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Nestl S.A.

(French pronunciation: [nsle]; English /nsle/, /nsli/) is a Swiss multinational food and beverage company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world measured by revenues. Nestl's products include baby food, bottled water, breakfast cereals, coffee, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, pet foods, and snacks. 29 of Nestl's brands have annual sales of over 1 billion Swiss francs (about $ 1.1 billion), includingNespresso, Nescaf, KitKat, Smarties, Nesquik, Stouffer's, Vittel , and Maggi. Nestl has around 450 factories, operates in 86 countries, and employs around 328,000 people. It is one of the main shareholders of L'Oral, the world's largest cosmetics company.[6] Nestl was formed in 1905 by the merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1866 by brothers George Page and Charles Page, and Farine Lacte Henri Nestl, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestl. The company grew significantly during the First World War and again following the Second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and infant formula products. The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby's in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, and Gerber in 2007.

History Nestl's origins date back to 1866, when two separate Swiss enterprises were founded that would later form the core of Nestl. In the succeeding decades, the two competing enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. In August 1867, Charles (US consul in Switzerland) and George Page, two brothers from Lee County, Illinois, USA, established the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham, Switzerland. Their first British operation was opened at Chippenham, Wiltshire, in 1873.[9] In September 1866, in Vevey, Henri Nestl developed a milk-based baby food, and soon began marketing it. The following year saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process. Nestl's was the crucial cooperation that Peter needed to solve the problem of removing all the water from the milk added to his chocolate and thus preventing the product from developing mildew. Henri Nestl retired in 1875 but the

company under new ownership retained his name as Socit Farine Lacte Henri Nestl. In 1877, Anglo-Swiss added milk-based baby foods to their products and in the following year the Nestl Company added condensed milk so that the firms became direct and fierce rivals. In 1905, the companies merged to become the Nestl and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that name until 1947 when the name Nestl Alimentana SA was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA (founded 1884) and its holding company Alimentana SA of Kempttal, Switzerland. Maggi was a major manufacturer of soup mixes and related foodstuffs. The companys current name was adopted in 1977. By the early 1900s, the company was operating factories in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain. The First World War created demand for dairy products in the form of government contracts, and, by the end of the war, Nestl's production had more than doubled. After the war, government contracts dried up, and consumers switched back to fresh milk. However, Nestl's management responded quickly, streamlining operations and reducing debt. The 1920s saw Nestl's first expansion into new products, with chocolate-manufacture becoming the company's second most

important activity. Louis Dapples was CEO till 1937, when succeeded by douard Muller till his death in 1948. Ironically, the war helped with the introduction of the company's newest product, Nescaf ("Nestl's Coffee"), which became a staple drink of the US military. Nestl's production and sales rose in the wartime economy. In 1947 Nestl merged with Maggi, a manufacturer of seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus (1963), Libby's (1971) and Stouffer's (1973). Diversification came with a shareholding in L'Oral in 1974. In 1977, Nestl made its second venture outside the food industry, by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc. In 1984, Nestl's improved bottom line allowed the company to launch a new round of acquisitions, notably American food giant Carnation and the British confectionery company Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, which brought the Willy Wonka brand among others to Nestl. The first half of the 1990s proved to be favourable for Nestl. Trade barriers crumbled, and world markets developed into more or less integrated trading areas. Since 1996, there have been various acquisitions, including San

Pellegrino (1997), Spillers Petfoods (1998), and Ralston Purina (2002). There were two major acquisitions in North America, both in 2002 in June, Nestl merged its U.S. ice cream business into Dreyer's, and in August a US$2.6 billion acquisition was announced of Chef America, the creator of Hot Pockets. In the same time-frame, Nestl came close to purchasing the iconic American companyHershey's, one of its fiercest confectionery competitors, although the deal eventually fell through.[10][better source needed] Another recent purchase included the Jenny Craig weight-loss program, for US$600 million. In December 2005, Nestl bought the Greek company Delta Ice Cream for 240 million. In January 2006, it took full ownership of Dreyer's, thus becoming the world's largest ice cream maker, with a 17.5% market share.[11] In November 2006, Nestl purchased the Medical Nutrition division of Novartis Pharmaceutical for $2.5B, also acquiring, in 2007, the milk-flavouring product known as Ovaltine. In April 2007, returning to its roots, Nestl bought US baby-food manufacturer Gerber for $5.5 billion.[12][13][14] In December 2007, Nestl entered into a strategic partnership with a Belgian chocolate maker, Pierre Marcolini.[15] Nestl agreed to sell its controlling stake in Alcon to Novartis on 4 January 2010. The sale was to form part of a broader US$39.3 billion offer, by Novartis, for full acquisition of the worlds largest eye-care company.[16] On 1 March 2010, Nestl concluded the purchase of Kraft Foods's North American frozen pizza business for $3.7 billion. In July 2011, Nestl SA agreed to buy 60 percent of Hsu Fu Chi International Ltd. for about $1.7 billion.[17] On 23 April 2012, Nestl agreed to acquire Pfizer Inc.'s infant-nutrition unit for $11.9 billion.[18] Before the acquisition, there was a 'bidding war' between the three shareholders Nestl, Mead Johnson Nutrition and Danone. Each of the companies held a share, with Nestl holding the biggest share (17%) (Johnson held 15%, Danone 13%).[19] As of 28 May 2013, Nestl has announced that it will expand R&D in its research center in Singapore. With a primary focus on health and nutrition, Nestl is investing $4.3 million in its Singapore center, creating 20 jobs for experts in related R&D fields.[20]

Major competitors

Nestl's largest international competitors are Kraft Foods, Unilever and Mars Incorporated. It also faces competition in local markets or specific product ranges from numerous companies, including Sara Lee and Danone.

Our Vision

Research and Development is a key competitive advantage for Nestl. Without our R&D Nestl could not have become the food industry leader in nutrition, health and wellness.

With 29 research, development and technology facilities worldwide, Nestl has the largest R&Dnetwork of any food company. Nestls research, development and technology network, together with local market application groups, employs over 5,000 people. Nestl further strengthens its R&D capability through Innovation Partnerships at each stage of the product development process from early stage collaborations with start up and biotech companies to late stage partnerships with its key suppliers. By bringing together all of its global R&D resources, Nestl is able to provide high quality, safe food solutions for consumers worldwide whether this is in terms of nutrition, health, wellness, taste, texture or convenience. Above all, Nestl brings to consumers products that are of the highest quality. And safety is non-negotiable. R&D is also critical in ensuring regulatory compliance of all Nestl products. Nestl is able to launch new products quickly and efficiently, in countries all over the world, by integrating regulatory affairs in all its R&D activities, from start to finish.

Nestl scientists also play their part in communicating the health and wellness benefits of products to consumers. Nestl nutritionists world-wide work to ensure that all nutrition communication, both on and off pack, is locally relevant, as well as scientifically sound. Beyond sound nutrition, the future of foods will increasingly be driven by science. Nestl scientists are looking ahead to the foods of the future. Nestl R&D is translating nutrition and food science in two ways: From consumer needs into research priorities From emerging science into consumer benefits, and services

The vision of Nestl R&D is long term. A glimpse of how Nestl R&D is helping to shape the future of foods is provided through these internet pages. Behind every one of Nestls products is a team of scientists, product developers, designers, nutritionists, consumer service representatives and regulatory affairs specialists.

The diagram above shows some of the steps, where these experts are involved, from identifying the initial consumer benefit to the product launch and on towards continuous improvement. Nestl R&D projects are the first step in a pipeline of innovative nutrition solutions for products of the future, across all our business categories.

Company Overview Philip Morris International Inc. (PMI) is the leading international tobacco company, with seven of the worlds top 15 international brands, including Marlboro, the worlds best-selling cigarette brand. Our goals are to provide high quality and innovative products to adult smokers, generate superior returns for shareholders, and reduce the harm caused by smoking while operating our business sustainably and with integrity. Until March 28, 2008, PMI was a wholly owned subsidiary of Altria Group, Inc. Altria, since that time the company has been independent and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (ticker symbol PM).

Our Brands Our international and local brands are sold in more than 180 markets. We have the industrys strongest and most diverse brand portfolio, led by Marlboro, the worlds number one selling brand, and L&M, the third most popular brand. Overall, seven of the top 15 brands in the world are ours. PMIs other leading international brands include Merit, Parliament, Virginia Slims, Chesterfield and Philip Morris. Our leading local cigarette brands include Sampoerna in Indonesia, Fortune in the Philippines, Optima in Russia and Delicados in Mexico.

Apple Inc., formerly Apple Computer, Inc., is an American multinational

corporation headquartered in Cupertino, California[2] that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. Its bestknown hardware products are the Mac line of computers, the iPod music player, the iPhone smartphone, and the iPad tablet computer. Its consumer software includes the OS X and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media browser, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWorkcreativity and production suites. The company was founded on April 1, 1976, and incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. on January 3, 1977.[6] The word "Computer" was removed from its name on January 9, 2007, reflecting its shifted focus towards consumer electronics after the introduction of the iPhone.[7][8][9] Apple is the world's second-largest information technology company by revenue after Samsung Electronics, and the world's third-largest mobile phone maker after Samsung and Nokia. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2012.[11][12][13][14][15] However, the company has received criticism for its contractors' labor practices, and for Apple's own environmental and business practices. As of May 2013, Apple maintains 408 retail stores in fourteen countries as well as the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world's largest music retailer. Apple is the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, with an estimated value of US$415 billion as of March 2013. As of Sept 29 2012, the company had 72,800 permanent full-time employees and 3,300 temporary full-time employees worldwide.[4] Its worldwide annual revenue in 2012 totalled $156 billion.[4]In May 2013, Apple entered the top

ten of the Fortune 500 list of companies for the first time, rising 11 places above its 2012 ranking to take the sixth position. History

Main article: History of Apple Inc. 197680: Founding and incorporation

The Apple I, Apple's first product, was sold as an assembled circuit board and lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case. Apple was established on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve

Wozniak and Ronald Wayne[1] to sell the Apple I personal computer kit, a computer single handedly designed by Wozniak. The kits were hand-built by Wozniak[24][25] and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club.[26] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips), which is less than what is today consi dered a complete personal computer.[27] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was marketpriced at $666.66 ($2,690 in 2013 dollars, adjusted for inflation).[28][29][30][31][32][33] Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977,[6] without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Multi-millionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.[34][35] The Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals, the TRS80 and Commodore PET, due to its character cell-based color graphics and an open architecture. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as

storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface, theDisk II.[36] The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world, VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program.[37]VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users compatibility with the office, an additional reason to buy an Apple II.[37] Apple was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along.[38][39] By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The company introduced the Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.[40] Jobs and several Apple employees, including Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (800,000 split-adjusted shares) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share.[41] Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.[42] On December 12, 1980, Apple went public at $22 per share,[43] generating more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly creating more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. [44] 198185: Lisa and Macintosh

Apple's "1984" television ad, set in adystopian future modeled after the George Orwell novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, set the tone for the introduction of the Macintosh.

Apple began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978. In 1982, Jobs was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting. Jobs took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project, theMacintosh. A race broke out between the Lisa team and the Macintosh team over which product would ship first. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles. [45]

The first Macintosh, released in 1984

In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by the now famous $1.5 million television commercial "1984". It was directed by Ridley Scott and was aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984.[46] It is now hailed as a watershed event for Apple's success[47] and a "masterpiece".[48][49] The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong[50] due to its high price and limited range of software titles. The Macintosh was the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language at all.[51]

The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScriptlaser printer to be sold at a reasonable price, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishingpackage. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.[52] The Mac was particularly powerful in the desktop publishing market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which had necessarily been built in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI.

In 1985 a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired two years earlier.[53] The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to "contain" Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products. Rather than submit to Sculley's direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple. Sculley found out that Jobs had been attempting to organize a coup and called a board meeting at which Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties.[50] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.[54] 198697: Decline

See also: Timeline of Apple II family and Timeline of Macintosh models

The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer, released in 1989.

The Macintosh Portable was introduced in 1989 and was designed to be just as powerful as a desktop Macintosh, but weighed a bulky 7.5 kilograms (17 lb) with a 12-hour battery life. After the Macintosh Portable, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001. The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue.[53] For some time, Apple was doing incredibly well, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.

Following the success of the Macintosh LC, Apple introduced the Centris line, a low-endQuadra, and the ill-fated Performa line that was sold with an overwhelming number of configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears, Price Club, and Wal-Mart (the primary dealers for these models). Consumers ended up confused and did not understand the difference between models.[55] During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, and TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts.[citation needed] Ultimately, none of these products helped, as Apple's market share and stock prices continued to slide.[citation needed] Products

See also: Timeline of Apple products and List of products discontinued by Apple Inc. In response to the July 2013 death of a Chinese woman, who was found electrocuted holding an iPhone that was recharging with a non-Apple charger, and a similar incident (also in July 2013) that left a Chinese citizen in a coma, Apple announced a program whereby authorized Apple outlets will receive any iPhone, iPod, or iPad chargers not made by Apple in exchange for the sale of an Apple charger for US$10half the usual retail price.[153] Mac

MacBook Air Main article: Macintosh

See also: Timeline of Macintosh models, List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type, and List of Macintosh models by case type MacBook Air: Consumer ultra-thin, ultra-portable notebook, introduced in 2008. MacBook Pro: Professional notebook, introduced in 2006. Mac Mini: Consumer sub-desktop computer and server, introduced in 2005. iMac: Consumer all-in one desktop computer, introduced in 1998. Mac Pro: Workstation desktop computer, introduced in 2006.

Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Macs, including Thunderbolt Display,Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad, Wireless Keyboard, Battery Charger, the AirPort wireless networking products, and Time Capsule. iPad

Main article: iPad

Apple's homepage, displaying the fourth-generation iPad.

On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the iPad, running a modified version of iOS. It offers multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, magazines, ebooks, textbooks, photos, movies, videos of TV shows, music, word processing documents, spreadsheets, videogames, and most existing iPhone apps.[154] It also includes a mobile version of Safari for web browsing, as well as access to the App Store, iTunes Library, iBookstore, contacts, and notepad. Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user's computer.[155] AT&T was initially the sole US provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad.[156]

On March 2, 2011, Apple introduced the iPad 2, which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back. It also added support for optional 3G service

provided by Verizon in addition to the existing offering by AT&T.[157] However, the availability of the iPad 2 has been limited as a result of the devastating earthquake and ensuing tsunami in Japan in March 2011.[158] On March 7, 2012, Apple introduced the third-generation iPad, marketed as "the new iPad". It added LTE service from AT&T or Verizon, the upgraded A5X processor, and the Retina display (2048 by 1536 resolution), originally implemented on the iPhone 4 and iPhone 4S. The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version, and minor positioning changes. [159] On October 23, 2012, Apple's fourth-generation iPad came out, marketed as the "iPad with Retina display". It added the upgraded A6Xprocessor and replaced the traditional 30-pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector.[160] The iPad Mini was also introduced, with a reduced 7.9-inch display and featuring much of the same internal specifications as the iPad 2.[161] Since its launch, iPad[162] users have downloaded three billion apps, while the total number of App Store downloads is over 25 billion.[163] iPod

Main article: iPod

The 2012 iPod Shuffle, iPod Nano, iPod Classic, and iPod Touch.

On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin, with more than 350 million units shipped as of September 2012.[164] Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit, enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod:

iPod Shuffle: Ultra-portable digital audio player, currently available in a 2 GB model, introduced in 2005. iPod Nano: Portable media player, currently available in a 16 GB model, introduced in 2005. Earlier models featured the traditional iPod click wheel, though the current generation features a multi-touch interface and includes an FM radio and a pedometer.

iPod Touch: Portable media player than runs iOS, currently available in 32 and 64 GB models, introduced in 2007. The current generation features the Apple A5 processor, a Retina display, and dual cameras on the front (1.2 megapixel sensor) and back (5 megapixel iSight), the latter of which supports HD video recording at 1080p.[165] iPod Classic: Portable media player, currently available in a 160 GB model, first introduced in 2001.[166] iPhone

The iPhone 2G, 3G, 4 and5, to scale. Main article: iPhone

At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the long-anticipated[167]iPhone, a convergence of an Internetenabled smartphone and iPod.[168] The original iPhone was released on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract.[169] On February 5, 2008, it was updated to have 16 GB of memory, in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models.[170] It combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with

features found in handheld devices, running scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS, later renamed iOS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touchscreen display, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g").[168] At Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) on June 9, 2008, Apple announced the iPhone 3G. It was released on July 11, 2008, with a reduced price of $199 for the 8 GB version, and $299 for the 16 GB version.[171] This version added support for 3G networking and assisted-GPS navigation. The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a curved glossy black or white back. Following customer complaints, the previously-recessed headphone jack was changed to a flush jack for compatibility with more styles of headphones. Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store, providing applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone. On April 24, 2009, the App Store [172] surpassed one billion downloads.[173] At WWDC on June 8, 2009, Apple announced the iPhone 3GS. It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capbility, and voice control. At WWDC on June 7, 2010, Apple announced the iPhone 4, which the company describes as the "biggest leap we've taken" since the original model. [174] It features an all-new design, a 960x640 display, the Apple A4 processor also used in the iPad, a gyroscope for enhanced gaming, 5MP camera with LED flash, front-facing VGA camera and FaceTime video calling. Shortly after its release, reception issues were discovered by consumers, due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phone's cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna. The issue was corrected by a "Bumper Case" distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months. In June 2011, Apple overtook Nokia to become the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume.[175] On October 4, 2011, Apple unveiled the iPhone 4S, which was released in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan on October 14, 2011, with other countries set to follow later in the year.[176] It features the Apple A5processor, and is the first model offered by Sprint (joining AT&T and Verizon Wireless as the United States carriers offering iPhone models). On October 19, 2011, Apple announced an agreement

with C Spire Wireless to sell the iPhone 4S with that carrier in the near future, marking the first time the iPhone was officially supported on a regional carrier's network.[177] Another notable feature of the iPhone 4S was Siri voice assistant technology, which Apple had acquired in 2010,[178] as well as other features, including an updated 8MP camera with new optics. Apple sold 4 million iPhone 4S phones in the first three days of availability, making it the most successful launch of any mobile phone to date.[179] On September 12, 2012, Apple introduced the sixth-generation iPhone,[180] the iPhone 5. It added a 4-inch display, 4G LTE connectivity, and the upgraded Apple A6 chip, among several other improvements.[181] Two million iPhones were sold in the first twenty-four hours of pre-ordering[182] and over five million handsets were sold in the first three days of its launch.[183] A patent filed by the corporation, published in late July 2013, revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user's habits to moderate the handsets power settings accordingly. Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used.[184] Media reports emerged in early August that announced that Apple would be launching its next iPhone model on September 10, 2013, but further details were not available. Brian Barrett, Managing Editor of the Gizmodo publication, speculated that either an upgraded version of the iPhone 5 or a budget version will be released.[185] Apple TV

Main article: Apple TV

The current generation Apple TV.

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV, (previously known as the iTV),[186] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions. The device links up to a user's TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four. The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, includes outputs for HDMIand component video, and plays video at a maximum resolution of 720p.[187] On May 31, 2007 a 160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model[188] and on January 15, 2008 a software update was released, which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV.[189] In September 2009, Apple discontinued the original 40 GB Apple TV and now continues to produce and sell the 160 GB Apple TV. On September 1, 2010, alongside the release of the new line of iPod devices for the year, Apple released a completely redesigned Apple TV. The new device is 1/4 the size, runs quieter, and replaces the need for a hard drive with media streaming from any iTunes library on the network along with 8 GB of flash memory to cache media downloaded. Apple with the Apple TV has added another device to its portfolio that runs on its A4 processor along with the iPad and the iPhone. The memory included in the device is the half of the iPhone 4 at 256 MB; the same as the iPad, iPhone 3GS, third- and fourth-generation iPod Touch.[190] It has HDMI out as the only video out source. Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows (purchasing has been discontinued), streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix, and media streaming from an iTunes library. Apple also reduced the price of the device to $99. A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, 2012, with new features such as higher resolution (1080p) and a new user interface. Software

See also: List of Macintosh software

Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, OS X, the latest version being OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8). Apple also independently

develops computer software titles for its OS X operating system. Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package that bundles iMovie, iPhoto and GarageBand. For presentation, page layout and word processing, iWork is available, which includes Keynote, Pages, and Numbers. iTunes, QuickTimemedia player, and Software Update are available as free downloads for both OS X and Windows. Apple also offers a range of professional software titles. Their range of server software includes the operating system OS X Server;Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; and Xsan, a Storage Area Network file system. For the professional creative market, there is Aperture for professional RAW-format photo processing; Final Cut Pro, a video production suite;Logic Pro, a comprehensive music toolkit; and Motion, an advanced effects composition program. Apple also offers online services with iCloud, which provides cloud storage and syncing for a wide range of data, including email, contacts, calendars, photos and documents. It also offers iOS device backup, and is able to integrate directly with third-party apps for even greater functionality. iCloud is the fourth generation of online services provided by Apple, and was preceded by MobileMe, .Mac and iTools, all which met varying degrees of success. In development

iWatch: As of July 2013, Apple's team of 100 designers and engineers work on the iWatch, and the corporation has filed 79 patents related to smartwatch technology.[191] According to the Financial Times publication, the company is hiring "aggressively" and completed numerous "acqui-hires," the latter referring to the process of buying businesses for the expertise of the employees, rather than its products.[192]