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Chromosome 4. Huntingtons 5. deletion of short armcri du chat; FAP 6. hemochromatosis 7. microdeletion of long arm of 7williams. CF 11.

WT1 tumor suppressor mutation in Wilms tumor 13. Wilsons (mutation in ATP7B) 15. Prader Willi, Angelman 16. ADPKD 17. BRCA1, deletion of PMP22 causes Charcot-Marie Tooth (codes for mitochondrial protein) 21. amyloid precursor proteincauses Alzheimers

Anatomy Inferior thyroid artery arises from the thyrocervical trunk, a branch of the subclavian artery. Ligation of the inferior thyroid often damages the recurrent laryngeal nerves (both right and left) which lie in close proximity to it, during thyroidectomy, resulting in laryngeal muscle paralysis, hoarseness, and dyspnea. The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid. It travels in the triad of superior thyroid artery, superior thyroid vein, and external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Ligation of superior thyroid can damage this external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, during a thyroidectomy. The cricothyroid muscle is the only muscle innervated by this nerve. ALL OTHER LARUNGEAL MUSCLES are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerves (both right and left), which prevoide sensory innervation to the larynx below the vocal folds. The internal branch of the superior laryngeal provides sensory innervation to the laryngeal mucosa above the vocal folds. The proximal 1/3 of the ureter receives its blood supply from branches of the renal artery. During a kidney transplantation, the native kidneys are left in place and the donor kidney is connected to the external iliac. Pelvic trauma can cause rupture of the urethra, esp in males, since they have lengthier urethras. This will cause no voiding of urine upon attempt to urinate. In addition, the location of the rupture is most commonly the part of the urethra that just is about to enter the prostrate, since there is a lot of tension there. The ureters go down from the kidneys on top of the psoas muscle; they cross over the external iliacs, which are now lateral to them, and the internal iliacs are now medial to them. Direct inguinal hernias are caused by a weakness in the transversalis fascia.

Middle meningeal artery is a branch of the maxiallary artery which is a branch of the external carotid Damage to the common peroneal are plantarflexed and inverted due to paralysis of the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis (mediates eversion), tibialis anterior (dorsiflexion) and extensor of the toes


1. Choriocarcinoma to lungs, so woman will have hemoptysis. It can follow an abortion, normal pregnancy, or ectopic pregnancy, but classically follows a hydatiform mole. 2. Renal cell carcinoma to the lungs most common, bone second most common 3. Lung metastasizes to adnreals, brian, bone, liver; metastastasis from breast, colon, prostate, bladder 4. Liver gets metastasis from colon, pancreas, lung, breast (hepatomegaly with nodular free edge of liver) 5.