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Extrusion- part 1

Caroline Schauer
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Drexel University
The Book of Extrusion

Chris Rauwendaal
Polymer Extrusion
Hanser Publishers
New York (1990)
ISBN 3-446-16080-9.
Definition of Extrusion
The meaning of extrude means to
push out which describes the process
In addition to polymers many different
materials are formed into profiles via
extrusion
Metals
Ceramics
Foodstuffs
Pasta, sausages, cereals and some sweets
History of Extrusion
1797 1
st
ram type extruder built
1845 1
st
ram type extruder built for
rubber
1879 1
st
screw extruder patented
1935 1
st
extrusion of thermoplastic
polymer
Two basic categories of extruders
Batch (discontinuous)
Ram extruder
Positive displacement pump based on pressure
gradient term of equation of motion
Reciprocating ram or plunger to propel material
through die
Used to extrude intractable polymers
Ultra-high MW polyethylene
Solid state polymers
Preparation of rubber preforms
Seen in making automobile bumpers or
bottles
Continuous
Rotating piece
Disc, drum, screw(s) to develop a steady flow
of material
Screw extruder
Viscosity pump, pressure gradient term
and deformation of fluid
Seen in wire coating
What does it look like?
Schematic of extrusion line
Plasticating Extruder
If the extruder is fed solid chips or beads, a
melting operation is normally achieved a few
diameters downstream of the feed inlet-called
plasticating
Melt Extruder
If the extruder is feed molten polymer or fluid
Mixing Extruder
dissimilar polymers
polymer plus another fluid
Polymer plus pigment or filler
Tasks of a plasticizing extruder
Transport solid pellets or powder from
the hopper to the screw channel
Compact the pellets and move them
down the channel
Melt the pellets
Mix the polymer into a homogeneous
melt
Pump the melt through the die
The zones along the screw

Can be up to 24 feet long!
Three Zones- three different screw
sections
Solids conveying zone
Melting or transition zone
Metering or pumping zone
Screws can be custom made-big business $$$
Feeding system

We want smooth controlled flow. Typical problems
are arching, funnel flow (and piping).
Important parameters
Bulk density
Compressibility
Internal coefficient of friction
between the plastic particles
External coefficient of friction
between plastic and hopper
Particle size and distribution
Circular hopper is better than square hopper
Temperature control (cooling) in the feeding zone
is important- occurs at the neck (throat) of the
hopper to prevent softening and compaction of
feedstock

Vertical Feed Hopper
Relies on gravity to push pellets through
Most common type of hopper
Minor fluctuations in feed rate can be
accommodated by the compression
occurring as the feed progresses down the
barrel
Other types of hoppers
If more accurate and constant rate of feed is
desired, a dosing unit feed hopper is used-
usually a controlled rate screw or conveying
belt assemblies above the main hopper
Vibrating hoppers
Prevents compaction of cohesive feedstocks-
leads to blockages known as bridges
Crammer hoppers
Force non free-flowing materials into the extruders
Vacuum hoppers
Minimize air entrapment in the feedstock
Solid Conveying Zone
Compaction
Drag Induced Conveying (Archimedean transport)
Plastic moves forward from rotation of screw due to friction
with the barrel wall and not the friction with the screw.
Analogy is a nut on a screw. If the nut is free to rotate it will
not move up the screw. If the nut is held the nut moves
forward.
We want high friction with the barrel
Pressure drop in the feeding zone is very small in
conventional extruders, except if a grooved barrel
(for maximum friction) is used
Grooved Feed (Barrel)

Usually optional ($)
Advantages:
higher throughput@low RPM
better stability, and
ability to process very high MW
conventional extruders at low
RPM/high pressure have low throughput
Disadvantages:
complexity...
higher motor load and wear
high pressures in the grooved
region, and the screw design has
to be adapted (need strong barrel)
Feed extruders have now been developed that incorporate an
adjustment mechanism that allows the depth of the grooves to
be changed
Solid Conveying
Model
Darnell & Mol; Tadmor & Klein;
( )
depth channel
th flight wid
angle helix screw
diameter screw
diameter barrel
density
sin 4
tan
s
b
2 2
=
=
=
=
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
h
e
D
D
eh
D D N D m
feed
s b b
|

|
t
| t

Reduce friction on Screw


Internal screw heating
Apply a coating to the screw or a surface
treatment.
PTFE impregnated nickel/chrome plating
Titanium-nitride or Boron-nitride
Tungsten-disulfide (WS2)
Advantage of a low friction coating
Improves conveying along screw
Reduces tendency of plastic to build up on
screw surface, is easier to clean
Reduce pressure drop
Starve Feeding

Starve Feeding
Method of feeding the extruder where the plastic is metered into
the extruder at a rate below the flood feed rate.
The screw channel is partially empty in the first few diameters of
the extruder.
Results in very little pressure buildup in the plastic and as a
result very little frictional heating and mixing.
Effectively reduces the length of the extruder, e.g. a 25:1 L/D
extruder may have an effective length of 21 L/D with the first 4
diameters partial
Used on high speed twin screw extruders.
Reduces motor load, melt temperature, and useful when adding
several ingredients simultaneously through one feed port from
several feeders.
Melt Zone (Plasticizing)
Solid bed shrinks
and a melt pool
form.
It is important to
know where
melting starts and
ends.
1-2=delay zone

FOR EFFIECIENT USAGE

THE SCREW MUST MATCH
THE BEHAVIOR OF THE
MATERIAL

I.e., need a different screw for each material...

Melting Zone
Two sources of heat
Barrel heat conducts from heaters through barrel and to melt
Viscous heating caused by shearing of melt
Drag induced melt removal
Melted material is dragged away by rotation of screw
Thin melt film is essential to proper melting
Similar to a stick of butter melting in frying pan; best if moved
around
Melt thickness determined from flight clearance. Larger flight
clearance results in thicker melt film.
Important to keep flight clearance small
Increase in barrel temperature may cause viscosity to drop
causing viscous dissipation to drop and less efficient melting.
Thus, increase in barrel temp can reduce melting efficiency.
Tadmors Melting Model

Gives an estimate of the melting zone, X.
Shows that if the screw diameter is tapered
then X becomes smaller.
Also highest melting efficiency (shorter
length) is with 90 helix angle but not good for
conveying since 90 means that conveying
capability is zero. Good range for helix angle
is between 20 to 30.
More complex/accurate models exist (FEM)
but are rarely necessary.

b=barrel, s=screw, m=melt
Metering Zone

The most important zone: pressure is
generated to push the plastic through the die
Analysis via characteristic curves.

First order analysis - assumptions:
Newtonian fluid
Steady state flow
Viscosity is constant
No slip at the wall
infinite channel width
negligible channel curvature
Metering Zone

The movement of plastic depends on whether
is sticks to barrel or screw.
Analogy is a nut on a screw. If the nut is free to rotate it
will not move up the screw (sticks to screw). If the nut is
held the nut moves forward (sticks to barrel).
Reality is a bit more complicated:
Three flow components:
Drag flow due to rotation of screw
Pressure backflow due to pressure increase along
screw
Leakage backflow due to pressure increase along the
screw.
Total Flow profile takes into account the three
flow components


p
NOMECLATURE
n=angular velocity (RPM) W=channel width (h<<W)
|=helix angle e=flight thicknes
D=screw diameter o=clearance
h=channel depth (h<<D) p=pitch
Geometry of
screw
p
A
D
A
B C
D


F
( ) | | t
| | t
| t
cos tan
precisely more or
cos tan
tan
e D W
D CD W
D CB p
=
= =
= =
C B
Drag Flow Along the Helix
2
tan
cos
) (
Wh V
Q
D
p
nD V
h
y
V y v
bz
D
bz
bz
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
|
| t
|
( )
W
h
F
F
h W V
Q
d
d
bz
D
571 . 0 1
2
=

=
o
Actually more accurately
bz
V
geometry factor
F~1 if h<<W
p
Q
D
DRAG FLOW IN METERING ZONE

( )
( )( )
| | t
o | t | t
| | t
cos sin
2
tan cos
2
1
cos tan
2 2
2
h nD
F
Q
F h e D nD Q
e D W
d
D
d D
~
=
=
p
Pressure Backflow Along the Helix
( )
|
q
t
|
q
| t
q
2
3
3
3
sin
12
sin
12
sin
12
L
p Dh
L
p h D
z d
dp Wh
Q
P
A
=
=
A
~
= =
The screw forces the
melt forward and
develops a pressure
Therefore there is
backflow along the helix
due to pressure differential
P
z
Feeding Melting Metering
Q
p
Pressure Backflow Due to Leakage
|
q
o t
| | t
q
o
|
t
| q
o
|
t
tan
12
cos tan
12 cos
cos 12 cos
3 2 2
3
revolution one along
3
L
p
e
D
e
D
L
p D
e
p
D
Q
L
A
=
|
.
|

\
|
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
There is also backflow
due to pressure
differential through
the screw clearance
width
Q
L

TOTAL FLOW
|
q
t
| | t
|
q
o t
|
q
t
| | t
2
3
2 2
3 2 2
2
3
2 2
sin
12
cos sin
2
1
tan
12
sin
12
cos sin
2
1
L
p Dh
h nD
L
p
e
D
L
p Dh
h nD
Q Q Q Q
L P D
A
~
A

A
=
= + + =
For more exact solution see Osswald book, 4.1.3 (RED)
The amount of material pumped through the die is
related to the pressure at the end of the screw. In
general for a linear fluid:




For example for a cylindrical channel die:
Die Characteristic

p Q A =
q

|
|
.
|

\
|
A
=
die
L
P R
Q
q
t
8
4
The amount of material pumped through the die is equal
to the amount of material pushed through the screw:










Throughput independent
of viscosity (temperature)
Operating Point

p p N A = A
q

q
|
o
Die
characteristic
Screw
characteristic
Operating
Point
N o
Q
p A
|
q oN
N p q
|
o
+
= A
N Q
|
o
+
=
q


Through put
independent of
viscosity (temperature)

Pressure proportional
to viscosity




(linear viscous model)
Viscosity (Temperature) Effects

N o
Q
p A
|
q oN
q low
q high
Channel depth (screw) effects

N o
Q
p A
|
q oN
s
L
Dh
h D
| t
|
| | t o
2 3
2 2
sin
12
cos sin
2
1
~
=
Deep channel
Narrow
channel
Die effects

N o
Q
p A
|
q oN
Less restrictive die
(e.g., large diameter,
thick sheet)
More restrictive die
(e.g., small diameter
thin sheet)
die
die
L
R
L
P R
P Q
8
8
4
4
t

q
t
q

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
= A =
Uniformity is highly desired.
(especially in cases such as
thin sheets).
Problems are caused by
variations of the pressure
as a result of feed
non-uniformity, variation
of RPM, randomness, etc.

Example:
A long die minimizes swelling
but is less sensitive
to RPM variation than
a short die
Dimensional Uniformity
N o
Q
p A
|
q oN
Less restrictive die
(e.g., short land length)
More restrictive die
(e.g., long land length)
Summary of rules
Solid conveying zone
Channel depth H Solids conveying rate
increases with channel depth until a point
(usually 0.1-0.15 x D) then decreases
Helical angle between 0 and 90 no
conveying usually between 15-25 with
most common 17.66
Number of flights p increasing the number
of flights reduces the rate of solids
conveying
Summary of Rules
Plasticating zone
Helix angle no optimal helix angle for melting
Melting rate is proportional to square root of solid bed width
(X)
0.5

The width of the solid bed is at a maximum at the beginning
of the melt zone and tapers off as melting proceeds. Thus
the highest melting rate occurs at the start of the melt zone
Flight clearance, d=: standard clearance is 0.001D
Wear of screw and barrel detrimental effect in the
plasticating zone
Compression zone resulting from reduced channel depth,
tends to widen the solid bed and increase the rate of melting
Multiple flights Barrier flight screw
Summary of Rules
Total length-typical L/D ratios
20:1 to 30:1 for thermoplastics
15:1 to 20:1 for elastomers
Longer L/D for high melt throughputs
Feed zone
typically 4-8 D in length
Longer zones for hard, high melting point polymers
Metering zone
Typically 6-10 D
Shallower channels, longer zones for restrictive dies and low
viscosity melts or to generate higher melt temperatures and
improve distributive mixing
Shorter zones, deeper channels for relatively open dies,
thermally sensitive polymers and high viscosity melts

Mixing extruders
Optimization of screw design
There are many ways to optimize
screw
helix angle,
channel depth, width, etc.
Criteria can be
output
mixing
power

Mixing

We mix:
additives into a plastic
two plastics into a blend
Uniformity is a key to
properties
appearance
defect elimination
Types of mixing
Distributive
Dispersive


Optimum output may mean
bad mixing

High pressure flow
results in recirculation
of the molten polymer =
better mixing but less
output.
clearance) neglible for valid
- ratio throttle (
tan
6
2
ND L
p h
Q
Q
r
s D
P
d
t
|
q
A
= =

Mixing in single screw extruders
Specialty Mixing Sections - Screw

Desirable characteristics for mixing
section
Minimum pressure drop with forward pumping
capability
Streamlined flow and no deadspots
Barrel surface wiped completely with no
circumferential grooves
Operator friendly and easy to install, run,
clean,etc
Easy to manufacture and reasonably priced.

Distributive Mixing Sections

Plastic melt subjected to significant shear
strain
Flow should be split frequently with
reorientation of melt
Types
Cavity mixers
Pin mixers
Slotted flight mix
Variable channel depth mixers
Variable channel width mixers

Distributive Mixing Sections
Cavity Transfer Mixer

Screw section and barrel section contain hemi-spherical
cavities
Advantages: Good mixing capability
Disadvantages
No forward pumping capability and is pressure consuming
Reduces extruder output and increases temperature buildup
Streamlining is not very good, high cost, high installation $$
Barrel not completely wiped during processing

Distributive Mixing Sections
Pin Mixer

Pin mixers are common and come in many sizes and shapes
Circular, square, rectangular, diamond-shaped
On screw or on barrel
Advantages: Good mixing capability
Disadvantages
Pins cause restriction and reduce extruder output
Pins create regions of stagnation at the corner of pin and root
of screw
Dispersive Mixing Screw
Barrier-type / Maillefer Screw
Solid and melt are separated into two channels:
The solids channel becomes progressively shallower, forcing
the unmelted pellets against the barrel for efficient frictional
melting, until it finally disappears into the back side of the
primary flight.
As the solids are pressed agaist the barrel the melt flows into
the melt channel which is deeper than the primary flight.
Because the melt channel is deep, it causes low shear
and reduces the possibility of overheating the melted
polymer.
Dispersive Mixing Screw
Fluted Mixing Section
Material passes through a narrow gap of barrier flights
where mixing takes place.
flutes may have helical orientation
Leroy Union Carbide (straight flights)
No forward pumping capability and thus high pressure drop
Inefficient streamlining at entry and exits
Most common for single screw extruders
Poor Helix angle design of 90
Dispersive Mixing Screw
Static Mixers
Only shear (no
elongation)
Pressure drop
Dispersive Mixing Screw
CRD Mixing Section
The first mixing device developed using numerical techniques.
Introduced in 1999, it has been used successfully to replace other screws
Specifically designed to generate strong elongational flows. Elongational
flow is more effective in breaking down agglomerates and droplets than
shear flow.
It combines both distributive and dispersive mixing capability.
The CRD mixer is designed to force the material through the high stress
regions several times to achieve a fine level of dispersion.
Twin Extruder

Does not rely on
friction
Flow field complex
Highly efficient
mixing
Self-cleaning
Co-rotating most
preferred than
counter-rotating
EXPENSIVE
Distributive Mixing

Based on intense
shearing which:
inceases interfacial
area
decreases local
dimensions (striation
thickness)
Large strains are not
enough if orientation
of inhomogeneity
does not intersect flow lines
Dispersive Mixing

Involves:
breaking up of agglomerates
(e.g., carbon black in rubber)
breaking a secondary immiscible fluid
(e.g., blends)
Distributes it into the matrix

Breaking up of agglomerates



Requires high viscosity



Tensile elongation more
efficient than simple shear

2
3 r F tq

=
Breaking up of Fluid droplets

Immiscible phase
tends to be spherical
(but is takes time)
Intense shearing
transform a sphere
into a filament that
breaks through a
Rayleigh instability
into smaller droplets
Coalescence works
against it
Time
Breaking up of Fluid droplets

Capillary number


t=stress,
R=radius of droplet
o
s
=surface tension

Breakup when capillary
number reaches critical
value

Note the difference between
shear and elongation flow
S
R
Ca
o
t
=
2:droplet; 1:matrix
Mixing Devices
Batch mixers
Banbury

In extrusion room


Degassing
Degassing is done on a vented extruder vent port in barrel
Special design to insure there is zero pressure under vent
Eliminates volatiles
Most common volatile is water.
Plastics can tolerate about 0.1% moisture
Some hygroscopic plastics degrade when exposed to heat and
moisture (Polyester, Polycarbonate, nylon and polyurethane)
Two stages:
Diffusion based transport of gas from inside the granule to
the surface. Depends on monomer and morphology
Convective transport throught the pores towards the back of
the screw (hopper) or vents.
Both temperature dependent
Portion of Wei Suns talk on Tissue
Engineering pertaining to extrusion
(real world example)
Extrusion Part 2
Scaffold
Construction
Cell
Seeding
Separated

process
Current Limitations in Scaffold Guided Tissue
Engineering
Can we load cells
simultaneously with the
scaffold construction?
Limitations of current fabrication techniques
Indirect Fabrication:
Casting, salt leaching etc.

Difficult to build scaffold with complex architecture;
Can not deliver bioactive species

Direct Fabrication: SFF Solid Freeform Fabrication
SLA Stereolithography, SLS - Select Sintering
LOM Laminated Object Manufacturing
FDM Fused Deposition Modeling, and 3DP 3D Printing

Harsh heat and chemical environment
Not biocompatible to deliver bioactive medium
Research on Development of Biopolymer Deposition
System
A viable manufacturing process that allows a controlled
deposition of biopolymer and bioactive medium for
freeform fabrication of 3D functional and bioactive
tissue substitutes

Right material/medium
Right amount
Right time/position
Right Structure
(multi-nozzle)
(drop-on-demand)
(controlled deposition)
(Physical and chemical reaction)
Overview of Biopolymer Deposition for Freeform Fabrication
of 3D Tissue Scaffolds/Constructs
40 layers, 275 micro strand pattern, 38 micro single strand
Multi-nozzle systems:
Precision extruding
Solenoid-actuated
Piezoelectric
Pneumatic syringe
Pneumatic spray

Biopolymer:
Hydrogel-Alginate/Chitosan
Fibrin
PCL
Cells:
Endothelial
Cardiomyoblasts (H9C2)
Fibroblast
Chondrocytes
Osteoblasts
Smooth muscle cells
Cell deposition, cellular thread, cell pattern vascular network
US Provisional Patent #: 60/520,672
International Patent #: PCT/US2004/015316
Micro-valves
deposition
Processing control
Board
XYZ Mechanism
Motion Controller
Multi-channel
Signal Generator
Servo Drives
Tool Path File
Motion
Commands
System Configuration
Material Delivery
System
Motion Parameters
Data Process
System
Heterogeneous fabrication
Material
Deposition
System
Design Model
Input
Motion Control
System
Data interface
tissue substitutes
Imaging and Monitoring System
Drop-on-demand deposition Continuing deposition
Two Deposition Modes

Features
Microvalve Nozzle System
Pressurized Mini
Extruder
Solenoid
Microvalve
Piezoelectric
Nozzle
Pneumatic
Microvalve
Deposition Mode Continuous Continuous/Droplet Droplet Continuous/Droplet
Operation/
Control
Rotating screw gear
via motor
Frequency pulse of
voltage
Frequency pulse of
voltage
Frequency pulse of
air pressure
Key Process
Parameters
Pressure and Speed
Temperature
Material
Nozzle diameter
Deposition speed
Pressure
Frequency pulse
Material
Nozzle diameter
Deposition speed
Pressure
Frequency pulse
Material
Nozzle diameter
Deposition speed
Pressure
Frequency pulse
Material
Nozzle diameter
Deposition speed
Operating Range
limitations
Screw speed < 1rps
Temperature<150 C
D: 7 ~ 10 mil
V: 40V(DC)
H: (1-1200 Hz)
D: (30, 50, 70 m)
H: (0 -20000 Hz)
V: (-100 100)
D: (30, 50, 70 m)
H: (0.01-14 Hz)
Fluid P: (0-50 psi)
Valve P (70-100 psi)
Structure
Formation
Physical solidification Physical solidification
Chemical reaction
Physical solidification
Chemical reaction
Physical solidification
Chemical reaction
Advantages
Fast solidification
No solvents
Strong structure
Sterile environment
Room temperature
Extrusion and droplet
Sterile environment
Room temperature
Micro-droplet deposition
Controlled volume
Sterile Environment
Room temperature
High viscosity
Extrusion and droplet
Sterile environment
Disadvantages
Temperature
Low melting material
Low viscosity
Droplet controllability
Low viscosity
Not continuous deposit
Droplet controllability
Precision deposition
Characteristics of different
micro-valve systems
Basic process parameters
Materials (melting point)
Driven pressure and speed
Temperature
Diameter of Nozzle
Deposition speed

Pressurized Extruder Microvalve
motor
Heating bands
Nozzle tip
Material inlet
Thermal couple
S
c
r
e
w

Worm - gear set
Average pore size:
~ 200 m
Smallest strut: 100 m

Material: Poly-c-Caprolactone (PCL)
Designed Scaffold
0/90
0
orientation
60/120
0
orientation
SEM Characterization
Wang, et al: Precision Extruding Deposition and
Characterization of Cellualr Poly-e-Caprolactone Tissue
Scaffolds, Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 1,
2004. pp. 42-49
Micro-CT Characterization
Samples S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4
Porosity (%) 39.1 54.9 53.6 44.2
Inter-
Connectivity
(%)

98.16

99.43

99.59

99.04

Darling, A. and Sun, W., 3D Microtomographic Characterization of Precision
Extruded Poly--Caprolactone Tissue Scaffolds, Journal of Biomedical Materials
Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, V. 70B, Issue 2, pp. 311-317.
Biopolymer Deposition: Flow Rate Measurements
Can we drop the right amount materials?
Experimental Set-up
Parameter Value
Pressure (P)
8, 10, 12, 14,
16, 18, 20
Microvalve
Frequency (f)
363.6, 444.4,
500, 571.4, 666.6,
800, 1000, 1333.3
Sodium Alginate
Aqueous
Concentrations
(NaAC)
0.1%, 0.4%,
0.75%, 0.85%, 1%
(w/v)
Nozzle
Displacement
Velocity (v)
0 (mm/s)
Nozzle Diameter
(D)
2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 mills
AIR
Tank
Material
Pressure
Vessel
100 ml Glass
Bottle
Sodium Alginate
Aqueous Solution
Air pressure
Nozzle
Petri
Dish
Microvalve
Material
Manifold
1% Sodium Alginate with 4 mills WC Gaiser
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Frequency (Hz)
F
l
o
w

R
a
t
e

(
m
i
c
r
o
l
i
t
r
e
/
s
e
c
o
n
d
)
8 Psi
10 Psi
12 Psi
14 Psi
16 Psi
18 Psi
20 Psi
Mass Flow vs. Frequency/Pressure on
1% alginate solution with 4 mills solenoid nozzle
High Frequency/Pressure increase the flow rate
Preliminary Results on Deposition Using Solenoid Microvalve
3% (w/v) Sodium Alginate Aqueous Solution
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
5 15 25 35
Pressure (psi)
F
l
o
w

R
a
t
e

(
m
i
c
r
o
l
i
t
r
e
/
s
e
c
o
n
d
)
100 m
150 m
200 m
250 m
330 m
410 m
Flow rate verse pressure under different nozzle diameters
for 3% (w/v) sodium alginate by pneumatic air nozzle
Preliminary Results on Deposition Using Pneumatic Air-Regulated
Microvalve
0
4
1 3
1
v R
n
n
Q t
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
.
1
1
0
1
0 0
2 1
n
n
n
n
n
R
z
P
n
n
v
+

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
q
c
c
|
.
|

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Using Poiseulle-based non-Newtonian fluid equation
Curve-fitting method to determine the power law
index n for 3% (w/v) sodium alginate solution
An empirical model to predict the flow rate
) 1 (
.

=
n
a
K q
Preliminary Results on Deposition Using Pneumatic Air-Regulated
Microvalve
Feasible deposition range for 3% (w/v) sodium
alginate solution
Syringe Movement
Syringe System
Reservoir
Calcium Chloride
Solution (2
nd
Level)
Sodium Alginate
Solution Deposition
Cross-linked Alginate
Hydrogel (First Layer)
Second Layer
Cross-linked
Alginate Hydrogel
(Second Layer)

Syringe Movement
Syringe System
Reservoir
Calcium Chloride
Solution (1
st

Level)
Sodium Alginate
Solution Deposition
Cross-linked Alginate
Hydrogel
First Layer
Biopolymer Deposition: Simple Geometry Formation
Can we form a right structure?
3D Structure Formation
Structure Formation
Pressure
Nozzle
Syringe Movement
r
L
v = Nozzle Velocity
R = Radius of Nozzle tip
= Viscosity
= Sear Rate
Q = Volumetric Flow Rate
D= Nozzle Diameter
dp/dz = Pressure Gradient
n = Power Law Index
v
R
Z
P
n
n
n
n
D
n
n
n
n
n
1 5
1
0
1
0
2 1 1 3
1
4
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
q

3D Structure Formation
Criteria
Velocity < 20 mm/s for
deposition system
dynamic stability
2
4
N
N
N
D
Q
v
t
=
Determining Optimum Nozzle Velocity V
N

Tension
Compression
Pneumatic Microvalve
Pressure
Syringe
Movement
Nozzle
Pneumatic valve spring effect when
valve closes
Extrusion (part 4)
Caroline Schauer
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Drexel University


Alpine uses cooling as a selling point
Are all vinyl window frames and sashes the same?
To just look at them, it's very difficult to see any
difference in quality between various vinyl windows.
But there is. Some window manufacturers use less
expensive compounds and extrusion techniques.
These frames can be very brittle and have a dull blue
or gray cast. Alpine products, however, are
comprised of nothing but the finest virgin vinyl (PVC)
powder along with the latest water cooling extrusion
techniques to ensure that you get the best frames
and sashes possible.

Cooling
Air Cooling
5W/m
2
/
o
K natural convection
10-30 W/m
2
/
o
K
Water bath (effective & cheap - temp should be kept const)
1000 W/m
2
/
Ok
Water Spray (rapid evaporative cooling)
1500 W/m
2
/
o
K
Chill Rolls (large mass and quick heat transfer in the
material allows for very high cooling rates).
Very effective - depends on material properties/dimensions
The extruded film is cooled while being drawn around two or more
highly polished chill rolls cored for water cooling for exact
temperature control
Requirements depend on throughput
If thickness is large then throughput should be limited
Higher cooling requirements for semicrystalline polymers

Cooling Tanks
Spray cooling tray with super quench option
Cooling tank features
Welded stainless steel construction
Non-driven stainless steel support rollers
Alternate driven conveyors
Circulation system with reservoir
High efficiency quad spray manifolds
Self contained circulation systems
Leak proof recessed lid design
In-line filters and separators
Casters and adjustable floor jacks
Super Quench cooling
ClearView lids
Geared lifters
Self contained blow-off
Heat exchanger
Hot water annealing

The Role of Plastic Properties
Molecular Weight
affects viscosity and swelling
Molecular Weight Distribution
gives rise to power law
Chain Branching
tension stiffening (increased viscosity) -
essential for blow molding
Crystallinity
affects heating/cooling requirements
Fibers/Fillers
strong increase of viscosity, die wear, swelling
decreases
Products

Pipes
PVC, PP, HDPE, ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) for general
purpose / non-pressure
Profiles
PVC, gutters/irrigation/building/plumbing
PC and PMMA transparent applications (building, lighting)
Sheet, Flat Film, Coated Laminates
PVC, PC, PMMA
Wires
PVC, PE
Coextrusion, and Multi-Layered products
PE (3-layer high barrier films, polyamides), Color
combinations, Solid/Foam/Solid sandwich.
Requires multiple screws and extra care in control
Meshes and Grids
PE, PP

Variations on Extrusion

Variations on Extrusion

Matching of rate is not trivial
Variations on Extrusion

Variations on Extrusion

Variations on Extrusion

Profiles
Defects
Incomplete melting
detected by microscopy under polarized light
Inadequate mixing
detected by light microscopy for thin components
Degradation
discoloration, spectroscopy
high resident times, high temperature
chemical, thermal, mechanical
Weld zones
around spider legs in dies
Contamination
metallic slivers, packaging paper etc.
Distortion at exit
thermal distortion, excessive orientation

Defects

Shark Skin (Surface effect)
acceleration of surface at exit of the
die leads to ridged surface
high viscosity / low polydispersity
polymers are susceptible
reduce throughput, higher temperature
additives
Melt Fracture (through the
section)
when wall shear exceeds a critical
value >0.1-0.4MPa
high temperature, low throughput,
lower Mw, external lubricants, die
streamlining help.
In literature they are often not distinguished from
each other. Current Research topics.