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# Tutorial 3: 2D Geometry and Mesh Generation ________________________________________________

Introduction
This hands-on session illustrates edge and face mesh generation for relatively simple geometries.

Exercise #1
You will mesh the edges and faces of the object shown below. It is the intent of this exercise to help you become familiar with the behavior of edge and face meshing.

2 A 1

3 C 4

1. You will first need to create the geometry. Create a circle primitive with R=9 centered about the origin in the xy-plane. 2. Create a square primitive with dimensions of 6 units per side also centered as above. 3. Split the circle with the square. This will leave a circular face with a square cut out and the square face that fits the cutout. 4. We want to obtain the upper half of the geometry. Create a square primitive with dimensions of 20 units to be used as a splitting tool. 5. Move the 20x20 square down 10 units (y= -10). 6. Perform two subtraction operations on the two faces that resulted from the split operation in step 3. For the first subtract operation, you will want to use the retain option on the 20x20 square face so that you can use it for the second subtraction. For the second subtraction, do not use the retain option. This will automatically delete the large square. If you fail to do this, you can simply delete the large square once you perform both subtractions. 7. We now need to split the larger face into three separate faces. You will do so by creating face B (above) which will be used as a splitting tool. First split the curved edge using the Point option. Rather than specify a Uval as was done in the previous tutorial, we will specify the coordinates of the point. This will be simplified if we base the coordinates on cylindrical reference frame. Choose Cylindrical next to Type under Coordinate System and type in 60 (degrees) next to the t: input under local. This will result in two curved edges. 8. You can perform the second split on the larger of the two curved edges in a similar manner or by simply using a Uval of 0.5.

9. Create two new edges corresponding to edges (2) and (3) in the above figure. 10. Create face B using the Create Face from Wireframe form. 11. Split the large semi-circular face (less the cutout) with face B. This will create faces A and C. The result is four separate connected faces. 12. Mesh face D with a spacing defined by Interval Size of 0.5 using the default Map scheme (Type = Map). Always select the face (any entity in general) first before defining the interval size. If you reverse the order, the interval size will be reset once the face is picked. Note that the sizing is used to mesh all edges before the face is meshed. Convince yourself that the appropriate number of intervals appear on each edge. 13. Mesh face C with a spacing defined by Interval Size of 0.5 using the default TriPrimitive scheme. 14. Mesh face A with a spacing defined by Interval Size of 1.0 using the default TriPrimitive scheme. Note that in this case, the sizing is applied to those edges that have not already been meshed. 15. Mesh face B with a spacing defined by Interval Size of 1.0 using the default Map scheme. Note the error in the transcript window. The Map scheme requires an equal number of intervals on opposing edges. 16. Click on Undo. This will allow the previous command that resulted in the error to be removed from the journal file if you choose to perform a Cleanup Journal at a later time. 17. Mesh face B now using the Pave scheme and a spacing defined by Interval Size of 1.0. Again, pick the face first before making changes to the meshing parameters. 18. Click on Undo so that we can demonstrate another meshing characteristic. This will remove the mesh just created. Note that the mesh could have also been deleted using the Delete Face Mesh form or the Remove Old Mesh and Remove Lower Mesh options on the Mesh Faces form. 19. Use the Mesh Edges form to create a mesh on the top edge of face B using a spacing defined by Interval Count of 11. 20. Mesh face B again using the Pave scheme with a spacing defined by Interval Size of 1.0. Make certain that the Remove Lower Mesh option on the Mesh Face form is not enabled. If it is, it will delete the edge mesh you just created in the previous step. Note the error in the transcript window. The Pave meshing algorithm required an even number of intervals on the boundary loop of face B. 21. Type reset mesh in the command line. This deletes meshes. 22. Mesh edges 1-4 (as defined in the above picture) with grading. Select the edges first and make sure that the sense of each edge is pointing radially outwards. Use the (shift) middle mouse button to change the sense if it is not pointing in the right direction. Use the Successive Ratio grading Type of 1.1 and a spacing defined by Interval Count of 8. 23. Mesh face D using the default Map scheme and a spacing defined by Interval Size of 0.25. Note that the spacing here is selected to better match the spacing between the nodes on the edges nearest face D. You need to be continually aware of variations in cell size and minimize the jump in size among adjacent cells. 24. Mesh face B using the Map scheme and a spacing defined by Interval Size of 1.0. You may need to change the scheme from Pave to Map as a result of earlier

operations. Note that for this case, as long as the Remove Lower Mesh option is not enabled, the interval size specified will be ignored since the Map scheme has already been provided sufficient information to complete the face mesh. 25. Click on Undo so that we can demonstrate another meshing characteristic. 26. Mesh face B now with the Pave scheme and a spacing defined by Interval Size of 1.0. Note that in this case, the spacing is used. Also note how the cell size changes rather abruptly. Edge premeshing in this case is inadequate for creating a good face mesh. This can be remedied by the use of sizing functions. This will be addressed in a later tutorial. 27. Click on Undo so that we can demonstrate another meshing characteristic. 28. Select edges 1 and 4 only (as defined by the above picture) and remesh using doublesided grading. Since edges 1 and 4 have been soft-linked with edges 2 and 3, you will need to disable the Pick with Links option before selecting the edges. Use the Successive Ratio Type and set Ratio1 to 1.4 and Ratio2 to 1.2. 29. Mesh faces A and C with the default Tri-Primitive scheme using a spacing defined by Interval Count of 14. 30. Unite faces A and D. Note how the mesh is deleted. It is obviously wise to perform all geometry operations before proceeding to the meshing.

Exercise #2
In this second example, return to the blower geometry you created in the second tutorial and mesh the face that contains the blade cut-outs. 1. Mesh the face first using the Quad:Pave scheme using a spacing defined by Interval Size of 2.0. Note the total number of cells generated for this face. 2. Remesh the face now using the Tri:Pave scheme using the same spacing. Choose the Remove Old Mesh and Remove Lower Mesh options so that the old and lower mesh can be removed before the new mesh is applied. Note the total number of cells generated in this case and compare with the previous case. 3. Zoom in on the leading edge of one of the blades. Note how the geometry of the leading edge is not represented properly by the coarse mesh. Clearly, a finer mesh would be needed to better represent this portion of the geometry.