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INTRODUCTION CNC turning produces parts by "turning" rod material and feeding a cutting tool into the turning

material. In CNC turning the cutter can be fed into the rotating workpiece at a variety of angles and many tool shapes can be used. CNC turning provides an economical way to make parts that are commonly symmetrical about an axis of revolution (e.g. a chess pawn). Shapes that can be made using CNC turning include a variety of plain, taper, contour, fillet and radius profiles plus threaded surfaces. Although many turned parts use a single axis of revolution, there can be multiple axis to allow more flexibility (e.g. camshafts). CNC turning can be combined with CNC milling and other processes to make more diverse shapes. CNC turning can shape most rigid materials such as: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. Aluminum Stainless Steel Copper Nylon Steel Acetal Polycarbonate Acrylic Brass Teflon Titanium ABS

xiii. xiv. xv.

PVC Sterling Silver Bronze

Examples of parts made by CNC turning include: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. Robot Parts Shift knobs Motorcycle Parts Auto Parts Toy Parts Knobs Pulleys Shafts Hubs Bushings Flywheels

APPARATUS i. ii. CNC Turning Machine PowerPath 15 Aluminium rod 30mm in diameter

SAFETY PRECAUTION i. Always keep safety in mind


Let the machine and the spindle come to a complete stop before touching parts, tools or spindle.

iii. iv.

Be certain that the workpiece and tools are secured. Do not operate machine before making sure that all machine guards, interlocks, and other safety devices are installed and under operation.


Do not wear neckties, wristwatches, rings, jewelery, etc., when operating the machine.

OBJECTIVES i. ii. iii. iv. v. Develop CNC Mill and Lathe G&M code programs. Debug and edit G&M code programs on the shop floor. Setup machines for small production runs. Setup and define work offsets and tool length offsets. Perform basic machine tool operations, including power up, load and edit G&M code programs, load tools, simulate programs, first piece run and inspection vi. Perform routine maintenance, such as topping of coolant and checking concentricity using a refractometer. vii. Inspect basic components using micrometers, dial and verniew calipers, and a portable CMM. viii. ix. x. xi. Solve basic technical math problems common in the shop. Read and interpret blueprints using 3rd and 1st angle projection. Read and interpret basic GD&T (Geometric Dimension and Tolerance). Identify CNC Mill and Lathe Tooling used for high speed machining and hard milling.

SPECIFICATION OF CNC TURNING BRIDGEPORT POWERPATH 15 Machine type : horizontal Number of axes : 2 Cutting diameter : 280mm Cutting length : 540mm Bar/bore : 51mm Tool station : 0 Spindle : 1 Motor power :11 Kw Spindle speed : 5000rpm

M00 M01 M03 M04 BRIDGEPORT/ POWERPATH 15 M05 M08 M09 M10 FANUC CONTROL G-CODES G0 G01 G02 G03 G04 G28 G30 G40 G41 G42 Positioning (Rapid Traverse) Linear Interpolation Circular Interpolation CW Circular Interpolation CCW Dwell Return To Reference Point Floating Reference Point Tool Nose Radius Compensation CANCEL Tool Nose Radius Compensation LEFT Tool Nose Radius Compensation RIGHT M11

Program Stop Optional Stop Spindle Rotation CW Spindle Rotation CCW Spindle Stop Coolant ON Coolant OFF Chuck Close Chuck Open

M-CODES M30 End Of Program M82 M83 Tail Stock Quill Advance Tail Stock Quill Retract

G50 G70 G71 G72 G73 G76 G80 G81 G82 G83 G84 G96 G97

Maximum Spindle Speed Finishing Cycle Stock Removal Turning Stock Removal Facing Copy Turning Thread Cutting Cycle Canned Cycle CANCEL Drill Canned Cycle Spot Drill Canned Cycle Peck Drill Canned Cycle Tapping Canned Cycle Constant Speed Control ON Constant Speed Control CANCEL M00 M01 M03 M04 Program Stop Optional Stop Spindle Rotation CW Spindle Rotation CCW Spindle Stop

OSP CONTROL G-CODES G0 G01 G02 G03 G04 G28 G30 G40 G41 Positioning (Rapid Traverse) Linear Interpolation Circular Interpolation CW Circular Interpolation CCW Dwell Return To Reference Point Floating Reference Point Tool Nose Radius Compensation CANCEL Tool Nose Radius Compensation LEFT


M08 Coolant ON M-CODES M09 Coolant OFF M02 M55 M56 M63 M83 M84 End Of Program Tail Stock Quill Retract Tail Stock Quill Advance Ignore Spindle Rotation And M Code Answer Chuck Clamp Chuck Open

G42 G50 G70 G80 G81 G82 G85 G86 G96 G97

Tool Nose Radius Compensation RIGHT Maximum Spindle Speed Finishing Cycle End Of Lap Cycle Start Of Lap Turning Cycle Start Of Lap Facing Cycle Stock Removal Turning Copy Turning Constant Speed Control ON Constant Speed Control CANC

COMMONLY USED G-CODES IN CNC LATHE G00 - Rapid positioning G01 - feedrate positioning G02 arc clockwise G03 counter clockwise G04 - dwell G07 federate sine curve control G10 data setting G11 data setting cancel G17 x-y plane G18 x-z plane G19 y-z plane G20 inch unit G21 metric units G22 stored stroke check ON G23 stored stroke check OFF G27 reference point return check G28 automatic zero return G29 return from zero position G30 2nd reference point return G57 workpiece coordinate setting #4 G58 workpiece coordinate setting #5 G59 workpiece coordinate setting #6 G61 exact stop check mode G62 automatic corner override G63 tapping mode G64 cutting mode G65 user macro call G66 user macro call (modal) G67 user macro call cancel (modal) G70 finishing cycle G71 turning cycle G72 facing cycle G73 pattern repeat G74 drilling cycle G75 grooving cycle G76 threading cycle G80 canned cycle cancel G83 face drilling cycle

G31 skip function G32 thread cutting G36 automatic tool compensation G40 tool compensation cancel G41 tool compensation left G42 tool compensation right G46 automatic tool compensation G50 coordinate system setting G52 local coordinate system setting G53 machine coordinate system setting G54 workpiece coordinate setting #1 G55 workpiece coordinate setting #2 G56 workpiece coordinate setting #3

G84 face tapping cycle G86 face boring cycle G90 absolute positioning G91 incremental positioning G92 OD thread cutting cycle G94 face turning cycle G96 constant speed control G97 constant speed control cancel G98 federate per time G99 federate per revolution G107 cylindrical interpolation G112 polar coordinate interpolation G113 polar coordinate interpolation cancel


Procedure To Start The CNC Turning Machine 1. On main switch power.



On main switch at the CNC machine.


Release emergency stop button by rotating it .


On display monitor (green button) and then wait until in ready. If not, when we convert the program, the program will lost.


Press POS button (position).


Press PROG button (program)


Press EDIT MODE ,then press DIR button



Insert number and then press the

arrow to look up

for program. Then, press PAGE button and all the 9. program will display at the monitor. Insert the alphanumeric data, then press EOB( end of block) and then press the INSERT button. Repeat this step until all data has been inserted.


Simulate the project base on inserted data by using the folloing step: Press RESET button Press AUTOMODE button Press GRAPH button outsie the monitor Press GRAPH button at the monitor Press OPRT(operation) button at the monitor Press EXEC(exercise) button at the monitor

Procedure To Clamp The Workpiece 1. Press CLAMP button and make sure that the workpiece is hold properly. Close the machines door




Press the MANUAL MODE to set the tool. Then press the MDI MODE. Insert the alphanumeric data from the start program until N40.


On the monitor and then on the power. Make sure that the tool touch workpiece and then press the MANUAL MODE.


Press HANDLE Z button, then HANDLE x100 button then HANDLE X button until the tool touch Z axis.


When the tool has touch Z axis, press OFFSET SETTING button. After press OFFSET SETTING button, press SETTING button follow by OFFSET and GEOMETRY button. Move the cursor to number 5 then insert the value of Z as Z0.0. Then press the measure button at the monitor.



Press HANDLE Z follows by HANDLE X until the tool touch the workpiece.


Press RESET button and then open the machines door. Measure the diameter of the workpiece using vernier caliper and then insert the value x using the reading value.


Procedure To Cut The Workpiece 1. Press RESET button follow by SINGLE BLOCK button. Then press the green button and off the SINGLE BLOCKbutton.





Press green button again and on the power, then cutting process start automatically. Get ready to press the EMERGENCY BUTTON if any accident or problem occurs. Wait until the cutting process at finishing step.


Off the power and press MANUAL MODE. Then open the machines door. Hold the workpiece and then press the CLAMP button again to open the clamp.

Procedure To Off The Machine 1. Press EDIT MODE then press the red button. Push the EMERGENCY STOP button



Off the main switch at the machine followed by main power.


Drawing in Inventor Software

3D Model


As a conclusion, I have learned a lot of things about this CNC turning machine. I knew how to handle this machine and its safety precautions. This machine is quite easy to handle and I very excited when handle it. This knowledge is very useful to me and I hope that I can apply it when I work one day.

REFERENCES 1. Bawa. (2004). Manufacturing Process 1. McGraw-Hill

2. Bawa. (2004). Manufacturing Process 2. McGraw-Hill 3. Che Abas Che Ismail (2000). Rekabentuk Pembuatan Terbantu Komputer, UTM 4. S. K. Krar, J.W.Oswald. (1976). Technology of Machine Tools, McGraw-Hill