Você está na página 1de 5

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, KL, MALAYSIA, March 2730, 2012 549

Estimation and Design of U-slot Physical Patch Parameters with Articial Neural Networks
D. Uzer1 , S. S. Gultekin1 , and O. Dundar2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Faculty of Engineering-Architecture, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey 2 Electronic Communication Program Eregli Kemal Akman Technical Vocational School of Higher Education Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey
1

Abstract In this study, physical U slot parameters of rectangular microstrip patch antennas as vertical and horizontal slot lengths and widths with the patch lengths and widths are determined by the help of Articial Neural Networks. The aim of the study is calculation of physical U slot patch parameters without any mathematical expressions or long and complex numeric calculations with a neural network model. Experimental results in the literature are used as the training data for the network by using Gradient Descent with Adaptive Learning Rate Back Propagation learning algorithm. The resonant frequency, dielectric constant of the substrate and the dielectric substrate thickness values are the inputs of the neural network and the patch length, patch width, the lengths and widths of the vertical and horizontal slots are the network outputs. The test output data of the network are used for simulations and the results are conrmed by these simulations. S11 responses, simulation frequency, impedance bandwidth, directivity, gain and radiation eciency values of the antennas are investigated by HFSS. Simulation results are compatible with test outputs. The high training success of the network and R2 values very close to 1 show that physical patch parameters of U-slot rectangular microstrip antennas can be calculated with this Articial Neural Network model with high accuracy. 1. INTRODUCTION

Thanks to their various advantages, microstrip antennas have large application elds, but their small bandwidths restrict them. In recent years, lots of studies have been presented and various methods that aimed larger bandwidths have been developed [13]. Etching U-slot on the patch is may be the simplest design [4, 5]. This design avoids the use of stacked or coplanar parasitic patches, either of which increases the thickness or the lateral size of the antenna. So, while changing the current distribution on the microstrip patch, enhancing the impedance bandwidth with sometimes more than one resonant frequency are obtained. In 1995, a broad band single layer probe fed patch antenna with a U-shaped slot was presented by Huynh and Lee and wideband impedance characteristics were obtained by cutting a U-slot on the surface of the rectangular patch in [4] and [5]. In this study, an Articial Neural Network was modeled with U-slot rectangular microstrip antenna parameters in the literature for calculation of their physical patch parameters. Then, with the Articial Neural Network results, experimental results from the literature are compared.
2. U-SLOT RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

Rectangular microstrip antenna is the easiest geometry for designing and implementation. It is shown that etching U slot on rectangular patches enhance the impedance bandwidth up to 47% [4, 5]. By etching U slot, the impedance seen from the feed point will be changed and realizing impedance matching a larger bandwidth will be obtained. Generally, the enhancement process is realized by obtaining more than one resonant frequency that radiates under 10 dB level [69]. The rst resonance frequency is understood to be generated by the microstrip patch due to the physical parameters, while the second one by the U-shaped slot parameters [4, 5]. The surface currents originate behind the U-slot, and are strong outside the U-slot arms [10]. The U-slot introduces a capacitance and induces a second resonance frequency near the main resonance frequency of the microstrip patch, producing an enhanced frequency response [9]. The basic U-slot rectangular microstrip patch antenna design can be seen in Figure 1. Here, L is the patch length, W is the patch width, F is the feed point, LS is the vertical slot length, WS is the horizontal slot length, tL and tW are slot widths in the vertical and horizontal, respectively.

550

PIERS Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA, March 2730, 2012

Figure 1: U-slot rectangular microstrip patch antenna.


Input Layer resonant frequency fr dielectric constant r substrate thickness h L W

. . .

Ls Ws tL tW

Hidden Layer

Output Layer

Figure 2: Articial neural network model for calculation of physical patch parameters.

3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

Articial Neural Networks (ANN) are articial systems based on vision and learning that are designed in a similar way to human brain working principle. Because of their parallel working ability, results can be produced quickly and they can give useful results for real time problem solution by learning from samples. In general, an ANN is considered as a complicated system developed by connecting simple processors with dierent eect layers or lots of neurons in human brain [1114]. Among them, multilayer perceptron (MLP) had been employed in this study for calculations of slot lengths and widths on a U-slot rectangular microstrip antenna. Gradient Descent with Adaptive Learning Rate Back Propagation (GDA) is a learning function which updates the weights and bias values according to the gradient descent with adaptive learning rate. An Adaptive Learning Rate can be whatever makes the learning stable. The learning rate should be considered as the main reason for the complexity on the local error surfaces [16]. It needs some changes while learning process with adaptive learning rate. First, outputs and biases whose initial values of the network are established and weight values are calculated again. After than new output values and errors are calculated. In case of using the momentum, if new error rate is larger than the error rate of the previous circle that dened before (generally 1.04), new weight and bias values will turn back to the preceding values. Also, the learning rate is decreased. For this aim, the learning coecient is generally multiple by 0.70 otherwise new weights and other values are hold. If the error is smaller than the older, the learning rate will be increased by multiplying the learning coecient by 1.05. In this learning rule, learning rate increases so large error variations should not be seen in the network. Thus, for local learning, an approximate optimum learning rate is determined. For larger learning rates in stable learning, the rate is increased.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, KL, MALAYSIA, March 2730, 2012 551 Table 1: ANN input and output test parameters with simulation results.
fr (GHz) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 3 3 3 3 5.8 5.8 5.8 0.9 5 Inputs fr HFSS(GHz) 1.863727 1.786774 1.976754 1.858918 2.045491 1.889178 1.821844 1.848297 1.863727 3.027054 3.465932 3.598196 2.343687 6.1183 4.546 3.854709 0.906313 4.744489 h (mn) 3.18 1.27 1.57 1.52 3.18 1.27 1.52 2.54 5 1.27 1.58 1.52 1.52 3.18 1.58 1.52 5 5 L (mm) 32.49 23.62 24.31 28.56 29.87 23.13 27.94 26.03 56.38 21.46 28.43 23.08 24.92 21.28 21.56 21.30 85.37 28.27 W (mm) 40.70 24.65 25.06 29.80 35.78 23.78 29.00 28.89 74.76 21.00 28.86 22.76 24.81 20.84 21.16 20.86 131.83 28.73 Outputs LS WS (mm) (mm) 18.95 12.78 13.30 16.40 17.13 12.43 15.95 14.51 36.25 11.24 16.36 12.44 13.79 11.10 11.30 11.12 55.23 16.23 15.57 10.68 10.92 12.70 14.09 10.42 12.42 11.97 27.48 9.56 12.48 10.23 11.00 9.50 9.61 9.50 44.71 12.42 tL (mm) 2.17 1.12 1.19 1.65 1.85 1.06 1.58 1.40 5.54 0.88 1.56 1.02 1.20 0.87 0.90 0.87 9.83 1.56 tW (mm) 2.00 1.07 1.16 1.68 1.73 1.01 1.61 1.33 4.12 0.82 1.72 1.03 1.27 0.79 0.82 0.79 6.34 1.70

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

r 6.15 6.15 4.5 3.5 6.15 6.15 3.5 10.2 1 6.15 2.33 3.5 3 4.1 2.33 3.5 1 1

Table 2: Comparison between the perfusion coecient (B) for the dierent tissues.
Data Number Train 37 Test 18 Structure 3996 Epoch Number 80.000 Performance 14.8764 Physical patch parameters ANN-GDA R2 W LS WS tL 0.9913 0.9405 0.9845 0.8379

L 0.9547

tW 0.9651

4. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS

Although there are some design procedures and equivalent circuit model determination studies for U-slot rectangular microstrip antennas recently, the current formulas are experiment based and take so long time, because of complex mathematical calculations they arent useful for the designers [9, 23]. In this study a solution to the above situation with an ANN model that calculates U-slot rectangular microstrip antenna patch parameters easy and fast was composed that seen in Figure 2. In the design process, dierent Matlab training algorithms like Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) [13 15], Gradient descent with momentum back propagation (GDM), Extended Delta-Bar-Delta (ED BD) [14], Gradient descent with adaptive learning rate back propagation (GDA), Gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back propagation (GDM), Scaled conjugate gradient back propagation (SCG) BFGS quasi-Newton back propagation (BFGS), Conjugate gradient back propagation with Polak-Ribiere (PR), One step secant back propagation (OSS) [28], etc. were used and GDA which gives the best results was chosen. For training ANN, 37 experimental data from the literature were used [4, 9, 1727]. After the network was trained, for fr , r and h inputs belong to 18 antenna, L, W, LS , WS , tL and tW patch parameters were obtained as the network outputs. The input and output parameters can be seen in Table 1. In Table 2 train algorithm structure was given with train R2 output values. In parameter producing with ANN r and h from input data were chosen between 110.2 and 1.275 mm, respectively considering the most common substrate materials used in the literature. In simulations, some antennas had only one resonant frequency, in spite of others had two or more. The bandwidths of the antennas were between 0.9% and 33.

552

PIERS Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA, March 2730, 2012

5. CONCLUSIONS

In this study patch parameters of U-slot rectangular microstrip antennas were determined by using experimental data in the literature in Articial Neural Networks. With these parameters the designed antennas were veried in simulation media and it was observed that the results were compatible with desired values. It can be said that the design model was successful for determining the U-slot antenna parameters due to the simulation results and high training success of the Articial Neural Network. In the future work, improving the network structure for getting better results is aimed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This study is supported by Scientic Research Project Oce of Selcuk University.


REFERENCES

1. Lee, R. Q., K. F. Lee, and J. Bobinchak, Characteristics of a two-layer electromagnetically coupled rectangular patch antenna, Electron. Lett., Vol. 23, No. 20, 10701072, 1987. 2. Fong, K. S., H. F. Pues, and M. J. Withers, Wideband multilayer coaxial fed microstrip antenna element, Electron. Lett., Vol. 21, No. 11, 497499, 1985. 3. Pues, H. G. and A. R. Van De Capelle, An impedance matching technique for increasing the bandwidth of microstrip antennas, IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Propa. Vol. 37, No. 11, 13451354, 1989. 4. Huynh, T. and K. F. Lee, Single-layer single-patch wideband microstrip antenna, Electron. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 16, 13101312, 1995. 5. Lee, K. F., K. M. Luk, L. Tongy, Y. L. Yung, and T. Huynh, Experimental study of the rectangular patch with a U shaped slot, IEEEIAP-S International Symposium Dig., 1013, 1996. 6. Kumar, G. and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, Waterhouse, R.B., 2002. 7. Uzer, D., Bandwidth enhancement techniques on microstrip antennas, Teknikleri, Doct. Seminar, Selcuk Uni. Gradu. Sch. of Nat. and App.Sci., Konya, Turkiye, 2010. 8. Uzer, D., Investigation on favorable methods for wideband microstrip patch antenna designs, geni s band, mikro S erit yama anten tasarimlari i cin uygun y ontemlerin ara stirilmasi, Ph.D. thesis, Selcuk Uni. Gradu. Sch. of Nat. and App. Sci., Konya, Turkiye, (in progress). 9. Weigand, S., G. H. Hu, K. H. Pan, and J. T. Bernhard, Analysis and design of broad-band single-layer rectangular U-slot microstrip patch antennas, IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. 51, No. 3, 457468, Mar. 2003. 10. Tong, K. F., K. M. Luk, and K. F. Lee, Design of a broadband U-slot patch antenna on a microwave substrate, Asia Pacic Microwave Conference, 221224, 1997. 11. Rumelhart, D. E. and J. L. McClelland, Parallel Distributed Processing, Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986. 12. Haykin, S., Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, Macmillan College Publishing Company, 1994. 13. Levenberg, K., A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares, The Quart. Appl. Math, Vol. 2, 164168, 1944. 14. Minai, A. and R. D. Williams, Acceleration of backpropagation through learning rate and momentum adaptation, Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks, Vol. 1, 676679, 1990. 15. Marquardt, D., An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters, SIAM J. Appl. Math., Vol. 11, 431441, 1963. 16. Hagan, M. T., H. B. Demuth, and M. Beale, Neural Network Design, Boston PWS Publishing Company, 1996. 17. Choltiar, E., V. Nalarajan, and D. Chatterjee, Comparison of resonant frequency calculations for wideband U-slot antennas on microwave substrates, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Vol. 4, Nos. 2025, 137133716, Jun. 2004. 18. Khodaei, G. F., J. Nourinia, and C. Ghobadi, A practical miniaturized U-slot patch antenna with enhanced bandwidth, Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 3, 4762, 2008. 19. Houari, O., Wireless Sensor Systems Design Course Book, 1320, University of South Florida, Tennessee Technological University, Spring, 2001.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, KL, MALAYSIA, March 2730, 2012 553

20. Zhang, S., G. Hu, and T.J. Bernhard, Antenna eciency and gain of two new compact microstrip antennas, Proc. Antenna Applications Symposium, 108116, Allerton Park, Monticello, Illinois, 2001. . 21. Clenet, M. and L. Shafai, Multiple resonances and polarization of U-slot patch antenna, Electron. Lett., Vol. 35, No. 2, 101103, 1999. 22. Lee, K. F., S. Lung, S. Yang, A. A. Kishk, and K. M. Lu, The versatile U-slot patch antenna, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 52, No. 1, 7188, Feb. 2010. 23. Bhalla, R. and L. Shafai, Resonance behavior of single U-slot microstrip patch antenna, Microwa. and Optic. Techn. Lett., Vol. 32, No. 5, 333335, Mar. 5, 2002. 24. Mahmoud, M., Improving the bandwidth of U-slot microstrip antenna using a new technique (trough-slot patch), IEEE Region 5 Conference, 16, Kansas City, MO, Apr. 1720, 2008. 25. Lee, K. F., K. M. Luk, K. F. Tong, S. M. Shum, T. Huynh, and R. Q. Lee, Experimental and simulation studies of the coaxially fed U-slot rectangular patch antenna, IEE Proc. Microw Antennas Propag., Vol. 144, No. 5, 354358, Oct. 1997. 26. Shackelford, A. K., K. F. Lee, and K. M. Luk, Design of small-size wide-bandwidth microstrippatch antennas, IEEE Anten. and Propa. Mag., Vol. 45, No. 1., 7583, Feb. 2003. 27. Tong, K. F., K. M. Luk, K. F. Lee, and S. M. Shum, Analysis of broadband u-slot microstrip antenna, 10th International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Conference Publication, No. 436, 1.101.13, Apr. 1417, 1997. 28. MATLAB 7.04, http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/. 29. HFSS v 12., http://www.ansoft.com/products/hf/hfss.