2012. This voyage took her from Portsmouth through the Mediterranean Sea, down

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ASSURING THE UKS ENERGY SUPPLIES

The Gulf waters are extremely important to the United Kingdom and her allies, as they are home to the narrow Strait of Hormuz, which saw, according to Lloyds Maritime Intelligence Unit, an average of 17 million barrels of crude oil and petroleum products pass through it every day during 2011. It was therefore signicant that DARINGs routine deployment to the region coincided with a number of Iranian military exercises that were signposted by the Tehran government as practise runs for closing down the Strait and cutting off access to what equates to 20 per cent of the worlds energy supplies. The UK Defence Secretary Philip Hammond countered this threat by categorically stating that disruption to the ow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz would threaten regional and global economic growth. Any attempt by Iran to close the Strait would be illegal and would be unsuccessful. The international coalition partners would act to dismantle any blockade with the vast array of assets that are constantly at hand in the area. The Royal Navys presence may not be as large as the US engagement, but it is worth noting that the step change in technology on board DARING and her ability to simultaneously counter fast-jet and sea-skimming missiles is comparable to sending ve of the old Type 42 destroyers to the region. The time spent on the Gulf deployment also enabled the ship and her crew to operate as the air-defence element of the US Carrier groups that operate in the region. Notably, DARING integrated with the US aircraft carrier, USS Abraham Lincoln, while her F-18 fast jets were undertaking strike missions in Afghanistan. DARING assumed the responsibility of Air Defence Commander for the whole of the northern Arabian Sea, checking in and out some 141 aircraft missions in support of troops on the ground in Afghanistan.
ATLANTIC PATROL SOUTH

After 139 days, and 34,642NM, HMS DARING returns to her home base on completion of her maiden deployment

HMS DUNCAN is launched on the anniversary of the 1797 victory at the Battle of Camperdown over the Dutch by Admiral Duncan

In April 2012, while DARING was basking in the warm waters of the Middle East, the second-in-class of the Type 45s HMS DAUNTLESS set off on her maiden operational deployment to the icy waters of the South Atlantic. Skipping over to Lisbon rst, the ship then sailed to another of the worlds strategic hubs West Africa. Here she maintained the Royal Navys vital work of cooperating with the navies in the region to help them train up for maritime security duties. West Africa endures some of the same challenges as the Persian Gulf piracy, smuggling and terrorism. DAUNTLESS was able to share some of the Royal Navys long-held experience in this sort of work as she visited traditional allies such as Cape Verde, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. In addition to the security work, DAUNTLESS also played host to local dignitaries in order to cement national friendship and regional ties, and during her time in Ghana she also hosted a Defence and Industry day in support of UK industry. Having enjoyed the hospitality along the African coast, HMS DAUNTLESS set out on her next leg to the cold southern waters around the Falkland Islands, where she was to spend a period safeguarding the overseas territory, working alongside the British Army and Royal Air Force units that are stationed there. Meanwhile, the third-in-class, HMS DIAMOND, was preparing to set off on her maiden deployment to the Persian Gulf. This

gave her the opportunity to work with the Mk7 Sea King airborne surveillance helicopters. Combining the air surveillance capabilities of a Type 45 with the air and surface sensors of the Sea King Mk7 enables activities over a vast swathe of sea and air to be monitored, assessed and, if need be, addressed. By the end of 2012, half the Type 45 eet was operational and making a vital contribution to the UKs international defence posture. In 2013, the rest of the 45s, DEFENDER, DRAGON and DUNCAN will be pressing ahead with their preparations to join their sister ships as part of the UKs global maritime force.

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Royal Navy Ice Patrol ship, HMS PROTECTOR, helps British Antarctic Scientists establish a temporary camp on James Ross Island while they survey the surrounding waters

Surface vessels update

Guarding overseas territories in the Antarctic, Caribbean, and South Atlantic is a standing task that requires meticulous planning and cooperation with allied naval forces. Simon Michell uncovers the scope of this effort

THE CARIBBEAN ISLANDS

ritain has 14 overseas territories that it must protect and support especially in times of need. The majority of these territories are in the Atlantic Ocean. Loosely speaking, there are three basic groupings: the Caribbean (Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands); the mid-Atlantic (Ascension Islands, Saint Helena and Tristan Da Cunha); and the South Atlantic (Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands). In addition to these islands, Britain also has an Antarctic presence that primarily comprises climate scientists who man a number of research stations. Each of these groupings has their own specic needs, which the Royal Navy (RN) has been tasked by the government with supporting.

The RN and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) spend a lot of their time chasing drugs and hurricanes in the Caribbean. Each year, between April and October, the hurricane season can wreak havoc on the British Overseas Territories (BOTS). While 2012 was a relatively calm year for the British islands, mainland America suffered some serious damage particularly from hurricane Isaac that also hit Cuba and Haiti. In 2011, however, the Turks and Caicos Islands were devastated by hurricane Irene, which closed down the airport, cut-off power supplies and brought about severe ooding. On that occasion, the RFA fast-eet tanker WAVE RULER was on hand to bring in supplies and help with the rebuilding process. The RN and RFA are extremely adept at this type of disasterrelief work, and practise the drills on a regular basis. Exercise TRAFALGAR at the RN Collingwood training centre takes place twice a year in order to hone these skills. The last training programme in October 2012 was based around a mock-up of Santissima, Trinidad, and enabled new recruits to get a realistic

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RFA WAVE RULER resupplies a Royal Navy ship on guard duty over the Falkland Islands

HMS WESTMINSTER intercepts a dhow in the Indian Ocean attempting to smuggle 14 million worth of pure heroin

50 Royal Navy sailors help out on the Turks and Caicos Islands after hurricane Ike

feel for what a disaster operation is like. The exercise consisted of 10 stances that simulated a wide range of scenarios. These included patrol techniques, recovery of stranded personnel, damage to a hospitals infrastructure, resupplying tasks, and assistance to a major road trafc accident. When the storm season has passed and the seas are calmer, the drug runners ramp up their illegal trade in life-crippling narcotics. This black-market activity not only affects mainland North America, but also the UK. Vast amounts of crack cocaine from illegal South American drugs factories end up on the streets of Britain and contribute to the ruination and blight of neighbourhoods and lives. Countering the drugs barons across the world is something of which the RN has a long tradition, with the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean being a focus for much of the activity. Over the years, the RN and RFA have made some spectacular drugs busts. Countering the smuggling is a collective effort. Two key intelligence and coordination centres form the backbone in this struggle. Six years ago, the European Union established the

seven-nation Maritime Analysis and Operations Centre Narcotics (MAOC N) in Lisbon. The US Coast Guard runs the Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF) South from Florida. Much of the intelligence that is used to intercept the smugglers is channelled through these two establishments, and acted upon by a mixture of predominantly British, Dutch and US maritime forces. Anyone wanting to see what a drugs bust at sea looks like should watch the YouTube videos of HMS IRON DUKE, which also highlight the role that Prince William played in the operation.
PROTECTING THE FALKLANDS

When not undertaking disaster relief and counter-narcotics duties, the UK naval ships that patrol the Atlantic also take the opportunity to visit friendly countries to enhance international relations, help to boost trade and assist with, or participate in, their training programmes. On 4 April 2012, one of the RNs newest and most capable ships, the Type 45 destroyer HMS DAUNTLESS, made her maiden deployment to the Falkland Islands and other parts of the wider South Atlantic, 30 years after

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HMS DAUNTLESS sets out from Portsmouth to begin her maiden deployment to the South Atlantic

the 74-day armed conict to liberate the islands from the Argentine invaders. The protection of the Falklands is still very much a British priority, as the debate about her sovereignty tends to become quite heated from time to time. The current Argentine line is that they would like to see the Malvinas (as they call the islands) become part of Argentina. As if to emphasise this point, Argentinas President Kirchner claried her thoughts towards British sovereignty during a memorial service to the Argentine casualties of the conict, stating: Its absurd that they [the British] maintain sovereignty over islands that are 14,000km away. Las Malvinas are a national, South American and global cause.

A sustained commitment to the BOTS is not something that the British Government is prepared to withdraw from
The trip down to the Falklands was a gruelling test of the ships capabilities, as well as an opportunity to engage with other nations along the way. The rst half of the voyage took her down the west coast of Africa, where the ship and her crew were able to join in the international effort in another of the worlds piracy hot spots the Niger Delta. Activities of this nature highlight the range of uses that the ship can full. DAUNTLESS is a exible vessel, able to turn her hand to a range of humanitarian, soft-power projection and maritime-security tasks. In the words of the ships former Commander, Captain Will Warrender, she is more than just a platform to ght from.

The annual RN and RFA trips down to the South Atlantic are just one strand of the UK maritime commitment to the region, which see a number of ships rotating in and out of the waters. In 2012, HM Ships ECHO, EDINBURGH, MONTROSE and the nuclear-powered submarine HMS TALENT contributed to the effort, as did RFAs ARGUS and FORT ROSALIE. HM Ships CLYDE and PROTECTOR, however, offer a more persistent presence in the area. CLYDE, a modied River-class patrol ship, patrols the sea in and around the Falkland Islands for most of the year. With a larger ight deck than the other three River-class vessels, she is capable of providing air cover and aviation refuelling. Her crew also liaise with the troops stationed on the Falklands, and in September 2010 took the opportunity to train with them. In the same month, the RNs newly commissioned Ice Patrol Ship, HMS PROTECTOR, set sail on her second deployment, having just returned from her rst seven-month patrol in the summer. While in the Antarctic waters, HMS PROTECTOR played a major role in cementing relationships with an ally that is of growing importance to the UK Brazil. When a research centre manned by Brazilian personnel caught re on King George Island (one of the South Shetlands Group) with the loss of two lives, a 23-man team from the British ship went ashore to help douse the ames a skill that every RN sailor, not surprisingly, spends a lot of the time practising. The scope of the Atlantic and Antarctic activities is varied and often dangerous, but a sustained commitment to the BOTs is not something that the British Government is prepared to withdraw from. The many by-products of this mission are key to the UKs foreign policy and overseas-development ambitions. These patrols are part of a joined-up strategy to maintain Britains inuence in international affairs, while simultaneously ensuring the safety of the people who live in the BOTS.

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The Hydrographic Squadron on exercise off the Devon coast HM Ships ECHO, ENTERPRISE, GLEANER, ROEBUCK and SCOTT

The Royal Navys smaller vessels

Large, heavily armed warships always capture the publics imagination and steal the limelight from the smaller ships that rarely make it to the pages or screens of the national media. However, the Royal Navy has a variety of smaller vessels that are equally as busy as the big ones and carry out important tasks for the nation on a daily basis, but without the recognition they so richly deserve. Simon Michell highlights the range of specialist ships that ply their trade under the radar while working for the benet of us all

ore than 70 per cent of all sh landed in the European Union (EU) are caught in British waters, and at any one time there may be as many as 500 ships shing in the seas around our island. Over the past few decades it has become increasingly clear that the pressure on sh stocks is unsustainable and that the measures and regulations placed on these shing

vessels play a major role in the EUs attempts to rein in the relentless depletion of the stocks. It is all very well having rules and regulations, but they are meaningless if they are not enforced. The United Kingdom (UK) has numerous means of achieving enforcement, and a key plank in this strategy is the Royal Navys Fisheries Protection Squadron, which is the oldest frontline eet in the Royal Navy. Three River-class Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs), HM Ships MERSEY, SEVERN and TYNE, were specically built by Vosper Thorneycroft and launched between 2002 and 2003 in order to undertake this role. They are tasked with enforcing UK and European regulations. To do this, they patrol as far out as 200 miles from the English, Northern Irish, and Welsh coasts on behalf of the Maritime Management Organisation. Scotland, as with many other areas of national responsibility, has its own arrangements for undertaking this vital job. The men and women of the Fishery Protection Squadron are active at least 275 days a year. The work is varied but focuses on ensuring that nobody is getting away with outing the rules.

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Inspection teams board suspect vessels, often at night, to take a look at catches and verify that everything log books, licences, net sizes is as it should be. These teams have the authority to bring the captains to justice and escort their trawlers into a British port for a more thorough inspection.

THE P2000 ARCHER-CLASS FAST PATROL BOATS

Inspection teams board suspect vessels to take a look at catches and ensure that everything log books, licences, net sizes is as it should be
In September 2012, the Ministry of Defence completed a 39 million deal to purchase the three River-class OPVs after a decade of leasing them from BAE Systems. The trio, known as the Cod Squad, will serve for at least another 10 years and will be available for more than sheries protection, as they are very capable ships suited to a range of tasks. These include re ghting, search and rescue, humanitarian relief operations, and various security missions.

At just under 21 metres long, the Royal Navys 16 Archer-class P2000 Fast Patrol Boats (FPBs) are some of the smallest vessels in the eet. The primary role for 14 of them is to help train students in seamanship and navigation as part of the Universities Royal Navy Units (URNU). But again, like the River-class OPVs, they can turn their hand to more warlike duties when needs be. Two P2000 boats, DASHER and PURSUER, form the Faslane Patrol Boat Squadron, which stood up in March 2010 to protect the nations nuclear submarines as they move in and out of the River Clyde to and from the Faslane base in Scotland. Prior to that, they had been protecting the British Sovereign Bases on Cyprus. The URNU vessels can nd themselves hosting up to a dozen students from the UK universities that they support. Once on board the undergraduates are trained in some of the skills necessary to keep a ship at sea for at least a weekend. This often involves relatively long voyages and stopovers in European ports. During the 2012 Olympics, patrol boats BLAZER, EXPRESS and PUNCHER were deployed to the Thames to provide an extra layer of security alongside other Royal Navy ships. Further down south in Dorset, TRACKER, RAIDER and EXPLOIT helped to create the ring of steel around the sailing events off Weymouth.

MINE COUNTERMEASURES
The Royal Navy operates two types of the worlds most advanced mine hunters: the Hunt and Sandown classes. Their job is to use their high-denition sonar systems and other equipment to scour the sea for mines and explosives. These vessels are some of the busiest in the eet as, for more than six years, the Royal Navy has maintained a permanent mine-hunter presence in the Arabian Gulf to ensure that this vital waterway, through which roughly a quarter of the worlds seaborne-traded oil and gas is transported, is safe for shipping. Both the Hunt- and Sandown-class ships have recently received the brand new Seafox remotely controlled mine-disposal submersible that seeks out mines, and can also place a charge in order to neutralise them. This system was put through its paces during the 12-nation IMCMEX 12 (International Mine Countermeasures Exercise) that took place in September 2012. The eight Hunt-class reinforced plastichulled ships are based in Portsmouth, from where they regularly patrol the waters off the British Isles and further aeld, and are often called upon to make safe mines and other explosives that have lain on the seabed since the Second World War. The Hunt-class mine-hunter vessel, HMS BROCKELSBY, was active during the UN-mandated operation to protect civilians during the Libyan insurrection, and was called upon to make safe a mine that had been seeded by pro-Gadda forces. The seven Sandown-class minehunters, which form the Mine Counter Measures squadron 1 (MCM 1), carry out similar tasks. They are often to be found in the Mediterranean and Gulf. In 2012, Sandown-class HMS BLYTH took command of the NATO Standing Mine Countermeasures Group 2, which is on standby to respond to emergencies in the region.

Hunt-class mine-sweeper, HMS BROCKELSBY, sails out of the Clyde en route to sunnier climes

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PROTECTING GIBRALTAR

Even smaller than the Archer-class FPBs are the two Scimitarclass patrol boats that form the core of the Royal Navy Gibraltar Squadron (RNGS) HM Ships SABRE and SCIMITAR. At just under 16 metres long and displacing only 24 tonnes, they are well suited to the congested waters at the western opening of the Mediterranean. Not only do they provide force protection to visiting Royal Navy and coalition ships, they also keep a close eye on what is going on around the shores of the Rock and the Strait of Gibraltar joined in this vital work by three Pacic Rigid Inatable Boats (RHIBs). There is plenty for the squadron to do, and when not carrying out their regular duties they are available to support training exercises taking place in the region. When the Royal Navys latest destroyer, HMS DARING, paid a visit to Gibraltar in January 2012, SCIMITARs crew was tasked with ensuring that her transit in and out of the anchorage was safe. Before DARING left, the patrol boat made a dawn sweep with one the squadrons inatables to make sure that there were no nasty surprises laying in wait. Having cleared the water, she and the RHIB then put the destroyer to test by simulating a series of terrorist fast patrol attacks; the sort of danger that might present itself during her future deployments.

HMS SCIMITAR from the Royal Navy Gibraltar Squadron speeds past the Rock

SURVEY AND ICE PATROL VESSELS


For centuries, the Royal Navy (RN) has surveyed the seas and oceans, producing highly accurate charts to enable its warships and commercial shipping to sail without fear of hitting obstacles lurking unseen beneath the waves. The information gathered by these ships is shared with the UK Hydrographic Ofce, which produces the world-famous paper and electronic charts that are used throughout the worlds navies and commercial eets. The smallest of the survey ships is the 14m inshore survey vessel, Her Majestys Survey Motor (HMSM) GLEANER the only RN vessel that has visited Switzerland, having navigated her way up the Rhine. Other RN survey ships are much larger and range from the 90-metre HMS ECHO to the 131-metre HMS SCOTT the RNs only ocean-survey vessel and fth largest ship in the RN eet. The former, HMS ECHO, is not only a state-of-the-art oceanographic and bathymetric (water/salinity analysis) data gatherer, but she is also capable of supporting the mine and amphibious warfare operations. Together, the RNs survey ships maintain a relentless process of updating RN charts to keep in touch with the changing shape of the ocean and seabeds, as well as the sudden appearance of man-made obstacles, including shipwrecks. As the situation around the waters of the Persian Gulf is becoming ever more uncertain,
Royal Navy Hydrographic vessel, HMS SCOTT, moored off Port Lockroy in the Antarctic

HMS ENTERPRISE spent much of 2012 analysing the seabed to ensure that it is safe to transit. In addition to these survey vessels, the RN also leases the survey and ice patrol ship, HMS

PROTECTOR, which patrols and surveys the Antarctic and South Atlantic, maintaining a UK presence off the Falkland Islands and supporting the international community in the region.

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

AMETEK SCP and BAE Systems proudly support the Royal Navy

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The Submarine Service


Message from former Rear Admiral Submarines, Ian Corder

ith the 2011 conict in Libya, ongoing operations east of Suez, the enduring requirements of Continuous at Sea Deterrence (CASD), other operational patrols and a plethora of trials and training, these past 12 months have been as busy and demanding for the submarine service as any I can remember. Against such an unremitting operational tempo, the very rst thing I want to do is stress just how much the performance of our people on these operations continues to surpass all expectations. As I meet the crews returning home after long and gruelling

periods under the sea, it is clear to me that everyone understands the relevance of their missions and how they benet not just the security of the United Kingdom, but also that of our partners, allies and friends. Over the past year, Royal Navy submarines have played a vital part in monitoring and patrolling unstable and volatile maritime real estate all over the globe, while delivering assured, credible and sustainable deterrence through both conventional and nuclear weapon systems. While all our crews, across both the SSBN (Trident nuclear deterrent) and SSN (strike and hunter-killer) forces, are working extremely hard and spending

HMS VANGUARD returns to her home port of Faslane on the Clyde

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The Royal Navy is building seven nuclearpowered Astute-class attack submarines

The rst in our new class of hunterkillers, HMS ASTUTE, continues to make very satisfactory progress on her sea trials
a very considerable portion of their lives away from home and family, I cant overstate the extraordinary level of professionalism, commitment and determination I see them display day in, day out. Sticking with this theme of people, late 2011 saw the decision taken to open up service in submarines to females. This decision, which will now ensure that we are able to recruit tomorrows submariners from the very best of both genders, was taken after exhaustive research to ensure that this can be done without any undue risk to physical health. We are now absolutely condent we can press ahead and start the process. Consequently, the rst female ofcers have now been provisionally identied and will begin their training shortly. I expect them to be reporting onboard their rst submarine, a Vanguard-class SSBN, towards the end of

2013. I rmly believe that this is an exciting moment for the submarine service, and welcome the clear commitment by those currently serving to make it a keen success. Moving to the specics of operations, the SSBN force has now maintained continuous deterrent patrols under Operation RELENTLESS for 44 years without a single break. The four SSBNs of the Vanguard-class are rapidly approaching their 100th patrol and should achieve that milestone in early 2013 the year that, coincidently, also marks the 50th anniversary of the Polaris Sales Agreement between the UK and the US. Within the 2012 patrol cycle, HMS VIGILANT successfully emerged from her long overhaul and refuel in Devonport and was rmly on track to re-join the operational cycle. As far as the operational SSN force is concerned, the Trafalgarclass boats have continued to perform with distinction. Their contribution to Operation Ellamy off Libya was particularly noteworthy. Not only did HMS TRIUMPH launch numerous operational Tomahawk Land Attack Missile strikes against strategic pro-Gadda targets, but between them, TRIUMPH and TURBULENT maintained continuous patrols off the coast for the next ve months. Signicantly, it was a Royal Navy submarine that rst detected attempts by Gadda forces to seed the waters off their coastline with mines that, if successful, could have seriously impacted efforts to get much-needed humanitarian supplies to the population. Sadly, this year has also seen the departure from service of HMS TURBULENT the second of our T-Class SSNs to enter service after 28 distinguished years in service. She completed her nal few months in commission as she would have wished: on frontline operational patrol. Looking to the future, it is also pleasing to note that the rst in our new class of hunter-killers, HMS ASTUTE, continues to make very satisfactory progress on her sea trials, and remains on track to enter operational service in the middle of 2013. It is hugely exciting to see the impressive new capabilities of the Astute class becoming more obvious every day we operate them at sea. Second-in-class HMS AMBUSH will benet greatly from our experiences with her elder sister and will enter operational service close on her heels. Complementary to the introduction of the Astute class, and every bit as important for the future of the submarine community, is the geographical consolidation of the submarine force through the Submarine Centre of Specialisation in Faslane. Here too plans remain rmly on track; we intend to have all operational submarines based there by 2017, and will work to optimise supporting infrastructure accordingly. But returning to where I started, all these truly impressive results are only possible through the hard work and persistence of our men (and shortly women) and the support of their families. Accordingly, we are taking great pains to ensure sufcient recruitment, training and operational opportunities to man the service, while also offering the best possible conditions of employment and career progression. Over the past years we have put in place a number of measures to encourage capable and committed young people into the submarine service and then to retain them. Jetty bulges in the training pipeline have been aggressively attacked, and although challenges remain, I am condent that we are ensuring the smooth ow of the brightest and best to man tomorrows submarine service.

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The second Astute-class attack submarine, HMS AMBUSH, sails into Her Majestys Naval Base Clyde for the rst time

Patrolling the seas

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The Royal Navy operates three classes of submarine the Trafalgar, the Astute and the Vanguard. Alan Dron takes a look at each class and reviews the process of preparing for the next generation of ballistic missile submarines to ensure the Continuous at-Sea Deterrent is maintained under Operation RELENTLESS

ew weapon systems are more exible than submarines. Not only can they switch between multiple missions like surface warships but, uniquely, a potential adversary need only believe a submarine may be in the vicinity for that suspicion to alter his strategic or tactical thinking. The Royal Navy (RN) is in the process of renewing its nuclear-powered Fleet submarines (known colloquially as hunter-killer boats), and is taking the rst steps towards replacing the vessels that carry the nations nuclear deterrent. At present, the RN elds three classes of submarine. The Trafalgar-class Fleet submarine has been in service since the 1980s and will gradually be replaced by the Astute class, the the rst of which is currently undergoing trials. The Vanguard class is the platform for the Trident D5 nuclear deterrent; early engineering work is under way for the so-called Successor class that will replace the Vanguard from 2028. Five Trafalgars remain in service, four of which are tted with the world-leading Sonar 2076 for their anti-submarine (ASW) and anti-surface vessel (ASUW) warfare roles. While ASW and ASuW tasks remain important for the Trafalgar class, since the end of the Cold War they have increasingly been used in support of maritime joint operations. These vessels have red Tomahawk cruise missiles against targets in conicts ranging from Kosovo to Afghanistan, and the Second Gulf War to Libya. Apart from Tomahawk, the Trafalgars primary weapon is the Spearsh torpedo. Mines can be carried in lieu of other weapons. As they reach the end of their operational lives they will be replaced by the Astute class, seven of which will be built. HMS ASTUTE is 75 per cent through her sea trials, says Captain David Pollock, deputy assistant chief of staff underwater (mine-hunting, hydrography and anti-submarine warfare). Shes obviously had an extensive series of sea trials, undertaking key rst-of-class work as well as checking her own systems are certied and capable. AMBUSH, the second of the class, was around 18 months behind her when launched, but she wont have to do all of the trials ASTUTE is undertaking, so they will enter service within a couple of months of each other, in early to mid 2013. Three further examples ARTFUL, AUDACIOUS and ANSON are under construction, while the rst items have been ordered for the sixth submarine. The nal Astute is due to enter service in 2024.

At 7,400 tons dived, the Astute class is the largest Fleet submarine ever to serve with the RN, at nearly 30 per cent larger than the Trafalgars. Its powerplant is the Rolls-Royce PWR2 reactor, which will not require refuelling throughout its entire service career. As part of her sea trials, ASTUTE undertook a 142-day deployment to North America in 2012. She sailed 16,400 miles, deep dived, took part in exercises against the US Navys newest Virginia-class hunter-killer, the USS New Mexico, and red both torpedoes and missiles. Her then commanding ofcer, Commander Iain Breckenridge OBE, says: We red off four Tomahawks aimed at a corner of Eglin Air Force Base (Florida) to test for accuracy, and we red six Spearsh torpedoes, including the rst salvo ring by a British submarine for 15 years. We met and surpassed every expectation. This is a submarine of tremendous capability. The RN intends to move both the Astute and Trafalgar classes to Faslane from Devonport. All RN submarines will be based at Faslane by 2017, together with the Sandown-class Mine Counter Measure vessels that ensure the safety of the Firth of Clyde approaches to the Faslane base. HM Submarines soubriquet of The Silent Service is never better illustrated than by the activities of the Vanguard class, which undertakes the UKs nuclear-deterrent patrols. For obvious reasons, little is divulged of the activities of the four boats that undertake lengthy patrols as the ultimate guarantors of the UKs national security. VANGUARD, VICTORIOUS, VIGILIANT and VENGEANCE can each carry 16 Trident D5 ballistic missiles, with each missile capable of carrying 12 warheads, although under 2010s Strategic Defence and Security Review, the UK government has capped the number of missiles carried at eight and the number of warheads at 40. In autumn 2012, VIGILANT successfully launched an unarmed Trident D5 in the rst test ring for three years, to conrm the credibility of the deterrent. Known as bombers (rather than boomers as they are termed in US Navy parlance), at 15,900 tons dived the Vanguards have almost exactly twice the displacement of the latest Type 45 destroyers and are as long as helicopter and commando carrier HMS ILLUSTRIOUS. In 2012, VIGILANT emerged from its three-year Long Overhaul Period (Refuel), with VENGEANCE taking her place for her refuelling and modernisation at Devonport. The Vanguards will be operational well into the 2020s. Such is the lead time required

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A Vanguard-class submarines crew ensures the nations nuclear deterrent is always ready

The Trafalgar-class attack submarine, HMS TRENCHANT, begins another patrol

The MoD has placed a 600 million contract with Rolls-Royce to produce new reactor cores for the nal Astute-class hunter-killer, AJAX
to produce replacements the Successor class that early work on doing so is under way, with several major developments in this process taking place in 2012. In May, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) awarded 350 million worth of contracts for design work on the Successor to BAE Systems, Babcock and Rolls-Royce. Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond says that this was an important step towards renewing the UKs nuclear deterrent. As part of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition agreement, a nal decision on replacing Trident will not be taken until 2016, after the next general election. However, design work has to start now in order to meet the planned in-service date if the decision to go ahead with the replacement is taken. The MoD has placed a 600 million contract with Rolls-Royce to produce new reactor cores for the nal Astute-class hunterkiller, AJAX, as well as the rst of the Vanguard-class replacements. The Rolls-Royce deal secures 300 jobs and funds an 11-year refurbishment of the defence rms plant at Raynesway in Derby. Replacing the existing infrastructure with state-of-the-art nuclear reactor core-production facilities will cost around 500 million. Announcing the contract, Hammond said: Having balanced the MoDs books we can now invest in vital strategic capabilities to meet the present and future defence needs of the UK. October 2012 saw an additional 350 million worth of funding for the next stage of design work for Successor class announced.

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The United Kingdoms nuclear deterrent


The Royal Navy has been entrusted to deliver the United Kingdoms nuclear capability through its Continuous at-Sea submarine patrols under Operation RELENTLESS. Peter Long reviews the current state of the programme and reveals the next step in this critical national-defence concept

The Royal Navy is the UKs sole operator of the nations Trident II intercontinental ballistic missile

he Royal Navy has made key moves in maintaining the Vanguard class of submarines that delivers a continuous at-sea deterrence, while the government has announced major investments to prepare for a decision on a future eet of nuclear missile boats. HMS VIGILANT, a ballistic missile submarine (SSBN), completed in late October a successful test ring of an unarmed Trident II D5 missile at a US test range off the coast of Florida. It was a signicant step in bringing back VIGILANT into the operational cycle, says Commander Jon Boyle. The test was a rst ring of a Trident missile by a Royal Navy submarine in three years, and marked a major step for the Vigilant after a big ret. VIGILANT went into a major overhaul at Devonport Naval Base three years ago under a 350 million contract with Babcock Marine. After some 2.2 million man hours, the 15,000-ton submarine returned to service in June 2012 with a new Rolls-Royce-designed core reactor, improved strategic weapons equipment, and a tactical weapons-command system. The boat and crew are working up to full readiness after the ret, Commander Boyle conrms. HM Ships VANGUARD, VICTORIOUS, and VIGILANT have now undergone ret, which has included installing a new core reactor, designed to provide fuel for life, according to Commander Boyle. The fourth in the Vanguard class, HMS VENGEANCE, went into ret in Spring 2012 and will be out of service for three and a half years while the Babcock

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HMS VANGUARD, launched in 1992, is the oldest of the four bombers in the Royal Navys nuclear deterrent force

Marine team work on a similar 350 million overhaul. The new core reactor that is being installed in the V-class missile boats is the same as that being tted in the Astute nuclear-powered attack (SSN) submarines. The seven hunter-killer boats in the Astute class are vital to the nuclear-deterrent force, as they act as escorts and are used to train personnel to crew the missile submarines, nicknamed bombers. The Astute programme received a boost when the government announced on 10 December 2012 2.7 billion of investment, with a 1.2 billion contract for BAE Systems to build HMS AUDACIOUS, the fourth boat, and a further 1.5 billion towards early-build work on boat ve, ANSON, and long-lead items for the sixth and seventh submarines, as yet unnamed. The Vanguard class is expected to stay in service until 2028, and work is being done to prepare for a replacement the Successor boats. We are making progress in the Assessment phase to enable the government to make its decision in 2016,

says Commander Boyle. A Main Gate decision in 2016 will be the key move by the government to launch construction of the new generation Successor SSBN boats. Commander Boyle is happy to conrm that the assessment phase is going to plan. Studies in the early design phase known as Initial Gate are being done to prepare for a launch decision. The work allows orders to be placed for long-lead items so the rst new Successor missile boat can be delivered in 2028 as planned. As part of the stream of preparatory work, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) awarded on 29 October 2012 a 315 million contract to BAE, at Barrow, for further design and development on the Successor project. The design phase is gathering momentum, and behind the scenes we are working hard to maintain this by ensuring we have the correct skills and resources in place, BAE Systems Maritime Submarines Managing Director John Hudson said at the time. The October contract followed a 328 million design contract awarded in May 2012 to BAE Systems Maritime.

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Also as part of the work to prepare for the 2016 decision, the MoD signed an 11-year contract for around 1.1 billion with Rolls-Royce Power Engineering for its nuclear reactor core facility at Raynesway in Derby. Treaty obligations and security considerations necessitate the maintenance of an indigenous reactor-core production capability to support the UKs nuclear submarine otilla, Secretary of State for Defence Philip Hammond said in a written statement to parliament in June 2012. Around 500 million will go towards regenerating the Raynesway site, with a rebuild of the facilities. The site has built all of the Royal Navys nuclear reactor cores since the rst nuclear boat, HMS DREADNOUGHT, but new facilities are needed to meet safety standards set by the Ofce of Nuclear Regulation. The remaining 600 million is earmarked for maintaining reactor-core production at the site until March 2023. The facility will build the reactor cores for the Astute and Successor boats.

One of the decisions in the next parliament will be the requirement for a future nuclear warhead to replace the payload on the Trident D5 Missile from Lockheed Martin
One of the decisions in the next parliament will be the requirement for a future nuclear warhead to replace the payload on the Trident II D5 missile from Lockheed Martin. The Atomic Warfare Establishment, Aldermaston, plays a key role in the nuclear warhead. It is involved in everything from design and component manufacture through to service support, decommissioning and disposal. Although government owned, the Atomic Warfare Establishment is managed under a contractor-operated arrangement, with a consortium equally owned by Lockheed Martin, Jacobs Engineering and Serco. The government awarded an initial 10-year contract to AWE Management Ltd in 2000, which now runs to March 2025. As part of a responsible stewardship of the stock of warheads, British engineers will work with French counterparts under the Teutates project at the Valduc site, near Dijon in central France. The project, which uses high-powered lasers and underwater effects to model the behaviour of warheads, is part of maintaining and demonstrating the effectiveness of the deterrence. For the government, the nuclear deterrent is seen as a core capability. The governments position on this is very clear, said Hammond on 29 October 2012. We are committed to maintaining a continuous deterrent, based on the Trident missile. He went on to reassert that the strategic nuclear deterrent is a vitally important part of our defence. It is the ultimate guarantee of our independence and our freedom. It costs us overall, year-on-year, about six per cent of the total defence budget, and that buys us the ultimate guarantee.

Royal Marines escort HMS VICTORIOUS as she departs Her Majestys Naval Base Clyde

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The Astute build programme is back on schedule

Astute: bringing a new class of submarine into service

BAE SYSTEMS

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The story of Britains new generation of nuclear-powered attack submarines, the Astute class, highlights a maxim a nation that is capable of desiging and building the most complex machine that mankind has ever invented, should not allow the people who hold that knowledge to leave without rst passing it down. Christina Mackenzie explains

n 1999, the Vanguard-class ballistic-missile submarine programme came to an end, and from that moment the UKs submarine design and build know-how began to dissipate, explains Commander Stuart Capes, Submarine and Anti-Submarine Capability Manager. The challenges faced by the Astute programme that followed on from the Vanguard project are largely attributable to this loss. To make good this loss, a plan was put in place to ll the gap. Prime contractor BAE Systems acquired a computer-aided design system, CADSS5, in the US to help put the programme back on schedule. Another strand to the plan was to buy in some of the know-how that was lost from the US. Consequently, General Dynamics Electric Boat Division was awarded contracts in 2003 and 2004 worth $196.8 million (122.4 million) in order to support the project team with submarine design, production and construction expertise. The overall result is that the programme is now back on track, and the rst boat, HMS ASTUTE, will be fully operational in mid 2014 about nine years later than originally expected. Currently, the two submarines at sea, ASTUTE and AMBUSH, have not yet been operationally handed over to the Royal Navy. The third vessel ARTFUL is scheduled to come out of the shipyard at the end of 2014, with AUDACIOUS, ANSON, AGAMEMNON and AJAX following at two-year intervals, replacing, on a one-for-one basis, the Trafalgar-class submarines. The plan is to get the seven delivered before building begins on the Successor Project to replace the four Trident missile-carrying Vanguard-class submarines, says Commander Capes, adding that the expectation is that each of the four Vanguards will be replaced. That will keep the UKs core submarine industry going until 2035. The October 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review slowed the Astute production schedule down to avoid producing another gap in the submarine construction industrys design/manufacturing roster, which had become likely due to delays in the Successor programme. The Review therefore extended the build time for the Astute programme by a further 96 months, including a 13-month deferral of boat four AUDACIOUS. There is an impact to this decision that has not gone unnoticed by the National Audit Ofce, which reported that the downside of this

extension is that the Royal Navy will have to use older boats beyond their out-of-service dates, work the smaller eet of Astute submarines harder, or reduce scheduled activity for submarines. Put another way, the Astute-class submarines may not meet the Royal Navys requirement for sufcient numbers of submarines to be available for operations over part of the next decade.
WELCOMING WOMEN ABOARD

Today, the ASTUTE and AMBUSH boats are undergoing sea trials managed by BAE Systems, but crewed by the Royal Navy. Handover of both vessels is expected in the middle of 2013. They will then be truly naval vessels, exclaims Commander Capes. The 7,000-ton, 97-metre long boats can be crewed with a minimum of 98 men, with a full contingent comprising 138 people. In what has become a historic decision, women will be allowed

To undertake their antisurface, anti-submarine and land-attack missions, attack boats have a total of 38 weapons aboard: Tomahawk missiles and Spearsh wireguided torpedoes
to become crew members of Royal Navy submarines by the end of 2013. They will crew the Vanguardclass submarines rst, but from 2016, after modications are made to the sleeping and wet-room/toilet areas, they will be welcomed onto the Astute class. Commander Capes points out that it is, not surprisingly, very sparse aboard a submarine. That said, however, these boats are a step change from the Trafalgar class because they are much stealthier and quieter. Even if the main role of the Astute is not to remain permanently hidden and silent in order to deliver a nuclear missile that role is played by the Vanguard-class nuclearpowered ballistic missile submarines considerable investment in time and money has been made to achieve noise quietening. So, for example, Astute does not have a traditional external propeller, but

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The 7,400-tonne attack submarine HMS AMBUSH sails into her homeport at Faslane

Naval ratings undergo rigorous training at the Astute Training Facility in preparation for operations

BAE Systems Maritime Submarines massive Astute production facilities at Barrow-in-Furness

rather an encased one that acts more like a turbine. This enables the boat to travel through the water at speeds of up to 30 knots. Another difference is that this is the rst UK submarine that has no hull-penetrating mast. The optronic mast replacing the traditional periscope has two digital cameras with thermal and low-light imaging options. However, the whole concept behind these vessels is found in their generic name: attack boats. To undertake their anti-surface, anti-submarine and land-attack missions they have a total of 38 weapons aboard: Tomahawk missiles and Spearsh wire-guided torpedoes kept in six torpedo tubes. The Tomahawk was rst test red from HMS ASTUTE in November 2011. But the single most important element aboard is the sonar so important that: We wont go to sea if it doesnt work, according to Commander Capes.

During the boats expected operational life, which is about 25 years, the nuclear-fuel cells will never have to be recharged or changed. And, because the vessel does not need refuelling, its range is limited only by the amount of food and drink that can be carried aboard, which is about 90 days worth. Like all vessels in the Royal Navy, there is an expectation that the Astute-class submarines will be further modernised over their service lives. For example, if and when even more advanced sonars, missiles and torpedoes become available, they could be tted into the Astutes, ensuring that the UK Submarine Service will be able to provide the UKs strike capability for many years to come, as Commander Iain Breckenridge OBE, HMS ASTUTEs commanding ofcer in November 2011, proudly explained.

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The Royal Marines


Message from the Commandant General Royal Marines, Major General Ed Davis CBE

fter 17 months in post as Commandant General, my judgment is that the Royal Marines continues to be recognised as one of the countrys nest institutions and the UKs premier land-warghting force. We are in good shape. Every day those who matter, be they politicians, military chiefs or, vitally, the British public, never cease to be impressed by the quality and dedication of the steely, smiley boys and girls who make our Corps so unique; attributes they continue to vividly demonstrate day in, day out. Whether the people of this country are exposed to the unyielding endeavours of 40 Commando, now two-thirds through their third six-month tour in Afghanistan; or 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group and 539 Assault Squadrons rogue craft interdiction capability in support of the police during last summers London Olympic Games; or the outstanding grading achieved by Commando Training Centre in a recent OFSTED inspection; or the national triumph that was the Royal Marines Band Services performance throughout Her Majestys Diamond Jubilee celebrations, their ethos, spirit and skill continue to ensure

that the reputation of the Royal Marines has never been greater. It is a much-envied reputation that we must guard tenaciously in the knowledge that the Corps exists today, indeed ourishes today, not because of who we, the Royal Marines, know we are, or what we know we can do, but because of who the people of our nation believe we are and what they believe we can do. Conceptual, physical and moral challenges lie ahead; especially as our nation copes with the human and institutional fallout from the Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns. Over the past 12 years the Corps has overcome relentless pressure. Forever changed by the experience, hundreds of returning Royal Marines and their families face long-term, life-changing physical and mental health issues. As a Corps and as a nation, we have no greater responsibility than meeting the through-life needs of each and every one of these seless Commandos who gave their all to secure our nations future. We must heed the words of former US President George Washington when he counselled: The willingness with which our young people are likely to serve in any war, no matter how justied, shall be directly proportional to how they perceive the

Royal Marines conduct an amphibious assault as part of Exercise ALBANIAN LION

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Royal Marines join the Second Infantry Regiment of the French Marine Corps on Exercise CORSICAN LION

Veterans of earlier wars were treated and appreciated. Alongside looking after our injured Royal Marines and their families, the overriding national and defence challenge is to plot an assured course through the greatest period of austerity in over a generation: austerity not just in our time, but for our time. Accordingly, since the last Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR), the Corps has been playing its part in the pan-Defence endeavour to balance the books, and thus establish the resource baseline for contingency operations in the post-Afghanistan era.

Keeping the quality and belief of our people as the Corpss centre of gravity, we will learn the relevant lessons and address our shortfalls exposed by the past 12 years
As this work matures we are increasingly able to focus on delivering what we can afford, rather than dening what we can afford. Between now and the next SDSR in 2015, we need to map out the blueprint for how the Royal Marines will need to evolve to remain at the heart of our nations ability to respond to crises both at home and abroad. Set in a context where defences contribution to the national well-being is shifting from long-term occupation to short-term intervention, I envisage the Corps operating as part of the Naval Services Response Force Task Group (RFTG) in a

mutually supported/supporting manner, with the leading elements of Army and RAF Responsive Forces occupying the capability gap between Special Forcess discretion and the Armys mass. This is something we have done successfully for many years in partnership with the amphibious forces of countries such as the US, the Netherlands and France. I would argue that the RFTG has already proven its unique utility in the post-Afghanistan era through its contribution to NATOs Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR during the Libyan National Transitional Councils ght to remove Colonel Gadda from power and, more recently, through its provision of in-extremis military support to the police on the Thames or in Weymouth Bay during the 2012 Olympics. This will entail change something that the Royal Marines have always been good at. Change, not in the fundamentals of the Commando Distinction as forged at the Commando Training Centre, maybe not even in what we deliver, but certainly in how and with whom we deliver it. Keeping the quality and belief of our people as the Corpss centre of gravity, we will learn the relevant lessons and address our shortfalls exposed by the past 12 years of ghting in Iraq and Afghanistan. And, having worked hard to retain our core amphibious skills throughout, I judge it will not take the Royal Marines long to be able to apply them to the maritime power projection operations at sea and from the sea that we will inevitably be asked to conduct in response to emerging crises on the global stage. Our ultimate objective as we approach our 350th birthday in 2014 is a Royal Marines Corps still at the forefront of keeping our nation and its people safe and prosperous. I look forward to achieving this objective with anticipation and condence.

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A Royal Marine from 4 Assault Squadron stands guard aboard HMS BULWARK during the Response Force Task Group COUGAR 12 deployment

Reforming the LCG into the RFTG


Simon Michell explores how the regeneration of the Marines amphibious role is progressing in terms of its integration with the Response Force Task Group and the Anglo-French Combined Joint Expeditionary Force
lives of the Afghan people and have been a key element of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) coalition, which is helping to stabilise one of the worlds most dangerous places. The unintended consequence of that decision, however, is that if you take maritime warriors away from their spiritual home the water for prolonged periods, you run the risk of turning them into just another light infantry battalion. This is not what they are intended for, nor is it what the taxpayer expects from their hard-earned money. The challenge, therefore, has always been to try and retain a seed-corn cadre of marines who retain that specialist skill of ghting from and at the sea, while also supporting the Afghan mission. This has become an even more pressing requirement with

egularly deploying the Royal Marines to the frontlines of the inhospitable terrain of land-locked Afghanistan was an uncompromising act of national commitment. The UK was willing to face down the Taliban with some of its ercest and most able soldiers. The fact that the Royals have fought with distinction is in no doubt. They have made a huge impact on the

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The Lead Commando Group trains with French Marines on the Island of Corsica during the COUGAR 12 deployment

the recent standing up of the Response Force Task Group (RFTG) eet of assault ships, frigates, destroyers, submarines and support vessels that make up the nations primary crisis-response force. The RFTG concept was validated in 2011 when, on its rst deployment COUGAR 11 the eet was re-tasked to support Operation ELLAMY, the UKs contribution to the UNmandated Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR, to safeguard Libyan civilians from pro-Gadda forces. Although the RFTG is a joint effort that draws upon both sister services signicantly the British Army and its Apache land-attack helicopters from 656 Squadron Army Air Corps the main land-assault component comes from the Royal Marines Lead Commando Group (LCG), which has been mandated by the

British Government to remain at very high readiness. That is to say that it must be able to deploy within ve days of tasking. The LCG is drawn from one of the three Commando (Cdo) units that make up the core infantry capability, 3 Commando Brigade. The two that are not acting as the very high-readiness element cannot relax as they must be able to deploy within 20 days. According to Major General Ed Davis CBE, Commandant General Royal Marines: Throughout the 10 years of campaigning in Iraq and Afghanistan, we have worked very hard to maintain this seed-corn amphibious capability, and our ability to bring together an effective maritime ghting force in quick time. Over the past couple of years the Corps has trained with the US Marine Corps at their Camp Lejeune in North Carolina, and gone on to use the

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Royal Navy Sea King helicopters help the Royal Marines practise evasion

British kit is transferred onto a French landing craft during Exercise CORSICAN LION

2012 Exercise JOINT WARRIOR off Scotland to cement the LCG concept, ready for 45 Commando to act as the LCG on the COUGAR 12 RFTG deployment, which began in September 2012.
THE ANGLO-FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

At around the same time as the SDSR was being published in November 2010, the British and French Governments signed a number of industrial and defence cooperation agreements. One of these called for the creation of a joint Anglo-French rapidreaction force that would, according to the British Government, act as an early entry force capable of facing multiple threats up to the highest intensity, available for bilateral, NATO, European Union, United Nations or other operations. Known as the Combined Joint Expeditionary Force (CJEF), it faced its rst real test during the COUGAR 12 deployment. Exercise CORSICAN LION saw the Royal Marines practise a scenario where the LCG and its supporting elements worked alongside the French Armys 9 Marine Infantry Brigade to see how the two forces could combine to confront rogue elements of a failing state, where piracy was threatening to bring about serious regional instability. This was the culmination of months of preparation, and there were key technical issues that needed to be ironed out for a combined assault force to be delivered ashore. Interoperability is never easy, especially when the cooperating forces are using different equipment, albeit under the framework of NATO standards. These NATO standards will, however, form the bedrock and basis of the future cooperation between the nations. For the exercise to be really successful, a joint command, control and communication (C3) protocol and operating practice had to be set up. In the months preceding, therefore, both sides conducted a lot of low-level interaction, primarily to discuss basic principles (doctrine) and communications. Then C3 liaison team

nodes, together with national equipment, were embedded in both the British and French HQs so that the two forces could get used to each others systems and work out how to blend them so that the CJEF could be commanded as a single force through both the French and British structures. This needed to be robust and exible, as there were a number of different targets that needed to be attacked both on land and at sea. The complexity was extreme. CORSICAN LION was the rst of many exercises that both countries will under take in order to bring about the CJEF.

The main land-assault component comes from the Royal Marines Lead Commando Group, which has been mandated by the British Government to remain at very high readiness
For some in the Royal Marines who had only experienced land-based counter-insurgency operations in Afghanistan, it was the rst time they had got their boots wet. Moreover, the rst CORSICAN LION has enabled both sides to take stock and work out how realistic the CJEF vision is, and what subsequent steps are necessary to take if the vision is to be fully achieved. What the exercise clearly showed, however, is that the Royal Marines have not lost their appetite for amphibious warfare, and some of the skills that had grown rusty are being brought back with renewed vigour. After years of campaigning on land, the Royal Marines are now embarked on a future where their core amphibious skills will be used to deliver security and prosperity to the United Kingdom.

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Supporting Afghanistan 40 Commando

The Royal Marines were back in Afghanistan in 2012 as part of HERRICK 17. Simon Michell reveals how they prepared for yet another deployment to southern Afghanistan and the contribution that the Royals are making in this theatre

t is sometimes forgotten that the Royal Marines (RM) began their involvement in Afghanistan way back in November 2001, when 40 Commando (Cdo) helped to secure Bagram aireld, while other Royal Marines embarking on the Royal Navys rst purpose-built amphibious assault ship, HMS FEARLESS, acted as a contingency force in what was effectively the beginning of the War on Terror, following the 9/11 attacks on the US. Since those early days, the RM have regularly been back to Afghanistan as part of what is now known as the six-monthly UK

Operation HERRICK deployments. In 2011, 3 Commando Brigade (3 Cdo Bde) led the British/coalition forces in Helmand Province on HERRICK 14, with 42 and 45 Commandos contributing to an overall force of more than 6,000 British and coalition personnel. This enabled those troops in Helmand to move into the population pockets of towns and villages to rst clear out insurgents, and then provide tangible and enduring protection from the Taliban so that the process of rebuilding Afganistan and its own national forces could be substantially reinvigorated. HERRICK 14 was an extremely important deployment. It coincided with a change in emphasis for the International Stability Assistance Force (ISAF) coalition to a population-centric counterinsurgency strategy, where success was not measured in terms of Taliban casualties, but rather in the enhancements that the ISAF forces were introducing into the country, such as improved infrastructure, hospitals, schools and a return to economic activity.

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Royal Marines driving a Supacat Jackal high-mobility, all-terrain vehicle at daybreak in Afghanistan

During HERRICK 14, the UK and US forces deepened their collaboration and worked far more closely alongside each other than previously. This had a powerful effect, and was recognised by the inuential British-American Forces Dining Club with the Historical Signicance Award, which is given to outstanding British and American units that have contributed to the success of the US-UK alliance and have set an example for other military commanders to follow. Major General Ed Davis CBE, who led 3 Cdo Bde throughout HERRICK 14, and who has since been promoted to head the Royal Marine Corps as their Commandant General, explains the cooperation in these terms: 3 Cdo Bde was sitting in the middle of Helmand between two large US Marine Corps units, one to the north and the other in the south. However, we were able to remove all synthetic boundaries between the separated USMC units, as well as from between us and those US units. This allowed

us to harness the additional efciency and effectiveness. It showed what you can achieve if there is a mindset to integrate both doctrinally and tactically. According to Major General Davis, this was extremely powerful. It was, he suggests, a huge factor in what HERRICK 14 achieved an overall 43 per cent reduction in violence. Its effects do not stop there, however, as the experience will also be invaluable for the reinvigoration of the European amphibious initiative, as well as the creation of the Anglo-French Combined Joint Expeditionary Force.
40 CDO IN AFGHANISTAN

Either side of HERRICK 14, 40 Cdo also played a signicant role in the country. In April 2010, it replaced the 3 Ries Battlegroup in Sangin a small but hitherto incredibly unstable and violent part of Helmand. In the six months it spent there it undertook more than 1,000 foot and vehicle patrols, despite the increasing risk of

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40 Commando undertake live ring training in the Mojave desert during Exercise BLACK ALLIGATOR

improvised explosive devices (IEDs), which have been responsible for as much as 80 per cent of the casualties suffered by ISAF forces. This effort was a signicant enabler for the rebuilding of that part of the war-torn country, and witnessed the oncebustling bazaar spring back into life. During 2012, 40 Cdo was back in training for a return to Afghanistan in October 2012, where it would take charge of the Nar-e-Saraj district from the Grenadier Guards. The Tauntonbased marines moved some 650 men to join Danish colleagues

Exercise BLACK ALLIGATOR enabled the Cdo to practise with the full range of weapons in its inventory
at Main Operating Base (MB) Price. Here, they spent the next six months looking after a large area of central Helmand, through which the strategically and politically important Highway 1 runs and where the second largest city of Gereshk, which forms the economic hub of the province, is located. The Cdo was well prepared for this work, having undertaken some gruelling pre-operational Mission Specic Training (MST) in both the UK and in the US. Exercise PASHTUN DAWN on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, represented the nal rehearsal for 40 Cdo before setting off for Afghanistan. In what turned out to be a very wet affair, the marines practised the skills they would need to keep

themselves and others safe and healthy. This included training with helicopters and practising IED drills, as well as making sure that everyone understood what their mission was and what they were expected to achieve in Afghanistan. Surprisingly, southern England can mimic some elements of the Afghan climate, particularly the rain and oods. However, acclimatising to the hot and dry environment was done as part of Exercise BLACK ALLIGATOR, in Californias Mojave Desert at the US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Centre live-ring rie and artillery ranges. The November 2011 exercise enabled the Cdo to practise with the full range of weapons it has in its inventory, as well as relearn some desert-ghting skills and go over extraction drills used to get injured personnel off the battleeld and into the hands of medical staff. While in California, 40 Cdo also conducted some joint training with 1st Battalion, 7th Regiment of the US Marine Corps. This was not a coincidence, as during the 40 Cdos previous deployment to Afghanistan they worked closely with other units from the 7th Regiment. This was once again an excellent opportunity to further embed the spirit and reality of the cooperation that has become a feature of the Afghan ISAF mission. The regular contribution the Royal Marines have made to the Afghan mission exemplies the can-do spirit of the Corps and is, without doubt, a decisive factor in the enormous international effort to bring one of the worlds poorest countries back into the international fold. This in itself is a major contributor in combating not just terrorism, but also the heroin trade the source of which can be traced right back to the poppy elds of Afghanistan.

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The Fleet Air Arm


Message from Rear Admiral Russ Harding OBE, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Aviation and Carriers)

aving taken charge of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) in September of 2012, I have spent the last three months visiting the men and women who keep the FAA running at a high tempo. These trips have taken me to the east and west coasts of America, to both of our air stations in the United Kingdom and to HM Ships ILLUSTRIOUS and BULWARK. It was a great pleasure also to visit the French aircraft carrier, Charles de Gaulle, as she was exercising in the Mediterranean with the Royal Navys Response Force Task Groups COUGAR 12 deployment a visible sign of the continuing cooperation between our two navies. I continue to be impressed by the high quality professionals operating, maintaining and supporting aircraft in the Naval Air Squadrons and Air Stations. The visits have highlighted how active the Fleet Air Arm is in contributing to operations worldwide at sea and ashore and equally as important, how the Fleet Air Arm has an exciting future.

Last year saw continued support to Operation HERRICK in Afghanistan, with the Sea King Mk4s of the Commando Helicopter Force supporting the operations of ISAF troops in Helmand Province, and the Sea King Mk7 providing overland surveillance support resulting in regular interceptions of narcotics and weapons. At sea we have continued to provide Merlin and Lynx helicopters to deploy globally, embarked in surface ships of the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) as they undertake defence tasks across the globe. Particular areas have included the South Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf regions where they have contributed to Maritime Security Operations aimed at countering illegal trafcking of drugs, weapons and people. Beyond these operational duties, 2012 also saw some of the greatest UK public events in decades the Queens Diamond Jubilee and the Summer Olympic and Paralympic games. The FAA played a key role in the UK security organisation to safeguard the

Fleet Air Arm Sea King Mk7 ASAC helicopters embarked on HMS ILLUSTRIOUS during Exercise CORSICAN LION

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The rst AW159 Wildcat to be delivered to the Royal Navy takes to the skies on her maiden ight

games with RN helicopters and crews from across the various aircraft types, operating from HMS OCEAN in the Thames and HMS BULWARK in Weymouth Bay, as well as from land bases, providing both a surveillance and response aviation capability.
MAINTAINING THE AIRBORNE CAPABILITY

Just as the submarine and surface eets have taken delivery of new and refurbished vessels, so too is the FAA upgrading its capability. The Merlin Mk2 Capability Sustainment Programme is well underway with the rst Mk2 aircraft having been recently delivered to RNAS Culdrose aiming towards full operational capability in 2014.

Looking further out into the future, the FAA is preparing itself for the introduction of the two new Queen Elizabeth-class carriers
Staying with the Merlin eet, Commando Helicopter Force, air crew and maintainers are now feeding into RAF Benson to start preparing for the transferral of the Merlin Mk3 to the RN. There will be a two-part upgrade package to the aircraft that will transform it into the Merlin Mk4 and enable it to undertake ship-borne operations. The cockpit will be updated to the same standard as the Merlin Mk2, and the tting of folding tails and heads will allow the aircraft to be stowed below decks at sea.

Moving to the Lynx replacement, I signed off the safety statement in late 2012 that will enable us to begin factorydelivered training at the AgustaWestland site in Yeovil for the rst batch of Wildcat helicopter trainers. Indeed, as an example of just how common the Land and Maritime variants of Wildcat are, the rst FAA pilots to be trained in Wildcat will y the Army AH Mk1 variant as this will be available rst. Looking further out into the future, the FAA is preparing itself for the introduction of the two new Queen Elizabeth-class carriers that will come into service at the end of the decade. Despite the withdrawal of the Harrier and the disbandment of the Naval Strike Wing, there has been no break in xed-wing pilot recruitment and training. A small number of RN pilots are ying F-18 Hornets operationally with the US Navy. Personnel are also heavily engaged in the F-35B Lightning II programme with RN pilots and maintainers in the rst training unit, VMFAT-501, at Eglin Air Force Base. Together, the RN and RAF have developed a comprehensive plan for the introduction of the Lightning II. We are standing up F-35B maintenance units from both the RAF and RN. Some of these men and women have transferred to a US-based training establishment which may be there for up to six years before transferring back to the UK. In addition, we are now in the process of setting up the test and evaluation squadron to be followed by the UK Operational Conversion Unit. The past 12 months have been one of the busiest periods in the FAAs recent history. I am incredibly proud of the men and women who continue to step up to the daily challenges and meet every task that is asked of them with enthusiasm for the future and a sense of the heritage they stem from. I remain condent that this professional attitude and can-do spirit will ensure an exciting future for all who serve in the FAA.

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A computer-generated image of HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH sailing out of Portsmouth Harbour

Introducing the Queen Elizabeth class with its Lightning II F-35Bs


The Royal Navy is gearing up for the introduction of the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier and its air group of powerful Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II ghters. Martin Temperley reveals the latest progress on this critical project
to be handed over to the Royal Navy in 2016. At sites in the United Kingdom and United States, preparations are well under way for the introduction of the F-35B, while the carriers procedures are also being perfected. The F-35B is a short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) stealthy single-seat ghter. It is an Advanced STOVL design, achieving vertical lift through an engine-driven fan behind the cockpit and with a swivel-duct nozzle at the tail, unlike the Sea Harriers four poster design. In UK service it is known as a Joint Combat Aircraft, because it will be jointly operated by the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force. Its Pratt & Whitney F135-PW-600 turbofan engine is the most powerful aero powerplant ever tted to a ghter, producing 25 tons of thrust, and making the F-35B the rst truly supersonic

MS QUEEN ELIZABETH and her sister ship PRINCE OF WALES are the largest warships ever built for the Royal Navy. The rst ship, QUEEN ELIZABETH, a 65,000-ton super carrier, is scheduled to enter the water in 2014. Equipped with F-35B Lightning II multi-role jets and Merlin helicopters, the carriers will also be capable of operating British Army Apache and Royal Air force Chinook helicopters. The rst ship is scheduled

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The F-35B undergoing suitability tests aboard the USS Wasp

BAE Systemss F-35B carrier simulator

Lt Cdr Ian Tidball, joins US F-35B training squadron (VMFAT- 501)

BAE SYSTEMS

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BAE SYSTEMS

LOCKHEED-MARTIN

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STOVL ghter anywhere in the world. The F-35B is set to be the rst stealthy aircraft to be operated by the UK, and the UKs F-35Bs will be the rst to operate outside the US. By October 2012, the UK had taken delivery of two F-35Bs, and these are initially to be attached to US Marine Corps Fighter Attack Training Squadron 501 (VMFAT-501) in Florida for pilot training. More aircraft are being delivered in 2013. Former Royal Navy Fleet Commander, now First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir George Zambellas, said at the handover of the rst F-35B in July 2012: Jets at sea offer unmatched persistence and can guarantee the delivery of airpower around the globe. With the advent of Lightning II, UK defence has its opportunity to maximise the utility of our carriers and this extraordinarily capable aircraft through a range of sea and land basing options. The result will be a strategic capability that will deliver for many decades to come. At the handover, Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, underlined the Royal Navys commitment to fast-jet operations, and delivered the message of carrier air power: The F-35 will give us a leading role in maritime power projection. Carriers and xed-wing aircraft are the most important instruments of power projection in an age when defence of the UK must start far from UK shores. The versatile F-35B, with its capabilities as both an air superiority ghter (air-to-air capabilities against hostile aircraft) and as a precision strike tool (against targets on land and at sea), supports that requirement, as does the carriers capability to carry Apache and Chinook helicopters as an airbase aoat for expeditionary warfare.
PREPARING FOR THE CARRIERS

The QUEEN ELIZABETHs new cap tally

One of the rst steps in preparing for the Queen Elizabethclass carriers has been the opening in 2012 of an engineering development facility for the mission system, which is the carriers nerve centre. It combines systems for air-trafc control, navigation, tactical picture compilation, communications and mission planning for the F-35 ghters and for the Merlin helicopters. This facility, at shore base HMS COLLINGWOOD in Hampshire, is completing engineering tests and trials using the same equipment that will be tted to QUEEN ELIZABETH in Rosyth, Scotland. One of the ships unique features is two, instead of one, island superstructures on the ight deck, and the mission system will occupy the rearmost island, which is devoted to ying operations. Being located in HMS COLLINGWOOD, it allows Royal Navy trainees to take part in large-scale trials from the start. The Royal Navy says: By manning every Operations Room position with Royal Navy personnel ensures the equipment can be tested and loaded to its full capacity something that has never been done before with previous mission systems. The rst classes of UK maintenance personnel to work with the F-35B have completed courses at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida, and one pilot each from the Royal Navy and RAF started instructor pilot training on the F-35B in late 2012, making them the rst international instructors trained on the ghter. Even after the ending of the Joint Harrier force in January 2011, when the Royal Navys 800 Naval Air Squadron disbanded, the Fleet Air Arm kept a core of almost 40 xed-wing pilots, several of whom have been assigned to training programmes

The F-35Bs Pratt & Whitney F135-PW-600 turbofan engine is the most powerful aero powerplant ever tted to a ghter, producing 25 tons of thrust
with the US Navy and are keeping their skills sharp by ying the F/A-18C Super Hornet ghter. Some of those pilots will go on to y the F-35B, and more pilots will be recruited. Royal Navy maintainers began training on the F-35B at the Academic Training Center at Eglin in July 2012. When the F-35B is operated from the new carrier, Royal Navy personnel in the trade of Air Engineering Technician will be in the ship to look after the aircraft. This trade covers mechanical, electrical, avionics or weapons specialities. Trade courses on the F-35, which are rst a matter of instructing the instructors, are being steadily stepped up during 2013. The ships company has already started to assemble, with a team of eight Royal Navy personnel wearing the cap tally Queen Elizabeth working with the Aircraft Carrier Alliance shipbuilders at Rosyth since 2012. They are developing operating procedures and routines in advance of when the ship is handed over, which is scheduled for 2016. The second ship in class is HMS PRINCE OF WALES, now under construction and scheduled to be commissioned in 2018. Before then, in 2015, further orders for the F-35B are expected to follow the 48 currently in the programme, and the UKs supercarrier force will rapidly become operational. The F-35B will provide a faster route to carrier operational capability than the conventional take-off and landing F-35C, which was once schemed. These would have required catapults and arrestor wires to be tted to the carrier, delaying its entry into service.

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Joint and combined helicopter operations

A French Navy NH90 Caiman helicopter being guided onto the deck of HMS ILLUSTRIOUS as she transits the Mediterranean

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The use of British Army Air Corps Apache attack helicopters against Gadda forces in Libya, ying off the Royal Navys HMS OCEAN, represented the start of a new era in joint operations. Likewise, the combined British Army Air Corps Apache and French Army Tigre attack helicopter sorties were a foretaste of a much closer relationship between the two countries, as Ian Frain explains

s mass revolt and popular uprisings spread across the Middle East, United Nations (UN) Resolution number 1973 was passed on 17 March 2011 by the UN Security Council, establishing a no-y zone and giving the go-ahead for the use of all necessary means to protect the civilians within Libya from Colonel Gaddas forces. Gadda responded to the unrest by conducting a campaign of terror against the Libyan people, brutally attempting to quell the burgeoning revolution. The world was appalled. NATOs response was Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR, designed to defend the Libyan civilian population. HMS OCEAN set sail in April 2011 as part of the COUGAR deployment with the Response Force Task Group and, after a work-up period, she was diverted to conduct missions in support of NATOs Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR. Embarked for the rst time operationally was the Army Air Corpss (AAC) AgustaWestland WAH-64D Longbow Apache AH Mk1 from 4 Regiment Army Air Corps. The main aim of the AAC was to conduct strikes against Gaddas forces in what was the rst operation in which the Longbow Apache were to be used from the sea in combat. The British Army attack helicopters aircraft were armed with AGM-114 Hellre anti-armour missiles, CRV-7 rockets and 30mm chain guns. The Apache eet had prepared in advance for this type of mission and had undergone sea trials as far back as 2006 where, in the November of that year, the AH Mk1 made its rst landing on the now decommissioned HMS ARK ROYAL. The WAH-64D Longbow Apache worked in conjunction with 857 Naval Air Squadron (NAS) AgustaWestland Sea King Mk7 Airborne Surveillance and Control (ASAC) helicopters from HMS OCEAN, which were the eyes and ears of the eet. Their role was to provide airborne cover during the air strikes into the heart of enemy territory and to prepare safe entry and exit routes in and out of the Libyan airspace. The ASAC Sea Kings played a crucial part of the Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR) framework in supporting UNIFIED PROTECTOR, alongside their Royal Air Force (RAF) colleagues who ew the Sentinel R1 and E-3D Sentry. The ASAC Mk7 had come a long way from the original Sea King Airborne Early Warning (AEW) variant of the Mk2 that was hurriedly put together as a reaction to the lack of AEW coverage during the Falklands Conict.

and a military checkpoint located around Brega. The mission was a complete success and the helicopters subsequently returned safely to their respective ships. This was to become one of the many successful missions performed by the AAC and French ALAT crews during the operartion In the days and weeks that followed, a number of high-valued targets such as Command, Control and Communications (C3) facilities, Multiple Launch Rocket Systems and an assortment of armoured vehicles were destroyed by the attack helicopters. The Eurocopter Tigre has similar armament to the Apache AH.1, with 30mm cannon and Hellre, as well as similar avionics, as the Apache crews wear the Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS), while the French crews wear the Thales Top Owl helmet-mounted display. At the same time as the air strikes were being own over Libya, there was also a maritime embargo to be enforced and the usual routine monitoring by the NATO allies. On 13 June 2012, a Royal Navy submarine on routine surveillance had noted that several high-speed inatable craft (commonly used by Gaddas Special Forces) were approaching Misrata with the intention of resupplying an artillery unit. Apache crews were scrambled to intercept, resulting in the sinking of the boats by 30mm re. Following on from this, the Apache crews engaged a self-propelled anti-aircraft system based on the coast. In the 22 missions carried out during UNIFIED PROTECTOR, the Apache force hit more than 100 targets, ring 99 Hellre missiles and 4,800 30mm cannon rounds. The resounding success of this part of UNIFIED PROTECTOR has also produced two rsts namely the use of the AgustaWestland WAH-64D Longbow

In the 22 missions carried out, the Apache force hit more than 100 targets, ring 99 Hellre missiles and 4,800 30mm cannon rounds

STRIKE ONE

On the night of 3 June 2011, the French Army Aviation Corps (ALAT) launched Arospatiale Gazelle and Eurocopter EC665 Tigre attack helicopters from the assault ship, Tonnerre, in a coordinated action with the Longbow Apaches. These were the rst operational sorties of the campaign for the AAC, for which their task was a strike against a land-based radar installation

ECPAD/EMA

French Tigre attack helicopters began operations with British Army Air Corps Apaches during Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR

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A new era of maritime helicopter strike missions has begun with Army Air Corps Apaches embarked on Royal Navy carriers

Apache AH.1 operating from an assault ship engaging land and sea targets, and working with the French ALAT Eurocopter Tigre force ying from the safety of a French assault ship in combat. Although there were many perceived complexities and problems associated with deploying the AH Mk1 at sea, these were overcome, resulting in mission success during UNIFIED PROTECTOR. In light of this, it is important to note that an amphibious assault operation requires a signicant amount of Close Air Support (CAS) in order to achieve mission success. The close cooperation between the United Kingdom and France was cemented during the previous year, when both nations signed an historic agreement in November 2010. This relationship was even further embedded during Exercise CORSICAN LION in October 2012, which saw Royal Navy Sea King Mk4 Junglies land on the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gualle, and French NH90 helos were welcomed on board HMS BULWARK during practice combined assaults on a ctitious failing state that was harbouring pirate forces. This highly complex exercise marked a rst test of the newly established Combined Joint Expeditionary

A Commando Helicopter Force Sea King Mk4 prepares to take off from the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle

Force between the UK and France. Activities of this kind will strengthen the NATO alliances ability to address the range of threats that are becoming a feature of the 21st century regional instability, terrorism, piracy, and natural disasters.

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The Royal Fleet Auxiliary


Message from Commodore Bill Walworth CBE, Head of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary

nce again, the Royal Fleet Auxiliary has contributed to the nations defence while providing excellent value for money with high levels of ship availability, welltrained crews and a vision for the future. Having contributed to the Libyan mission in 2011, our small eet of ships has remained very busy across the globe, undertaking not just our core task of replenishing Royal Navy ships and those of our international friends with supplies and fuel, but also counter-narcotics, maritime security, anti-piracy and disaster-relief missions. For a large part of 2012, RFA FORT VICTORIA played a vital role in the UKs contribution to the international effort to combat the rising scourge of piracy. At the beginning of the year she was engaged in NATOs Operation OCEAN SHIELD off the Somali coast, before re-roling as the agship for the Combined Task Force 151 in the Gulf. This signicant tasking included a rst for the RFA, as the Royal Thai Navys Rear Admiral Tanin Likitawong used

the ship as his command centre in order to supervise this coalition counter-piracy effort. The Gulf waters also saw RFA CARDIGAN BAY, based out of Bahrain, assisting with the intensive mine countermeasures operations that are a feature of those waters. Thanks to her considerable aviation capabilities, US minesweeping helicopters were hosted on the ship, as were a mixed complement of Royal Navy regulars and reservists, and Royal Marines. On the other side of the world, RFA FORT ROSALIE patrolled the North Atlantic and Caribbean. Again, this was a very successful deployment that saw Prince Edward based on board while he was acting on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen during the Diamond Jubilee celebrations in the West Indies. A very important feature of the North Atlantic patrols is the counternarcotics work that is controlled out of Key West in Florida under the supervision of the Joint Interagency Task Force South, with which I am proud to say the RFA has been heavily involved over

RFA FORT VICTORIA undertakes a Replenishment at Sea and a Helicopter Delivery Service

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the past few years. The RFA also continued to provide vital humanitarian relief during the hurricane season, which has seen a string of storms and hurricanes impact the region. During the year, we also had the honour of participating in the US Navys bicentenary with RFA ARGUS, home to the First Sea Lord for the celebrations in Baltimore. Further south, RFA GOLD ROVER accompanied Royal Navy vessels in defence of the Falkland Islands. The high tempo of operations culminated in the summer, with RFA supporting the maritime-security effort that was put in place during the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. RFA MOUNTS BAY was the logistics hub for the ships down in Weymouth, working alongside HMS BULWARK.

Recruitment and retention of our people has therefore been a particularly challenging area. However, we are now back on the front foot and our recruiting plan for 2013 and beyond includes ofcer cadets, direct-entrant ofcers, and ratings across all specialisations. The good news behind this is the introduction into service of our four new Tide-class tankers that will enter service in 2016, demonstrating that we are an organisation with a positive future. On a related theme, the RFA has been put through an independent benchmarking process that has conrmed that we are an efcient organisation able to carry out our work as cost-effectively as a commercial maritime entity.
COMMITTED TO AN RFA CAREER

The RFA has been put through an independent benchmarking process that has conrmed that we are an efcient organisation
Like the rest of the uniformed services, the RFA is playing its part in helping the nation balance its budget and reduce the massive debt that has risen over the past years. We have managed to reduce our running costs by approximately 18 million a year which is a 10 per cent reduction in our overall spend. This sometimes painful adjustment has been achieved through lower stafng levels, more efcient use of fuels, and an examination of our ship maintenance packages. Moreover, I have put in place a change team that is helping me to improve our manning levels and systems, as well as our training requirements. This team will also ensure that having implemented the transformation, the RFA will still deliver the outputs that we have been asked to provide.

I do not underestimate the challenge our recruiters will have in achieving our targets at a time when opportunities in the commercial sector are healthy, but I am condent that the RFA will continue to attract quality people who want a seafaring career with variety. Turning specically to retention, we are pressing ahead with promotion boards across all specialisations. It is true that some of our sailors have decided to pursue career opportunities in other areas of the maritime industry or ashore. However, the overwhelming majority of our people are committed to a full career with the RFA. I sincerely believe that our ofcer cadet and rating training now is among the very best in the industry, especially for our engineer trainees. These men and women have a clear path from the day they join us as cadets through to becoming chartered engineers by the age of 30, without having incurred huge student tuition-fee debts. I have no doubt that the RFA remains an efcient, t-forpurpose, well-trained and well-manned organisation that will be able to work alongside the new aircraft carriers when they enter service at the end of the decade. I would therefore like to sincerely thank everyone for a fantastic effort over what has been a busy but very exciting year.

The Royal Fleet Auxiliary is fully engaged in the UKs counter-piracy effort

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The Royal Fleet Auxiliary is responsible for keeping Royal Navy and allied ships supplied with fuel and stores at sea

Integrated support
Commodore Bill Walworth CBE, Head of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, explains to Ian Goold how the organisation operates as an integrated part of the United Kingdoms naval forces
the services as a whole had signicant supply chain vulnerabilities. The potential for increased risk to supplies had risen through Britains continuing withdrawal from many of its overseas bases, according to RFA commanding ofcer, Commodore (Cdre) Bill Walworth CBE. The RN realised that, if it was to operate at sea in times of conict without strategic stores located around the globe, the eet would have to rely on supplies carried from home or provided by civilian-crewed RFA ships. This joint recognition stimulated increasing investment in equipment and training that has permitted the RFA to sail as an integral part of the RN eet without hazarding operations. The otilla comprises more than a dozen vessels including tankers, dock landing ships, replenishment, aviation training/ casualty receiving and forward repair ships. Some of these ships are now reaching the end of their operational lives and, consequently, new tankers are on order.

he use of government-owned ships to support the Royal Navy dates back to the 17th century, but it is only about 30 years ago that many people in the United Kingdom rst learnt about the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) through its admirable participation in Operation CORPORATE. In 1982, the RFA played a key role in the campaign to repossess the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic from occupying Argentine forces. However, this action brought about the realisation that at that time, the RFA did not really know much about warfare. Moreover, the Royal Navy (RN) and by implication

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RFA CARDIGAN BAY resupplies USS DEVASTATOR during the International Mine Counter Measures Exercise

Type 45 destroyer, HMS DIAMOND, begins a replenishment at sea with RFA WAVE RULER

The sliding scale of activity has accelerated in the past 10 years, says Cdre Walworth, explaining that todays RFA results from 30 years training for the operational environment. Without doubt, the global recession has placed pressure on government budgets and the RFA did not escape reductions to its nancial and human resources. As in its sister services, this has led to a thorough reappraisal of the way it operates, and it is likely that new processes and procedures will be adopted in 2013.
GETTING BACK ON TRACK

Were at last taking forward some of the major projects needed to operate inside our budget and to recover from the reduction in our numbers. Promotion boards are in full swing, which ought to encourage everyone to recognise that were back on track, Cdre Walworth told Gun Line, the RFA newspaper, in September 2012. According to the Head of the RFA, the organisation is talking to ships and maritime trades unions about a system to meet more exacting levels of efciency. It has also reinvigorated the review of how stores and munitions loads are managed and expects to introduce new arrangements in 2013. Twenty years ago in 1993, the RFA became more integrated into the RN structure when it was made responsible directly to the

Commander-in-Chief Fleet, according to Cdre Walworth. We operate at sea in the same chain of command as all other UK defence forces. Accordingly, senior RFA personnel play a role in Navy Command Headquarters at Whale Island in Portsmouth. Historically, the greatest challenge has been to participate fully in RN operations while also maintaining the RFAs identity and ethos, says Cdre Walworth. He believes that the RFA is not disadvantaged, and regards the integration at Navy task force and headquarters levels as pretty complete, and yet nevertheless likely to continue evolving. For example, RFA entrants receive RN training; ratings go to HMS RALEIGH at Torpoint in Cornwall; while ofcers attend Britannia College, Dartmouth and Fleetwood Nautical College. This provides core maritime skills and an overview of RN tasking, which are essential to achieving joint operational effectiveness, and contributing to what Cdre Walworth calls an extremely cost-efcient resource with a huge capability. Although RFA personnel are civilians, with procedures following international maritime and merchant-shipping safety regulations, they work in a military context that includes discipline. Crucially, their personal employment contracts commit crews to working under war-like conditions.

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A computer-generated image of a MARS tanker alongside a Type 45 destroyer

Having entered public consciousness some 30 years ago while supporting the Falklands campaign, the RFAs prole has not been maintained, and Cdre Walworth accepts that the Auxiliarys work can become hidden in the publics broader awareness of defence matters. That said, its place in the public consciousness may receive a boost as it prepares to receive new vessels.
MARS MISSION

The rst steel for the initial batch of Military Aoat Reach and Sustainability (MARS) highly survivable eet-replenishment tankers is scheduled to be cut on 24 June 2014. Designed by British Maritime Technology (BMT) Defence Services, these vessels are to be built in South Korea by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). Despite being built in an overseas yard, a substantial amount of the MARS ships completion work will be performed in the UK. British contractors will be used to t some of the kit that will enable them to operate alongside their RN sister ships and organisations in particular communications systems. RFA TIDESPRING, the rst of these new tankers, is planned to enter service around July 2016. MARS ships will play a major role in supporting RN global operations, assisting, for example, the carrier programme and

amphibious manoeuvres. Cdre Walworth sees these modern, very efcient and environmentally safe vessels as enabling the RFA to limit the logistical drag on a task force, and acknowledges that planning assumptions have changed over time. Six eetreplenishment tankers will be needed to meet the needs of Future Force 2020, comprising four MARS vessels and two other tankers. Recognising that an evolving plan could change, Cdre Walworth says that RFA MARS Solid Support Ship vessels should enter service in the middle of the decade. They will carry solid stores and munitions needed by the RNs new Queen Elizabethclass aircraft carriers. Each vessel will have two helicopter-landing pads, known as spots, as well as a substantial aviation complex, including ight deck, hangar and workshops. Cdre Walworth is at pains to emphasise the Auxiliarys belief in current strategies. As he wrote in Gun Line: We have to stay cost-effective [and] what we are planning will set us up for the future. All the plans have been generated with a sustainable future in mind. I believe passionately in the people of the RFA, the way we operate and our place in the nations life. We would not be putting ourselves through this unless convinced it is both good for the future of the RFA and the taxpayer. We have a fantastic and worldwide reputation in our eld. We must stay ahead.

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RFA FORT VICTORIAs Royal Marine boarding team from the Fleet Standby Rie Squadron apprehended 13 Somali pirates

Delivering capability to the Royal Navy

Ian Goold talks to the Head of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, Commodore Bill Walworth CBE, to nd out how the Auxiliary is assuming greater responsibility for ensuring maritime security across the globe and has earned an enviable reputation as a pirate-busting organisation

he Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) has demonstrated its value and versatility by providing a command platform for international anti-piracy and counter-narcotics operations, delivering capability in an effective but different way. Already fully integrated into the Royal Navy (RN) command and control system

and therefore established as a vital part of UK maritime operations the Auxiliary deployed RFA FORT VICTORIA in 2012 to act as agship for counter-piracy work in the Gulf of Aden and the Somali Basin off the Horn of Africa. The everyday activity of the Ministry of Defence-owned (but civilian-manned) RFA otilla is to furnish RN ships with supplies usually through replenishment at sea (RAS) operations to transport Army and Royal Marine personnel and to support training exercises. The primary role for FORT VICTORIA, one of the most versatile ships in the British Fleet, is RN logistic support and seaborne delivery of fuel, stores and ammunition, while she can also operate up to ve helicopters and accommodate a full command staff. She is the RFAs highest-prole vessel and

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RFA FORT VICTORIA on counter piracy operations

COMBINED MARITIME FORCES


CMF is a unique naval coalition that is dedicated to the promotion of security in more than 2.5 million square miles of international waters in the Middle East and West Asia. Its main areas of focus are ghting terrorism, preventing piracy, reducing illegal activities at sea and promoting a safe maritime environment. Response times to incidents have been actively reduced through a focus on international cooperation and coordination. CTF 151 is one of three CMF task forces. It was set up in January 2009 to deter, disrupt and suppress piracy, protect any nations maritime vessels and secure freedom of navigation for all. The task forces area of operation encompasses more than a million square miles of ocean within the greater CMF operational area.

can lead a group of other ships, making full use of her military satellite-communications capacity, says the Head of the RFA, Commodore (Cdre) Bill Walworth.
THE RFA AND THE ROYAL THAI NAVY JOIN FORCES

As the agship of Combined Task Force 151 (CTF 151), RFA FORT VICTORIA embarked a multi-national battle staff under Rear Admiral Tanin Likitawong, the Royal Thai Navys Counter-Piracy Task Group Commander. The three-month operation strengthened ties with naval forces in the region, and further developed communication and collaboration within the merchant-shipping community. Embarked staff included Thai commanders and representatives from the Danish, Dutch, Italian, South Korean and US navies.

In the words of Captain Ian N Pilling RFA, then Commanding Ofcer of FORT VICTORIA, it was a unique opportunity for the ship to contribute to the Bahrain-based Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) an international partnership that is led by the US: Having a multi-national staff in a UK asset typies the co-operation and professionalism that exists between the maritime nations. The period marked the rst time that an RFA vessel had acted as a foreign-led task force agship, and the rst time that the Royal Thai Navy had assumed a CTF command. A major factor in the RFAs performance and its ability to serve in multi-national forces lies in its recent history. Todays otilla benets from 30 years of training to operate with the RN eet. Accordingly, the modern RFA has, the knowledge and equipment to conduct maritime security operations alone without necessarily having the support of a warship, says Cdre Walworth. He points out that this means that the RFA can be applied across a wide range of tasks, including providing command and control, as was demonstrated last year. Cdre Walworth says that only the US has a comparable force in its Military Sealift Command. The Military Sealift Command operates a very much larger eet of about 100 non-combatant, civilian-crewed ships. The role that these ships full is to replenish US Navy ships, conduct special missions,

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strategically position combat cargo at sea and move military cargo as well as supplies for deployed US forces and coalition partners. Commenting on his CTF 151 command when handing over to his successor Rear Admiral Anho Chung of the Republic of Korea Navy at Bahrain in June 2012, Rear Admiral Litikawong

A Royal Navy Lynx Mk 8 departs FORT VICTORIA

A major factor in the RFAs performance and its ability to serve in multi-national forces lies in its recent history. Todays otilla benets from 30 years of training
said: The success of the counter-piracy mission is based on the strength of the multi-national staff and the support which RFA FORT VICTORIA was able to give as my agship. RFA commander Cdre Walworth CBE concludes: Our reputation has been enhanced by FORT VICTORIA acting as agship for the Royal Thai Navy command of the counter-piracy effort off Somalia.

FORT VICTORIA HOSTS US NAVY HELICOPTERS


During RFA FORT VICTORIAs period as the Combined Task Force 151 (CTF 151) agship, its suitability for the role was illustrated by the experience of US Navy Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron Seven Seven (HSM 77), which embarked on the British vessel for two weeks at the request of CTF 151 commander, Rear Admiral Tanin Likitawong of the Royal Thai
U.S. NAVY

Navy. Led by Lieutenant Commander (Lt Cdr) Aric Edmondson, this was the rst US helicopter detachment to be embarked on an RFA ship. Carrier Strike Group 9 and Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 2 deployed Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawk helicopters onto the RFA agship. According to unit Commanding Ofcer Commander Brent Gaut, The presence of CVW 2s HSM-77,

Members of USN Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron Seven Seven embarked on Royal Fleet Auxiliary FORT VICTORIA during operations with CTF 151

Detachment 5 aboard RFA FORT VICTORIA was a major milestone for the squadron. Indeed, it contributed signicantly toward US-UK interoperability in the area. Detachment 5 was chosen because the MH-60Rs primary missions are surface and anti-submarine warfare. HSM-77 was tasked with providing FORT VCTORIA with counterpiracy surface-surveillance coordination ights in three operating areas, and to show that US Navy helicopter squadrons can successfully prepare, deploy, operate and disembark a detachment from foreign vessels. It was clear upon arrival that the aviation spaces were excellent, said Lt Cdr Edmondson. For cruiser/destroyer pilots, the FORT VICTORIA ight deck was large and made for an outstanding forward-aoat staging base. During its deployment, the HSM-77 detachment was instrumental in the liberation of a pirated motor vessel in the southern half of the North Arabian Sea. FORT VICTORIA and other coalition surface vessels canvassed the area in order to locate and assist three merchant ships in distress. An MH-60R intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance mission identied a vessel under pirate control and the location of a pirate mother ship, providing information that enabled a coalition boarding team to free the captured ship.

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Materiel Support
Message from Vice Admiral Sir Andrew Mathews KCB, Chief of Materiel (Fleet)

ver the past 12 months we have faced enormous challenges. In the midst of some of the most wideranging changes ever made to the defence community in the United Kingdom, the men and women who are tasked with supporting the Royal Navys (RN) ships, submarines, helicopters, weapon systems and bases have done an incredible job. As we went through the painful process of saying goodbye to colleagues and friends, those of us who remain have had to ensure that we got the day job done, that every piece of equipment and RN facility was adequately supported, and that the complex task of introducing new platforms and weapon systems continued on course and according to schedule. The last year has been an unsettling period, but I genuinely feel that the worst is behind us, and that not only have we kept

our heads above water, we have also made signicant improvements to the way in which we do things. There are numerous areas where substantive gains have been made. We have begun to get a much rmer grip on the items we hold in storage and made targeted and focused improvements to our equipment planning and maintenance. We are not alone in having to endure budget cuts and manpower losses. Almost every western nation is going through a similar experience, but despite that, there has been a raft of good news. The Royal Navys future is tethered to the success of the new Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers, and I can conrm that we are back on track to deliver these two ships on time and to budget. Having reverted to the jump-jet version of the F-35 Lightning II multirole aircraft, we are now building both ships with

BAE SYSTEMS

Computer-generated image of the Type 26 Global Combat Ship, which will replace the Type 23 frigates

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

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Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, has announced funding for the next stage of design work for the Successor deterrent submarines

a fast jet capability, instead of just one. This move will offer the government options when it comes to the next Defence Review in 2015 on whether the nation can afford to operate both ships. Another highlight is the fact that all six Type 45 Daring-class destroyers are now in the water, with two of them, HM Ships DARING and DAUNTLESS, having already completed operational deployments. The fth ship in the class, HMS DRAGON, entered service ahead of schedule in April 2012. We now move on to the Type 26 Global Combat Ship, which will replace our existing

The Wildcat helicopter that will replace the Mk8 Lynx is now ying and production is in full swing with deliveries due in 2013
Type 23 frigates. There is much to report here as we received approval in May 2012 to move to the next stage of the programme. For the rst time in the history of RN shipbuilding, we will present the government with a plan that includes the entire through-life costs of these vessels, which will be of great help to future budgetary planning. Our building of the seven Astute hunter-killer submarines is also well on track. Having learnt the lessons of how a break in submarine manufacture can cost both time and money, as well as put our ability to complete such a high-end industrial programme in jeopardy, we have dovetailed the nal phase of the Astute build

programme with the initial phase of the next-generation nuclear deterrent Successor submarines. The announcement in October by the Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, for additional funding for the design of the Successor boats will sustain some 1,200 jobs. This is on top of the 10,000 British workers involved in the production of the aircraft carriers. It is often overlooked that defence makes a signicant contribution to the UKs overall industrial capability and our worldwide reputation for advanced technology projects. The UKs major role as a Tier 1 partner in the F-35 Lightning II jet is yet another example of the wealth of industrial and technological know-how that resides in this country and which is playing its part in helping us out of the economic downturn. Our ability to build helicopters is another undoubted sign of our industrial strengths. The RNs own helicopter community has seen a lot of advances throughout the year. The Wildcat helicopter that will replace the Mk8 Lynx is now ying and production is in full swing with deliveries due in 2013. The upgraded Mk2 Merlin helicopters will also start deliveries to the RN in 2013, and with the transfer of the Mk3/3A from the Royal Air Force, the RN will now take the lead with these aircraft. There is much more that I could mention as you will see from the articles in this publication, but it remains for me to remind everyone that we have a challenging and full programme ahead of us. To succeed, we need to remain exible and embrace change as well as the opportunities it brings. If we focus on outputs and principles, and always seek to understand the strategic intent of our actions, we will have played our part in ensuring a bright and exciting future for the Royal Navy.

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Artists impression of aircraft carriers QUEEN ELIZABETH and PRINCE OF WALES

Carrier strike

Britain looks set to rebuild a major aircraft carrier capability by the end of the decade. Nick Childs reports on how the programme has evolved and where it stands currently

t has been another year of upheaval for Britains long-running effort to produce a new generation of big aircraft carriers. The dramatic progress that has been made in what remains the countrys most signicant and hotly debated new defence equipment project also promises a major shift in both the real and public perceptions of the programme over the coming 12 months. One of the most signicant decisions to emerge from the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) was a switch in the variant of the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter to be operated from the new carriers. The coalition government ditched the short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) B version in favour of the conventional carrier version, the F-35C.

However, by early 2012, it became clear that the F-35B was back from the dead. The new Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, was intent on a major U-turn, chiey due to reportedly burgeoning ship conversion costs required to equip the one planned operational carrier with the US-designed electromagnetic catapult system (EMALS) and advanced arrestor gear. The proposed U-turn carried with it considerable political sensitivity. It also sparked a heated and at times acrimonious debate. Proponents of the cats and traps F-35C approach continued to argue for both the tactical and strategic signicance of its better range and payload, as well as the greater interoperability that it offered with the US Navy. However, on 10 May 2012, citing unacceptable growth in the estimated cost of the cats and traps ship conversion which had increased, it was said, from 1 billion to 2 billion for just one carrier Philip Hammond conrmed the U-turn. The Secretary of State for Defence also suggested that there would be increased delays if Britain stuck to the F-35C, with no

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One of ve of the QUEEN ELIZABETH blocks is unveiled at BAE Systems Govan shipyard

Block LB04 leaves the Clyde in November 2012 on her way to Rosyth

new carrier capability before 2023; whereas because HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH would be able to operate the STOVL F-35B, trials could instead begin with this variant in 2018 for operations from 2020. The government also dangled the carrot of being able to afford to maintain a continuous carrier capability, by keeping the second ship ready for operations when the rst was undergoing maintenance. However, a nal decision on that will come only at the time of the 2015 SDSR. Despite the programme changes, it is signicant that the 2010 SDSR included a strong re-afrmation of the strategic rationale for a carrier strike capability.
FLEXIBILITY AND CAPABILITY

At 65,000 tons, the new ships are three times the size of the Invincible-class carriers that have served for the last three decades. HM Ships QUEEN ELIZABETH and PRINCE OF WALES represent more than just straight replacements. These ships are about re-establishing a level of carrier strike capability and hence of power projection, independent if necessary of foreign basing

rights or a signicant military footprint ashore not seen as far as Britain is concerned in more than a generation. Futher to this, they will also offer a much greater level of exibility and capability for a whole range of other tasks. That vision has nally begun to take on a very real and increasingly massive form. Clearly, the carriers supporters are hoping that, pretty soon, people will begin to notice, and that the tone and nature of the debate about the ships will also start to shift. Most specically, construction of HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH had progressed to the point where, by late 2012, the majority of the blocks for the forward part of the ship had been assembled in the dry dock at Rosyth in Scotland. The blocks amounted to some 20,000 tons which is already close to the size of the RNs current largest warship, HMS OCEAN. The rst major part of the aft end of the ship, Lower Block 04, another 10,500 tons, had also been delivered. The same would soon be the case for the ships two islands. Thus, the rst of the Queen Elizabeth-class (QE) carriers is nally beginning the transformation

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QUEEN ELIZABETH CLASS


Medium-range Mainmast radar After aircraft lift Flying control position Forward aircraft lift F-35B Merlin Helicopter

Long-range radar

Navigation radar Automatic smallcalibre gun

After engine room Hangar mid bay Phalanx automated close-in weapons system

Displacement: Length: Beam: Draught:

65,600 metric tons (full load) 284m (932ft) 39m (waterline) 73m overall 11m

Decks: Speed: Range: Capacity: Complement:

16,000m2 25+ knots 10,000 nautical miles 1,450 600

Aircraft carried: 40 (50 full load) aircraft 36 F-35 Lightning II 4 Airborne Early Warning aircraft

from a huge assembly kit into the giant new aircraft carrier that has been talked about in abstract for so long. Major blocks of the second vessel are also well advanced, waiting for assembly to begin. Another signicant milestone occurred in October, when the rst members of the ships company of HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH arrived in Rosyth. The eight crew members were led by Captain Simon Petitt. It is expected that, by the end of 2013, that this number will have grown to between 75 and 80 people. It will be the job of Captain Petitt and his growing team to learn about the ship and her technology, and to write the operating policy and procedures that will enable her to come into service in 2020.
F-35B DELIVERIES BEGIN

circumstances? Hammond appeared to settle that argument at the beginning of November. In a speech in London he declared that, when deployed outside home waters, the new carrier will routinely have Lightning II jets embarked with personnel from both services. He also conrmed that the normal number of jets

It is signicant that the 2010 SDSR included a strong re-afrmation of the strategic rationale for a carrier strike capability
would be 12, but with the ability to surge when necessary, and the QE class will be able to accommodate up to 36 F-35s. Hammond also gave the strongest hint to date that the RN would keep both carriers available for operations. The cost of maintenance and a skeleton crew for the second ship would be, he said, a modest 70m. In his opinion, that was an extremely good investment to have a continuous carrier capability and the ability, in extremis, to surge to two carriers at a time of tension. For the RN, that would clearly be a tantalising prospect. But it is beginning to take on a tangible shape.

Also signicant was the delivery of Britains rst F-35B, in a ceremony in Fort Worth, Texas, in July an event that was attended attended by Philip Hammond. Despite the U-turn on the F-35 variant, the US Navy has stuck to its offer to provide pilot training and other carrier crew opportunities, so that the British can maintain carrier-operating skills. The French Navy will also offer what assistance it can from its own carrier capability. Yet, with Britain for the moment still committed to buying only 48 F-35s initially, in a joint project with both the RN and the RAF, debate continued behind the scenes over operational issues. How many jets would normally be based at sea, and in what

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

PRESS ASSOCIATION GRAPHIC SOURCE: ROYAL NAVY

Builders: BAE Systems Surface Ships Building: 2 Planned: QUEEN ELIZABETH PRINCE OF WALES

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F-35 Lightning II: plan B up and running

On 19 July 2012, the UK Secretary of State for Defence, Philip Hammond, addresses the audience as he takes delivery of the UKs rst F-35B jet

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Peter Grant reveals how the Royal Navys next multi-role jet aircraft programme is taking shape as British personnel begin training for its operation, and looks at when it will be ready to y off the new Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers

ome readers may be surprised to learn that the Fleet Air Arms next xed-wing combat aircraft the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II is not just another purchase from a US production line. It is, in fact, a joint development in both industry terms and service involvement. Originally known within the Ministry of Defence (MoD) as the Joint Combat Aircraft (JCA), the F-35B, designated Lightning II, will be a joint procurement for the Royal Navy (RN) and the Royal Air Force (RAF). One military test pilot is already ying the pre-production development test aircraft at Pax River, and two British pilots one from each service are due to enter the training pipeline to y the UKs rst two production aircraft at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) in the United States (with a third in the pipeline). The technical training of 60 engineering personnel a mix of RN/RAF personnel is already under way. UK ying started in December 2012, as part of a joint endeavour with the United States Marine Corps (USMC) personnel, where all assets and personnel will be operated on a pooled basis. The aim of the training effort with the USMC is to enter the ofcial Operational Test and Evaluation period around 2015. The F-35 is the winner of a US programme known as the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), which had its origins in the mid-1990s. UK involvement began in December 1995, through the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the US, committing the UK to a four-year weapons system concept demonstration (WSCD) phase, which saw two competing designs evaluated. A formal Request for Proposals for the JSF was issued in June 1996 and, on 16 November 1996, it was announced that Boeing (with its X-32 design) and Lockheed Martin (with its X-35 design) had been chosen to participate in the WSCD. Each company would build three demonstration aircraft: a conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) airframe, an advanced short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) version and a carrier-based CV variant. Each competitor selected Pratt & Whitney to supply what became the F135 turbofan as the main powerplant. By June 1997, British Aerospace (now BAE Systems) and Northrop Grumman had joined Lockheed Martins development team and the X-35 design had been frozen. The rst prototype X-35A made its maiden ight on 24 October 2000. By 22 November 2000, after 25 ying hours, the X-35A returned to Lockheed Martins Palmdale works to be converted to X-35B STOVL conguration. This

version is the same airframe as the A-model, but with a broader and higher spine behind the cockpit to accommodate the engine-driven lift fan which gives it the STOVL capability but at the cost of displacing some fuel and a shortened cockpit canopy. The engine also features a Three Bearing Swivel Module at the exhaust that points the main jet efux downwards, which, together with the lift fan, allows it to hover. The X-35C carrier-based CV version ew on 16 December 2000. Hover-pit trials of the X-35B began in late December 2000 and, on 23 June 2001, the rst brief vertical take-off and landing took place, followed by a sustained hover ight the next day. Testing of the X-35B had concluded by 30 July 2001. With the award of the System Design and Development (SDD) contract to Lockheed Martin on 26 October 2001, the X-35 was declared winner of the JSF contest, becoming the F-35, with Pratt & Whitney receiving a contract for the associated F135 powerplant. In all, 19 development aircraft have been delivered for the SDD phase. Three variants are being produced: the F-35A land-based CTOL version for the US Air Force; the F-35B STOVL version for the USMC, RN and RAF; and the F-35C CV version for the US Navy. The aircraft was christened Lightning II in July 2006, echoing the Lockheed P-38 Lightning and the English Electric Lightning. The end of that year saw the signature process initiated for the MoU covering the F-35s Production, Sustainment and Follow-on Development (PSFDMoU) phase to cover the through-life support and acquisition of the aircraft, with the US and UK joining forces with other international partners Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Turkey. The PSFDMoU established a collaborative partnership where they would seek to maintain commonality through-life and share a single global support solution.
THE BENEFITS OF PARTNERSHIP

Being a Level One partner in the F-35 project brought with it the opportunity to include UK requirements for the aircrafts parameters into the joint operational requirements document. Put another way, it was designed as much for the UKs circumstances as for the US forces. While the RNs Fleet Air Arm gave up its dedicated Sea Harrier FA.2 in March 2006 and lost the Harrier GR.9A in December 2011 (dates not foreseen in 1995), the rst two examples of the replacement F-35B Lightning II are now in British

LOCKHEED-MARTIN

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The F-35B goes through short take off and vertical landing serials on USS WASP

United Kingdom Royal Air Force Squadron Leader, Jim Schoeld, ew the rst British F-35B Lightning II on 23 July 2012

U.S AIRFORCE

F-35B BK-2 begins its ferry ight to Eglin Air Force Base

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LOCKHEED-MARTIN

LOCKHEED-MARTIN

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hands. The rst of three operational test F-35B models for the UK, ZM135 (company identication BK-1) ew from Lockheed Martins facility at Fort Worth, Texas, on 13 April 2012, having been ofcially handed-over to the UK MoD on 19 July and transferred to Eglin AFB for training. By 19 October, the second UK F-35B (ZM136 / BK-2) had arrived at Eglin. The third aircraft, ZM137 / BK-3, ew on 2 April. The rst order for production F-35B aircraft, sufcient to form the UKs rst operational unit, is expected by the end of 2013. The F-35 is a Fifth Generation ghter optimised for lowobservability (or stealth). It has a mid-wing, trapezoidal plan conguration with twin ns and an internal weapons bay, powered by a Pratt & Whitney F135 turbofan engine, rated at 28,800lb st without afterburning and 40,000lb st with full reheat. It has a sophisticated radar and avionics suite, including the APG-81 radar with an active electronically scanned antenna, allowing it to engage air and ground targets at long range, while also providing situational awareness for enhanced survivability. Other systems include the AAS-37 electro-optical Distributed Aperture System, providing the pilot with a unique protective

knowledge of the F-35 before undertaking Operational Test on a joint operational unit from mid 2014. Beyond Operational Test, the UKs rst operational squadron will form in the US from 2016 as part of a joint effort with the USMC, transitioning back to the UK in 2018. To be RAF Marham in Morfolk, it will work up as an independent unit aiming to attain a land-based Initial Operating

Being a Level One partner in the F-35 project brought with it the opportunity to include UK requirements
Capability (IOC) by the end of 2018, which matches the arrival of the rst of the new aircraft carriers, HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH, when embarked ying trials will get under way. It is planned to reach maritime IOC by 2020.

F-35B JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER


Short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL)

Wing span: 35ft Length: 50.5ft Wing area: 460ft2 Internal fuel: 13,325lbs Speed: Mach 1.5 / Mach 1.8+ (1,200mph)

Engines: Pratt & Whitney F-135 turbofan Max altitude: 50,000ft Armament: Paveway IV, AMRAAM, ASRAAM

sphere around the aircraft for missile warning, navigation support and night operations; the AAQ-40 Electro-Optic Targeting System, a passive and complementary system to the radar; and a comprehensive electronic warfare suite. Be in no doubt, this is a very exciting aircraft, says Squadron Leader Jim Schoeld, the rst UK F-35B test pilot, writing in DESider, an MoD magazine. Information from all of these sensors is combined to provide a seamless multi-spectral picture of the battlespace. From a pilots view, the situational awareness is breathtaking, he observes. Flying the aircraft, he says, is a wholly stress-free affair, adding that the F-35 is the easiest aircraft to y of the 80 or so Ive own by a large margin, allowing the pilot to focus his mental capacity on warghting rather than just ying. Once the rst UK pilots have completed their training at Eglin, which began on 19 March 2013, they will be used as instructor pilots to train USMC colleagues, gaining experience and

Speaking to Global Reach, Commodore Rick Thompson RN, head of the JCA Lighting Project Team at the MoD, was enthusiastic over not just the capability that Lightning II will bring to the UK, but also the joint nature in which it has been procured and is being introduced into service thus far. The success of this small team spread across the US and UK is its truly Joint nature, delivering the OT aircraft on time and within budget, he said. It is impressive what can be achieved when you have a single joint vision with Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and US Marine Corps pilots, maintainers and logisticians all working together in a purple environment to deliver a common, world-beating capability. The F-35, Thompson said, is capable, survivable and based on commonality across all three variants to ensure affordability. It will contribute to the widest range of operational roles, ashore and aoat, and has been optimised for expeditionary warfare.

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PRESS ASSOCIATION GRAPHIC SOURCE: GLOBALSECURITY.ORG

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The Type 45 Daring-class destroyers

A Sea Viper anti-aircraft missile blasts out of one of HMS DIAMONDs silos before destroying a target drone

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As the nal Type 42 air defence destroyers leave service, Alan Dron explains how their replacements, the Type 45 Daring warships, will make an impression on the eet

enerally hailed as one of the most capable air defence vessels in the world, the Type 45s bring a step-change in capabilities over their predecessors to the Royal Navy (RN). With highly advanced powerplants, radars and weapon systems, they will be a powerful addition to RN or coalition task forces for several decades to come. The design was developed after the RN decided to pull out of the proposed joint programme with France and Italy to build Horizon-class destroyers. It was felt that the Horizons design would be too cramped for the RNs requirements. The main remaining point of similarity between the vessels is their anti-air missile system. Despite being signicantly larger than the Type 42s that they replace displacing around 8,000 tons compared with 5,200 the application of stealth technology on the Type 45 means that it has a smaller radar signature than its predecessors. Vertical surfaces and radar-reecting right angles have been reduced to a minimum, while as many external ttings as possible, such as the deck equipment and ships boats, have been hidden away behind superstructure panels in order to give the Type 45s the maximum degree of stealth. The Type 45s powerplant is a new, all-electric system that is designed to be both efcient and extremely quiet. A combination of two Rolls-Royce WR-21 advanced marine gas turbines and two Wrtsil 12V200 diesel generators provide electrical power to a high voltage system. This supply then delivers power to two Converteam advanced induction motors, each with an output of 20MW (27,000hp). The WR-21s, which draw technologically on Rolls-Royces extensive experience with the highly successful RB211 and Trent airliner turbofans, have intercooler and exhaust recuperator (ICR) heat exchangers to reduce the Type 45s fuel consumption by around 30 per cent over earlier powerplants a major saving

over the ships lifetimes. This all adds up to a cruising speed of 17 knots using all-electric propulsion, and a declared top speed of 27 knots. However, during her sea trials HMS DARING is reported to have exceeded 30 knots. As air defence vessels, the main armament of the Type 45s takes the form of the Sea Viper surface-to-air missile system, formerly referred to as PAAMS (Principal Anti-Air Missile System). Designed to provide an air defence umbrella to a task force primarily based around the Queen Elizabeth-class carriers when these enter service around the end of the decade the Sea Viper system combines what the manufacturer, BAE Systems, describes as the world-leading Sampson radar with a Sylver silo complex and the Eurosam consortiums Aster missiles.
A COMBINED DEFENCE SYSTEM

Sampson, an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar housed within a distinctive globe atop the forward mast, is a multi-function sensor that can simultaneously detect and track hundreds of targets out to 400km. Some reports show that Sampson to be capable of tracking an object that is as small as a cricket ball moving at Mach 3. AESA radars differ from the more traditional systems in that they have hundreds of small transmitter/receiver modules which direct their signals by emitting separate radio waves. Furthermore, to complement the stealthy nature of the vessel itself, Sampson spreads its signal emissions across a band of frequencies, which makes it very difcult to detect over background noise. It is paired with the S1850M long-range radar, which is housed on the aft mast. The Aster missiles 48 are shipped in individual silos in a foredeck missile farm are a mix of Aster 15s (with a range of 2-30km) and longer-ranged Aster 30s (3-120km). They are designed to be capable of dealing with a wide range of air threats, including incoming supersonic sea-skimming anti-ship missiles. For last-ditch anti-air defence, the Type 45s also mount two Phalanx close-in weapons systems with six-barrelled 20mm Gatling cannons that can re up to 4,500 rounds a minute. As the Type 45s are likely to nd themselves in low-intensity situations at some time in their careers, they are also equipped
A Sea Viper missile speeds towards a target from HMS DARING

The BAE Sampson AESA radar can track hundreds of airborne targets as far away as 400km

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HMS DARINGs Lynx Mk 8 helicopter armed with Sea Skua anti-ship missiles

with two Oerlikon KCB 30mm cannons, plus two 7.62mm Miniguns. The Oerlikon cannons are smaller calibre versions of the Phalanx that follow its rotating multiple barrel principle. Generalpurpose machine guns can also be mounted for close-in defence.

As air defence vessels, the main armament of the Type 45s takes the form of the Sea Viper surfaceto-air missile system
Rounding out the gun armament is the RNs standard 4.5 inch Mark 8, which is housed in a foredeck turret. This res shells out to 12nm (22km, or 27km with an extended range round). The gun is the Mod 1 variant. The Mark 8s faceted turret contributes to the ships overall stealth characteristics.
ANTI-SHIP AND DECOY SYSTEMS

Currently, the only anti-ship missiles carried by the Type 45s are the BAE Systems Sea Skuas on the ships AgustaWestland Lynx

HMA8 helicopter. The ships are outtted for but not with eight Boeing AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles that may be installed during future rets. The ships also have the capability to carry the US-built Tomahawk cruise missile, although this would require the current A50 Sylver launcher to be replaced with the longer-length A70 model. The Lynx can alternatively carry two BAE Systems Sting Ray lightweight anti-submarine torpedoes. On Type 45s, where the Lynx is replaced by the larger AgustaWestland EH101 Merlin, the complement of torpedoes doubles to four, although the Merlin does not mount the Sea Skua. Other, passive defence systems comprise the Sea Gnat launcher, ring a mixture of chaff, ares and other decoys, a oating decoy system that gives off a large radar contact and the Surface Ship Torpedo Defence system, which deploys acoustic decoys to spoof incoming torpedoes. Automation on board means that the Type 45s have a crew of just 190, in contrast to the older Type 42s, which have a complement of between 270 and 300 personnel. The smaller crew means that the individual crew members have considerably better accommodation. Should things get really tricky, the Darings are capable of carrying up to 60 Royal Marines.

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Astute submarines

With the second Astute-class submarine at sea on trials, the transformation of the Royal Navys nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarine force continues to make signicant strides, as Nick Childs reports

ne of the capabilities that still sets the Royal Navy (RN) apart from most other navies is its eet of nuclearpowered hunter-killer submarines, known as SSNs (Ships Submersible Nuclear). With the transition of that capability to the new Astute class from the long-serving T and S (Trafalgar and Swiftsure) class boats now well and truly under way, a very signicant element of the future RN is beginning to take shape. HMS ASTUTE herself rst went to sea in 2009, and was commissioned into the RN in August 2010. A major hurdle for her

on the way to acceptance into full operational service was a 142-day trials deployment across the Atlantic from late 2011 into 2012. The deployment included 77 days spent at sea. Among the highlights was a rst-of-class ring of Tomahawk land-attack cruise missiles (TLAMs) a total of four Tomahawks was launched and the ring of six Spearsh heavyweight torpedoes, including the rst salvo ring by a British submarine for 15 years. ASTUTE was put through her paces in other ways, including diving deep, and exercising with one of the US Navys newest submarines, the Virginia-class SSN USS New Mexico. According to ASTUTEs commanding ofcer at the time, Commander Iain Breckenbridge OBE, the Americans were taken aback by the range and capability of the British submarines sonar. In total, ASTUTE covered 16,400 miles during the deployment, before returning to her home base on the Clyde for a maintenance period. In September 2012, the second of the Astute class, HMS AMBUSH, sailed into the Clyde for the rst time to begin sea trials.

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The Royal Navys new hunter-killer submarine, HMS ASTUTE, is one of the worlds most advanced submarines

HMS ASTUTE and her six sisters, at 7,400 tons submerged displacement, are a dramatic 50 per cent bigger than the preceding T boats. With almost 20 years having past since the last arrival an SSN, ASTUTEs entry into service has not been without its difculties. As a result, her trials programme has been protracted, and her operational debut has been delayed as various issues have arisen that had to be addressed. Still, she is on schedule to become operational in early 2013. The A class represents quite a step-change in capability, especially in the context of the developing post-Cold-War world. During that time, the RNs SSNs focused almost exclusively on the single task of countering Soviet submarines. Since then they have morphed into being one of the most potent power projectors, as they are capable of rapid response, launching cruise missiles, gathering intelligence and deploying Special Forces. Futher to this, they are still, perhaps, the most formidable of modern platforms for traditional naval warfare.

The enhancements embodied in the Astutes are particularly signicant in these areas. They will be much more capable at delivering Special Forces and their equipment than their predecessors. With even more emphasis being placed on the gathering of intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR), the Astutes have a new combat system and array of sensors and communications. HMS ASTUTE is also proving that the new class will be exceptionally stealthy, particularly in terms of its noise signature. Weapons stowage is also up by more than half compared with the T boats they carry a maximum combination of 38 Tomahawk missiles and Spearsh torpedoes, compared with a previous total of 24. This will provide a new level of exibility for commanders, especially on long and remote deployments. Maintaining a nuclear-powered submarine force is without doubt a hugely expensive and complex business. Even though conventionally powered submarines have improved signicantly in

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HMS ASTUTE launches a Tomahawk landattack cruise missile from beneath the waves

capability and sophistication in recent years, they still cannot match the SSNs ability to deploy rapidly over great distances, unsupported and covertly if necessary, and to remain on station for prolonged periods. As it is the current governments stated aim to remain a global player, these are signicant attributes. Another signicant advance for the As is that their reactor cores are designed to last for the duration of their operational lives without refuelling.

HMS ASTUTE is proving that the new class will be exceptionally stealthy, particularly in terms of its noise signature
The government conrmed in the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) that there would be a total of seven Astutes. That is probably the critical minimum necessary, with the delayed introduction of the successor Trident submarines, to maintain the essential production drumbeat required in order to sustain industrial skills. Some question whether it will be sufcient

to full all the varied tasks that are required of the SSN force. At the very least, it will be a challenge for the A and the remaining T boats over the coming years. The foremost commitment for the SSNs is to support and help safeguard the Trident force. They are also required to maintain a patrol capability in the Atlantic, including the South Atlantic. Furthermore, there is the signicant new commitment to maintain a permanent TLAM-equipped capability east of Suez, where the submarine on station also supports maritime security operations, as well as strategic surveillance and intelligence-gathering activities. The rst two Astutes are now at sea, and AMBUSH should be handed over to the RN in mid-2013. Construction and assembly of the third, HMS ARTFUL, has largely been completed at BAE Systems Barrow-in-Furness yard, with the focus switching to commissioning the submarines systems. Her planned in-service date is 2015. Of the other boats currently under construction, the fourth, HMS AUDACIOUS, was due to receive her nal major modules the command deck and the main propulsion machinery package before the end of 2012. The keel of the fth boat, ANSON, was laid in October 2011. The Astutes will remain a major programme until the last of the boats enters service in 2024, and they will be a signicant mainstay of the Fleet for a lot longer.

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Wildcat on the prowl


The Royal Navys next-generation anti-surface vessel helicopter is now in production and well on the way to entering service. Ian Frain explains why the helicopter will be such a potent weapon

he AgustaWestland Lynx battleeld and naval helicopter has been a successful and vital part of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) and Army Air Corps (AAC) for three decades. The FAA put the aircraft straight into action during the 1982 Falklands conict where, armed with the new Sea Skua anti-shipping missile, one sunk an Argentinian patrol vessel and damaged another. The naval Lynx also played a successful role in the 1991 Gulf War, where six aircraft were responsible for 15 Iraqi ship kills, and in the post 9/11 climate the aircraft has performed well during Operation IRAQI FREEDOM and ENDURING FREEDOM.

Wildcat undergoes landing trials on RFA ARGUS

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The AW159 Wildcat will replace the Lynx Mk8 (pictured)

The Commando Helicopter Force (CHF) also uses the army Lynx in both the anti-armour and trooping role, supporting amphibious operations from Operation SAFE HAVEN, post-Gulf War, to Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, where 847 Naval Air Squadron engaged and destroyed a number of tanks. In 1986, the Lynx claimed fame when development aircraft G-LYNX, own by Chief Test Pilot Trevor Egginton, broke the world speed record for a helicopter by achieving a speed of 249.1mph (400.87 km/h). Both naval and battleeld versions of the Lynx have seen upgrades over the decades, with the former having enjoyed considerable export success to countries as diverse as Brazil, Germany, Netherlands, Norway and Pakistan. The arrival of the Super Lynx then saw it exported to the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Oman, South Africa and Thailand in the last decade. In the early 1980s, Westland promoted the Lynx-3 a private

venture that was built to demonstrate the expanding potential of the aircraft as one of the prototypes was own with AGM-114 Hellre anti-armour missiles, like those featured on the AH-64 Apache, and Stinger air-to-air missiles. Unfortunately, a lack of orders meant the project was discontinued and eventually the aircraft found its way into the International Helicopter Museum.
FOLLOWING IN THE LYNXS FOOTSTEPS

The next generation of rotorcraft to operate from the new generation of frigates and destroyers will be the AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat. This helicopter will face tomorrows challenges while continuing the successful heritage of the Lynx. At a distance, it looks similar to the Battleeld Lynx AH.9 and the Super Lynx 300, but closer up there are differences such as the twin stabiliser on the tail boom, which is similar to that proposed

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Head-on image of the AW159 Wildcat

A 31-strong test team carried out extensive trials of Wildcat on board HMS IRON DUKE

AGUSTAWESTLAND

on Lynx-3 of the 1980s. Instead of the Rolls-Royce Gem engines that powered the Lynx for years, it now has twin LHTEC CT8004N engines, while the composite main rotors are British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) blades. There is also a much more powerful tail rotor. In terms of manufacturing the airframe, all the components have been marinised, and the maximum all-up mass has been increased to six tonnes, resulting in enhanced performance and operational capability. Wildcat has a crashworthy airframe structure, crew and troop seats, while the landing gear has a robust design for ship-borne operations. There is ballistic tolerance protection built into the design, wire-strike protection as well as engine exhaust infrared (IR) suppression. The Royal Navy, and in particular the Royal Marines, routinely carry out operations in contrasting conditions from hot-and-high environments to the freezing Antarctic, so the airframe has been cleared to operate from extremes of -26 to +50 degrees centigrade. The cockpit design comes with larger doors to help with getting in and out, and pilot workload is considerably eased through the installation of four 10x8 inch active matrix liquid crystal displays and a helmet mounting sight (HMS). In the heart of the Wildcats systems are dual-mode and a multitude of redundancy systems. These include an aircraft management system (AMS) equipped with dual redundant control systems and standby ight instruments. The navigation suite is similar to that of the AW101 Merlin Mk2, with the installation of the embedded GPS and an inertial navigation system. The communications suite comprises Dual VHF/UHF inclusive of VHF tactical capability and high frequency. The 21st century battleeld has become a digitised battlespace where the rapid processing of information is critical to the success of the mission, whether on land or in a maritime environment. Accordingly, the mission system architecture includes a tactical processor with mission data recorder and digital map, as well as a tactical data link. As with the Super Lynx

and Lynx HM Mk8, there is an electro-optical device with television, infra-red and laser range nder/designator. Not omitting the Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti Surface Warfare (ASuW) roles, the Wildcat has dipping sonar and 360 degrees full-surveillance radar. With the introduction of the Thales Lightweight Multirole Missile (LMM) more commonly referred to specically as Wildcats Future Anti-Surface Guided Weapon (FASGW-L) the teeth of the helicopter, weighing in at 13kg, is the LMM/ FASGW-L, a laser beam-riding missile with a range of up to eight kilometres and packing a mighty punch with a three-kilogramme

Both naval and battleeld versions of the Lynx have seen upgrades over the decades, with the former having enjoyed considerable export success
shaped-charge warhead. The missile, which is smaller and almost a third the weight of the AGM-114 Hellre anti-armour missile as carried by the Army Air Corps (AAC) AgustaWestland WAH64D Longbow Apache means that the Wildcat could carry around 14 of these missiles compared with eight Hellres. The FASGW-L is a true multi-role weapon system as it cannot only be used against surface targets of xed installations or fast boats, but also against aerial threats including helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It has to be said that with recent anti-piracy operations in the Horn of Africa and CHF missions in both Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as counter drug missions in the Caribbean, the future of the Royal Navys Fleet Air Arm is in no doubt secure, with the Wildcat being reborn when it enters service in 2013 and is deployed to front-line units which will form in 2015.

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The Merlin Capability Sustainment Programme


Although to many people the Merlin helicopter may still seem like a new aircraft, it has been on front-line active service for over a decade. In order to keep it in the skies for another 20 years, Lockheed Martin has taken on the task of revamping the helicopter. Ian Frain takes a look at what this entails
(MoD) issued a requirement for a new ASW helicopter that was to replace the Sea King in order to match the advances of modern technology and the growing Soviet submarine threat. EH Industries, which was made up of Westland Helicopters from Yeovil in the United Kingdom and Agusta from Cascina Costa in Italy, was formed in the early 1980s to look ahead with a view to replacing the Sea King in the 1990s. From these early developments, the EH101 was conceived. The end of the Cold War which culminated in the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact and the dissolution of the Soviet Empire meant that the submarine threat was somewhat reduced. But, in the aftermath of the rst Gulf War, the Fleet Air Arm Merlin

or nearly three decades after its debut, the Sea King helicopter was the leader in Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) in both the Royal and Italian navies. However, back in 1977, the Ministry of Defence

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The Merlin Mk2 capability sustainment programme will keep the helicopter in operation for another 20 years and more

squadrons have demonstrated the aircrafts exibility on land as well as at sea through operations in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq and counter-piracy activities in the Horn of Africa. The multitude of tasks that are carried out by the AgustaWestland AW101 Merlins include surveillance and reconnaissance (tted with the Wescam LX-15 turret), troop carrying, search and rescue (SAR) and counter-drug operations in the Caribbean. In terms of engines, the Merlin is the only military helicopter in the West with three powerplants, apart from the Sikorsky CH-53E/ MH-53E Sea Stallion/Sea Dragon, which is in service with the United States Marine Corps and United States Navy. The airframe has demonstrated its robustness from operating in the harsh environments of the North Atlantic to the extreme heat of the Persian Gulf, with temperatures ranging from minus 40 degrees to ISA +35 degrees. The design of the Merlin encompasses the unique British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) blades, which are also tted to the smaller Lynx and Wildcat helicopters. These provide an improvement in performance and lifting capabilities. The aircraft is operated as

single pilot instrument ight rules (IFR), as the normal complement is that of pilot, observer and aircrewman, with the advanced avionics and glass cockpit playing a major role in easing pilot workload. Despite its relatively large airframe, the Merlin is capable of operating from Type 23 frigates. In order to keep the Merlins ying beyond 2030 and to give them enhanced warghting and other mission capabilities, the 750 million Merlin Capability Sustainment Programme (MCSP) upgrade package was awarded in 2006. Under the contract, Lockheed Martin has begun a programme to enhance and develop the current multi-role capability in order for the Merlin to maintain not just its ASW and ASuW capabilities, but also its ability to undertake a range of other tasks including humanitarian operations, counter-terrorism and counter-piracy missions. A new open mission system architecture has been designed to be adaptable and exible in order to meet the changing demands of these missions. For example, the current Blue Kestrel radar capabilities will be expanded and improved and faster system processing capabilities, such as track-while-scan performance and

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LOCKHEED MARTIN

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Merlin Mk2 helicopters underwent sea trials on HMS ILLUSTRIOUS in September 2012 to assess the aircrafts new navigation system

the Thales processing suite, will be introduced for the ASW role. This suite is able to detect objects through shallow water, and has tracking algorithms and an acoustic processor able to undertake active dipping sonar and sonobuoy processing. The battlespace will be managed using Lockheed Martins new tactical management computer, which has been supplied from the companys Owega facilities. This hardware is embedded with a digital map that is based on the PC/104 processor cards, communicating through an Ethernet switch.

Altogether, the Merlin Capability Sustainment Programme contract will upgrade 30 aircraft in the eet at a saving of 500 million
The powerful human interface incorporating seven 1024x768 pixel XGA multifunction at-panel displays, with touch-screen technology and a new navigation suite takes the reduction of operator workload to a new dimension. The latter will include an embedded GPS/inertial navigation system (and standby GPS), with a new air data computer. Altogether, the MCSP contract will upgrade 30 aircraft in the eet at a saving of 500 million, while the ongoing support costs could be reduced by as much as 75 million.

In October 2010, the rst Mk2 Merlin successfully completed its maiden ight, and in September 2012, a standard development aircraft, ZH826 completed the shipboard ight trials on HMS ILLUSTRIOUS. The rst deck landing was carried out on the third of the month, followed by two weeks of trials consisting of 10 sorties. The exercise was overseen by the Combined Test Team and carried out in the area between the edge of the Atlantic and Plymouth. The purpose of the trials was to evaluate the embedded GPS/INS at sea under different test proles. At the same time as the MCSP contract was being signed, Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems UK was awarded a 25year Integrated Merlin Operational Support (IMOS) contract by AgustaWestland for the Fleet Air Arms Merlins. This comprehensive contract covers everything from training to servicing and component supplies. The second part of the IMOS contract, which will run during the last ve years, relates to avionics support for the Merlins. AgustaWestland has partnered with Total Support Services (TSS), which comprises SELEX Galileo, Thales UK, General Electric and the Defence Support Group for the avionics side, while Lockheed Martin will deliver the training element with the full support of the Merlin mission and training systems in place at Royal Naval Air Station (Culdrose). The planned introduction for front-line operations sees the new Merlin Mk2 entering service in 2013, with full operational capability expected to follow in 2014.

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PROUD TO SUPPORT THE ARMED FORCES.

Our 35,000 UK employees are proud to provide kit for Britains armed forces. We design, manufacture and maintain equipment including the Type 45 destroyer, Warrior armoured vehicle and the Tornado aircraft. But were prouder still of the contribution and sacrifices made by our armed forces every day. Thank you.

www.baesystems.com

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Developing frigates
Modularity, exportability and adaptability are the three key pillars of the frigate replacement programme. Julian Moxon offers an update on the design and development concept, and takes a look at the overall capabilities that the new frigates will bring to the Royal Navy

rigates have performed vital roles for the Royal Navy since the 18th century, when their long, low design with a single gun deck gave them higher speed and manoeuvrability than the heavier, multi-gun deck battleships. In Nelsons navy they were known as the eyes of the eet, a term that will apply as much to the new Type 26 frigates that are currently being designed. From 2021, the Type 26 will replace the current Type 22 Broadsword and Type 23 Duke-class frigates. The totally new vessel will be capable of dealing with threats from the air, sea and submarine environment.
COMBINING STEALTH WITH FLEXIBILITY

Forming the backbone of the future eet, the initial design of the Type 26 Global Combat Ship was recently revealed to have similar stealth features to those of the Type 45 Daring-class destroyer, which is now entering service. The 350-strong combined Navy, Ministry of Defence and BAE Systems team that is working on the future frigate is now preparing the detailed specications. The new frigate will be 15m longer and 500 tonnes heavier than the current Type 23 ships that it will replace, at 148m and 5,400 tonnes respectively. It will be armed with an air defence missile system, a medium-calibre main gun and the latest radar and sonar sensors. A multi-role helicopter will be carried aboard and there will be space for equipment such as drones for air, surface or even underwater missions. According to First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, the Type 26 frigates will be capable of operating independently for signicant periods or as part of a task group and will play a major role in the defence of this country for many years. He adds that the new frigates will be multi-mission, designed for joint and multinational operations across the full spectrum of warfare, including complex combat operations, maritime security operations such as counter-piracy, as well as humanitarian and disaster relief around the world. For now, 13 Type 26s will be ordered from prime contractor BAE Systems on a basis of one-for-one replacement for the Type 23s, although the nal number has yet to be conrmed and will be announced along with the go-ahead decision, probably in 2015. The Global Combat Ship programme has already undergone some signicant changes. In 2006, an integrated project team was established to clarify the requirements for ensuring the long-term capabilities of Navy warships and to identify a solution

to the Key User Requirements previously identied in what, until then, had been known as the Future Surface Combatant programme, which was cancelled in 2004. The resulting Sustained Surface Combatant Capability (S2C2) pathnder project closed down in 2007 after creating a new blueprint for the navys surface eet based on three ship types that are optimised for high-end warghting, stabilisation operations as well as various policing and minor combat tasks. The programme name was changed following the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) carried out by the newly formed coalition government in 2010. This reected the better all round capability planned for the new ship although it retains an anti-submarine warfare bias, as highlighted by the 20 series type number. The initial Ministry of Defence Gate Business Case was

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The Type 26 Global Combat Ship is due to enter into service with the Royal Navy after 2020

approved in 2010 for a four-year assessment phase package of work with prime contractor BAE Systems. To date, there has been no ofcial approval to build the Type 26 class, but the planning assumption is that the rst ship will enter service in 2021, with subsequent ships to be constructed at a rate of approximately one per year thereafter. The last of the Type 22 frigates, HMS CORNWALL, was withdrawn in April 2011 after an illustrious career that ended with a six-month counter-piracy deployment near the Suez Canal. The planning assumption with this model is that the Type 23s will be progressively withdrawn following the introduction of the Type 26, while maintaining the required number of surface combatants throughout the changeover. According to the Navy, this process should take around 13 years.

The Type 26 Global Combat Ship was recently revealed to have similar stealth features to those of the Type 45 Daring-class destroyer
Whereas the Type 23s were designed as anti-submarine warfare platforms, retaining a general purpose capability, the Type 26 will be what the Navy calls a versatile multi-mission combatant with a strong warghting ethos and an anti-submarine pedigree. There is increased emphasis on versatility, with the adaptability to change roles and capabilities depending on strategic circumstances.

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EQUIPMENT

The Type 26 showing the spacious helicopter landing deck

The design of the Type 26 draws on experience gained both from the Type 45 destroyers and from the Type 23s still in active service. They will, for example, incorporate radar cross-section reduction features from the Type 45 and underwater noise limitation characteristics from the Type 23. Most importantly, the design will incorporate a exible mission space, which could house additional boats, unmanned vehicles or containers with modular capability packages. A further design innovation is the space that has been created for a vertical missile silo and a larger ight deck that is capable of

embarking large rotor craft such as the Merlin or Wildcat helicopters. It will include a more advanced waste management capability and better accommodation than the Type 23, along with improved communications, platform management systems and re-ghting and damage control systems. Additional specications include: a combined diesel-electric and gas propulsion system, the BAE Systems Type 997 Artisan radar, a Sea Ceptor missile system, and developments of the Type 2050 and 2087 sonars and of the DNA2 Combat Management System. It will also include a new medium-calibre gun which will offer greater range and lethality than the existing 4.5in gun. Air defence capability will be provided mainly by the MBDA Sea Ceptor, for which a 483 million contract was announced in January 2012. The vertically launched system is designed to deal with multiple simultaneous incoming targets at a distance of up to 12 miles from the ship. The MBDA Sea Ceptor will replace the battle-proven Seawolf system. Anti-submarine capability will be provided by the upgraded sonar, in addition to the Merlin helicopter, while equipment to deal with surface attack will be based on the current Navy suite of close-in weaponry and improved situational awareness tools. As the Type 26 joins the Type 45 destroyers now in service, the new shape of the modern navy will be seen not only visually, in the stealthy, low-radar cross-section designs of both classes, but operationally, in the huge capability improvement required to deal with the ever-changing threat scenario.

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BAE SYSTEMS

Air-defence, air trafc management and anti-ship capabilities will be provided by the BAE Systems Artisan 997 medium-range 3D radar

Main office: Prospect Place, Hythe, Southampton SO45 6AU, United Kingdom. Also: Technology Centre, Rossmore Business Park, Ellesmere Port CH65 3EN, United Kingdom. Email: enquiries@avrotechdesign.com Website: www.avrotechdesign.com Tel: [+44] (0) 2380-846262 Fax: [+44] (0) 2380-846760 Avrotech supplies customised teams of naval architects and engineering designers, working at a clients premises in the UK or overseas, or at its own offices using high-speed encrypted broadband links. Contracts for the Royal Navy and for foreign governments include:

Avrotech Design International Limited

Avrotech

Astute submarines

Offshore patrol vessels

Queen Elizabeth carriers

Type 45 destroyers

After sea trials of the first Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring, BAE Systems wrote: The high standard of the ships overall design ... is a unique achievement for such a large, complex and powerful warship.

Hythe Marine
Main office: Prospect Place, Hythe, Southampton SO45 6AU, United Kingdom. Also: Building 1/39, HM Naval Base, Portsmouth PO1 3NH, United Kingdom. Email: enquiries@hms.uk.net Website: www.hms.uk.net Tel: [+44] (0) 2380-848782 Fax: [+44] (0) 2380-846760 Hythe Marine supplies customised teams of craftsmen and tradesmen at client sites in the UK or overseas, or at its own workshops near Southampton and inside HM Naval Base, Portsmouth. It provides: Lloyds approved coded welding and flange facing aluminium + steel fabrication casting repairs in aluminium + cast iron + stainless steel contract machining electrical installation and repair FCAW + MIG + MMA + TIG NDT testing plasma profiling pipe + tube bending and pressure testing ring rolling sheet metal polishing After recent work on HMS Protector, the Royal Navy Head of Fleet Time Engineering, Portsmouth, wrote: Your ability to respond quickly and deliver a quality product ... represents true Team Portsmouth spirit. After recent work on HMS Daring, Hythe Marine received BAE SYSTEMS chairmans award 2 0 1 2

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Putting people rst


Message from Vice Admiral David Steel CBE, Second Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Personnel and Training

ver the past 12 months, the men and women of the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, so brilliantly supported by our Civil Service colleagues and industrial partners, have achieved an enormous amount. I am immensely proud of the professionalism of all our people and it never fails to astonish me just how brilliant they are in delivering against the huge demands placed upon them. As a Service, we have continued to defend the nations interests at home and overseas, while also participating in a year of memorable public events, as 2012 saw not just the Queens Diamond Jubilee celebrations, but also the Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Royal Navy, quite rightly, played a key role in helping to ensure that these amazing events in our nations calendar were delivered in a spectacular, safe and enjoyable way. However, I am also aware that we have endured another year of cutbacks to our eet and manpower, as well as another year of the pay freeze and reductions in allowances. As regrettable as all of this has been, it is yet another way in which the Navy has joined in the national effort to try and rebalance the countrys nances and get the UK back into a more healthy scal and

Retention is my over-riding priority for the next few years, as the Navy and Marines continue to be so busy around the world
competitive position. Thankfully, for the Navy at least, the redundancy programme is coming to an end. The need to start bringing manning levels down by approximately 5,000 personnel by 2015 has been painful, but by managing the reduction in a careful and planned way, we have been able to reduce the number of redundancies required to around 1,300 personnel some 60 per cent of which were agreed on a voluntary basis. Of course, for the remaining 40 per cent of people who faced enforced departure this was an unwelcome disappointment, but I hope that the terms of their redundancy package helped to take the edge off what was indeed a very bitter pill. Over the next few years we may need to call upon the redundancy process again but only in a very limited way, and affecting only those at the most senior levels and some in specialist roles that cannot be sustained.

Having learnt from past miscalculations, I have always been absolutely clear about the need to keep recruiting men and women into the Service, even while we are in a process of manpower reductions overall. For a service that must grow its talent from the most junior levels (we cannot recruit the skills inherent in our leading hands and lieutenants sideways from the civilian employment market), it is vital that we maintain a healthy recruiting programme to ensure that we retain the full suite of required skills and experience. Thankfully, our manning is in very good shape. In 2012, we hit our recruiting targets apart from in the marine engineering eld, where we managed 97 per cent of target. Traditional areas of manning difculty, such as air crew and submariners, are no longer as challenging as they once were. An earlier initiative to allow direct entry into the Submarine Service has ensured a very positive effect on numbers. We are also moving forward with the process of deploying female personnel into both our ballistic missile nuclear deterrent submarines and our attack otilla. In the autumn of 2013, the rst three female ofcer submariners will join a Vanguard-class boat for its operational deployment. They will be followed soon after by 15 ratings. In 2016, female personnel will start to join submarines of the Astute class. The ip side to recruitment is retention. Retention is my over-riding priority for the next few years, as the Navy and Marines continue to be so busy around the world. Put bluntly, we cannot afford to lose the highly trained, motivated and professional people that we enjoy at a time when the demands on our Service are so great. Furthermore, training an ofcer or rating is both expensive and time consuming. It makes clear sense that the Royal Navy and Royal Marines should do everything possible to make sure that we keep our highly skilled and experienced personnel for as long as possible The skills we teach sailors and marines will make their transition to civilian employment relatively easy, but it is my job to make sure that we can make service in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines as attractive as possible for as long as possible, to ensure that we deliver our operational output in the world-class way that we are recognised for. I realise that for many, the strain of having to cover the jobs of the almost 10 per cent of naval personnel who are augmenting front-line operations can at times become an overwhelming burden. Likewise, the frequent change in jobs and work location is also making it difcult to enjoy a stable home life with partners and family. That is why we are pressing ahead with the concept of

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Centres of Specialisation. By moving all of the submarines to Faslane in Scotland and by concentrating the majority of the surface eet in Portsmouth and Devonport, we will enable ofcers and ratings to spend longer in one location and therefore be more able to put down roots, buy a home and enjoy a more stable family life. We will, of course, still offer the global adventure for those who are not yet ready to settle down! It is not just about those who are currently in uniform. I am also determined to ensure that those who leave the Service feel as much part of the Royal Navy family after departing as they did while in uniform. I will therefore be working with the Royal Naval Association and the Association of Royal Naval Ofcers in particular, as well as other service associations, to see what more we can do to make this so. The appointment of a new Director for

Families in the HQ will also allow us to work even more closely with the Naval Families Federation to make sure that our families are supported, kept informed and that they feel even more a part of our wider naval family than they may have done in the past. Having endured a period of transformation, uncertainty and, for many, disappointment and anxiety, we can now look forward to a period in which the Royal Navy enjoys stability, a modernised surface and submarine eet, new and better helicopters, improved equipment for the Royal Marines and of course by the end of the decade the introduction of the Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers and their complement of F-35 Lightning II ghters. This reinvigorated Navy will enable us to continue our long tradition of delivering security to the nation while offering a fantastic career with amazing opportunities to our outstanding men and women.

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Naval recruits brush up their parade skills at HMS RALEIGH

Recruitment matching requirements with resources

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Jill Taylor nds out how the recent defence cuts have affected the shape of the maritime services, and how the recruitment process is changing in order to meet the demands of the future, both in terms of the skill sets required and the channels through which potential recruits are targeted

he manpower cuts imposed by the UK Governments defence reforms have hit the Royal Navy hard. The force is losing almost 17 per cent of personnel between 2010 and 2015, compared with 15 per cent from the Royal Air Force and about seven per cent from the Army. This burden is particularly onerous considering that the Navy has traditionally relied on a large and agile eet to provide a deterrent, often preventing conict by virtue of its presence. As a result, the focus is now on making sure that the force has the right recruits in place to provide an effective force regardless of eet size. The Navy is shedding about 5,000 personnel from all ranks in order to bring total numbers down to 30,000 by 2015. At the same time, it has to ensure it has the right skills to man the ships of the future. The Navy has a pyramid structure, explains Captain (Capt) Mike Davis-Marks, Director of Naval Recruiting. There are lots of recruits at the bottom, rising to fewer at the top. Like all three services, we are a bottom-fed organisation. We do not recruit sideways. In any one year, 2,000 to 3,000 people leave the Navy naturally, and we need to replace these with fresh recruits, grown from the bottom up. You need to do that at any stage of the economic cycle, whether you are making people redundant or not.
MEETING REQUIREMENTS

Capt Davis-Marks says the Navy is on track to recruit 2,900 personnel in 2012 and will meet the skill sets required with the exception of one or two highly specialised placements. The requirements are identied roughly four years in advance to enable Capt Davis-Marks and his team to target their recruitment drive. You can have the best training organisation in the world, but if you dont get recruiting right, you might as well go home. The recruiting operation is essential to maintain the high calibre people that we have manning the Navy. So, given the resources devoted to training new recruits, is the Navy trying to redeploy some of those made redundant? In some specialised areas, this has been possible, for example across jobs where similar skill sets are involved. Following the retirement of the xed-wing Harrier aircraft from the Invincible-class light aircraft carriers in 2010, Fleet Air Arm personnel were offered the opportunity to retrain as helicopter pilots. Many of those people are now helping to

ll vacancies in an expanding helicopter eet, and they will play a part in the broader range of operational capabilities onboard the two new Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers from 2020. While this strategy works with a small number of highly qualied personnel, the age prole for the majority makes it uneconomical. The particular challenge just now is letting people know that the Navy is recruiting. Defence cuts have led to the misconception that the service is not looking to take on new personnel. This applies to the Navy, the Royal Marines and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. Furthermore, these marine services tend to be out of the public eye sailing the high seas rather than visible in the home environment. The Royal Marines can be mistakenly labelled as Army, and the Fleet Arm as Air Force, rather than naval forces. Each one calls for a particular marketing approach to appeal to the right audience. The four-year target provides a broad indication of the number of recruits needed against different trades. In addition, entry requirements vary according to the nature of the recruit. Basic health and tness standards apply to virtually all applicants, but a more stringent academic level may be introduced for posts such as medical or technical roles, and have to be exible to reect changing requirements. There has been a move towards more technical ratings and ofcers, comments Capt Davis-Marks. There is an increasing technical requirement for our future eet, and the ratio between junior and qualied ratings is changing. To some extent this can be captured by modifying the entry standards, but the Navy also employs a series of psychometric tests. We need people who have a level of intellect, but more importantly, character and common sense. We have a range of tests to determine that, he explains. Often, he is looking for ratings that have the ability to take the lid off a jar of pickle but not necessarily know the square route of the volume of it.
FUTURE RECRUITS

The personnel on the Type 45 Destroyer, the Navys latest warship, are indicative of this trend. We are a technical service, so we need a level of technical expertise or intelligence. The Type 45 Destroyer is manned to suit the latest requirements. In ve years time, we will be manning to meet the demands of the future carrier capability. Staff requirements, however, will remain multi-disciplinary.

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When the Navy identied a shortage of engineers three years ago, it developed an application for the iPhone that was designed to appeal to technical minds
A much bigger change is taking place in the recruitment process itself. Time spent developing the website has shifted to new media outlets, including Facebook and smartphones. The Navy is intent on engaging young people through interactive campaigns based around social media, and it is starting to reap the benets of this new marketing strategy. Our core target market is 16 to 24 years and there are 13 million youngsters in this age group in UK. We can specify

a target audience, based on age, ambition and outlook. We use different messaging and channels to reach the different groups. When the Navy identied a shortage of engineers three years ago, it developed an application for the iPhone that was designed to appeal to technical minds. The Engineering Challenge app pictured the user onboard a ship and presented a number of operational challenges. In the rst month, the game achieved 80,000 downloads, which translated into 1.5 million page impressions on the engineering website. The Navy went from having a decit to meeting its engineering targets within two years. The application has since been rolled out to all smartphone brands and a derivative was launched recently to teach people how to play music. The Navy is hoping to attract more recruits into its band service. With tools such as this at its disposal, Capt Davis-Marks expects the Navy will continue to recruit the right number of the right quality of people with the right expectations.

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BAE SYSTEMS

Royal Navy personnel practise their skills on the new Maritime Composite Training System

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training

FOST

Christina Mackenzie looks at the broad spectrum of Royal Navy preparation conducted by the Flag Ofcer Sea Training organisation

riginally established in 1958, Flag Ofcer Sea Training (FOST) has a long-standing, worldwide and hard-earned reputation for excellence in the complex task of preparing ships and their crews for the rigours of sea-based warfare, peace-keeping and humanitarian relief missions. Currently, FOST is also responsible, in some form, for all training across the Royal Navy from turning civilians into sailors and marines to preparing all ships, submarines and marine units for global deployments and combat operations, as well as providing sought-after training for our allies.
INTELLIGENT WARRIORS

Unveiling the Commando Memorial in 1952, The Queen Mother observed that: The Commandos were raised in urgent, clouded days; they

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FOST checks how the crew of HMS ILLUSTRIOUS deal with multiple res and oods

One of the bedrocks of the Royal Navy is Operational Sea Training the process of getting ships and submarines ready for the front line
hardened themselves for battle by sea, land or air, in which nothing was certain except the hazards they would face. This ethos is still very much alive today, explains Lieutenant Colonel (Lt Col) Nick Grifths, HQ lead for Royal Marines training within FOST. Were looking for intelligent warriors who are t, mentally agile and who can successfully complete a mission after being told what to achieve not how to achieve it. Despite the brutal training and high-risk missions, there is no shortage of candidates to wear the green beret. Recruiting is very

buoyant, and we have more candidates than we need, Lt Col Grifths remarks. Still, of those who start the 32-week training course for troops, 39 per cent do not nish. Some 25 per cent go of their own accord and 14 per cent are deemed unsuited for medical, academic or psychological reasons, says Lt Col Grifths. The fallout rate amongst trainee ofcers is very slightly higher at 40 per cent. Even so, theres been a real change in our approach: weve moved from weeding-out to training-in and there is more onus on the instructors who all have a minimal rank of corporal to get the recruits through.
MAXIMISING SUCCESS

The rst lter for candidates is the Potential Royal Marines Course. This is a series of mental and physical tests, but the aim, Lt Col Grifths says, is to maximise success. Those who get through this lter then embark on the 32-week training course. According to Jaimie a landing-craft operator who joined the Royal Marines

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at 19, the training is very hard but progressive: the rst few weeks are mostly learning to look after yourself, but after that you step it up and start going out into the eld for weeks on end. Weeks one to 15 are dedicated to fundamental training, while advanced infantry skills are taught in weeks 15 to 30. The culminating point is week 31, during which the trainees must complete a nine-mile speed march carrying 22lbs (10kg) and a rie; a Tarzan assault course carrying the same equipment; an eight-mile cross-country endurance course; and nally, a 30-mile daytime march across Dartmoor to be completed in eight hours for troops and seven for ofcers. Once all the candidates have arrived there is a ceremony in the eld to award them the coveted green commando beret.
TRAINING OUR ALLIES

The Commando Test Week includes a gruelling assault course

Every year there are four or ve places for non-British ofcers on this course, but for those allies who want Royal Navy training without becoming a commando, 60 to 70 places are available at Britannia Royal Naval College in Dartmouth every year. The international contingent generally accounts for 25 per cent of the initial ofcer training course, and this provides signicant mutual benets for both the international and Royal Navy cadets; fostering operational and cultural experiences for future combined efforts. Head of International Defence Training and Partnering Commander Scott Sellars, says the 30-week course is in high demand from international navies, because of the Royal Navys reputation as a purveyor of world-class maritime training. The course is fully integrated and all Royal Navy and international cadets work together to complete exactly the same training to the same high standard. The only difference is that an Englishlanguage and military preparatory course is available for those who wish it, prior to commencing the initial ofcers course. During the sea training phase, everyone lives in messdecks and learns about the basics of working at sea, including doing the jobs that ratings normally do, because they must understand how the ship works. Commander Sellars concedes that the greatest difculty for the internationals is linguistic and cultural. Despite this, it was a Lebanese cadet who won the Queens Sword for being the best cadet of the year in 2009.
OUT TO SEA

One of the bedrocks of the Royal Navy is Operational Sea Training (OST) the process of getting ships and submarines ready for the front line. Described by some ships as pre-season training for their front-line duties, OST has been a cornerstone of preparing ships for deployment for the past seven decades. In its current form it is directed by a captain and his team from Devonport Naval Base and is typically an eight-week package/exam for frigates and destroyers. It is replicated for minesweepers, patrol vessels and submarines in the Clyde. The training offered by the FOST staff is used by myriad allied navies beyond the Royal Navy: German, Dutch and other NATO ships regularly train alongside their British allies and have exchange or liaison ofcers embedded within the FOST HQ. Additionally, the Americans are increasingly planning to reinforce US training with the UK FOST brand. Rear Admiral Clive Johnstone CBE, the current FOST, comments that in the past, perhaps when the world was a more

stable place, ships saw getting through OST as an end in itself. What clearly matters more is what they do out there on deployment. The mission at FOST is to get the ships operating to their limits in order to deploy successfully and return safely on completion not just to pass an assessment off Plymouth. It is also to get people to think. It is hard to remember sometimes that different peoples around the world generally want to be friends and not enemies we train captains, their ships and ships companies to listen, watch and think. A strategic crisis must not be triggered by the lack of intelligence or cultural awareness, or the inadvertent tactical cock-up. Rear Admiral Johnstone continues: The FOST Command has established a worldwide reputation for excellence and is a role model for numerous navies around the world. To maintain our position at the forefront of world naval training and to retain its relevance in the modern world, naval training must remain at the forefront of our thinking.

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Royal Naval Reservists will play a larger role in maintaining naval capability in the future

A more prominent role for the Reserves


A key tenet of government policy regarding the future of the Armed Forces is the greater dependence upon reserves to help rebalance the interaction between the military and the nation. Colonel Rory Bruce of the Royal Marines Reserve and Deputy Commander of the Maritime Reserves tells Jill Taylor how this challenge will be met
The Maritime Reserve is due to increase the number of trained individuals from the baseline gure of 1,847 to 3,100 over the next six years. This is expected to deliver about 12 per cent of the total maritime force, or between 500 and 550 personnel that are ready to deploy on an annual basis. The size of the challenge is magnied by gures which show Royal Navy Reserve trainedstrength currently stands at around 1,400 and Royal Marine Reserves at 460, both of which are short of where they should stand. The growth required over this period is pretty considerable, comments Colonel Rory Bruce, Deputy Commander Maritime Reserves and Head of Royal Marines Reserve. We need to recruit at least 500 people a year into the Reserves for the next few years.
THE CIVILIAN SPECIALIST SKILL SET

ll three services are in the process of increasing the contribution made by reservists following the publication of the Independent Commission to Review the UKs Reserve Forces report in July 2011. The government announced in July 2012 that it accepted the broad thrust of the reports recommendations and proceeded to produce a green paper, Future Reserves 2020: Delivering the Nations Security Together, which it published in November 2012.

Work has already started, says Colonel Bruce, and there is a noticeable change at Navy Command Headquarters. The mindset is shifting and they have signed off plans to incorporate and utilise

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Reserves in several key capability areas. They are beginning to think about the opportunities they need to develop for these people and how they can integrate Reservists into future deployments over the years ahead. Specic capabilities such as cyber skills, medicine and media operations are among target areas that are not easily sustained within the regular force, but can be supplied by the civil sector. Weve not previously had the funding streams that we now have under Future Reserves 2020. Weve just started to receive the money to invest in recruiting, training, improving infrastructure at our units and enhancing the way our reserve units work. Over the next 10 years, the Navy will receive 96 million of the 1.8 billion allocated by the government for new equipment, infrastructure and training for the Reserves. The Royal Naval Reserve training unit in Newcastle, HMS CALLIOPE, is among the rst sites to benet from a refurbishment programme to enhance training facilities serving recruits in the north-east of England. Meanwhile, HMS WILDFIRE in Northwood has just added new classrooms, IT suites and teaching facilities to improve training for reservists based in Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Berkshire. Integration of the Maritime Reserves into the whole force is now one of the Naval Services top priorities, says Colonel Bruce. The Navy has followed a unique approach with its reserves, and tends to deploy individuals in specialist areas where they become an integral part of the regular force, rather than using the Army construct of deploying formed units. Trained Royal Marine Reserves, for example, have worked on the front line as riemen next to their regular counterparts on Operation HERRICK in Afghanistan for many years. Counter-piracy operations in the Gulf include Royal Navy Reserves on a day-to-day basis. Specialist skills are also evident in the Royal Naval Reserve Air Branch, based at RNAS Yeovilton and at Culdrose (ashore and aoat), which has supported the Fleet Air Arm in times of stretch for many years. It is staffed by pilots, engineers and maintenance crew, all of whom are ex-regulars with expertise in airborne operations using legacy equipment. The Air Branch has proved itself highly successful in extending the life of existing equipment, and releasing regulars for training on new systems.
ENHANCING THE TRAINING INFRASTRUCTURE

Lympstone in Devon. They deploy alongside their regular counterparts and have a long tradition of assimilation into front-line units. At the time of writing more than 30 were engaged alongside regulars participating in the BLACK ALLIGATOR training exercise in the Californian desert. Future Reserves anticipates some 630 RMR on the trained strength by 2020, a 20 per cent hike over current levels. In contrast, the more diverse Royal Naval Reserves is spread across approximately 15 regional locations, some of which are co-located with their RMR counterparts and with regular units. So while the main training establishment at HMS RALEIGH in Plymouth accommodates regulars and reserves, many locations, such as Chatham and Swansea, comprise entirely of reserve units. Applying the same standards and governance to all units is increasingly important as the Navy attempts to grow its reserves by half as much again.

Over the next 10 years, the Navy will receive 96 million of the 1.8 billion allocated by the government for new equipment, infrastructure and training for the Reserves
The next two years are all about stabilisation and reinvigoration, explains Colonel Bruce. Weve just kicked off a major recruiting campaign for the Maritime Reserves, to be delivered on a sequenced, regional basis. At the same time, our training experts are working with Flag Ofcer Sea Trainings (FOST) staff to work out how we can expand the training pipeline and enhance the proposition for individuals. We want to get more reservists through in a manner which is recognised, assured and governed by the Royal navy. This work includes restructuring the
Royal Navy Reservist divers carry out checks on HMS OCEAN as she stands on guard for the Olympics

This concept is expanded under the governments Future Reserves 2020 vision, but with a much larger contribution by the civil sector. We have set particular growth targets in areas such as information and intelligence, logistics and medical skills, explains Colonel Bruce. For example C4ISTAR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance) is a growing area for everyone, not just the military. The challenge he faces is making sure the reservists are properly trained and have the correct skill sets to do these jobs. A large part of the investment is ensuring our reserve training is fully compliant with the procedures in use by the regular force, and that the governance and assurance mechanisms are managed by the same people, says Colonel Bruce. The Royal Marines Reserves (RMR) have always used the same training facilities as the regulars, and operate to standards set by the Royal Marines Commando Training Centre (CTCRM) at

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Bear Grylls, an Honorary Lieutenant Commander in the Royal Naval Reserve drops in at the north-easts naval reserve unit in Gateshead HMS CALLIOPE

initial training package to make it more modular and accessible. It has to be more exible to t in with the lifestyle of the reservists and of their employer as well, mindful of limited availability and mobility. Ultimately, more resources are required to ensure that more reservists can pass through the training pipeline.
AMENDING GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS

Meanwhile, the government has proposed regulatory changes to permit greater ease of mobilisation and better employee protection. While for the Army this includes extending the number of training days to 40 a year, it also proposes the introduction of a national Kite Mark scheme in order to bring recognition to participating companies. The green paper sees the Reserve service as an opportunity to gain new skills which can feed back into the workplace. It also suggests linking apprenticeships with the Reserve service, and even suggests changing national insurance contributions in favour of employers of reservists. As a former managing director myself, I know that companies can nd huge benet, for example when individuals

acquire skills such as project management, negotiating, diplomacy, condence and leadership. Without fail, those who have had people deploy or complete their training, have all noticed the advantages. Colonel Bruce says successful completion of full pre-deployment and capability development training courses, plus a single deployment is the equivalent of 18,000 in professional training costs that an employer might have spent. The challenge lies in imparting this message to the wider community. The Ministry of Defences (MoD) Partnering for Talent initiative is designed to deepen the relationship between industry, academia and the Armed Forces. It already sees close cooperation between the NHS and MoD, but is expected to attract other major employers, such as BT and major defence equipment manufacturers. A lot of key technological development is driven at the military sharp end. There is an obvious partnership between large British companies and the MoD through this programme. The outcome of the Future Reserves 2020 consultation paper will play a central role in securing the right balance between sharing the cost of skills development and reaping the benets.

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A new communications and engagement strategy for the Royal Navy

The Royal Navys interactive website is central to its public relations and recruitment

The Royal Navy has recently published a new communications and engagement strategy designed to improve awareness and understanding of the crucial role it plays in protecting our countrys interests

he nature of recent military campaigns has tended to make headlines of land and air operations which, as far as many of the public are concerned, have little to do with the Royal Navy. In fact, the Royal Navy has been continuously involved in Operation HERRICK in Afghanistan. Taking its lead from the Future Navy Vision, the term Royal Navy reects all arms of the Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines and Royal Fleet Auxiliary. The force also routinely

deploys to the South Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. The communications challenge for the Royal Navy is to explain effectively the utility of maritime power projection and its relevance, not only to the general public, but also to those who have the potential to shape the delivery of the future Royal Navy. This has been a longstanding issue for the Royal Navy, and as a result, the First Sea Lord has appointed Commodore (Cdre) Gary Sutton to the new post of Head of Royal Navy Communications. In his new position, Cdre Sutton has been tasked with giving the services communications and engagement effort a high-level makeover. The Armed Forces enjoy a strong reputation and anecdotal evidence indicates impressive levels of public sentiment and favourability for the Royal Navy, says Cdre Sutton. Clearly we must sustain this public support, but also focus our efforts

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As head of the Royal Navys communications, Commodore Gary Sutton is responsible for getting its message out to the wider world

on how we shape our messaging to resonate with our key audiences and improve understanding and awareness of the relevance of the Royal Navy, he continues. Cdre Sutton states that communications and engagement have been recognised as vital elements that are essential for sustaining Royal Navy operational capability, by promoting and explaining the maritime case and encouraging opinion in favour of Defence in general and the Royal Navy in particular. However, Sutton also acknowledges that in the current scal environment the Royal Navy has to deliver maximum value for money for defence and he needs to ensure the Royal Navys role and value is demonstrated not only within the Ministry of Defence but also to other Government departments.

Suttons rst task, he explains, was to establish a strapline from the Royal Navy narrative and the Future Navy Vision a simplied core message and a set of aligned supporting statements to explain what the Royal Navy is about. The strapline Protecting our Nations Interests was devised as the core message and as the answer to the question why navy?. The supporting statements provide more detail. While the core message should underpin even our most sophisticated messaging, at its basic level, it should be added to ship and unit briefs, press releases, ship open to visitors boards, and a host of other applications, Cdre Sutton explains. Royal Navy personnel would be expected to be very familiar with its content. The core message is supported by a set of six supporting statements that reinforce the message both for an external audience, but also to ensure that internal audiences are able to develop the argument coherently and consistently. They highlight the key roles and capabilities of the Royal Navy in preventing conict, providing security at sea, promoting partnerships, providing humanitarian assistance and protecting the UK economy, as well as stressing its readiness to ght. Cdre Sutton then turns his attention to dening the Royal Navys key audience groups, starting with decision makers and opinion leaders and working on through naval personnel, their associated community and, of course, key media outlets, which Cdre Sutton still considers to be a vital audience, but as he puts it, no longer the only route to market.
A CHANGE OF TACK

The communications challenge for the Royal Navy is to explain effectively the utility of maritime power projection
We now have a National Security Strategy that relies on a strong maritime contribution, Sutton explains, and fundamentally, the Royal Navy needs to be well understood by those that have the greatest inuence over our strategic future, as well as the public at large. In the past, Royal Navy communication and engagement activity had been functionally, geographically and hierarchically dislocated. While there had been lots of good work, it had often lacked focus, with no single authority to coordinate activity. It also endeavoured to target too broad an audience, with much of the emphasis on satisfying mainstream media, with messages that were often too complex and inconsistent.

Young people are a group that receives special attention, particularly through social media channels because, as Sutton points out, not only are they of recruitment target age, but they also have a wide range of views, a longer term outlook and have little if any nostalgia for the service and its legacy role. And nally, Sutton stresses, amongst this, the message needs to reach Royal Navy personnel themselves. Our own people need to be our most powerful advocates and are vital to the success of this strategy. Kept well informed, they are far more likely to be better motivated and more vociferous advocates of the Royal Navy. We need to educate and instil at every level our core messages, the importance of engaging with external audiences and pressing the Royal Navy case. Sutton insists that, although his approach is a clear change of tack from previous communications strategies, it is in effect just learning from best practice, by drawing together and centrally managing the instinctive engagement that is already undertaken across many areas of the Royal Navy Command. Put simply, while the Royal Navy has enjoyed an enviable reputation for being the best at what we do, it has never been more important to promote collectively, in the strongest possible terms, the Royal Navys contribution to defence, security and the UKs prosperity, says Cdre Sutton. While acknowledging that there is a lot more work to do in order to deliver these improvements, Cdre Sutton is condent that with a coherent and dened strategy, owned at the highest level and supported with a redesigned organisation, rm foundations are in now in place to ensure Royal Navy communications and engagement activity supports the future Royal Navy.

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PROTECTING OUR NATIONS INTERESTS


As an island nation, our prosperity and security is totally dependent on our ability to access the sea. The UK is reliant on a stable global market for the raw materials, energy and manufactured goods that underpin our way of life and, in a globalised world, we must have the ability to respond to any event that threatens our economy or national interests. That is why the Royal Navy is globally deployed and has a range of versatile ships, submarines and aircraft operated by highly professional Sailors, Airmen and Royal Marine Commandos. The Royal Navy continues to police the use of the sea in partnership with allies and retains the unique ability to inuence events at sea, on land and in the air, providing real exibility of choice to both military and political leaders.

THE ROYAL NAVY IS:


PREVENTING CONFLICT The Royal Navy prevents conict by being globally deployed in order to deter threats by reassuring regional powers and stabilising potential hotspots. The coercive nature of a credible military force at sea has signicant worth in reinforcing political will. PROVIDING HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE The Royal Navy provides humanitarian aid and relief from the sea without the need to draw on a countrys infrastructure or resources.

PROVIDING SECURITY AT SEA The Royal Navy is at sea every day, working with international partners to provide global maritime security where it is needed.

PROTECTING OUR ECONOMY The Royal Navy contributes to the stability and economic prosperity of the UK by being deployed around the globe in order to protect trade routes and guard the ow of energy resources into our ports.

PROMOTING PARTNERSHIPS The Royal Navy promotes stable and cooperative relationships with friendly and neutral nations around the world through working together, training together and determining common understanding.

READY TO FIGHT The Royal Navy is ready to ght and win in combat at sea, on land or in the air.

THESE ARE ENABLED BY:


Our Sailors, Aviators and Marines, who are a highly skilled and efcient force. They are the lifeblood of our service, able to adapt to whatever the mission demands, and are key to delivering success anywhere in the world.

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The charitys patron, Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal, hands out awards to those who have raised funds

The Royal Navy and Royal Marines Charity (RNRMC)


Robert Robson, Chief Executive of the RNRMC, highlights the strong growth in charitable activities over the course of 2011
via RNRMC grants to assist those wounded in action; and the fundraising campaign in support of our subsidiary, the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund (RMCTF), had a very successful year.
AWARDING GRANTS

n 2011, four signicant developments enabled the RNRMC to increase income and therefore our ability to distribute grants to those in need of our help. Our supporters across the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and in the corporate world were able to raise more money for us than ever before: the RNRMC is now the formal grants administrator for all of Greenwich Hospitals contributions to naval charity; Help for Heroes channelled funds

By the end of 2011, the RNRMC and its partners had given out over 6.2 million in awards and grants. Amongst these, we now award grants to over 18 independent charities, consolidating our position as the major grant maker to naval beneciaries. Not only were our income and grants up signicantly, but we also progressed well in the journey towards becoming the singlefocus umbrella charity for the service. We made strong progress

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RNRMC INCOME AND EXPENDITURE DURING 2011

INCOME

Investment: 2,403k (26%) Donations: 2,854k (31%) Grants received: 3,137k (33%) Payroll Giving schemes: 936k (10%)

GRANTS

Benevolence: 3,372k (55%) Amenities: 2,006k (32%) Sports: 423k (7%) Dependants: 318k (5%) Prizes: 76k (1%) Source: RNRMC Annual Review 2011 Note: New funds transferred in for RMCTF of 7,694k have been excluded from the income gures to enable comparison to previous year

to create an efcient shared support team for the RMCTF, while leaving their trustees in charge of their own business. We also welcomed our involvement with the business community in the south-west, who form the C Group that supports the Royal Marines. Our strategic relationship with the WRNS Benevolent Trust also proved a signicant success.
SUPPORTERS OF THE RNRMC

generously agreed to support us through donations made directly from their salaries via the Payroll Giving scheme. We now have over 10,000 sailors and marines regularly donating in this way, and we hope to be able to raise this gure to 20,000 over the coming years. We will also be making a major

Other notable events over the course of 2011 included the rst Supporters Event in the presence of our Patron, Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal, and our rst trustees meeting at the home of the submarine service in Faslane. We were also chosen as a strategic partner by the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo and received a large donation fromt the Tattoo in recognition of our work in Scotland. We are naturally extremely grateful for all the money that we receive through a wide range of donations, as well as charitable events and activities. I would, however, like to particularly thank all those serving in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines who have

Not only were our income and grants up signicantly, but we also progressed well in the journey towards becoming the singlefocus umbrella charity for the service
push to involve the retired community in our story and in our fundraising plans. For a more detailed view of where our funds come from and the causes to which we dedicate them, please visit our website: www.rnrmc.org.uk.

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National Museum of the Royal Navy


A message from the Director General of the NMRN, Professor Dominic Tweddle

ithout doubt, the highlight for the National Museum of the Royal Navy (NMRN) in 2012 was the completion of the complex deal to transfer Nelsons agship, HMS VICTORY, from the Royal Navy to the museum. We were able to achieve this in record time with the generous help of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Gosling Foundation Limited that each gifted the NMRN 25 million. This world-famous vessel will remain a commissioned Royal Navy warship and will retain her RN crew, but the NMRN will be responsible for looking after her fabric and wellbeing.

Transferring the Trafalgar veteran was not the only major achievement of the year. We also managed to raise almost all of the 6.5 million needed to secure the future of the 67-year old A-class submarine, HMS ALLIANCE, which we have been restoring and hope to re-open in 2014 at the museum. In addition, during the past year, my team and I were also in negotiations with the MoD on a plan for the ministry to gift the museum the light cruiser, HMS CAROLINE. I can conrm that parliament agreed the transfer at the end of 2012, and so now the last survivor of the

HMS Victory remains a Royal Navy commissioned warship, but will be looked after by the NMRN

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The project to retrieve HMS HOODs bell continues

Battle of Jutland will have a secure future. Working in tandem with the Department for Enterprise, Trade and Industry in Northern Ireland, we will seek to establish her as a visitor attraction in Belfast. We are grateful to the National Heritage Memorial Fund, which has agreed donate 1.1 million to safeguard the ship while we raise the extra money needed to complete restoration work. A grant application has therefore been made, and if all goes well the programme will be completed by 2016. On a slightly less grand scale, we hope to restore and re-launch the RNs last remaining steamship, the First World War Pinnace 199, in 2013.
TELLING THE NAVYS STORY

We have a ve-year plan to move the Royal Marines Museum onto the Portsmouth site from its current location in Eastney
Many of A Global Forces readers will have seen the Channel Four documentary that followed the 2012 attempt to raise HMS HOODs bell. Although we were beaten by the weather on our rst endeavour, I can conrm that we will be having another go. Thanks to a very generous offer by Paul Allen, the Microsoft co-founder, who funded our rst attempt, we are planning to try and retrieve the bell in 2013. Although we had a very busy time in 2012, we are not resting on our laurels. The future looks every bit as exciting as the past few years. We have a joint working party with Hampshire County Council, which is helping us to transfer the coastal-bombardment vessel M33 to the museum. We are trying hard to complete the process so that we can open her up to visitors in time for the Gallipoli exhibition. In addition, we have a ve-year plan to move the Royal Marines Museum onto the Portsmouth site from its current location in Eastney. And, while we are doing that, we also intend to make a major investment in the Fleet Air Arm Museum to create a new entrance. This is an extremely exciting project as we hope to put on display in the newly constructed atrium, an artefact that harks back to the very birth of carrier strike operations the last remaining First World War aircraft lighter. Preserving the nations naval history is a never-ending challenge. But, with the help of our committed staff, volunteers, generous donors and sponsors, the National Museum of the Royal Navy will ensure that the history of the RN is kept alive for the generations that follow.

As well as restoring and exhibiting ships and submarines, the museum also has a wealth of artefacts, many of them in storage, which we exhibit to the nation. In order to enable us to put more of these treasures on display, we have managed to raise 4 million of the 4.5 million that is required to create 900 sq m of gallery space at the Portsmouth site, and work is under way on developing new galleries telling the story of the Navy in the 20th and 21st centuries. When the galleries open in June 2014, we will use them to tell the story of the Royal Navy from 1900 to the present day. Through a mixture of objects, art, personal mementoes and commemorative items many of which have never been on display before we hope to show how naval culture has seeped into almost every aspect of British life and how the RN has played a fundamental role in securing our way of life and our freedom. Along with world-class permanent exhibitions, we will run a rotation of temporary exhibitions that will commemorate specic events or periods. Naturally, the centenary of the start of the First World War is very much on our minds, as is the commemoration of Gallipoli in 2015.

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Falklands 30

Royal Marines wait on HMS HERMEs deck for their turn to embark on Fleet Air Arm Sea King transport helicopters

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With the 30th anniversary of the Falklands Conict marked in 2012, Martin Temperley looks at the Royal Navys pivotal role in transporting and protecting the men and equipment necessary to recapture the islands from the invading Argentine forces, and uncovers the enormous effort that was required in order to undertake this successful operation

hree decades ago in April 1982, Argentinian forces invaded the distant overseas British territories of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia. In those Cold War years, the Royal Navy was not expecting to have to mount an expeditionary effort to recapture territory as its main focus was on countering Soviet forces in the eastern Atlantic and English Channel. Consequently, there was an emphasis on anti-submarine warfare and mine countermeasures, which at that time were considered to be the most likely threats facing the UK and its NATO allies. Although the Royal Navy maintained a capability to act globally and independently, the conict in the Falkland Islands between 2 April and 14 June 1982 raised the toughest possible challenges to the adaptability and versatility of British naval power. However, with Argentine forces on the islands quickly reaching 8,000 troops (rising to 11,000), the decision was taken in London to assemble a task force of ships, enabling a force of mostly Royal Marines and Paratroopers, as well as an Army Infantry Brigade to be landed. The scale and scope of the task was enormous, as the Royal Navy was to be responsible for protecting the Royal Fleet Auxiliary ships and merchant vessels that were transporting and landing the British land forces. From the outset it was clear that powerful Argentinian air units ying from bases on the mainland the nearest of which was less than 450 miles (720km) away would seek to repel the Royal Navys long-range operation, as would the forces deployed on the Falklands. Naval vessels from Argentine bases were also capable, should they choose to do so, of opposing the British task force sent to the islands.
ORDER OF BATTLE

task force, and the destroyer GLAMORGAN, together with the frigates ARROW and ALACRITY, started a shore bombardment. The conict began to escalate with Argentinian Mirage, Dagger, A-4 and Canberra aircraft launching attacks on the task force three of which were shot down by the FAAs Sea Harriers.
THE CONFLICT INTENSIFIES

On 2 May, the Argentinian Navy light cruiser, GENERAL BELGRANO, which was steaming towards the exclusion zone, was torpedoed and sunk by the hunter-killer submarine CONQUEROR. On 3 May, Lynx helicopters from destroyers GLASGOW and COVENTRY attacked and damaged patrol vessels using missiles. The following day, the Type 42 air defence destroyer, HMS SHEFFIELD, was hit by an Exocet missile launched from an Argentine Super Etendard jet and severely damaged, sinking some days later. Meanwhile, in the mid-Atlantic, the amphibious component of the task force assembled at Ascension Island. This force comprised assault ships FEARLESS and INTREPID, RFAs STROMNESS and TIDEPOOL, and logistics landing ships SIR BEDIVERE, SIR GALAHAD, SIR GERAINT, SIR LANCELOT, SIR PERCIVAL and SIR TRISTRAM, the liner CANBERRA and other merchant ships, including ATLANTIC CONYEYOR, a container vessel converted into an aircraft support ship. The amphibious force was to deliver 3 Commando Brigade, made of Royal Marine 40, 42 and 45 Commandos, as well as 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the armys elite Parachute Regiment. Escorting frigates were ARDENT, ARGONAUT and ANTELOPE. This force joined the battle force and entered Falkland Sound between the islands before steaming into San Carlos Water, where the initial landings were to take place. Troops were
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The Royal Navy task force was to eventually comprise 32 warships together with 22 Royal Fleet Auxiliary supporting ships, and a host of chartered merchant vessels. The opening move, launched before the main task force departed UK shores, was the deployment of three nuclear submarines to the South Atlantic, one of which was HMS CONQUEROR. In late April, the frigates ANTRIM and PLYMOUTH and the ice-patrol ship ENDURANCE supported by RFA TIDESPRING disembarked a party of Royal Marine Special Forces on South Georgia, with the intention of retaking the island. Prior to this, a 200nm (370km) maritime exclusion zone around the Falklands was declared by the UK Government on 12 April to keep the waters clear of shipping. This was later extended to a total exclusion zone on 30 April, giving notice that any unauthorised vessel or aircraft entering the area would be liable to attack. On the rst day of May, the leading ships of the task force arrived off the Falklands. Almost immediately, Fleet Air Arm (FAA) Sea Harrier ghters from the aircraft carrier, HMS HERMES, attacked Argentinian positions on the islands, while other Sea Harriers from another Royal Navy carrier, HMS INVINCIBLE, ew protective combat air patrols over the

The Argentine cruiser ARA GENERAL BELGRANO lists following a torpedo attack by HMS CONQUEROR

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HMS HERMESs deck is a hive of activity as preparations to go to war are put in place

The conict in the Falkland Islands raised the toughest possible challenges to the adaptability and versatility of British naval power
embarked in assault craft, and an amphibious operation on 21 May landed 3 Commando Brigade on East Falkland. This was largely unopposed from the land, but hotly contested in the air. Nonetheless, a beachhead was quickly established.
PROTECTING THE BEACHHEAD

The ercest stage of the campaign for the Royal Navy came as it fought to protect the beachhead and itself against attack. Intensive Argentinian air strikes followed during the next week. Sea Harriers from the two carriers continued to shoot down attacking A-4 and Dagger aircraft, as did missiles and gunre from the destroyers and frigates. The frigate ARDENT was mortally damaged by bombs on 21 May, ANTELOPE on 23 May, and the destroyer COVENTRY

and ATLANTIC CONVEYOR on 25 May. HM Ships ANTELOPE, ANTRIM and ARGONAUT were all severely damaged. In order to reinforce the land campaign, elements of two British Army Guards regiments from 5 Infantry Brigade were landed at Bluff Cove, transported by SIR GALAHAD and SIR TRISTRAM. Tragically, these RFA landing ships came under air attack on 8 June. SIR GALAHAD was set ablaze, and SIR TRISTRAM was severely damaged. The conict ended in mid-June. It was a full test of naval capabilities with many dimensions. Some actions occurred in full global view with television coverage, others were never visible or subject to contemporary report. There were old-fashioned naval actions, such as shore bombardment by naval gunre, there were secret Special Forces operations mounted by naval helicopters and covert surveillance patrols by nuclear attack submarines. The Islands now have a far more robust defence infrastructure and capability, making another successful invasion by a foreign state very difcult. However, the requirement for the type of expeditionary warfare skills and assets that were exemplied by the Falklands Operation CORPORATE has grown ever more necessary if the UK is to play a full part in safeguarding security in an uncertain world.

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The 30th anniversary commemorations for the Falklands conict took place in 2012

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Operation CORPORATE remembered


Three decades after the liberation of the Falkland Islands by a British expeditionary task force, a memorial was dedicated at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire, while other services took place around the United Kingdom and in the South Atlantic. Simon Michell reports on a very special year of remembrance
18,000 men and women of the Royal Navy played a pivotal role in getting the British forces to the islands and protecting them en route as well as in theatre. 3 Commando Brigade also contributed signicantly to the land battles that resulted in the ousting of the enemy forces. Memorial services have been held each year around the country and in the Falklands to remember those who fought and paid the ultimate sacrice. Since the islands were retaken there have been a number of monuments established in the United Kingdom, such as the Falkland Islands Memorial Chapel at Pangbourne College in Berkshire, the plaque in the Crypt of St Pauls Cathedral in London and the memorials on islands in the South Atlantic that witnessed the events themselves. On 20 May 2012, however, a new memorial was dedicated at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire to create a place where

etween 2 April and 14 June 1982, some 258 British lives were lost and over 700 other personnel were wounded retaking the Falkland Islands from the Argentinian invaders. Those who lost their lives included members of all three armed services, the Royal Fleet Auxiliary and three Falkland Islanders. Although this was very much a joint forces effort, more than

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The curved wall of Cotswold stone faces a rock taken from the South Atlantic

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people can go to remember and pay their respects. It is also a peaceful sanctuary for those who lost friends and family to visit and contemplate the fallen, many of whom are buried 8,000 miles away on the Falkland Islands.
THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY REMEMBRANCE SERVICES

The establishment of the new memorial coincided with the 30th anniversary of the liberation of the islands, and so there was an added poignancy to the many activities that took place to commemorate the occasion during the year. Having made such a substantial contribution to the campaign that removed the Argentine forces from the islands, it is no surprise that the Royal Navy planned and hosted several of their own services to mark the event, as well as participating in the joint commemorations that took place. The dedication of the National Falklands Memorial at the Arboretum at midday on 20 May followed an earlier service that was held there to mark the start of the British invasion on 2 April. During that service a candle was lit and kept alight for the length of the conict 74 days. Hundreds of current

The establishment of the new memorial coincided with the 30th anniversary of the liberation of the islands, and so there was an added poignancy
and ex-service personnel and their families attended the dedication ceremony at the Arboretum while the band of Her Majestys Royal Marines Portsmouth created a musical backdrop. A month later, in the South Atlantic, Falkland islanders, veterans and serving personnel gathered around Port Stanleys Liberation Monument on 14 June to mark the anniversary of the nal day of the conict. Following a service in the nearby Christ Church Cathedral, veterans of the 1982 conict led a military parade to the monument to pay tribute and lay wreaths in honour of all those who lost their lives.

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The Memorial Avenue at RNAS Yeovilton commemorates the 12 who were lost from the station during the conict

NATIONAL FALKLANDS MEMORIAL


Established through the efforts of the South Atlantic Medal Association 1982, the Falklands Memorial at the National Memorial Arboretum is one of 200 memorials that honour the nations fallen. The monuments design mirrors that of the commemorative wall at the Falkland Islandss San Carlos cemetery. A seven-foot high curved wall, hewn out of Cotswold stone, faces a rock taken from the Falkland Islands. In front of the wall, two granite benches allow visitors to contemplate the lost and remember all those who served in the six organisations, who are commemorated on the granite plaques, which are aligned on the wall.

ROYAL NAVY SERVICES

Some 8,000 miles back across the Atlantic, the Royal Navy made a personal tribute to those of the naval family affected by the tragic events. The Sandown-class minehunter, HMS PENZANCE, paid a four-day visit to Swansea, where the Welsh port paid respects to the fallen. Lieutenant Commander Alex Bush led members of his ships company in attending the SAMA 82 30th anniversary Service at St Marys Church. After the service a reception was held on board the minehunter, to which a survivor of the sinking of HMS COVENTRY, Commodore Jamie Miller, was invited. Another survivor of a sinking, Admiral Sir Michael Layard KCB CBE, was guest speaker at a ceremony held in Falmouth by the Royal Naval Association. The Admiral was senior naval ofcer on the ATLANTIC CONVEYOR when she was struck by two Exocet missiles and sunk. His graphic account of the events gave those in attendance pause for thought and a snapshot of what it was like to be involved in such harrowing events. At Bickley, 42 Commando (Cdo) Royal Marines staged their own touching service in which some 300 attendees, including

serving Marines, conict veterans, family members and VIPs participated. A parade was held, and the Commanding Ofcer of 3 Commando Brigade during the conict, Major General Julian Thompson CB OBE, took the salute. This was followed by a march-past and wreath-laying in the memorial garden that 42 Cdo have created with funds they raised themselves. The importance of naval air power can never be overestimated when considering the success of Operation CORPORATE. The Sea Harrier jets alongside the Sea King and Lynx helicopters played an absolutely critical part in the campaign. Indeed the islands could not have been recaptured without them. The Sea Harriers alone accounted for the downing of 20 enemy aircraft. His Royal Highness the Duke of York, who saw active service ying a Sea King with 820 Naval Air Squadron in the South Atlantic War, was guest of honour at the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) Memorial Church service at St Bartholomews, in Yeovilton, on 14 June. The actions of the 1,400 FAA members and the 126 aircraft that were deployed in the South Atlantic were duly commemorated nine days later at the Royal Naval Air Station Yeovilton Air Day.

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The Royal Navy celebrates the Queens Diamond Jubilee


As Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her Diamond Jubilee in 2012, the Royal Navy played a vital role in the national events to commemorate her 60 years on the throne. Samantha Chapman details the special work that the Royal Navy carried out during the celebrations

n 19 May 2012, hundreds of Royal Naval personnel joined their Army and RAF colleagues to march as a group of 2,500 through Windsor town centre before arriving at the castle. Here, they mustered in front of Her Majesty the Queen and Prince Philip, as well as 3,000 military personnel, their families and veterans. Leading the march on the day for the other two services, the Navy was represented by ve platoons consisting of general surface ships personnel in the rst, submarines and Fleet Air Arm

The Royal Barge MV Spirit of Chartwell approaches Londons Tower Bridge on the river Thames

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in the second, the Royal Marines Band Collingwood and Plymouth third, 42 Commando Royal Marines in the fourth and nally Royal Naval Reservists and Royal Fleet Auxiliary. The Fleet Air Arm was also represented in the Berkshire skies as part of a specially designed formation ypast with 80 current and historic tri-service aircraft spelling out 60 and ER. An aircraft from each force Merlins, Sea King Mk7s or Baggers, Sea King Mk4 Junglies and Lynx Mk8s took their place near the front as a diamond formation. Lieutenant Graham Cannell, 848 Naval Air Squadron (Junglies) deployed to Afghanistan in 2010 and 2011, and now works at RNAS Yeovilton training future pilots. According to the Afghan veteran, Its a great opportunity to take part in such an historic event. I am proud to be representing the Royal Navy in front of the Queen and also this is a way of saying thank you for all Her support to the Armed Forces over the years. I have taken part in many different operations around the world ying troops around Afghanistan, counter-piracy patrols in the Gulf and worked with the British Antarctic Survey in South Georgia, so this ceremonial work is very different for me, but very rewarding. Broadcast live by the BBC, this was the rst time that all three services had visited the Queen for a dedicated event. A fortnight later, amid one of the wettest weekends on record, the Royal Navy again led from the front by providing the Royal Barge Honour Guard to escort the Spirit of Chartwell along the Thames for the River Pageant.
THE THAMES RIVER PAGEANT

As the Spirit of Chartwell was carrying the Royal Party, HMS PRESIDENT, the Royal Naval Reserves shore establishment near Tower Bridge, the Guard (made up of two P2000 patrol boats), HM Ships TRUMPETER and RANGER, two Picket Boats, two Rigid Inatable Boats from HMS DIAMOND and four Off-shore Raiding Craft from 539 Assault Squadron Royal Marines was followed by The Massed Bands of Her Majestys Royal Marines, who piped the boats along the river. The weekends Jubilee celebrations had begun on Friday 1 June 2012, when the RNs newest warship, HMS DIAMOND, red a 21-gun salute in honour of Her Majesty as she entered

RN P2000 Patrol craft HMS TRUMPETER (pictured), escorted the Royal Barge during the Queens Diamond Jubilee River Pageant

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HMS ILLUSTRIOUS towers over HMS DIAMOND during a street party aboard the ship in Portsmouths Royal Navy Dockyard

Portsmouth Naval Base. A ypast of four RN Merlin and Lynx helicopters hovered above the ceremonial entrance in a diamond formation. It was fantastic to see such a great maritime event at the heart of the Diamond Jubilee, HMS DIAMONDSs then commanding ofcer, Commander Ian Clarke, told the BBC when they interviewed him live on the day. Just two days later, a million people lined the banks of the river to watch the otilla of tugs, steamers, pleasure craft, dragon boats, kayaks and RN minehunter HMS HURWORTH weave their way through the Thames. The pageant ofcially started at 14:40 BST, with the ringing of the Jubilee bells and the boats sailing from Battersea Bridge.

It ended about three and a half hours later after the nal vessel passed under Tower Bridge shortly after 18:00. As the Royal Barge sailed past HMS BELFAST the RNs largest Second World War cruiser now moored up on the Thames, Royal Navy veterans and Sea Cadets piped Her Majesty The Queen, His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh and members of the Royal family, giving them the traditional Naval three cheers. After travelling at the head of the pageant, HM The Queen left the Spirit of Chartwell and was escorted into the naval regional headquarters, HMS PRESIDENT, by then First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope GCB OBE ADC, where she then watched the rest of the boats sailing past. Royal Naval Reserves

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Members of the Armed Forces mustered in the grounds of Windsor Park in celebration

Three of HMS DIAMONDs crew share a cocktail to celebrate the Queens Diamond Jubilee

The weekends Jubilee celebrations had begun on Friday 1 June 2012, when the Royal Navys newest warship, HMS DIAMOND, red a 21-gun salute in honour of Her Majesty
formed a Guard of Honour at PRESIDENT to receive the Queen, where they presented the Queens Colour of the RNR in Her presence for the rst time since it was given to them the year following her Golden Jubilee in 2002. Commanding Ofcer of HMS PRESIDENT, Commander Eugene Morgan said: Its a great honour for HMS PRESIDENT to host Her Majesty on this special day. I am most proud of all the maritime reserves who worked so hard to make today such a success. Lieutenant (Lt) Tony Scott, a Royal Naval Reservist based at PRESIDENT, was part of the pageant as one of the rowers on the units cutter, ARTHUR TISDALL VC, which is named after a Naval Reserve ofcer who was awarded the nations highest honour during the Gallipoli landings. After rowing the cutter from Battersea to Tower Bridge and beyond, Lt Scott, whose full-time job is as a Global Enterprise Architect for Arup, said, Flying the White Ensign in the middle of the Thames is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. We were able to salute the Queen at the very start at Battersea Bridge and also at PRESIDENT. The atmosphere was absolutely superb, it was so well organised and even when the heavens opened there was nothing that could dampen our spirits. Sadly, the nale of a planned aerial spectacular by the Fleet Air Arm a nine helicopter-strong diamond formation led by Second World War bi-plane Swordsh had to be cancelled due to the stormy weather conditions.

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HERITAGE

Preserving the Royal Navys aviation heritage

Armed with rockets, a Royal Navy Fairey Swordsh of 836 Naval Air Squadron lands on MAC ship ANCYLUS in the North Atlantic in 1943

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

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Sue Eagles of the Fly Navy Heritage Trust explains how the protection provided by the Fleet Air Arm during the Battle of the Atlantic helped convoys to reach Britain with their vital supplies, enabling the Allies to launch the invasion of Europe

ore than 40 Naval Air Squadrons of Albacores, Avengers, Barracudas, Corsairs, Fulmars, Martlets, Sea Hurricanes, Seares, Swordsh and Wildcats ew some of the most hazardous missions imaginable during the arduous Atlantic campaign that spanned the Second World War. The stakes were perilously high. Britain was in danger of running out of food, oil and military supplies.
THE NEED FOR CARRIER-BORNE AIRCRAFT

With the larger eet aircraft carriers deployed elsewhere, the Fleet Air Arm, displaying typical resolve and determination, rose to the challenge. Desperate times called for desperate measures and early in the war, under the Admiraltys direction, reinforced Sea Hurricanes were carried to the Eastern Atlantic and Bay of Biscay areas, and launched by rocket-powered catapult from merchant ships. The pilots of these aircraft were extraordinarily courageous as they took off, knowing that on completion of their mission they had no recovery option other than to ditch or bale out and hope to be picked up by a passing ship. For a short time, these Catapult Armed Merchant (CAM) vessels and Naval Fighter Catapult Ships (NFCS) were vital for keeping the Condor threat at bay until sufcient escort carriers and aircraft became available to tip the balance back in the UKs favour. One of the major problems faced by the Allies was the lack of long-range aircraft able to provide air cover in the mid-Atlantic and on the Gibraltar route. In the mid-Atlantic gap the 500 mile-wide stretch of ocean in the middle of the North Atlantic, the U-boats had almost complete freedom to operate; freedom to surface; and also to recharge their batteries and communicate by radio with their home bases. The pressing need to provide air cover for convoys clearly demonstrated the strategic importance of a combination of long-range shore-based and carrier-borne aircraft working with Allied anti-submarine surface forces.
THE FAIREY SWORDFISH HELPS TURN THE TIDE

These fabric-covered bi-planes and their aircrews, many only 19 or 20 years old, ew in open cockpits in all that the North Atlantic could throw at them thick fog, mountainous seas and bitter cold, to fend off attacks by U-boats. The bravery of the Fleet Air Arm pilots was little publicised and many did not live to see the fruits of the victory that they helped to secure. Very often they crash landed back on deck and maintenance crews worked on exposed ight decks in sub-zero temperatures, handling freezing metal by torch light to get the aircraft repaired and ready to take off again at rst light. While considered obsolete at the beginning of the war, the Swordsh proved effective in the Anti-Submarine role and the tireless efforts of these unsung heroes slowly and perceptibly helped turn the tide of the war. This was no quick, decisive campaign. It was a relentless struggle and losses were high. Unlike the Battle of Britain, which was over in a matter of months, the Battle of the Atlantic went on for the entire six years of the war. During this long struggle, over 5,000 merchant ships and 188 RN warships were sunk, but the essential supplies and reinforcements continued to get through, and by the spring of 1943, air cover, including that provided by the Fleet Air Arm, began to have a dramatic effect in stemming convoy losses. Innovation also helped to improve the odds, with the development of radar allowing aircrews to detect U-boats on the surface. Rockets and homing torpedoes proved potent additions to the aircrafts armament. The contribution made by naval aviation was substantial and should never be forgotten. In addition to protecting Atlantic and Arctic convoys, the Fleet Air Arm also played a major role in hunting and disabling the heavily armed German Battleships,

The bravery of the Fleet Air Arm pilots was little publicised and many did not live to see the fruits of the victory that they helped to secure
Bismarck and Tirpitz, which, had they been allowed to roam the Atlantic, would have done more damage than innumerable U-boats. The story of the Fleet Air Arm in the Battle of the Atlantic is a compelling one, of young men ying outmoded aircraft against a determined and well-equipped enemy, in the worst ying conditions in the world... and winning. Swordsh W5856, the oldest surviving Swordsh in the world, will y in the 70th Anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic events in London and Liverpool in May 2013. Preserving the Nations Naval Aviation Heritage is the work of the Fly Navy Heritage Trust, a registered charity that provides nancial support to keep the Royal Navys historic aircraft ying as a living reminder of the important part played by naval aviation in the nations history. To make a donation to keep the Swordsh ying in memory of all those who lost their lives in the icy waters of the Atlantic, please contact the Fly Navy Heritage Trust, RNAS Yeovilton, Ilchester, Somerset BA22 8HT. Tel 01935 842005 or email sue.eagles@fnht.co.uk

From 1941 onwards, the escort carriers bore the brunt of the campaign and their aircraft sank 13 U-boats, and shared in the destruction of 10 others. Captain Eric Brown CBE DSC AFC RN, who ew Martlets from Britains rst escort carrier, HMS AUDACITY, and carried out several vicious and highly successful strikes against shadowing Condors, described landing on the pitching and rolling decks of these carriers as terrifying. From 1943 onwards, hastily converted merchant ships called Merchant Aircraft Carriers (MAC ships) were also brought into service, but they were small. A typical deck length could be as short as 410 feet, compared with 500 feet for an escort carrier. However, the Fairey Swordsh proved outstanding operating from MAC ships. Indeed, with its low speed and impressive manoeuvrability it was the only aircraft available that could y from these short decks and have enough fuel and weapons load to be viable.

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The Battle of the Atlantic

Winston Churchill regarded victory in the Battle of the Atlantic as absolutely imperative if the Allies were to defeat Nazi Germany. Had the Germans successfully blockaded imports to the UK, there is no doubt that Britain would have been knocked out of the war, as Dr Malcolm Llewellyn-Jones from the Naval Historical Branch explains

lthough the Battle of the Atlantic raged over the whole war, the turning point for the Allied victory can be clearly seen to have occurred in 1943. This year started with German U-boats having the upper hand. Almost half a million tons of shipping was lost in March alone, but by May this gure

was reduced by two thirds. In the same month, Allied powers sunk 43 German submarines in the Atlantic. Such was the devastating impact of these losses that the German Navys Commander in Chief, Admiral Dnitz, recalled his boats. Although he eventually sent them back out to continue harassing Allied shipping, they never again posed the threat that might have changed the course of the war in Europe. The victory over the U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic was not the result of a single dramatic event. It was the culmination of a series of hard-fought Allied tactical successes that were overlaid by organisational and technical improvements, and underpinned by rigorous training. The enemy was the German submarine Wolf Packs that were on the verge of severing Britains lifeline to her Empire and those

Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

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An Atlantic convoy on its way to Great Britain is monitored by the battleship HMS KING GEORGE V

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parts of the world from where either resources were drawn or troops were deployed for battle. Paradoxically, the situation was not helped when Germany declared war on the US four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. From then on, U-boats had carte blanche to strike at shipping off the east coast of North America. As a result, in 1942, U-boats sank 6.25 million tons of merchant shipping. This heavy loss, combined with the large diversion of shipping to the Allied invasion of North Africa (Operation TORCH) in November 1942, led to a serious deterioration of the British import situation. However, several important Allied developments took place during the spring and summer of 1942. Not the least of these was the installation in February 1942 of a shore-based group tactical training facility, known as the Western Approaches Tactical Unit (WATU), in Liverpool under Captain Gilbert Roberts RN. In addition, a new forward-ring anti-submarine mortar system, Hedgehog, was deployed for the rst time and, in March, the rst sighting of a U-boat occurred as a result of detection by the newly developed electronic high frequency direction nder (HF/DF) system. As more ships were tted with this sensor, its tactical use became ever more important in warning convoy escort groups of U-boat concentrations. When combined with the use of the Type 271 high-denition warning radar, now being widely tted in escorts, and improved Group training, these technical improvements began to give the escorts greater condence in countering U-boats especially those that were attacking at night on the surface. RAF Coastal Command, too, was being equipped with more effective, longer-range aircraft carrying better sensors and weapons.
A DEDICATED OFFENSIVE ESCORT SUPPORT GROUP

An ofcer and rating on board HMS TRACKER plot the course of anti-submarine patrol aircraft in the North Atlantic

In September 1942, the Admiralty was nally able to form the dedicated 20th Escort Group capable of being sent to reinforce threatened convoys with the object of sinking U-boats rather than providing purely defensive support. This Support Group was under the command of the experienced Commander GN Brewer, RN. Support was provided to several convoys during the month, however, the Group was soon broken up in order to provide some of the close escorts needed to shepherd the Torch convoys from late October 1942. Shore-side tactical training was extended to Group training at sea in January 1943 with the appointment of Captain AJ Baker-Creswell, RN, as the Training Captain in Western Approaches Command. Moreover, critical organisational changes brought about by the March 1943 Washington Allied Antisubmarine Conference sorted out the confused command structures on the Western side of the Atlantic, and gave the British, along with the Canadians, control over the North Atlantic trade routes. Simultaneously, the Admiralty was increasing the size of ocean convoys, which raised the volume of supplies reaching Britains shores while, at the same time, improving the safety of the merchant ships and releasing some escorts to form support groups, which, in turn, further secured the safety of the convoys. In the British Admiraltys April 1943 Monthly Anti-Submarine Report, the Admiralty, with considerable prescience stated that, Historians of this war are likely to single out the months of April and May 1943 as the critical period during which strength began

to ebb away from the German U-boat offensive, not because of the low gure of shipping sunk which, for the whole world area, did not much exceed a quarter of a million tons; not because of the satisfactorily high number of U-boats sunk, which was again well above the average for the last 12 months; but because, for the rst time, U-boats failed to press home attacks on convoys when favourably situated to do so. This decline in the enemys willingness to engage was according to the Admiralty, a striking tribute to the weight of the offensive measures concerted so effectively by support groups and VLR [very long range] aircraft and escort carriers. But, at the same time, the Admiralty sounded a note of caution. While

Victory over the U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic was not the result of a single dramatic event. It was the culmination of a series of hardfought Allied tactical successes
the balance appeared to be swinging towards the Allies, the German ability to recover meant that the Allies growing advantage might only be temporary. In fact, the Germans did try to resurrect their campaign on the North Atlantic convoy routes in the autumn, but suffered an even heavier defeat at the hands of powerful Allied sea and air forces. In a decision as signicant as the German Air Force Commander, Hermann Goerings order to terminate the Battle of Britain more than two years earlier, Admiral Dnitz abruptly decided to transfer most of the U-boats on the North Atlantic convoy routes on 24 May 1943 to areas where escort forces were, he hoped, less powerful. In conceding defeat, the Commander in Chief of the German Navy played a major part in enabling the Allies to mount the invasion of Europe a year later with the D-Day landings in June 1944.

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Royal Navy | A Global Force 2012/13

Support Tankers

Small Fleet Tankers

Fleet Replenishment Ships

ORANGELEAF

A110

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

40,870 tonnes 170.7 metres 25.9 metres 59 Close-range guns

GOLD ROVER BLACK ROVER

A271 A273

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

11,522 tonnes 140.6 metres 19.2 metres 54 Close-range guns

FORT VICTORIA

A387

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

31,570 tonnes 204 metres 30.3 metres 104 RFA + 21 Civilian stores personnel + 142 RN Phalanx gun system, close-range guns

Fleet Replenishment Ships

Landing Ship Dock

Aviation Training and Primary Casualty Reception Ship

FORT ROSALIE FORT AUSTIN

A385 A386

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

23,482 tonnes 185 metres 24 metres 150 RFA + 22 Civilian stores personnel + 68 RN Close-range guns

LYME BAY MOUNTS BAY CARDIGAN BAY

L3007 L3008 L3009

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

16,160 tonnes 176 metres 28.4 metres 80(RFA) + up to 359 troops Royal Marines, Landing Craft, up to 150 light vehicles or 24 Main Battle Tanks, Phalanx gun system, close-range guns

ARGUS

A135

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

28,080 tonnes 175 metres 30 metres 86 RFA + up to 306 RN (flight) Close-range guns

SUBMARINE SERVICE

Forward Repair Ship

Vanguard Class - Ballistic Missile Submarines

Trafalgar Class - Fleet Submarines

DILIGENCE

A132

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

10,765 tonnes 112 metres 28.2 metres 60 RFA, up to 130 RN Close-range guns

VANGUARD VICTORIOUS VIGILANT VENGEANCE

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

16,000 tonnes 149.5 metres 12.8 metres 132 Trident D5 missiles, Spearfish torpedoes

TIRELESS TORBAY TRENCHANT TALENT TRIUMPH

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

5,000 tonnes 85.4 metres 9.8 metres 110 Spearfish torpedoes, Tomahawk land attack missiles

ROYAL MARINES

Astute Class - Fleet Submarines

Combat

HQ Combat and Combat Service Support Units

ASTUTE AMBUSH ARTFUL (Building) AUDACIOUS (Building) ANSON (Building) Boat 6 (Planned) Boat 7 (Planned)

Displacement Length Beam Complement Armament

6,700 tonnes 97 metres 11.3 metres 116 Spearfish torpedoes, Tomahawk land attack missiles

40 Commando RM 42 Commando RM 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group RM 45 Commando RM

760 Personnel 650 Personnel 730 Personnel 570 Personnel

Either 40, 42 or 45 Commando RM at very high readiness as Lead Commando Group

HQ 3 Commando Brigade 30 Commando IX Group Commando Logistics Regiment RM 539 Assault Squadron

60 Personnel 350 Personnel 600 Personnel 80 Personnel

Commando Helicopter Force 24 Commando Regiment Royal Engineers (ARMY) 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery (ARMY)

FLEET AIR ARM

Sea King Mk4 - Assault Training and Ceremonial

Sea King Mk5 - Search and Rescue (SAR)

Commando Training Centre RM (CTCRM) 1 Assault Group RM Royal Marines Band Service

845 Naval Air Squadron 846 Naval Air Squadron 848 Naval Air Squadron

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion Payload Armament

2 pilots, aircrewman 22.2 metres 18.9 metres 120 knots 2 Rolls Royce Gnome gas turbines 27 troops or 2,700 kg equipment .762 General Purpose Machine Gun

771 Naval Air Squadron (Culrose, Cornwall) Gannet SAR flight (Prestwick, Ayrshire)

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion

2 pilots, observer (navigator/tactician), aircrewman (winchman) 22.2 metres 18.9 metres 120 knots 2 Rolls Royce Gnome gas turbines

Sea King Mk7 - Airborne Surveillance and Control

Merlin Mk1 and Merlin Mk2 Lynx Mk8

849 Naval Air Squadron 854 Naval Air Squadron 857 Naval Air Squadron

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion

Pilot, 2 observers (tacticians) 22.2 metres 18.9 metres 100 knots 2 Rolls Royce Gnome gas turbines

814 Naval Air Squadron 820 Naval Air Squadron 824 Naval Air Squadron 829 Naval Air Squadron

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion Armament

1 Pilot, observer (tactician), aircrewman (sensor operator) 22.9 metres 18.6 metres 167 knots 3 Rolls Royce RTM322 gas turbines Stingray torpedoes, depth charges

702 Naval Air Squadron 815 Naval Air Squadron

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion Armament

Pilot, observer (tactician), 15.2 metres 12.8 metres 150 knots 2 Rolls Royce Gem gas turbines Stingray torpedoes, depth charges, Sea Skua anti-ship missiles, M3M machine gun, .762 General Purpose Machine Gun

Lynx Mk9A

Wildcat

Avenger

847 Naval Air Squadron

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion Armament

2 x Pilot 700 Naval Air Squadron 15.2 metres 12.8 metres 120 knots 2 LHTEC CTS800-4N gas turbines M3M machine gun, 762 General Purpose Machine Gun

Crew Length Span Speed Propulsion Armament

Pilot, observer (tactician) 15.2 metres 12.8 metres 160 knots 2 LHTEC CTS800-4N gas turbines (Planned) Future Anti-Surface Guided Weapon, Stingray torpedoes, depth charges, M3M machine gun

750 Naval Air Squadron

Crew Span Speed Endurance Propulsion Capacity

1 pilot, 2 observers, 2 student observers 17.65 metres 245 knots 6 hours 2 x Prat & Whitney turboprops 2 crew + 6 passengers

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