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INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CARE AND OPERATION OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZEDBED BOILER (CFB)

FOREWORD
The instructions are to be used as a guide for operational reference and should not take the place of Boiler Operation Specifications. These instructions are issued for the purpose of assisting operators in obtaining the best possible results of HANGZHOU BOILER GROUP CO.,LTD(HBG) equipment. The instructions can only supplement the experience and judgment of those in charge of operation. They should be interpreted and applied after due consideration for the requirements of other equipment and for any particular set of circumstances. These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met in conjunction with operation and /or maintenance. The recommendations contained in these instructions are issued by HBG based upon the knowledge and experience representing our best judgment at the time of issuance. In offering these instructions for pre-operation, operation, maintenance and safety, HBG assumes no responsibility for any failure or incident resulted from incorrect operations. The instructions involve quite a number of HBGs technology, Without permission, no one that is not involved in this Project is allowed to make any copy of these Instructions.

Contents
FOREWORD...............................................................................................................................2

1.CONSTRUCTION DESCRIPTION OF BOILER PROPER.....................................6


1.1.Design Conditions.................................................................................................................6 1.1.1.Boiler Specifications:.................................................................................................6 1.1.2.Boiler Main Dimensions............................................................................................6 1.1.3.Fuel.............................................................................................................................6 1.1.4.Optimum Size distribution for coal (shown in fig 1-1)Ash Analysis........................7 1.1.5.Limestone...................................................................................................................7 1.1.6.Sand............................................................................................................................8 1.1.7.Igniter Type................................................................................................................9 1.1.8.Igniting Oil.................................................................................................................9 1.1.9.Feedwater Quality......................................................................................................9 1.1.10.make-up water........................................................................................................10 1.1.11.boiler water.............................................................................................................10 1.1.12.Site Conditions:......................................................................................................11 1.1.13.Operation Mode......................................................................................................11 1.1.14.Draft Mode.............................................................................................................11 1.2.GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BOILER..........................................................................11 1.3.GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOILER............................................................13 1.3.1.Steam and Water Flow.............................................................................................13 1.3.2.Air and Gas Flow.....................................................................................................15 1.3.3.Combustion Process.................................................................................................16 1.3.4.Economizer...............................................................................................................17 1.3.5.Steam Drum and Drum Internals.............................................................................17 1.3.6.Furnace.....................................................................................................................19 1.3.7.Cyclone Inlet circuit.................................................................................................21 1.3.8.Cyclone.....................................................................................................................21 1.3.9.Heat Recovery Area (HRA).....................................................................................22 1.3.10.Low temp. superheater...........................................................................................23 1.3.11.Primary Attemperator.............................................................................................23 1.3.12.Superheater Wing Wall...........................................................................................23 1.3.13.Secondary Attemperator.........................................................................................24 1.3.14.High Temp. Superheater.........................................................................................24 1.3.15.Air Preheater..........................................................................................................24 1.4.FUEL, LIMESTONE AND ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS................................................25 1.5.CIRCULATING SOLIDS REINJECTION SYSTEM.......................................................25 1.6.UNDER-BED BURNER....................................................................................................25 1.7.BOILER PROPER STEEL STRUCTURE.........................................................................26 1.8.OPERATING PHILOSOPHY.............................................................................................26 1.9.EXPANSION SYSTEM......................................................................................................27 1.10.WATER VOLUMES OF MAJOR BOILER PARTS:.......................................................29

2.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PREPARATION FOR OPERATION....................30


2.1.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS.................................................................................................30 2.2.HYDROSTATIC TESTS.....................................................................................................33 2.3.DRYING OUT REFRACTORY.........................................................................................37 2.4.BOILING OUT...................................................................................................................38 2.4.1.General.....................................................................................................................38 2.4.2.Recommended Chemicals for Boiling Out..............................................................39 2.4.3.Preparations for Boiling Out....................................................................................40 2.4.4.Boiling Out Procedure..............................................................................................43 2.5.FEEDWATER AND BOILER WATER TREATMENT.....................................................45 2.6.CHEMICAL CLEANING OF ECONOMIZER AND STEAM GENERATING CIRCUITS ...............................................................................................................................45 2.6.1.General.....................................................................................................................45 2.6.2.Determining the Need for Chemical Cleaning........................................................46 2.6.3.Solvent Systems.......................................................................................................47 2.6.4.General Cleaning Operations...................................................................................48 2.7.CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SUPERHEATERS.............................................................49 2.7.1.General.....................................................................................................................49 2.8.STEAM-LINE BLOWING.................................................................................................50 2.8.1.General.....................................................................................................................50 2.8.2.Initial condition........................................................................................................51 2.8.3.Precaution and matters need attention.....................................................................51 2.8.4.Procedure of steam purging.....................................................................................52 2.8.5.Return to the raw condition......................................................................................53 2.9.BOILER SYSTEM AIR TEST...........................................................................................54

3.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE......................................................................55


3.1.GENERAL..........................................................................................................................55 3.2.GENERAL PRECAUTIONS..............................................................................................55 3.3.COLD START-UP PROCEDURE ................................................................................62 3.3.1.Preparation Prior to Start-up....................................................................................62 3.3.2.Purging.....................................................................................................................66 3.3.3.Warming The Unit....................................................................................................70 3.3.4.Start-up (Fuel Firing)...............................................................................................73 3.4.HOT RESTART .................................................................................................................77 3.5.NORMAL OPERATION....................................................................................................80 3.5.1.Firing........................................................................................................................80 3.5.2.Water Chemistry and Steam Purity..........................................................................82 3.5.3.SootBlowing.............................................................................................................82 3.5.4.Spray Attemperation ................................................................................................84 3.6.NORMAL SHUTDOWN....................................................................................................84 3.7.EMERGENCIES.................................................................................................................87 3.7.1.Main Fuel Trip (MFT)..............................................................................................87 4

3.7.1.1.Any of the following conditions will cause a boiler main fuel trip (MFT)..88 3.7.2.Emergency Operating Procedures............................................................................89 3.7.2.1.Tube Leak .....................................................................................................89 3.7.2.2.Excessive Bed Temperatures........................................................................90 3.7.2.3.Clinkered Bed................................................................................................91 3.7.3.Overpressure Protection...........................................................................................92 3.8.MAINTENANCE................................................................................................................92

4Figure..................................................................................................................95
Fig1-1 Optimum size distribution for coal ............................................................................95 Fig1-2 Sectional side elevation of boiler................................................................................97 Fig1-3 Steam and water diagram of boiler.............................................................................98 Fig1-4 Gas and air diagram of boiler......................................................................................99 Fig1-6 Arrangement of downcomers....................................................................................101 Fig2-1 The boiling out pressure for different design pressure.............................................102 Fig3-1 Oxygen measurement of approximately % by volume on a wet basis.....................103 Fig3-2 Relationship between bed pressure and fluidizing velocity ...................................104 Fig3-3 The minimum steam temperature after spray...........................................................105 Fig3-4 Relationship between bed pressure and height of static bed material......................106 Fig3-5 Cold start curve ..........................................................................................107 Fig3-8JValve Piping Connection Drawing........................................................................110

5Table..................................................................................................................111
Table 1 Thermodynamic Calculation Collecting Table for Coal rank COAL2 in Boiler Design ..................................................................................................................................................111 Table 2. Boiler check coal rank COAL1 thermodynamic calculation collection table..........115 Table 3. Boiler check coal rank COAL3 thermodynamic calculation collection table..........119 Table 4. Flue Gas and Air Resistance Collection Table.........................................................122 Table 5. Steam water Resistance Collection Table................................................................122

1.CONSTRUCTION DESCRIPTION OF BOILER PROPER


NG-130/10-M boiler is designed and manufactured for Siam Kraft Industry Co., Ltd of Thailand. The Boiler is a single furnace of coal-fired, outdoor, complete steel structures, full membraned water cooling wall, circulating fluidized bed combustion, high temperature steam-cooled volute type cyclone Separator for gas solid separation, water circulation in natural way and flue gas system of balance ventilation.

1.1. Design Conditions 1.1.1.Boiler Specifications:


Maximum Steam Flow Superheat Steam Outlet Temperature Superheat Steam Outlet Pressure Feedwater Temperature Ambient Air temperature 130t/h 510 +5-10 100bar(g) 170 30

1.1.2.Boiler Main Dimensions


Furnace Width (Between CL of Side Walls) Furnace Depth (Between CL of Front & Rear Walls) Elevation of Steam Drum CL Elevation of Boiler Top(Front/Rear) Boiler Width (Z1 to Z1 Opposite) Boiler Depth (Z1 to Z4) 7200mm 4480mm 39200mm 38040/43200mm 10000mm 17860mm

1.1.3.Fuel
The boiler combusts with Coal 1 (Jorong Coal) Coal 2 (Banpu Coal) or
Coal 3 (Sub-bituminous coal), and boiler performance with coal 2 shall be analyzed separately with tests.

Ultimate Analysis (wt. % as received) Symbol Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Car Har Oar Nar Design fuel coal2 62.21 4.08 6.09 1.01
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Check fuel coal1 48.73 3.53 14.03 0.48

Check fuel coal3 62.74 4.76 8.89 1.02

Sulfur Ash Moisture

Sar Aar War

0.72 13.89 13.89

0.11 3.11 30

1.32 10.25 11

Proximate Analysis of the Coals (wt. % air dry) Design fuel coal2 40 5831 Check fuel coal1 51.2 4269 Check fuel coal3 40 6024

Volatile Matter (%) LHV (Kcal/kg)

1.1.4.

Optimum Size distribution for coal (shown in fig 1-1) Ash

Analysis
Without limestone ITEMS Ash softening point, reducing conditions SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO K2O Na2O SO3 TiO2 P2O5 Units Design fuel

Check fuel coal1 1200 31.6 37.21 12.87 9.07 1.12 0.89 0.27 4.33 0.48 0.05

Check fuel coal3 1200 49 37.7 4.5 2.2 1.6 0.5 0.4 1.2 2.7 0.2

coal2 1200 46.68 36.19 5.88 1.4 3.3 0.43 0.49 2.04 2.67 0.8

% % % % % % % % % %

1.1.5.Limestone
a. Limestone analysis (before calcined) Item Unit Design date

CaCO3

90

MgCO3 Moisture Inert Reactivity index b. Optimum size distribution for limestone
- 100% - 80% - 50% - 10% < < < < 750 500 300 150 um um um um

% % % /

3.0 0.2 1.0 high

1.1.6.Sand
Natural sand (feldspar) is used for start-up and make-up bed material. The typical analysis is as follows: Item SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O H2O loss of ignition Density Softening point Optimum Size distribution for Inert
Particle size distribution Weight 100% 75% 50% 25 % 100 % Unit m m m m m Size <1000 <450 <350 <250 >100

Unit
% % % % % % % % % kg/m3 C

Data 82.2 9.7 1.8 1.2 0.4 1.9 2.8 0.1 0.95 1500 1200

1.1.7.Igniter Type
under-bed Igniter (burner).

1.1.8.Igniting Oil
Unit Fuel As-Received Type Net calorific value MJ/kg Total moisture % Analysis of dry solids (%-weight) Carbon, C % Hydrogen, H % Oxygen, O % Nitrogen, N % Sulfur, S % Ash % Specific weight, at kg/m3 15C Viscosity, at 20 C mm2/s Design light oil 42.60 0.05 86.08 13.71 0.02 0.02 0.15 0.02 855 5.9 Range

42.6-42.9 0.0-0.05

0.01-0.02 0.05-0.15 835-855 3-6

1.1.9.Feedwater Quality
Be in compliance with Requirement of High pressure water Quality in the Quality Standards of Water and Steam for Thermal Power and Steam Generating Units (GB12145). Parameter Hardness oxygen,O2 total iron,Fe copper, Cu Na content SiO2 content Units mol/L g/L g/L g/L g/L / Results 2.0 7 30 5 / should satisfy with steam requirement:20g/kg 8.8-9.3 10-50

pH(250C) Hydrazine

/ g/L

Oil

mg/L

0.3

feedwater is used for spray control of steam temperature,the feedwater TDS must not exceed 1 ppm. TDS:mean total dissolved solids.

1.1.10. make-up water


Be in compliance with Requirement of High pressure water Quality in the Quality Standards of Water and Steam for Thermal Power and Steam Generating Units (GB12145). Parameter
Hardness SiO2 content conductivity(25 C)
0

Units
mol/L g/L S/cm

Results
0 20 0.2

1.1.11. boiler water


Be in compliance with Requirement of High pressure water Quality in the Quality Standards of Water and Steam for Thermal Power and Steam Generating Units (GB12145). Parameter Total salt content SiO2 content PO34- content pH(250C) conductivity(250C) Units mg/L mg/L mg/L / S/cm Results 100 2.00 2-10 9.0-10.5 <150

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1.1.12. Site Conditions:


Site Elevation above sea level Ambient air Pressure Temperature, average Temperature, minimum Temperature, maximum Air temperature for boiler efficiency calculations Relative Humidity Performance design Minimum Maximum Wind Analysis Maximum Wind Speed Wind direction Maximum precipitation Over 1 day period Seismic intensity Field Classification m kPa C C C C % % % m/s / mm / 10 101.3 30 21 38 30 70 60 80 20 NE and SW 80 Grade 6 Grade II

1.1.13. Operation Mode


Constant or various pressure operation mode and the load change rate may be greater than or equal to 7%/min.

1.1.14. Draft Mode


Balanced draft and pressure balance point is located at outlet of furnace (inlet of cyclone separator).

1.2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BOILER


This steam generator is a natural circulation, circulating fluidized bed boiler and out-door arrangement. The steam generator consists of a water-cooled furnace enclosure, two (2) steam-cooled cyclone enclosures and one back pass

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convective cage. The furnace and back pass cage are rectangular in plan view while each cyclone is circular. In the upper furnace, there are uniformly two (2) superheater wing wall across the furnace width. The back pass cage is made up of two parts, the upper part is a steam-cooled convective heat recovery area (HRA) enclosure, the lower part is a steel plate casing structure. the HRA contains high temp. and low temp. superheaters, the casing structure contains economizer and air preheater. Between the low temp. superheater, superheater wing wall and high temp. superheater there are two (2) stages water spray

attemperators to control final superheater steam temperature. Fig. 12 consists of a sectional side elevation of boiler. The elevation sketch locates the major steam generating components and structural dimensions. Heat to generate steam comes from the fluidized bed system. Initially combusted bed materials are forced by flue gas upward through the furnace and exit at the top to the two (2) steam-cooled cyclone separators. Coarse hot bed material is separated from the flue gas in the cyclones and sent back to the furnace via J-valves connected to the bottom of the cyclones. The hot bed material re-enters the furnace just above the grid plate to complete the circulation cycle combustion. Flue gas exits via the outlet at the top of the cyclones and enters the HRA through a gas screen near the top of the HRA front wall. After flowing down the HRA, heating the HRA walls and components, the hot gas leaves the steam generator through airpreheater via the flue near the bottom of the HRA enclosure. The circulating fluidized bed boiler is supported by other system,
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including fuel and limestone feed systems, bottom ash drain cooler and conveyer system, air and gas systems, control and

instrumentation systems.

1.3. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOILER 1.3.1.Steam and Water Flow


Fig. 1 3 shows that the steam generating circuitry consists of economizer, one drum, furnace waterwalls, steam-cooled cyclone inlet sections, steam-cooled cyclone separators, HRA steam enclosure, low temp. superheater, superheater wing wall, high temp. superheater and the piping. Feedwater enters the economizer located in HRA through the lower economizer inlet header (EL. 17700) located right side of the HRA enclosure. The feedwater rises through four (4) serial-connected banks of horizontal economizer tubes and is directed through an outlet header and then through three 1088 economizer pipes to the steam drum. During start-up, when there is no feedwater flow to the drum, one economizer recirculating system is provided to prevent the stagnant water in tube steaming by recirculating drum water via the downcomer to the pipes connected ahead of the economizer inlet header. The feedwater forms a water reservoir in the drum which is connected to the lower inlet headers of the furnace walls via two (2) drum downcomers and feeder tubes. The water flows upward through the furnace wall tubes while being heated to a steam/water mixture; the mixture then leaves through the furnace walls upper outlet headers and re-enters the drum through riser tubes. The

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steam drum separates the water from the entering steam/water mixture and directs it back to the drum water reservoir for recirculation to the furnace walls. The separated steam is dried and flows out the steam lines at the top of the drum. From the drum, the steam flows separately through two (2) 15912 steam supply pipes to inlet headers of both side flue gas inlet circuits, steam flows through the inlet circuits downwards into lower outlet header, then steam is gathered into the upper ring header of left cyclone via individual two(2) 15912 pipes, Flow through the left cyclone circular wall is downwards into the lower ring header. Then the flow is directed through four (4) 15912 transfer pipes to the lower ring inlet header of the right cyclone enclosure, upwards into upper ring header of right cyclone and finally four (4 ) 15912 transfer pipes carry the steam to the HRA front wall upper inlet header at elevation of 40900. Flow in the HRA is down through the HRA front wall up through both HRA side walls and then through the roof and down the HRA rear wall. Steam leaves at elevation 29930 the HRA rear wall lower header which also serves as the low temp. superheater inlet header, steam flow through the horizontal low temp. superheater tubes which is in an upward direction counter to the flow of hot flue gas in the HRA then to the low temp. superheater outlet header at elevation of 31440. From only left ends of low temp. superheater outlet heater, steam flow via one (1) 27320 transfer pipes which involve the

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primary spray attemperators is directed to furnace front wall superheater wing wall inlet header at elevation 17960. From the inlet distributing header, the steam flows into two (2) upper furnace superheater wing walls. Then through the superheater wing wall outlet distributing headers at elevation 36200 the steam flows into superheater wing wall outlet header. Between this header and high temp. superheater inlet header located at HRA rear wall at elevation 32710, there is one (1) 32525 transfer pipes which involve the secondary spray attemperator. Steam flow through the horizontal high temp. superheater tubes is also in an upward direction to the high temp. superheater outlet header at elevation 35710, finally the satisfied main steam through six(6) 13313 tranfer pipes is gathered into the main steam contain header, and main steam leaves the unit on the left side of boiler.

1.3.2.Air and Gas Flow


Circulation of the fluidized bed material is initiated and maintained by forced draft (FD) fans ( including primary and secondary fans) and one induced draft (ID) fan. Initially heated by air-preheater, combustion air from primary fan is divided into three (3) paths. The first is introduced into the plenum at the bottom of the furnace and fluidizes the bed material through nozzles in the grid floor and establishes solids circulation upwards through the furnace. In this line, there are parallelly connected air bypass for boiler igniting startup and low load stable fuel oil burner, The second is introduced to three(3) air swept coal feeders to assist in transporting fuel into furnace. The third is employed as sealing air for coal conveying belt. However, the combustion air from the secondary FD fan is heated by

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air-preheater and directed into furnace through secondary wind box at upper furnace. The flue gas and entrained solids exit the furnace, through two (2) cyclone inlet circuits, to the two (2) cyclones where coarse solids are separated from the gas stream which exits the top of each cyclone. From the cyclones, the flue gas flows down through the HRA and passes over the horizontal convection surfaces. Having given up its heat to the steam circuits in the HRA, the gas passes through the tubular air preheater and enters the ESP for removal of fine particulate. The cooled dust-free gas is then exhausted through the ID fan to the stack for release to atmosphere. The air and gas flow paths through the steam generator are shown in Fig. 14. For J-valve, there are two (2) blowers each is for 100% capacity. one (1) of the blowers are in operation and one stands-by. Excess air is directed through by-pass line to the first path of primary air since each J-valve blower is constant volume device. Dampers are provided throughout the air and gas flow system to obtain proper control, shut-off and isolation during operation and shutdown.

1.3.3.Combustion Process
After the bed is initially charged, the under-bed burners are fired, during a cold start-up, to preheat combustion air to the ignition point of solid fuel. After entering the plenum, the air enters the fluidized bed through an air distribution grid plate. This grid plate consists of bell-shaped air nozzles inserted on the fins of a water-cooled grid floor. The nozzles provide a uniform distribution of air throughout the bed. The layer of refractory casting between the top of the grid plate
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and the ends of the nozzles provides an anti-corrosion and insulation layer which results in a lower grid plate operation temperature. Within the fluidized bed, air mixes with the fuel and limestone products to facilitate combustion and sulfur capture. Solids, swept up in the furnace by air and flue gas, exit through furnace rear wall openings and enter the cyclones. The coarser particles are separated in each cyclone for reinjection to the furnace. NOx formation is controlled and furnace temperature is properly maintained due to staged combustion. introducing a portion of the air to burn the fuel in lower furnace and completing combustion in upper furnace by introducing the remaining air as overfire air

1.3.4.Economizer
The economizer located in HRA consists of four (4) banks of 324 bare 20G tubes with an in-line arrangement on 90 longitudinal spacing,. The first bank is 38 sections in wide direction with on 82 transversal spacing, which has four loop-in-loop tubes. The other banks are 46 sections in wide direction with on 68 transversal spacing, which have three loop-in-loop tubes. The economizer has one inlet, one intermediate and one outlet header (each 219 OD). Feedwater enters the right side lower inlet header at the elevation of 17700 and flows upward through the outlet header at the elevation of 28640, and is piped into the steam drum.

1.3.5.Steam Drum and Drum Internals


The steam drum is located at the top and across the width of the furnace. the steam drum serves as a water reservoir for the steam generation circuits. The drum contains steam separating equipment

17

and internal piping for distribution of chemicals to the water, for distribution of feedwater and for blowdown of the water. Fig. 1 5shows the arrangement of the steam internal components. Inner diameter of drum is 1600mm, length of straight drum body is 8.4m (excluding spherical end plate). The inner equipment is as following: Cyclone separators ----- total 32 sets in two rows in-line arranged. corrugated moisture separators ---- total 21 sets. Steel wire mesh separators ----total 21 sets. Cleaning orifice ---- total 21 pieces. Feedwater inlet pipe ---- feedwater pipe is evenly introduced into drum along drum body axially. Continuous blowdown pipe ---- lacunaris, confluxed to two outlet pipes to be drained. Dosing pipe ---- lacunaris, confluxed to one outlet pipes in the middle of drum. The arc plate are mounted along whole straight section of drum, forming a casing space at two sides of drum. Steam mixture introduced from furnace rises enters the casing, and then goes into cyclone separator for primary separation: separated water goes along wall through discharge outlet into water space; while steam flows up through cyclone separator top corrugated sheet separator into steam space, and then through cleaning orifice, finally it is educed via steam connecting pipe at the top of drum through wire mesh separator and corrugated sheet separator. Water from economizer flows to cleaning orifice plate through feedwater pipe and then into water space for next primary circulating.

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1.3.6.Furnace
The furnace is a 28770 high7200 wide4480 deep combustion chamber consisting of front, rear and side walls. At the bottom of the furnace, the rear wall splits to form both the plenum floor and the fluidized bed grid floor, together with both side walls, they form the water-cooled air plenum, the bottom of which is at the elevation of 3880. The elevation of the grid floor is 5980. At the top of furnace, the front wall bends toward the rear wall to form the furnace roof which terminates with an upper header. The elevation of the furnace top is 36100. two (2) rear wall lower headers at the bottom of furnace ( elevation 3880, 4780) serve also as inlet headers for the plenum and grid floors ( formed by the rear wall tubes). There are one (1) front wall upper headers and one (1) rear wall upper headers, all located at elevation 36100. There are one (1) lower headers and one (1) upper headers for each side wall , the lower headers of which are at elevation 3480, the upper headers are at 35700. The furnace is divided into upper part and lower part and the border of the division is at elevation 12792.2. The longitudinal section view of lower furnace is trapezoid shaped as the front and rear walls intersect with the horizontal plane at a angle of 80 . The furnace depth, at elevation 5980 where the grid floor is located, is 2200. Wearproof material layers of 55 mm thickness are made to water wall of furnace combustion area, and also made to rear wall, side walls, roof tubes, all area near the gas outlet of upper furnace. The drum water is connected to the circuitry via downcomer. Fig. 1 6shows the arrangement of downcomers. The tube spacing for front wall (and roof), rear wall and side walls is

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80 ( 605 tubes). Front wall and rear wall are each comprised of 89 tubes, side walls are each comprised of 56 tubes. The grid floor is made of 44 riffled tubes (63.5X7.5) with tube spacing of 160. The plenum floor is comprised of 44 finned tubes (605) with tube spacing of160. The furnace waterwall inlet and outlet headers are all 21930, 20G. Cross section ratios of inlet pipe, outlet pipe and riser of each circuit are indicated in the following table. Cross section ratios of downcomer and furnace water wall riser is 0.295. Name Cross section ratio of inlet pipe vs. furnace water wall riser 0.344 0.344 0.365 Cross section ratio of outlet pipe vs. furnace water wall riser 0.401 0.401 0.365

Front water wall Rear water wall Side water wall

Three (3) fuel feed points are provided on the front wall of the furnace approximately 1200 above the grid floor. Two (2) limestone feed points are located respectively within the front and rear wall 8420 above the grid floor. Secondary air ports are arranged in two layers on the furnace front wall and rear wall as follows:
Furnace Wall Location Quantity Elevation

Front Wall Rear Wall Front Wall Rear Wall Rear Wall

10 9 6 4 6

12080 12080 8420 9880 8420

There are two(2) normal exkaust and one(1) emergency openings located on the water grid floor, the two(2) bottom ash coolers are connected to normal exhaust opening, ash coolers drain cooled ash at the 1700 elevation, the emergency ash drain pipe(21910) outlet
20

is at the 1000 elevation. Two (2) flue gas outlets center line is at the 32200 elevation near the top of the rear wall.

1.3.7.Cyclone Inlet circuit


There are two (2) cyclone inlet circuits. Each cyclone inlet circuit connects the rear wall flue gas outlet of the furnace to a corresponding cyclone and is shaped to form a wide gas-tight tunnel through which the flue gas can travel. Each cyclone inlet circuit consists of steam cooled, refractory lined tubes, connected by a lower header and an upper header at elevation 34465 and 29930 respectively. There are total 26 tubes, 13 on each side per each cyclone inlet circuit. The tubes are 20G515 and the inlet and outlet headers are 20G 21930. Steam from the drum is connected respectively by two (2) 15912 transfer pipes to the inlet header of each cyclone inlet circuit. Steam then flows down through the tubes of each circuit, in parallel fashion, to the outlet headers which are connected to the left-hand cyclone upper inlet ring header by transfer pipes.

1.3.8.Cyclone
Two (2) identical cyclones separate coarse particles from furnace flue gas sending the fines out of the top into the HRA and allowing the coarser particles to fall down corresponding J-valves for recirculation back to the furnace. The top half of the cyclone is volute shaped and the lower half is conical (funnel shaped). The flue gas outlet are made of many pieces, which shaped altogether to form an open ended cylinder extending nearly half way down into the center of the cyclone. The
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fines and flue gas enter the bottom of the cylinder and flow up to exit the cyclone. The coarse particles drop down into the funnel which is directly connected to the J-valve. The entire cyclone enclosure is steam cooled and is of membrane wall construction with a ring header at the bottom and a ring header at the top. The wall tubes bend inward at the top to form a seal between the cyclone tubes and the flue gas outlet cylinder. Each cyclone consists of 114 tubes (426). Each ring header is 273 O.D.

1.3.9.Heat Recovery Area (HRA)


The heat recovery area (HRA) means back pass cage, which is an approximately 6295 wide3025deep convection heat enclosure of membrane wall and ends at the approximately 29930 elevation, below which the remainder of the HRA is constructed of steel plate. A flue gas outlet is at the elevation of 6700, the bottom of the HRA is formed into an ash hopper which allows a portion of the particles to drop down before entering ESP and decreases the gas solids concentration. The HRA houses the horizontal banks of convection economizer, low temp. superheater and high temp. super-heater tube surfaces. All four walls are connected by inlet and outlet header. The HRA front wall tube spacing increases from 95 to 285 near the top to form an inlet screen for flue gas. The HRA rear wall tubing bends toward the front wall near the top of the wall to form the HRA roof tubes. The front and rear walls are each comprised of 65 tubes (425, and the 14 support tubes in the front wall screen are6011) and each side wall is comprised of 32 tubes (425). The HRA front wall upper header is 273X36,20G, low temp. superheater outlet header l is
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273X20,12Cr1MoVG, high temp. superheater inlet header l is325X25,12Cr1MoVG, high temp. superheater outlet header l is273X36,12Cr1MoVG, while other HRA superheater headers are 219X30,20G.

1.3.10. Low temp. superheater


The low temp. superheater is located in the HRA and the inlet header is at 29930 elevation, and consists of 16 loops of 2 loop-in-loop horizontal tubes (42X5 ) arranged in 65 sections across the width of the unit, in counter to the gas flow. Along the steam flow, the first 8 loops are of 20G tubes, the other 8 loops are of 15CrMoG tubes. The low temp. superheater outlet header ( 12Cr1MoVG, 27320) is located near the HRA rear wall at the 31440 elevation.

1.3.11. Primary Attemperator


The primary spray water attemperator is located in the steam transfer pipe between the low temp. superheater outlet header and superheater wing wall inlet header. The attemperator is equipped with a mixing liner and spray water piping. The liner is installed at downstream of the spray piping to protect the attemperator shell from thermal shock. Instrumentation are installed in spray water piping to measure the temperature before and after the attemperator to control the water flow entering attemperator.

1.3.12. Superheater Wing Wall


There are two (2) pieces of wing wall arranged at upper furnace near the front wall. The wing wall is membrane wall construction with tube spacing of 63.5. Each piece consists of 25 tubes( 12Cr1MoV, 427). Below elevation 20540, wing wall is refractory lined. The

23

whole wing wall expands upward. An outlet header ( 32525) is located at the elevation 36200.

1.3.13. Secondary Attemperator


The secondary spray water attemperator is arranged in the steam transfer pipe between the wing wall outlet header and the high temp. superheater inlet header located at the HRA rear wall. The superheated steam temperature is further controlled in the secondary attemperator. The construction of secondary attemperator is basically the same as the primary attemperator.

1.3.14. High Temp. Superheater


Steam from the secondary attemperator flows through transfer pipe into the high temp. superheater located at upper HRA gas flue. The steam is introduced into one ends of high temp. superheater inlet header at the elevation 32710 and counter flow with the gas through the high temperature superheater loops into high temp. superheater outlet header located at the elevation 35710, and then gather to the main steam pipe via transfer pipes. The high temp. superheater contains 20 loops of 2 loop-in-loop tubes (42X6). The whole loops are 12Cr1MoVG tubes. There are 65 sections across the width of the HRA.

1.3.15. Air Preheater


The air preheater is of three circuits installed vertically behind the HRA. The primary and secondary tube boxes are stagger-arranged, the upper circuits are common 401.5 carbon steel tubes and the lower circuit is vitreous enamel steel tube. The horizontal and

24

longitudinal spacing of the windbox are 65. Each three tube-groups is connected by air duct to form independent paths. Primary and secondary air are supplied by independent fan and directed through the two air ducts and heated by flue gas which flows intersect with the air. The primary and secondary air flow ratio is 52% and 48% of total combustion air. The air temperature at the outlets is 185 .

1.4. FUEL, LIMESTONE AND ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS


Three (3) coal feed systems located at furnace front wall, Two (2) limestone feed points located respectively at furnace front and rear wall, two biomass gas gun located in lower secondary air ports, one(1) inert material accession port located at the left of furnace. A spent bed (ash) removal system is connected to the bottom ash cooler outlet, the air preheater ash drain and the ESP ash drain.

1.5. CIRCULATING SOLIDS REINJECTION SYSTEM


This system is used to reinject heavy circulation solids particles from the cyclone back into the furnace. It consists of two (2) J-valves(trap) connected between the solids outlets of the cyclones and the solids inlets on the furnace rear wall. Each J-valve utilizes the bed material exiting the J-valve stand pipe to seal the trap. This trap maintains proper flow direction of the circulation bed towards the furnace with the motive force of the difference pressure between upward and downward stream of the trap. The air is supplied by high pressure blower.

1.6. UNDER-BED BURNER


two oil burners for start up is provided on both side of air plenum below the grid floor. Combusted hot gas heats the primary air to 870 which in turn heats bed material through air distribution air
25

nozzles to ignition temperature. The burner utilizes mechanic oil atomizing gun to get good combustion to prevent nozzle damage resulted from oil re-burn in the air distribution device. Oil consumption of each oil gun is 480kg/h; oil pressure is 1.96Mpa at burner inlet. When oil is already fired air flow for each gun burning is at least 9000Nm3/h. High energy ignitor and flame scanner is provided for the burner.

1.7. BOILER PROPER STEEL STRUCTURE


The boiler steel structure is welded connection type and out-door arrangement. There are eight (8) main columns for boiler supporting. The columns are connected to the base-work foundation at the elevation of +200mm by anchor bolts. Horizontal beams and vertical supports are provided between columns to withstand the loads of boiler proper, wind and earthquake. The major pressure parts of the boiler except steam drum are hung by hangers from the top steel. Steam drum and other components of the boiler, such as economizer, air preheater, under-bed burner, loopseal, etc. are all stand on horizontal beams by supporting or reinforcements.Platforms and stairs are provided where maintenance or inspection is needed during boiler operation.

1.8. OPERATING PHILOSOPHY


The purpose of a fluidized bed boiler is to produce a required quantity of steam, at the desired pressure and temperature by burning fuel and operating at the optimum economic efficiency all in an environmentally acceptable manner. Load change with a fluidized bed steam generator is accomplished by changing fuel and air flows, as same with any steam generator. A

26

fluidized bed steam generator differs in that it contains a solids inventory in the form of lime and ash particles which constitute the fluidized bed. From the standpoint of combustion stability and NO x emission levels, there is an allowable bed temperature variation and an optimum range of bed temperature for SO2 capture. Outside this optimum range, significant increases in limestone feed rates may be required to maintain emission levels within acceptable limits. If load change flexibility is required, the temperature should be maintained within a specific range. This is accomplished by staged combustion and solids loading control in the freeboard. Staged combustion serves two purposes, the controlled combustion in the lower furnace help to maintain the bed temperature in a suitable range for low NO x emission. This unit utilizes fuel and limestone as the predominant bed material. At normal operating bed temperatures, limestone is easily calcined ( CO2 is liberated ) resulting in a material that partially reacts with SO2 in the burning fuel to form calcium sulfate (gypsum).

1.9. EXPANSION SYSTEM


The expansion centers (zero expansion points) are designed according to the features of boiler arrangement and supporting structures. The orientation of furnace waterwalls, cyclone separators and HRA expand from the top downwards as they are all hung to the top steel. There are three expansion centers designed for the boiler: the center line of furnace rear wall, the center line of cyclone, the center line of HRA front wall. The furnace expands from furnace center line ( zero expansion point) toward two sides due to expansion control devices installed in two (2) steel structure levels at the elevation of 26800 and17100 respectively. The HRA expands
27

from boiler center line (zero expansion point) toward two sides due to the expansion control devices supplied at two (2) steel structure levels at the elevation of 33630 and 30730 . Bed material reinjection device(loopseal) and air preheater expand upward from their supporting base, and uniformly to front, rear, right and left.

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1.10. WATER VOLUMES OF MAJOR BOILER PARTS:


Part Name During Hydrotest During Operation (m3) Steam Drum Waterwalls Cyclones (including cyclone inlet circuit) Superheaters Economizers Total 19 31 4 15 10 79 (m3) 6.8 31 0 0 10 47.8

Note: 1. The volume of waterwall includes downcomers, feeder pipes, and headers. 2. The volumes of cyclones, superheaters and economizers all include their headers and transfer pipes.

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2.

SAFETY

PRECAUTIONS

AND

PREPARATION

FOR

OPERATION 2.1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


The following instructions are some of the general precautions which apply when placing a steam generator into operation. They are intended to supplement the experience and judgement of those in charge of operation and cannot cover all precautions which should be observed. The manufacturer has complied with the national boiler code (GB china standard) pertaining to the design and fabrication of the unit. A newly erected unit, prior to being placed into operation, must be carefully inspected by authority to assure that all component parts are properly assembled. All of the steam generators auxiliary equipment must be in first class operating condition, suitable for operation at design conditions and operated in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations and instructions. The following is offered as an initial start-up check list for this auxiliary equipment.

NOTE
These checks should be completed prior to start-up of the steam generator. a. All fans and blowers shall be operated. Lubrication systems shall be operable. Equipment shall be balanced and operate within vibration tolerances. b. All dampers, operators and actuators shall be subjected to internal and external inspection. This auxiliary equipment shall be operated through

30

the full range of operation and shall be free of binding or jamming. Confirm that dampers actually move to the positions called for by the controls. c. Ensure that the ash removal system connection has been made to the cooler and that the cooler is ready for operation. d. All remotely operated valves shall be operated and limit switches checked to ensure that proper installation has been accomplished, thereby yielding accurate position indications. e. f. g. All conveyors shall be operated to substantiate readiness. All critical flow elements shall be calibrated. The under-bed burners, shall be ready for operation with all safety equipment verified operable, e.g., flame scanner, interlocks, etc. h. All critical thermocouples and pressure transmitters shall be checked for proper connections and to ensure that they are operable. Calibrations shall be completed. i. All flues, ducts, pipes, chutes or conduits through which air, gas, water, steam or solids flow shall be connected securely; check to ensure that proper flow paths have been maintained. j. All expansion joints shall be inspected to ensure that proper connections have been made. k. l. The precipitator shall be checked to verify that the system is operating. All electrical connections shall be inspected to ensure that they have been properly installed and that all insulation is in good condition. When preparing a new steam generator for service, see that the following is done as required: a. The drum level gage glasses must be checked and installed in accordance with the drawings prior to preliminary operation.
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When the water level in the steam drum is lowered below the lowest visible point of the gage glass, all water should drain out of the glass. Any time a repair or change is made to the gage glass, this should be checked. b. Blowdown lines from water columns of drum level gage must be properly piped and drain valves must be closed. The gage glasses must properly illuminated and clearly visible to the operators from the operating floor. All vent, drain and blowdown lines must be readily accessible and properly piped to a blowdown tank or other safe location so as not to endanger the operator at any time. Valves that are located between the steam drum and water column of water gage must be in the full open position and locked. All safety valve gags and hydrostatic test plugs must be removed and the valves must be in proper operating condition. Discharge pipes and drains should be arranged and supported in accordance with the safety valve manufacturers recommendations. Drum internal must be properly installed in accordance with the drawings to assure that there will not be any steam bypassing the internals. All test connections deemed necessary must be installed. A leak test shall have been conducted on the steam generators air and flue gas systems; all leaks shall be corrected in accordance with paragraph 2.8. Expected hot areas of the steam generator shall be insulated or roped off to provide suitable protection for personnel. In addition to the above, the following items should be thoroughly checked each time a steam generator is placed into operation: a. All necessary operating instruments, both permanent and temporary,

32

must be installed, operating properly and correctly calibrated. b. c. All areas must be sufficiently illuminated. No hazardous walkways, ladders or stairway should be used. Provide substantial walkways and platforms where needed. d. Air and gas passages must be free from obstruction and the unit capable of being thoroughly purged by the circulation of air through the unit. e. The source of feedwater must be ample and uninterrupted once the unit is in operation. f. g. An ample fuel and limestone supply should be available. All access and observation doors must be closed after it is ascertained that no one is inside the unit. h. Drum manhole openings must be properly closed.

When it is assured that the above precautions are fully understood and have been complied with, then, and only then, should subsequent operations such asDrying Out,Boiling Out,Initial StartingandNormal Starting be initiated.

2.2. HYDROSTATIC TESTS


The steam generating unit shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test when erection of the pressure parts is completed. A hydrostatic test shall also be made upon the completion of each general overhaul or repair affecting any pressure part of the unit, or at other times when it is desirable to inspect for leaks.

CAUTION
THE BOILER TO BE HYDROSTATICALLY TESTED SHALL BE FILLED WITH TREATED WATER.

33

If the unit is not to be placed into service after the test, treatment shall be with hydrazine in the range of 200 to 300ppm plus sufficient ammonia or morpholine to raise the pH to 10. If the unit is to be placed into service within a short time using the test water, the treatment may be as for normal operation. It is strongly recommended that the unit be filled with the demineralized water or condensate system for the test. If the quantity of demineralized water or condensate is limited, certain sections of the unit may be filled with treated potable water or other water free of corrosive and suspended materials. This water is not to remain in the unit for wet storage as all wet storage should be made with treated demineralized water or condensate. Drainable sections may be tested with other than demineralized water or condensate provided the chloride content of the test water is less than 50ppm, the temperature is less than 52 and that the sections will subsequently be rinsed with condensate or

demineralized water prior to operation. The Steam Boiler Safety Supervisory Regulations, stipulated by the Labor Ministry of the Peoples Republic of China, specifies that the unit shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test with test pressure of 1.25 times the design pressure and test water temperature of 20 70, which, however, shall be higher than the ambient temperature. In order to satisfy with custom requirement, the hydrostatic test pressure can be reached one and one-haif times the drum operating pressure. This hydrostatic test is the test to be applied prior to the unit is initially operated and after repairs or revisions are made to pressure parts. Before applying a hydrostatic test on the unit, make a thorough internal and external inspection to be absolutely sure that:

34

a. b. c.

All foreign material and tools have been removed. No one is inside the unit. The pressure gage has been correctly calibrated and is connected properly, with valves open, on the drum outlet piping.

d.

Any part not designed to withstand the hydrostatic test pressure is properly isolated or blanked off from such pressure.

e. f. g.

All valves operate freely and seat properly. All steam circuit spring hangers are pinned in a fixed position. All safety valves are blanked or gagged.

When the foregoing have been carefully checked: a. b. Verify that drum manhole are properly closed. Close stop and check valves, all drain and blowdown valves and valves to any gages or other integral equipment not designed to withstand the hydrostatic test pressure. c. d. Open vents on the highest points of each component part of the unit. Be sure that the water will not freeze during test and the unit will not be subjected to freezing conditions following the hydrostatic test. If hydrostatic testing of a drum will be at temperatures above 49 , exercise care during close examination to avoid possible burns from water leakage. e. Check that only authorized personnel are in the vicinity of the unit to be tested. f. Start filling the unit with water, which should be relatively close in temperature to that of the pressure parts, so that the temperature of drum metal and water is in accordance with the following before applying a hydrostatic test pressure. All other pressure parts must be at

35

a temperature of not less than 20.

CAUTION
WHENEVER HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE IS IN EXCESS OF 5.1Mpa, THE MINIMUM DRUM METAL AND WATER TEMPERATURE 20 MUST BE OBSERVED TO INSURE THAT HYDROSTATIC TESTING IS

PERFORMED ABOVE THE BRITTLE TO DUCTILE TRANSITION TEMPERATURE FOR THE METAL. To obtain this hydrostatic test temperature, the following procedures are recommended ( items a and b).
(1)IF STEAM GENERATOR UNDER-BED BURNER SYSTEM IS NOT

FUNCTIONING ( AS MAY BE THE CASE FOR INITIAL OPERATION ), ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING METHODS (1), (2), OR (3) IS RECOMMENDED. Heat from an external source, to obtain the recommended minimum temperature as indicated by the drum surface thermocouples. (2) Use small oil and/or gas burners aimed through doors or resting on the grid nozzles to raise the temperature to that recommended. The burner flame should be kept away from the boiler tubes. (3) If the drum must be warmed above 20, the additional

temperature may be obtained by connecting a saturated steam supply to drum blowdown or chemical feed line to heat water and drum shell. Start out with drum at normal operating level and heat the water to a temperature 2 5 above the desired temperature so that subsequent water addition does not lower the final temperature below the recommended

36

minimum. b. IF STEAM GENERATOR UNDER-BED BURNER SYSTEM IS

FUNCTIONING, THE FOLLOWING METHOD IS RECOMMENDED. (1) After filling the unit to normal water level, fire the under-bed burners to raise the drum temperature to 2 5 above that recommended. Extinguish fires and continue to fill unit. Inspect drains and manhole for leaks as the unit fills. Close the high point vents when water issues from them. (2) Raise pressure to the intended figure slowly to avoid shock. The recommended rate of pressure increase should not exceed 0.3Mpa per minute. (3) If hydrostatic test was applied at pressure above design pressure, reduce pressure slowly and thoroughly inspect unit for leaks only at operating or design pressure. When inspection is completed, release pressure slowly at the recommended rate of pressure release not exceeding 0.3Mpa per minute, open vents and drain. Superheater system must be thoroughly drained. (4) If temporary manhole gaskets were used during initial hydrostatic test, they are to be replaced with proper gaskets before refilling unit for operation. (5) Remove blanks or gags from safety valves and pins from spring hangers after test has been completed.

2.3. DRYING OUT REFRACTORY


All refractory should be cured and dried at the field by erection company in accordance with the refractory manufacturers

recommendations to assure that the actual performance of refractory

37

shall meet our requirements.

2.4. BOILING OUT 2.4.1.General


Boiling out is the process of internally cleaning for the removal of oil and grease, and the solvent usually consists of a strong alkaline solution. The presence of even very thin films of oil or grease or their decomposition products on the boiler heating surfaces will seriously retard heat transfer. This film acts as a dangerous heat insulating film and retards the rapid transmission of heat from the metal to the boiler water. The resultant increase in metal temperature may be sufficient to cause overheating and blistering of boiler tubes and ultimate failure at high loads. During the boiling out process, the gage glass may become badly discolored and permanently etched. We have supplied replacement of mica and mica repair kit, Our suggestion is that Restore the inoperable gage glass to its original condition after boiling out and chemical cleaning, and before the next filling of the unit with treated condensate. The gage glass manufacturers instructions should be consulted for the identification and the replacement procedure. The chemical should be dissolved in water before being added to the boiler and should never be added to the boiler in solid form. In handling caustic materials, care should be exercised to avoid contact with the eyes, skin or clothing. When mixing this material, it is recommended that goggles, rubber gloves and cotton clothing be employed. The chemical solutions should not be added to the boiler in high

38

concentrations through the regular chemical feed system since these high concentrations may plug the chemical feed piping and valves. If the boiling out chemicals must be injected to the boiler drum through the chemical feed system, the concentration should be reduced to a five (5) percent solution in the mixing tank ahead of the chemical feed pump suction, and the pump and chemical lines be flushed thoroughly after the pumping is completed.

2.4.2.Recommended Chemicals for Boiling Out


Alkaline chemicals such as soda ash and caustic soda are commonly used for boiling-out a unit since these agents possess the ability to saponify the oils and greases and form a soap compound that is easily removed by high pressure blowdown during the boiling out process, and after completion of boiling out, by flushing with a high pressure hose using cold water. Phosphate has also been used as an agent to provide thorough cleaning of internal boiler surfaces. Both trisodium phosphate and disodium phosphate, accompanied by either caustic soda or soda ash, have been used. In this connection, an embrittlement inhibitor has been used in the boiling-out solution. It is known that intercrystalline cracking ( caustic embrittlement ) has been caused by the caustic soda used during the relatively short boiling out period. the alkaline concentrations developed in the boiler water during boiling out are quite high in comparison to standard boiler water concentrations. It is safer practice therefore, to add an adequate concentration of an embrittlement inhibitor to the boiler water. Sodium nitrate is the preferred agent for this purpose. For the most effective removal of oil from boiler metal surfaces, it is recommended that awetting agentbe incorporated in the boiling out
39

mixture. These agents increase thewetting powerof the water by reducing the surface tension and therefore reduce the adherent characteristics of oils and greases to a minimum. The combination of a wetting agentalong with the regular boiling out chemicals will therefore break down the oil-sludge bond and remove the oil and grease from the metal surfaces. The following chemical dosages have proven successful on many installations and will clean a unit satisfactorily. The proportions of each chemical should be accurately weighed before being placed in the mixing tank. The chemical charge should consist of the following proportions: Trisodium Phosphate (crystalline) Soda Ash Sodium Nitrate Wetting Agent 5.25 1.0 0.15 0.10 1g/1kg of water 1g/1kg of water 1g/1kg of water 1g/1kg of water

Refer to Item 1.10 for the amount of water required for normal filling of this unit. If trisodium phosphate is not obtainable, it is permissible to substitute disodium phosphate (anhydrous); however, the weight of this chemical should be based on 2.5g/1kg of water.

NOTE
The following procedure is based on the assumption that a trisodium phosphate solution (Na3PO4-12H2O) will be used.

2.4.3.Preparations for Boiling Out


Prior to boiling out a steam generator, the items previously outlined underSafety PrecautionandDrying Outshould be consulted and
40

followed. Generally, drying out and boiling out are combined as one continuous operation. A careful cleaning and inspection of the interior and exterior surfaces of the boiler and auxiliaries should be made for the purpose of removing all scrap metal, borings, wood, tools, rags and other miscellaneous materials. It is very important that these material be removed before the boiling out, otherwise, foreign material in the interior boiler sections is likely to interfere with operation of blowdown valves and future operation of the boiler. No attempt should be made to set safety valves when the boiler contains water of high chemical concentration such as that used for boiling out purposes. The safety valves should be set when the boiler contains water of approximately normal concentration during the initial start-up phase.

NOTE
Initial charging of bed material can be accomplished before or after boiling out. a. If beds are to be charged at this time, add bed material, in accordance with procedures specified in Section 3, Paragraph 3.3. When workman enter the furnace, proper precautions must be taken including: (1) Station a second workman by the furnace access door to observe the progress of work and immediately advise plant personnel of any problems. (2) All fuel and limestone feed equipment and fans should be secured and taggedOut of Service - Men Working in Furnace.
41

(3)

Anyone entering the furnace should be provided with proper breathing equipment and eye protection as is required for a dusty environment.

(4)

The furnace should be cool, well ventilated and tested, utilizing normal industry standards, for proper air constituents before anyone enters it.

b.

Open the vent valves indicated in the list within Paragraph 3.3. so that air can be expelled as the boiler is being filled. Isolate gage glasses, remote level indicators, pressure connections, sensitive

instrumentation and anything that could be damaged during boiling out. Filling the unit should be accomplished using the feedwater pumping and piping system normally used during boiler operation. This will have a tendency to flush out the piping and auxiliaries ahead of the boiler. c. Inject chemicals into the boiler feed line downstream of the main feed pump but upstream of the economizer. A main feed line piping drain or economizer drain connection may be used for this purpose.

NOTE
Chemical injection should be carried out only when main feedwater is flowing. Also, injection must be completed well in advance of reaching the desired drum level so that the chemicals in the boiler feedpipe will be flushed out during the final stages of the boiler fill cycle. d. Raise the water level so that it is just visible in the bottom of the lower gage glass. e. When the desired steam drum level is reached, close boiler feedwater
42

flow control by-pass valve.

NOTE
At this point, all steam drum valves, with the exception of instrument connections and vents, should be closed.

2.4.4.Boiling Out Procedure


a. Start the induced draft and combustion air fans in accordance with the fan manufacturers instructions and in the sequence outlined in Section 3, Start-up Procedures. b. c. Purge the boiler in accordance with Section 3, start-up procedures. Set the combustion air damper to maintain sufficient air flow to the under-bed burner. Establish stable firing at the burner fire rate.NOTE To protect the drum from undue thermal stress, the metal differential temperature between the top and bottom of the drum should not exceed 50. Monitor this temperature differential during start-up and normal operation. e. Close the steam drum vent valves when boiler pressure reaches 0.1MPa. f. Continue to fire the under-bed burner or feed coal into the furnace until the steam drum boiling out pressure reaches the value corresponding to the design pressure for this unit. (See Figure 21). g. The boiler feed pump must be kept available for operation should make-up feedwater be required. h. Fire the under-bed burner or feed coal into the furnace intermittently
43

as required to maintain steam drum boiling out pressure for at least eight (8) hours. i. Raise the water level to approximately 50mm from the top of the gage glass. j. When the high water level and steam drum boiling out pressure have been reached, shut down the under-bed burner or interrupt coal feeding. k. Start blowing down each blow-off line by opening the drum mass blow-off valve, furnace lower waterwall header drain valves. It is recommended that, when blowing down these lines, the root valve (closest valve to boiler) be opened first and closed last. The second valve in the line should be used to control flow. A sufficient blow can be accomplished by spinning the valve open and then spinning it closed again (approximately 10 seconds.) l. A cooled sample from the drum should be checked for phosphate, pH, silica and total alkalinity and a record kept of the chemical

concentrations. m. If the water in the steam drum falls to within 50mm from the bottom of the gage glass, refill the steam drum and fire the under-bed burner or feed coal into the furnace to maintain steam drum boiling out pressure. n. Repeat steps k and l once every four (4) hours for at least 24 hours until all signs of oil have disappeared from the cooled boiler water sample. Repeat step m. as required. After boiling out, When the boiler has been cooled and drained, the drum(s) should be inspected and any sediment removed. If the quantity warrants, inspect headers. Where inspection nipples are not provided on headers, inspection may be accomplished by cutting a
44

feeder or riser tube at the stub and bending the tube out of the way. If any foreign material is found in a header, It can be removed manually or flushed with a high pressure water hose. In addition to checking for sediment, inspection should assure that the metal internal surfaces are free from oil adherence. After the drum and headers have all been cleaned and inspected, the unit can be closed. New manhole gaskets should be installed on the drum and inspection nipple caps or tubes cut for cleaning and inspection should be replaced.

2.5. FEEDWATER AND BOILER WATER TREATMENT


Feedwater and boiler water samples must be inspected to meet desired water quality requirement. The quality of feedwater should be in compliance with section 1.1.9 the high pressure water quality. The treatment of feedwater and the conditioning of boiler water are beyond the control of HBG. Therefore, HBG shall not be held responsible for damage due to formation of scale or deposits or caustic embrittlement caused by chemical conditions of the water. Sludge accumulations in tubes will impair heat transfer and resulting in overheating and will affect boiler performance.

2.6. CHEMICAL CLEANING OF ECONOMIZER AND STEAM GENERATING CIRCUITS 2.6.1.General


The cleaning of modern high duty steam generators with chemical solutions is an effective tool. A cleaning performed prior to initial operation or a very short time thereafter, for the purpose of removing mill scale, provides a thin, uniform protective coating of iron oxide and removes, from
45

the unheated portions of the system, much material that may be redistributed to the heat transfer areas. There is merit to postponing this type of cleaning until after some short period of operation as considerable iron oxide and silica-bearing materials may be carried into the steam generator from the feedwater and condensate system during initial operation, unless the feedwater and condensate system are also chemically cleaned. The need for removal of operational deposits will vary considerably from plant to plant depending on the type of feedwater used and the history of make-up and feedwater problems. Because of the wide variety of materials that make up operational scales, their removal may be much more complex than the removal of mill scale. No steam generator can operate dependably if the heat transfer surfaces are fouled with scale.

2.6.2.Determining the Need for Chemical Cleaning


The need for a pre-operational cleaning will depend primarily on how much rusting of all cycle components can be expected to take place during construction. Factors influencing this are storage precautions and weather conditions at the plant site. Much rust, loose mill scale and silica-bearing material will be removed from the steam generator during the alkaline boiling out which should be performed on every unit. If the rest of the cycle is not extensively cleaned, material will be carried into the steam generator and cleaning may be warranted. Deposits formed during operation can be quite varied and complex and the maximum tolerable amounts are difficult to establish. Tube samples should be removed from the unit on an annual or biannual basis and the deposit weight measured. Generally, without reference

46

to the specific deposit composition, a unit with 20 to 40 mg/cm 2 of deposit on the cold side of the furnace tube should be considered dirty enough for chemical cleaning at the next maintenance outage.

2.6.3.Solvent Systems
Solvent selection is made on the basis of two primary considerations. The first is compatibility with the materials of construction and the second is the suitability for removal of the deposits. The two are not independent of each other since dissolution of deposit material by the solvent may create corrosion conditions for a tube material that would not be attacked by the solvent in the absence of the deposits. Mineral acids, such as hydrochloric acid, are commonly used as the solvent base for mill scale or operational deposit removal. If copper is present in the deposits, complex agents must also be used, as copper will plate on the boiler surfaces in the acid solution. Solution strength will depend on the deposit analysis, weight and structure. When using hydrochloric acid for a pre-operational cleaning, the following is commonly used: Hydrochloric acid concentration Metal or solvent temperature Solvent contact time Inhibitor concentration 5% max. by wt. 68 6 hours Per cleaning contractor spec.

Organic acids, single or in mixture, and in combination with various other materials are also used as solvents. While they generally are less aggressive than the mineral acids, proper inhibition and preliminary testing are still a necessity. In addition, because of the lesser dissolving capacity of the organic materials, some means of circulation within the unit may be required to insure against local depletion of the solvent before the deposits are completely dissolved.
47

2.6.4.General Cleaning Operations


Chemical cleaning of a steam generator should never be attempted by inexperienced personnel. There is danger of extensive damage should conditions get out of hand or improper materials be used. Careful planning is required to assure that the specified chemical conditions are attained, that conditions hazardous to life and property do not occur. To bring the unit to cleaning temperature, the unit may be filled with condensate or demineralized water and heated by one of the methods specified in paragraph 2.2. Using drum thermocouples, and temporary thermocouples if necessary, monitor unit temperature to assure that there are no areas above the limits for the solvent system and inhibitor used. The limits must be specified by the solvent system supplier. When the proper temperatures are attained, the water may be drained to storage. The unit is then filled with solvent by pumping the stored heated water back into the unit and metering in the concentrated solvent to give the desired concentration. Before the solvent pumping is started, it should be checked for proper inhibition. If the water temperature must be adjusted while refilling the unit, steam should be injected ahead of the solvent to avoid corrosion of the mixing equipment. NEVER FIRE THE UNIT WHEN IT CONTAINS ACID AS INHIBITOR BREAKDOWN MAY OCCUR. While the solvent is in the unit, the acid strength, iron concentration, temperatures and any condition or constituent necessary for control of the particular solvent system should be monitored on a regular basis. When the cleaning is complete, as indicated by the leveling of
48

the iron concentration, the solvent is drained from the unit under a nitrogen blanket. The unit may be filled and drained one or more times to flush the solvent from the cleaned area. The rinse may contain an iron complex agent to prevent precipitation of iron on the cleaned surfaces. When the rinsing is complete, the unit is filled with an alkaline solution to neutralize any residual solvent and passivate the surfaces to prevent after-rusting. The alkaline solution may be heated prior to filling the unit or the unit may be heated as in paragraph 2.2 to attain the desired temperature. Upon completion of the passivation, the unit should be drained for inspection and removal of any temporary piping .

2.7. CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SUPERHEATERS 2.7.1.General


Chemical cleaning of superheaters may be performed in those cases where, because of particular cycle requirements, the operating company elects to do a pre-operational cleaning or where an upset operating condition creates deposits which must be removed. The same general precautions regarding suitability of solvents and compatibility of solvents with materials of construction, as required for steam generation circuits must be observed. Many superheaters contain sections that are either non-drainable or non-ventable. This prevents a cleaning from being done by a fill and soak method. To assure that all tubes can be filled with solvent and then flushed successfully, all air must be purged from the circuitry prior to introduction of the solvent. This may be accomplished by
49

pumping water at high flow rates or by purging with low pressure steam. The former method requires such high flow rates that, for any but the smaller units, it is impractical. Steam purging for several hours, followed by filling with hot water, in a manner to preclude entry of air, and then displacement with solvent will permit a circulation type cleaning with moderate pumping requirements.

2.8. STEAM-LINE BLOWING 2.8.1.General


Solids, such as scaling in the pipe, which is carried by steam with extreme high velocity, can cause severe damages to the blades and valves of turbine. Normally, need install a filter at the inlet of the turbine and blow the superheater and the steam piping before the first operation of the turbine. Steam-line blowing is to clean all the solids in the pipe which will do damage to the blades and valves of the turbine (ferric iron oxide, rolling skin and some other external articles)Acceptance gage According to the acceptance goal value and the sampling of the steam purity, which are the two successes, consider the steam piping as purity.Prerequisite a. Having continuous supply of feed water to make-up water lost in the period of the steam purging.Check of electric drawings b. Check of the duct pilot layout drawings c. Finish the check of the meters d. Test of the safety chains e. Set and check the safety valves f. Have finished the test of the boiler and all auxiliaries g. Install the temporary purging piping, purging valve and silencer, also the
50

check and pressure test h. Strike all the temporary scaffolds, devices and some other unnecessary equipments in the area of steam purging

2.8.2.Initial condition
a. Continuous communication has been established between device operators, field persons and the master-control room b. When the boiler runs in the condition which has lower steam pressure and lower temperature for 5%-10% than required, the boiler and the assistant system is steady. The required steam purging power is determined by the following formula: R=(W/ Wr )2V/Vr( R: steam

purging power W: steam flow during the period of steam purging Wr: the designed steam flow V: the specific volume in the inlet of the superheater during the period of steam purging, is expressed by cubic feet/pound). If we apply continuous purging method, R should be 1.51.6 and for impulse or intermittent purging R should be 1.0 1.2. Because the thermal impact and dynamic force generated by the fast variation of the steam condition ( pressure and temperature ) accelerates the purging progress, intermittent method is better than continuous method. c. All valves on the steam piping, until all the temporary steam purging valves is opened, all piping have been blowd and been preheated d. Warning limit should be set in the adjacent area of steam purging and temporary piping, and suspend the standards to prevent people enter this area e. All adjacent people have been informed

2.8.3.Precaution and matters need attention


a. Piping arrangement. The arrangement of the temporary piping should be convenient to the purging of all steam piping located in the lower

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course of the boiler. All the temporary piping nozzles and valves should have the same dimension as the piping need purging so as to prevent the reduce expenditure. The temporary pipes which are used to emit to the air should be consolidated so as to stand up with the strong reacting force generated by the nozzles during the period of ejecting. Purging should have only one direction to avoid hurt of people or damage of objects which may cause by the carried material with extreme high velocity. Whether silencer will needed depends on its position and the silencer should be selected to meet the condition of low pressure loss and high velocity. According to the cleanliness the system, collectors and filters may need in the upper course of the silencer to prevent blockage. The temporary piping should also include the drain joints located in the low point and the upper course of the purging valve. The outlet is used to heat and discharge condensate liquid for the steam piping during the interval time of steam purging. Also the safety valve may be needed for overpressure protect, this depends on the pressure limit condition of the temporary piping. All temporary piping near the work area should be isolated for personal safety. b. Valve. All selected temporary purging valves should have the function of intermittent purging according to the high velocity. The steam valve should be the type of quick-open and should have the remote control structure which is suitable for this function. The steam purging valve is not a part of the permanent system and this type of valve will be damaged. The gate valve for hydraulic operation can open(about 3 seconds) or close(about 10 seconds) quickly. The purging valve should be installed in the upper cause of the silencer

2.8.4.Procedure of steam purging


a. Rising pressure according to the normal pressure-rise curve and the
52

marked condition to metal temperature and stop it until reach the purging pressure. The purging pressure can be determined by calculation of purging force. b. When rise pressure, heat the temporary steam piping by the drain joint located near the temporary steam purging valve c. Set the water level a little lower than the normal level and then shutdown the start-up burner d. Open the steam purging valve quickly. When open the purging valve, because the pressure of the steam drum falls down, the water level of the steam drum will rise instantly and then falls down soon. Because of this, the water level controller of the steam drum should be in manual position. By doing this, when the operator can increase feed water manually the moment he notices the falls of the water level of the glass tube e. Try your best to maintain the normal water lever, shutdown the steam purging valve as soon as reaching the predetermined purging time. The actual purging time is determined by the variation of the boiler pressure and the water level of steam drum f. In order to assure the water level of the steam drum be a constant, the amount of feed water should be adjusted. When the purging valve is shutdown, the water level of the steam drum will fall down g. All piping which has been blowd should be drained If necessary, do all the procedures again till the cleanliness is acceptable

2.8.5.Return to the raw condition


a. According to the requirement of liability, please make sure that the boiler can generate steam b. Isolation is for the temporary joints of the steam piping c. Make sure that all temporary joints be drained, cooled and striked
d. Recover the piping and valves of the permanent devices to their raw

53

condition.

2.9. BOILER SYSTEM AIR TEST


Upon completion of erection, an air test shall be performed to detect any air and flue gas leaks in the boiler system. The leaks shall be corrected to insure tightness and the safe operation of the system. A typical recommended procedure is as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. Install a blanking plate at the ID fan inlet. Close all access doors and observation ports. Cap all instrumentation penetrations. Open all passageways to be tested. Operate the FD fan to pressurize the system to 80mmH 2O pressure. Inspect entire system using suitable visual/audio method. Soap films, smoke bombs and sonic detectors are useful and one or more should be employed. g. h. i. j. k. Identify all leaks. De-pressurize system. Repair all leaks. If leaks were found, repeat the air test following leak repair. Remove blanking plates and caps.

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3.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 3.1. GENERAL


a. The operator should be thoroughly familiar with the function and controls of the boiler, components and auxiliary equipment before operating the unit. The information given in this section is not intended to be a detailed procedure for operation of the steam generator but is meant to serve as guide. This guide, together with the instructions of the auxiliary equipment and with knowledge derived from initial unit operation, can be used to develop a detailed operation procedure. b. Circulation fluidized bed boilers are chemical process reactors, without a defined fireball. The boiler fireside contains a circulating solid inventory of considerable thermal energy. c. The operator should be aware of the limitations imposed on the various parts of the boiler and its auxiliaries and be alert to the actual operating conditions during start-up and while operating per system demands. d. The boiler can be operated at a maximum continuous rating (MCR) of 130t/h superheated steam at 510 and 100bar(g) at the superheater outlet with feedwater entering the unit at 170 while firing the fuel specified in Item 1.1.3.

3.2. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS


The Critical precautions that the operator must observe and exercise during all phase of operation of this unit are listed below. a. All doors at lower furnace must not be opened during normal unit operation to protect personnel from any danger as this steam generating unit will have internal pressure greater than atmospheric
55

pressure. b. Furnace Pressure Limits Exposure to excessive negative or positive furnace pressure can result in serious damage to the unit and auxiliary equipment. The following controls should be in service and operable prior to start-up for protection against excessive furnace pressure or draft. 1. The furnace draft, as measured at the balance point in the furnace exit, should be monitored constantly and automatically controlled to be between -130250Pa. 2. The Main Fuel Trip (MFT) should be set at 2500Pa pressure in the furnace outlet (cyclone inlet) with a 5 second delay. 3. The FD and ID fan trips should be set at 3750Pa pressure in the furnace area with no time delay. On any Main Fuel Trip (MFT) the following occurs: (a) Fuel feeders trip. (b) Limestone systems trip. (c) under-bed burners trips. (d) Bottom coolers trip. (e) All air flow controls transfer to manual mode and hold last position. (f) FD fan controls transfer to manual mode and hold last position unless the cause is a fan trip. In that case, fan controls follow fan logic. (g) Output signal to combustion control limits ID fan automatic control from going above the furnace draft limit.
56

(h) Boiler Purge Requiredlogic is set unless it is aHot Restartcondition. 4. The operator should not allow the furnace pressure at the balance point to exceed 500Pa (alarm point). 5. On loss of FD or ID Fans or all J valve blowers (MFT will be initiated), the bed will collapse and the collapsed bed may contain combustibles. Access doors should be left closed. Air flow should be slowly re-established to purge combustibles from the unit.

NOTE
At all times, the operator should remember that the unit maintains a considerable amount of stored energy even following an MFT. Drum level and an adequate flow of steam to control pressure should be maintained at all times. c. Drum Water Level and Temperature Differential The normal drum water level is 180mm below the centerline of the drum. The alarms are set at 75mm below and 75mm above normal water level and the trips are set at 120mm below and 120mm above normal water level.

NOTE
A low low drum water level condition (120mm below normal water level) or a high high drum water level condition (120mm above normal water level) initiates a main fuel trip (MFT) and the FD and ID fans are tripped
57

to protect the drum from undue thermal stress; the metal temperature differential between top and bottom of the drum should not exceed 40. The drum metal temperature should be monitored and indicated in the control room.

d.

Safety Valve Adjustment All safety valves are set by the valve manufacturer but should be rechecked under actual operating conditions as the boiler is being brought up to pressure during initial operation. If a safety valve does not lift at the pressure stamped on its nameplate or reseat properly, the valve should be readjusted. It is not allowed to change the settings of any safety valve without authorization.

e.

Excess Air Requirement Care should be exercised to ensure that the proper fuel-air ratio for good combustion is maintained. The excess air requirement at 100% MCR load is measured at the HRA outlet and corresponds to an oxygen measurement of approximately 3.1% by volume on a wet basis. (See Figure 3-1.) It is just for reference and should be set by combustion adjustment. Operation with less than the specified excess air can be detrimental from the standpoint of good combustion and safe operation of the unit.

f.

Bed Temperature Profile Normal operating bed temperature is 790 920 (measured by thermocouples on the grid plate). This temperature should be monitored during operation and attempts should be made to operate at this level. The bed high temperature alarm point is 955 . A main fuel trip is automatically initiated at 990 . The minimum operating temperature for the bed is 790. Do not allow temperature to drop
58

below this level without support fuel. The low bed temperature alarm is 760. A main fuel trip is automatically initiated at 650 unless the under-bed burner is in operation. The solids fuel feeds will automatically trip off line if the bed temperature drops below 540 regardless of burner operation.

g.

Cyclone Tube Protection If the unit experiences a trip, steam temperatures in the cyclone tubes may tend to rise rapidly. Thermocouples have been installed on cyclone wall tubes to monitor these temperature rises and transmit them to the control system. If any one of these

thermocouples rises above 420, the control system automatically opens the cyclone cooling steam vent to increase the cooling steam through the cyclone tubes. The vent then automatically closes when all of the thermocouples show temperatures below 410.

h.

Readiness Inspection The following precautionary steps must be taken to insure reliable operation of the unit: 1. It is recommended that the heat recovery area (HRA) gas side surfaces be inspected for particulate deposit accumulation each time the boiler is taken out of service. The surfaces should be cleaned accordingly before boiler restart if any serious particulate accumulation is detected. 2. For purposes of monitoring start-up conditions during the life of the boiler, thermocouple assemblies are installed in various locations in the steam generating circuit. These thermocouples are to be used as an aid in determining acceptable firing rates during start-up. The thermocouples are located as follows:

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Thermocouples

Location

Total Qty

Alarm Limitation Steam Temp.

Steam Drum SH Wing Wall Low Temp SH High Temp SH

Top & Bottom Outlet Tubes Outlet Tubes Outlet Tubes 1

8 1 1 500 450 535

These thermocouples are located in a zone where flue gas does not sweep over them; therefore, the temperature obtained will be equal to the steam temperature. These and other thermocouples should be checked and made ready for service (including control room indications). The unit can be operated continuously up to the steam temperature limits indicated in the table above. To protect the equipment, the operator should correct any condition which has caused an alarm. In addition to the thermocouples mentioned above, there are 8 thermocouples per cyclone, 4 upper and 4 lower in left cyclone and 4 upper and 4 lower in right cyclone. All are located at equidistant points in the roof tubes near the top ring headers and at equidistant points in the gas-heated hopper tubes near lower ring headers. There are also four (4) thermocouples in transfer pipes between the right cyclone outlet and the HRA inlet. 3. To prevent plugging, rusting and oxidation and faulty operation of equipment, air used on the boiler for operational purposes, whether for sealing, aspirating or atomizing, should be free of dirt, oil and water. 4. All high and low furnace pressure safety interlocks should be checked for proper values and correct switching action and be
60

in service before starting the induced draft fan. 5. The sootblower system should be ready to operate. The sequence of operating the sootblowers should be from down to up ,then from top downward as a sootblow circulation. Eight(8) couples of sootblowers are installed in the HRA as shown in the following listing, on both side for low and high S/H and airpreheater, on rear side for economizer. LOCATION High Temp. S/H Low Temp. S/H Economizer IV Economizer III Economizer II Economizer I Air-preheater II Air-preheater I 6. TYPE Long retracting Long retracting Rotary Rotary Rotary Rotary Rotary Rotary ELEVATION 35700 32630 28740 25930 23030 20130 13400 10650 QUANTITY 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Oxygen (O2) is monitored continuously during operation of the boiler. O2 levels should not fall below 3.1%, by volume on a wet basis. It is recommended that the O 2 analyzer be properly maintained and calibrated before any start-up and on a regular scheduled basis, as dictated by industry standards. O 2 controller should hold last value when calibration is in progress.

7.

It is strongly recommended that the reliability of all drum level indicators be checked at least once a shift. This would include all gage glasses, remote level indicators and level recorders. This can only be done by changing drum level and observing

61

the response of all indicators and gage glasses. 8. The furnace bed fluidizing velocity should not be allowed to drop below 1.2m/sec (minimum velocity required to maintain proper fluidization). Refer to Figure 3-2.

3.3. COLD START-UP PROCEDURE


The operating sequence recommended to ensure a safe and proper start-up is given below. Modifications may be necessary as subsequent operating experience dictates. Follow the manufacturers instructions for operating auxiliary equipment.

3.3.1.Preparation Prior to Start-up NOTE


A general unit equipment patrol should be made by at least two (2) people to verify that all equipment is ready for start-up. See Paragraph 3.3.2 for initial bed charging criteria.

a.

Operation of the Pressure Tap Purge System The pressure tap purge system should be put into operation. Establish a low flow of air through the pressure taps into the bed. Periodically, the pressure taps should be manually purged with a blast of high pressure instrument air. The frequency of this purging must be established by experience. Always close the appropriate valves to protect the purge systems instrumentation when the high pressure purge is to be performed. A similar procedure should be used for all other pressure taps on the air and gas side of the steam generator.

b.

Make sure the test gags and/or plugs are removed from all safety
62

valves.

c.

Check availability of utility services, power, ignition and main fuel, and suitably treated feedwater.

d. e.

Check operation of all valves and dampers. Check the start-up (under-bed) burners and all boiler auxiliaries, assuring that all are operable and that associated valves are in their proper open or close positions.

f.

Check availability of thermocouples in representative locations to measure steam drum metal temperatures.

g.

Close all access doors and observation ports after it is proven that no one is inside the unit. Release all safety tags on equipment to be placed in service.

h.

Place the boiler vent, drain and instrument valves in the following position. This list assumes the unit is empty.
VALVE DESCRIPTION POSITION QUANTITY (PER BOILER)

Steam Drum Safety Valve High temp SH outlet Safety Valve Main Feed Stop Valve Main Feed Check Valve Drum Steam Connection Vent Drum Pressure Transfer shut-off Drum Water gage Shut off Drum Chemical Feed Drum Emergency Drain Drum Continuous Blowdown Drum Water Sampling Drum Pressure Instrumentation Valve

Set at 118.9 bar Set at 105 bar Closed Automatic Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Closed Open

1 1 2 1 2 3 14 1 2 2 2 2

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Drum Steam Sampling Drum Auxiliary Steam Shut-off Downcomer Drain W/W Lower Header Periodic Blowdown Left Cyclone Upper Header Cooling Steam Vent Cyclone Lower Ring Header Drain HRA Front Wall, Rear Wall, Side Wall Lower Header Drain SH Wing Wall Inlet Header Drain SH Wing Wall Outlet Header Vent High Temp SH Inlet Header Drain High Temp SH Outlet Header Vent Main steam pipe Outlet Pressure Instrumentation Connection Attemperator moterized Shut-off

Closed Closed Closed Closed Automatic

2 1 4 12 2

Open

4 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 2

HRA Front & Rear Wall Upper header Vent Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Closed

i.

Fill the boiler by admitting water, via By-pass Feed Control Valve, to the economizer using water from the regular feedwater source.

j.

The temperature of the water should be between 20 70 and should not be below the temperature of the drum metal. Close the vent valves as each vent shows water flow.

k.

Check that the drum remote level indicators are operating in the control room and that they compare accurately with local gage glass readings.

l.

Check that all pressure and draft gages are calibrated and functioning properly.

m.

Check all safety interlocks for proper operation.

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n. o.

Verify that drum level is visible in the gage glass. Check that all lubricating and cooling systems for all driving facilities meet the manufacturers technical requirements and all cooling mediums are available for equipment that requires cooling.

p.

Position dampers in the air ducts and gas flues as indicated below. Damper positions are displayed in the control room. All fuel,

limestone and other manual isolation and / or slide gate dampers should be closed at this time.

65

DAMPER DESCRIPTION

POSITION

ID Fan Inlet Vanes Primary and Secondary FD Fan Inlet Vanes Limestone Inlet Upper Secondary Air under-bed Burner & Furnace Fluidizing Air J-Valve Upleg and Downleg Fluidizing Air J-Valve Bottom Fluidizing Air Lower Secondary Air Fuel Sweep Air Fuel Feeder Seal Air

Open Open Closed Open Open Open Open Open Open Open

q.

The following operation sequence is recommended to ensure safe and proper start-up. Modifications may be necessary as subsequent operating experience dictates.

3.3.2.Purging Note
Prior to purge (and firing of under-bed burner ), it is essential that an internal inspection of the combustion air duct, downstream of the under-bed burner, and the plenum, be made for back sifting of bed material. All bed material should be removed from the duct and from the plenum, to preclude grid nozzle plugging. Immediately prior to each start-up and prior to starting after a main fuel trip (MFT), the furnace, cyclones and HRA must be purged (except the special procedure for hot restart ). The following steps must be taken to

66

prepare for the purge.

a.

Ensure that no hot start condition exists (average bed temperature less than 650).

b. c. d.

Ensure that boiler is in MFT but no MFT conditions exist. Ensure that the fuel supply valve to the under-bed burner is closed. Check that all limestone fuel feeders are off and spent bed removal system is off.

e.

Start the induced draft (ID), forced draft (FD) and one J-Valve blower as follows:

CAUTION
THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE PROVIDES FOR A CLEAR AIR FLOW PATH FROM THE FD FAN INLET TO THE STACK DURING START-UP OF EACH FAN TO PREVENT POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE PRESSURE

DAMAGE TO THE FURNACE AND DUCTWORK.

NOTE
The general procedure will be to start one (1) J-valve blowers, the ID fan , the Primary and Secondary fan. Air flow is then set to purge requirements and all fans put on AUTO control. Purging will be accomplished and fans will be left in operation for subsequent start-up.

1. Ensure that all flue and duct dampers are in the positions specified in
Paragraph 3.3.1, Step p.

2. Start one J-valve blowers. Set the J-valve aeration rates to correspond

67

to those values listed in attached table 6 and fig.3-8 for each J-valve. J-valve operation is automatically controlled by a program input to the system in the pre-commissioning stage. Adjustment of air flows to the various aeration taps should not be necessary during unit operation. However, J-valve operation should be monitored closely for abnormalities following start-ups or upsets. Verification of proper operation or minor adjustment of aeration flow rates should be performed in accordance with the following: (a) Refer to Table 1, Fig.3-5 Fig3-6 and Fig.3-7 for proper operating parameters. (b) Place J-valve upflow and downflow plenum air flow controls on auto. (c) Place J-valve blower pressure control valve on auto and check that it is properly functioning. (d) Set shut-off valves to individual aeration taps to a 65% open position. (e) Place upflow leg and downflow leg aeration flow control on auto. (f) Confirm flow in individual aeration tap lines.

A no-flow indication in any line may be plugging of the tap. Correct or establish a clear line by a high pressure air purge. Do not attempt to mechanically rod out the line with the unit in service. (g) Record aeration air flow rates, and J-valve temperature and compare to Table 6. (h) Air flow rates that vary widely from values given in Table 6 should be adjusted to agree. Switch to a manual aeration mode. Adjust air flow towards the tabulated value in 14Nm 3/h
68

increments while recording pressure differentials. Set air flow at lowest stable pressure differential. (i) A unit shutdown will be necessary to clear plugged or inoperable aeration taps as soon as possible. Continued unit operation may be possible for a limited time provided the inoperable or plugged aeration tap locations are known and that horizontally or vertically adjacent taps are not plugged. Unit shutdown is mandatory to avoid a plugged J-valve when several taps are confirmed inoperable. (j) Record J-valve aeration flows, pressures and temperatures at unit loads of 40%, 60%, 80% and MCR. If necessary, perform adjustment procedures as in step (h) above.

3. Start the ID fan. The ID fan inlet control vanes will close, the ID fan
breaker will close and the motor will start running. Once the motor is proved running and up to speed, the inlet control vanes are released to furnace pressure control.

4. Start the Secondary and Primary fan. The fan inlet control vanes will
close, the fan breaker will close and the motor will start running. Once the motor is proved running, the inlet control vanes are released to combustion control. However, the Secondary FD fan should be started and adjust the air flow to minimum prior to start-up of the Primary FD fan.

5. The control system will automatically adjust the unit to aready for
purgecondition.

f.

Charge furnace beds with material as follows:


69

1. The furnace bed should be charged with bed material , either rough
limestone or burned material of 0 6mm size, to a static bed depth of 400mm. Stop charging when bed pressure indicates 3500Pa.

g.

Purge the unit with at least 25% (but not greater than 40%) total air flow for at least 5 minutes.

h.

After the steam generator has been completely purged, reset the master fuel trip (MFT) and perform the following:

1. All secondary air control dampers should be at minimum open


position.

2. Position the following equipment in the indicated positions:


(a) Position the under-bed burner and furnace fluidizing air (to plenum) control damper for proper combustion air. (b) Establish combustion air flow at a minimum of 26600Nm 3/hr by adjusting FD fan inlet vanes. (c) Ensure that there is a supply of fuel available to the under-bed burner and that purge air to the scanners is on.

3.3.3.Warming The Unit CAUTION


PRIOR TO LIGHT-OFF, THERE MUST BE BED

MATERIAL IN THE FURNACE EQUIVALENT TO A 400mm STATIC BED AND THE UNIT MUST HAVE BEEN PURGED.

NOTE

70

the superficial fluidizing velocity should not be allowed to drop below 1.2m/sec, the minimum superficial

fluidizing velocity required to maintain fluidization.

CAUTION
TO PROTECT THE DRUM FROM UNDUE THERMAL STRESS, THE METAL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE DRUM SHOULD NOT EXCEED 40. MONITOR THIS TEMPERATURE

DIFFERENTIAL ON THE DRUM METAL TEMPERATURE INDICATORS.

a.

Check that between economizer inlet and drum recirculation shut-off valves are open. Close fully and then open 1/2 turn the following drain valves: Cyclone Lower Ring Header Transfer Pipe Drains HRA Front wall Lower Header Drains SH Wing Wall Inlet Header Drains

b.

Following the burner instructions, light-off the under-bed burner. Observe the light-off via the observation ports for good flame quality.

c.

In the manual mode, place limestone feeder systems in service at minimum speed per instructions. Verify and monitor tracking and movement of rotating equipment prior to and during start-up and during operation.

NOTE
Bed make-up is added as necessary during operation.

d.

Monitor the O2 to ascertain complete combustion is taking place.


71

Control mixture gas flue temperature below 900.

e.

Having confirmed light-off in the under-bed burner, place on automatic temperature control at various cooling air rate.

f.

Heat the bed material and raise the drum pressure. Mixture gas flue temperature should be regulated to increase drum pressure and temperature at a rate not exceeding 50/hr.

g.

While the unit is heating up and building drum pressure, check drum metal temperature and drum level.

h.

Raise the bed temperature to 450 while maintaining a combustion air flow of 26600Nm3/hr. During the heating of the unit, the drum level will rise. Maintain the drum level within range using the continuous blowdown valve and the feedwater control valve. It may be necessary to use the emergency release valve in conjunction with the continuous blowdown valve to maintain drum level.

NOTE
Under no circumstances should downcomer or water wall drain valves be used as blow- off valves.

j.

When the drum pressure reaches 0.69 1.03bar, close the following vent valves: Drum Vents (On transfer pipes between drum and cyclone) HRA Front Wall Upper Header Vents HRA Rear Wall Upper Header Vents SH Wing Wall Outlet Header Vents Main steam Outlet Header Vents (On transfer pipes between High Temp. SH and Main steam Outlet Header)

k.

Close completely the following drain valves:

72

Cyclone Lower Ring Header Drains HRA Front Wall Lower Header Drains SH Wing Wall Inlet Header Drains High Temp. SH Inlet Header Drains

l.

At this time, the drain valve(s) downstream of the main steam outlet header should remain open to ensure that all water is drained from the steam circuit.

m.

After achieving approximately 1.7 bar in the drum, recheck the drum water gage glass operation by a short blowdown. Maintain visible water level in the gage glass. Water level in the drum will rise due to swelling of water in the system. Blow down the drum as required by opening the steam drum continuous blowdown and / or emergency release valves.

n.

Place the drum level control loop in automatic control in the single element (drum level control) mode.

o.

If the boiler water silica or solids contents is above the recommended limit, the drum water should be blown down using the steam drum continuous blowdown valve until the recommended limit is reached. No further increase in pressure should be allowed until silica level is below the respective pressure value.

p.

Continue heating to build up boiler drum pressure and maintain bed temperature of 450. If necessary, feed limestone into the furnace during warm-up to maintain bed inventory indicated by bed pressure.

3.3.4.Start-up (Fuel Firing)


The following procedure must be integrated with the boiler and main steam piping, such that a flow path is maintained for the steam being produced by the circulating fluidized bed boiler.

a.

Place the ash handling system in service following the own


73

instructions.

b.

Check that the spray control isolation block valves are open. Place the steam temperature control loop on automatic with the desired steam temperature setpoint.

c.

Start three coal feeders and adjust to feed fuel into the furnace at 15% capacity. Operate at this capacity for 5 minutes and then shut down the feeder. Monitor O2 and average bed temperature (ABT) to establish a trend over time. During the first several minutes, average bed temperature should decrease initially and then start increasing. O2 should remain steady initially and then begin to decrease preceding average bed temperature rise. Establish a time interval required to completely and safely combust the quantity of fuel just fed. This time interval should be measured from the time of feed commencement to the highest average bed temperature and lowest O2. The time interval may be set by the field after having experienced, but the duration may be changed with varying fuels. With some low reactivity fuels coupled with varying unit designs, it may be necessary to change the duration of batch feeding.

NOTE
Monitor individual bed thermocouples in conjunction with the above procedure. A localized decrease in temperature will usually be seen at the feed point with gradual increases in temperature at adjacent

thermocouples.

d.

Start the same feeder again at 15% capacity and batch feed fuel for another 5 minute period. Shut down the feeder. Monitoring average bed temperature and O2, restart the feeder at 15% capacity just prior

74

to reaching peak bed temperature. Add fuel for another 5 minute period.

e.

Repeat steps c and d gradually increasing average bed temperature (ABT) to 760. Once ABT and O2 are responding properly, the feeder can be left in operation. Boiler load can then be increased by increasing feeder capacity. As ABT increases, the combustion rate of the batch feed fuel will also increase. This will actually cause a shortening of duration time that the feed is left out of service. As the feed rates increase, some caution must be taken not to overfeed the unit. If the unit has been overfed with fuel, several indicators will show disproportionate changes. O2 will decrease rapidly, perhaps to zero. ABT will climb steadily in large increments. Several courses of action can be followed dependent on the severity of overfed material:

1.

Wait it out but do not introduce additional fuel; monitor the trends.

2.

Increase the limestone or bed make-up feed rates; this cooler material will absorb the increased heat release.

3.

Lower the air supply to the bed to starve the combustion process.

f.

As O2 continues to decrease and bed temperature increases to 790, gradually begin increasing combustion air flow above

26600Nm3/hr and, at the same time, lower under-bed burner gas flue mixture temperature to 540. At this point, follow established feed rates and air flow requirements.

g.

Required superheat steam temperature should be maintained during start-up by using the following: The First and Secondary superheater attemperator inlet. It is
75

important that the steam temperature entering the superheater tubes downstream of the spray be not less than 11 above saturation temperature. See Figure 3-3for this limiting steam temperature.

h.

When the proper steam pressure and temperature are available, warm, roll and synchronize the turbine.

i.

After turbine synchronization and after constant feedwater flow is being maintained, or when the steam flow is greater than 7%, close the economizer to downcomer recirculating shut-off valves.

j.

As the amount of steam delivered to the turbine approaches 10% of the steam generator rated capacity, close the drain valves downstream of the H/T superheater outlet.

k.

When conditions permit, put drum level, steam temperature and air flow on automatic control.

l.

Gradually increasing fuel feed rate, until bed temperature is above 830 and O2 is stable.

m.

Adjust combustion air flow and fuel flow to establish bed temperature of 900 while removing the under-bed burner; maintain O 2 at 3.1%.

n.

During normal operation, limestone feed rate will be varied, as dictated by a ratio to the fuel feed. The ratio should be adjusted according to the concentration of SO2 in exhaust gas. As mentioned before, Figure 3-4 is a graph of static bed height versus bed differential pressure and should be checked and coldtested prior to start-up or during trial operation. While firing the fuel, the fluidizing velocity should not be allowed to drop below 1.2m/sec.

p.

At this time begin operating the bottom ash coolers continually as cooler instruction.

q.

Unit load can now be raised to 100% (MCR) by using the boiler

76

master control. Observe the following guide lines: 1. Do not operate the bed at a differential pressure greater than 500mmH2O or less than 200mmH 2O. The 200mmH2O limit is to protect the grid tubes from overheating and bed material fluidized from unstable.

3.4. HOT RESTART


The boiler may be shut down for a period of time and held in the hot condition (slumped but ready to operate again). When the boiler is to be hot slumped, the fuel feed should be stopped and the O 2 indicator at the boiler exit monitored. As soon as the %O 2 starts to increase, stop the fluidizing air flows to the furnace to minimize bed heat loss. This O2 increase indicates that most of the fuel has been burned and the beds can be slumped by decreasing fluidizing air flows to zero. the FD and ID blowers and the limestone feed system are stopped. The J-valve blower should remain in operation after the fans and other blowers are shut down.

NOTE
To prevent damage to J-valve components, the J-valve blower should remain on until valve cools to below 260. All valves and air control dampers are closed so that a minimum amount of heat is lost. No fire is maintained or introduced into the furnace; therefore the pressure in the steam drum will decrease, but proper drum level must be maintained.

NOTE
Figure 3-4 is a graph of static bed height versus bed
77

differential pressure. Figure 3-2 is a curve of fluidizing velocity versus air flow. With the measured air flow, Figure 3-2 may be used to obtain the superficial fluidizing velocity at a given bed temperature. While firing the designed fuel, the fluidizing velocity should not be allowed to drop below 1.2m/sec. A hot condition is one in which the average bed temperature (after being slumped) is above 650. If the average bed temperature is below 650, follow the procedures described for a cold start-up in Paragraph 3.3. To start-up the boiler from a hot condition, proceed as follows: a. Check water level in steam drum. If necessary, make adjustments to bring water to normal level (180mm below drum centerline). b. Prepare fuel and limestone feed systems and bed material extraction systems for operation. c. Start one (1) J-valve blowers and set air flow for proper fluidizing velocity. Place on Auto. d. Start ID fan and FD fan per the procedures described for a cold start-up, Paragraph 3.3.2.

CAUTION
IF LARGE AMOUNTS OF UNBURNED CARBON EXIST OR ARE SUSPECTED WITHIN THE BED, COMBUSTION AIR FLOW MUST BE INCREASED GRADUALLY IN ORDER TO PURGE THE BED AND ESTABLISH A CONTROLLED BURNING RATE. e. Adjust combustion air for 25% MCR conditions. When all fans
78

are running, proper air flows must again be established along with restart of the fuel feeds. Since the bed temperature can drop rapidly, it is important to acquire proper air flows and fuel feed rates. Otherwise, bed temperatures and O 2 values will not respond accordingly. If the unit does not respond to the proper feed rates of air and fuel, discontinue the hot start-up procedure and begin the cold start-up methods. Make certain to purge the unit of combustibles prior to lighting the under-bed burner. f. If during the hot restart solid fuel has been overfed into the bed and has not fully combusted as a higher bed temperature is again established, the bed temperatures may rise rapidly and O2 decrease rapidly. If this should happen, no further fuel feed should be added until the bed has stabilized. If the temperature rise appears to be rapid enough to climb above 930 , the following should be implemented in advance of achieving 930. 1. Lower the air supply to the bed to starve the combustion process. 2. If the unit doesnt stabilize as indicated by O 2 and bed temperature trends, the fluidizing air control damper should be closed to smother the fire.

NOTE
When re-establishing air flows in a hot start condition, bed temperatures may drop rapidly. Establish overfire air (secondary air) first and then grid air to minimize heat loss. g. Continue with hot restart following procedures listed in

79

Paragraph 3.3.4, steps f through q.

NOTE
if bed temperature does not rise within five minutes of the fuel feed, ignition has not occurred. The feed must be stopped, the unit purged and the unit started following the normal cold start-up procedure.

3.5. NORMAL OPERATION 3.5.1.Firing


The fluidized bed steam generator superheater outlet pressure should be maintained at its normal value of 100bar at all times during operation with the exception of start-up and shutdown of the boiler. a. The primary technique for changing the boiler load involves varying fuel feed rate and air flow. Bed temperature may be varied between 790 and 920 to permit large increments of change within a short period of time. However, after obtaining the desired steam rate, bed temperature should be re-established at 900 and boiler load held steady by adjusting bed inventory and firing rate. Normally when changing load, the best method is to maintain the bed temperature at a constant value if possible. In all cases, make sure that air flow tracks fuel flow either manually or automatically, to maintain a set excess O2 value. b. The SO2 emissions from the boiler should be monitored at all times. The limestone feed rate must be adjusted, either manually or automatically, to maintain an SO2 emissions level at the stack that is in compliance with concerned regulations. NOx emissions are inherently low within the furnace at the normal

80

temperature operating range. NOx emissions are increased as furnace temperature is increased. The NO x emission level at the Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) (stack) should be checked periodically. Adjustments, if necessary, should be made to operating furnace temperature and secondary air distribution through various airport levels. c. Periodically inspect the fluidized beds for even fluidization. A low temperature at any of the lower bed thermocouples is an indication of loss of fluidization. If a portion of the bed is not fluidizing, increase bed air flow and temporarily increase bed material extraction rate. If this increase does not improve fluidization, it may be necessary to shut down the boiler and inspect for plugging of the air distribution grid, clinkers in the bed or rock accumulation. d. Continuously monitor the gas side pressure differential through the convection heat transfer surface and periodically inspect the heater transfer surface for buildup of ash material. e. Periodically inspect the fuel and limestone feed systems for plugging, improper sounds, vibration, belt tracking, lubrication and

temperatures. f. Continuously monitor the fluidized bed level and maintain it at its normal level by adding limestone or increasing bed extraction rate. Bed material extraction will be required to maintain proper bed material inventory and SO2 control.

NOTE
To minimize line expansion and other system stresses, average temperature of ash leaving the cooler should be maintained below 150. From an efficiency

81

standpoint, cool the ash temperature as lower as possible. g. Continuously monitor the air distribution grid pressure differential. If this differential decreases significantly, check instrumentation for proper operation and sensing lines for plugging. If instrumentation operating properly, shut down the boiler and inspect the air distribution grid.

3.5.2.Water Chemistry and Steam Purity


a. Assure that the desired boiler water salt concentration and chemistry are maintained. Improper boiler water can lead to fouling or corrosion of internal surfaces, reducing the efficiency of the unit and possibly resulting in overheating of tubes leading to tube failure b. Assure that moisture carryover from the drum is within permissible limits. For operation within design condition, the steam separation equipment will keep salt carryover within acceptable limits. Moisture carried over can include salt and other impurities which may deposit on surfaces downstream of the boiler. c. The operation of the continuous blowdown valves should be determined by monitoring the boiler water chemistry. Use of these valves will increase input to the boiler for a given output. Note that drain valves on the lower waterwall headers should never be used for blowdown purposes when the unit is in operation.

3.5.3.SootBlowing
a. All external surfaces of tubes and elements must be kept reasonably free of deposits if full capacity and efficiency are to be maintained. Sootblowing should be used as often as necessary to accomplish this. b. After the unit is placed in service, operate the sootblowers to remove any
82

deposits which may be present. Sootblowing should always be done on the pre-established schedule basis regardless of the operating load; however, below 50% load the FD and ID fans should be in manual control during the sootblowing operation. c. Sootblowing operations are considered a part of the boiler operations and require frequent monitoring to achieve optimum cleaning. Monitoring or inspecting the following will insure an early establishment of the optimum sootblowing sequence: 1. Properly operate the drain valves of sootblowing. The result of improper operation of the drain valves or trap is tube erosion occurring within the first several feet of blower travel and is caused by water droplets entrained in the steam being propelled against the tube surface. 2. Check the settings of individual sootblower blowing pressures. Refer to manufacturers instructions for exact settings. 3. During unit down time, visually inspect the furnace convection passes for ash accumulations. 4. Monitor the high temp. (H/T) superheater final steam temperatures. 5. 6. 7. Monitor the changes in attemperator spray flows. Monitor economizer and airheater exit gas temperatures. Monitor airheater air and gas side pressure differential variations. 8. Monitor gas side system resistance through the HRA.

Typically, when the sootblowing system is first commissioned, the aforementioned boiler parameters are monitored and an optimized sootblowing sequence is adapted. Periodic monitoring of the system

83

can help prevent an unscheduled outage.

3.5.4.Spray Attemperation
Do not desuperheat the steam entering the SH wing wall and H/T superheater inlet header to less than 11 above saturation temperature at the inlet pressure of the transfer pipes.

3.6. NORMAL SHUTDOWN


a.Normal shutdown involves reducing the load on the unit in an orderly manner, thus allowing the turbine and boiler to be decoupled without causing temperature and pressure swings, while at the same time retaining as hot a unit as possible. Unit load reduction can be accomplished with all control in AUTO. b.Sootblowing before reducing load and taking unit out of service. c.During shutting down, do not exceed an maximum temperature difference of 40 between top and bottom of the drum. d.Control, as necessary, the superheater outlet temperature by regulating the attemperator spray water flow. Close the water shut-off valves when attemperation is no longer required. e.Check and maintain drum level at normal. f. Reduce unit load to minimum stable. Maintain minimum unit load for approximately 30 minutes to help cool cyclone refractory, otherwise cyclone tube temperatures will rise to greater than 420 . In such case, opening the cyclone upper header vent system. g.Transfer the boiler master control to manual. h.close all fuel silo hopper outlet shut-off valves and run all fuel off the feeders ( if an extended shutdown is expected). Also, empty the fuel storage silos to their lowest safe levels.

84

i. Stop limestone feeder systems. j. Monitor boiler oxygen levels and bed temperatures; when oxygen starts to increase and bed temperatures start to decrease, closing off the air (to plenum) control damper. k.As the load is reduced below approximately 10 percent of rated boiler capacity, open drain valves of the main steam line and H/T superheater outlet header. Pay attention to the control of the furnace cooling rate and these drain valves should not be completely closed off as long as steam is still generated during the process. l. After all fires have been extinguished, leave the FD and ID fans in operation for at least five minutes to purge the setting of combustibles. m. If pressure is to be maintained on the steam generator after being taken out of service, shut down the fans after purging the unit. Close any associated fan dampers to retain heat. Be sure bottom ash coolers have been emptied of material. When the drum pressure has fallen below the lowest set safety valves, and there is insufficient heat remaining in the setting to pop the safety valves, close the drain valves of the H/T superheater. The drain and vent valves should remain closed when not firing the unit. Exception to the foregoing may occur automatically by activation of cyclone tube protection system. n.Before firing a unit to maintain steam pressure, the H/T superheater outlet header downstream drain valves must be opened. Keep the drains open during firing and keep the feedwater supply system in operation as long as steam is generating from the unit. Maintain drum water level visible near normal level indication on the gage

85

glass when firing. o.If the boiler is to be out of service for an extended period or entered for maintenance, continue to cool down the unit using the fans, while removing bed material via the bottom ash cooler. The H/T superheater outlet header downstream drain valves may be regulated along with other superheater drains to decrease drum pressure at the desired rate. Cool the unit as uniformly as possible. The residual heat in the setting and the boiler components will continue to generate steam for considerable time. During this period, the boiler water level should be maintained near the upper limit of gage glass visibility. Once all bed material is removed from the unit, purge the boiler setting for five (5) minutes. The bottom ash cooler should then be removed from service. When the unit is cool enough for entry, the fans can be taken out of service. p.Stop the feeder systems. Shut down the FD and ID fans. q.The J-valve blower should remain in operation after the FD and ID f air fans are shut down. To prevent damage to J-valve components, the J-valve blower should remain on until valve cools to below 260 . r. Stop ash system. s.If the unit is to be drained, open all vents and drains when the drum pressure has decreased to 1bar. Temperature of the boiler water should not exceed 120 when the unit is drained. Draining the unit when there is still a small amount of pressure on the unit is preferred as the residual heat will assist in drying the internal surfaces. t. Superheater header drain and vent valves should remain open during short outages. u.Idle boilers should not be allowed to remain partially filled with water for
86

any appreciable length of time. Fill them completely with deaerated alkaline water into which hydrazine has been added as a protection against corrosion. If the outage will amount to several weeks or months, or should weather prohibit filling the unit, drain and dry the unit, placing shallow pans of a predetermined quantity of silica gel in the drums to absorb moisture and maintain the internal surfaces in a dry condition. When the unit is to be out of service for several days or longer, all ash and soot deposits should be removed since moisture absorbed by sulfur bearing ash or soot causes corrosion. It is advisable to sootblow the unit just before taking it out of service, if possible.

3.7. EMERGENCIES 3.7.1.Main Fuel Trip (MFT)


On a main fuel trip, the following actions will take place: a.Fuel feeders trip. b.Limestone systems trip. c.under-bed burner trips. d.Bottom ash cooler trip. e.All air flow controls transfer to manual mode and hold last position. f. Fan controls transfer to manual mode and hold last position unless the cause is a fan trip, in which case, fan controls follow fan logic. g.Output signal to combustion control limits ID fan automatic control from going above the furnace draft limit. h.Boiler Purge Requiredlogic is set unless it is aHot Restartcondition.

87

3.7.1.1. Any of the following conditions will cause a boiler main fuel trip (MFT).
1. 2. Both MFT push buttons pressed simultaneously. Bed temperature greater than 980 (from Combustion Control System). 3. 4. Loss of logic power. Furnace pressure high high, +260mmH 2O (2 out of 3 logic) (with time delay). 5. Furnace pressure low low, -260mmH 2O (2 out of 3 logic) (with time delay). 6. Steam drum level high high, +120mm above normal ( with time delay ) (2 out of 3 logic ). 7. Steam drum level low low, -120mm below normal ( with time delay ) ( 2 out of 3 logic ). 8. 9. 10. ID fan tripped. Primary & Secondary fan tripped. Total air flow low, less than 25% (with time delay) (from Combustion control System). 11. Combustion Control System Power failure (from Combustion Control System ). 12. Total air/fuel ratio less than minimum (from Combustion Control System). 13. under-bed burner not in service and bed temperature is less than 650. 14. High furnace plenum pressure
88

(with

time

delay) (from

Combustion Control System). 15. 16. 17. 18. Two J-valve blowers tripped. Turbine trip. Cyclone level high high (with time delay). Start-up time exceeded.

3.7.2.Emergency Operating Procedures 3.7.2.1. Tube Leak


If a boiler tube leak is suspected (either through high make-up water usage, abnormal deviation between feedwater flow and main steam flow, or audio or visual inspection), the unit must be taken out of service as quickly as possible, under a controlled shutdown, to minimize moisture getting into the bed material. The unit load should be ramped down as quickly as possible and all fuel feed to the unit stopped. Close the isolation gates on all fuel feeders. Restart or continue to operate the bottom ash coolers and ash removal system at a maximum rate. Continue to operate fans and maintain air flow to the furnace to keep material moving into the bottom ash cooler. Some air flow to the secondary air ports should be established to keep moisture out of ducts. Reduce drum pressure as slowly as possible and maintain drum level, if possible. Continue to cool the unit and extract bed material until the unit is empty of bed material and cool enough to enter. During cool-down, do not exceed a 40 differential temperature between top and bottom of the steam drum. The drum level should be maintained until the boiler water temperature is

reduced below 120; then the boiler should be drained. If the tube

89

leak is in the furnace, it may be necessary to use the under-bed burner while removing the bed material from the furnace to assist with evaporation of the lost boiler water. If the bed is damp and drops below 180, it may plug the ash handling system or stay within the furnace. If the under-bed burner is utilized, it is important that the burner temperature be kept below 315. Before entering the unit for any reason, check that safe temperature has been reached, conduct gas sniff test for safety levels and wear proper protective clothing. When access to the bed is possible and all bed material that is possible to remove is extracted, enter the unit to assess the extent of the tube leak and amount of bed material remaining. Any material, wet or dry, left in the beds should be removed as soon as possible before it has a chance to solidify. Solidified bed material below the level of the grid nozzles need not be removed. However, the grid nozzles must be inspected and any plugged nozzles cleaned out by rodding with high pressure air from below the nozzles. Make certain no one is working on the opposite side of the nozzle.

3.7.2.2. Excessive Bed Temperatures


Excessive high bed temperature can lead to clinkers (fused ash) and damage to in-bed thermowell, thermocouples, grid nozzles, etc. High bed temperature should be avoided by increasing limestone feed rates and shutting down the bottom ash coolers in an effort to increase bed inventory and cool bed temperatures. Load should be reduced and fuel flow reduced, until bed temperatures start decreasing to avoid the formation of clinkers.

90

3.7.2.3. Clinkered Bed


Clinkersin the bed are considered to be agglomerated masses of fusing or cemented ash which can be formed when firing fuel with low air/fuel ratios, elevated temperatures of bed or reduced superficial velocity. The risk of forming clinkers is greater at temperatures exceeding 920. If any of the above abnormal operating conditions are encountered, the operator should monitor the individual bed thermocouples. If clinkers form, a localized hot spot will appear, followed by localized defluidization and a zone of low bed temperatures. If it is confirmed that the isolated zone of low bed temperatures is not due to faulty instrumentation or lack of fluidizing air, a clinker is to be suspected and the instructions for normal shutdown should be followed, the unit taken out of service and all possible bed material removed from the cell. The actual cool-down time is dependent upon the boiler load and bed temperature at the time of shutdown. Also, When the drum water temperature drops to 120, the unit can be drained to aid cooling. During cool down, a maximum of 40 differential temperature between the top and bottom of the drum should not be exceeded. Maintain minimum air flow, equivalent to 1.2m/sec superficial velocity, to the bed for cooling and to ensure transfer of loose bed material to the bed drain. When the unit is cool and no more bed material can be removed through the bed drain system, shut down the fans and make the necessary safety preparations to enter the furnace. Enter the unit and evaluate the extent of the clinkers. Small accumulations can be broken up and removed. Inspect for any damage to the bed thermocouples and grid nozzles. Repair or
91

replace as necessary. All grid nozzles should be inspected for plugging and cleaned out as required.

3.7.3.Overpressure Protection
To protect the steam generator and associated equipment during operation malfunction resulting in an over pressurization of pressure parts, the following safety valves and relieving devices are installed for the unit.

Description

Location

Qty.

Set Pressure (Bar) 105 118.9

Safety Valve Safety Valve

Main steam header Steam Drum

1 1

3.8. MAINTENANCE
a.During long-term boiler shutdowns, observe the following:

CAUTION
DO NOT FILL THE BOILER WITH NITROGEN UNTIL AFTER ALL INTERNAL PRESSURE PART

INSPECTIONS AND/OR MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES ARE COMPLETED. PROVISION SHOULD BE MADE FOR NITROGEN PROTECTION OF THE IDLE BOILER BY CONNECTING A NITROGEN SUPPLY, THROUGH A REGULATING VALVE, TO A DRUM VENT. If an idle boiler is not drained, the areas above the water level in the drum should be filled with nitrogen through the above mentioned access on the drum. The nitrogen cap should be established when the pressure of the boiler being removed from service decreases to
92

about 0.35Bar. Maintain the nitrogen cap during the shut down period. During idle periods, the boiler must be protected against freezing conditions. This may be done by firing the under-bed burner with low heat input to maintain temperatures throughout the boiler above freezing. If weather or other conditions prevent leaving the unit filled, it should be drained and dried. Place several shallow pans of a predetermined quantity of silica gel in the drum to absorb moisture and maintain the internal surfaces in a dry condition. b. When the unit is shut down for repairs, it should never be entered until it has been determined that all fuel shut off valves and dampers are locked in the closed position. Should there be some questions about their tightness, it is recommended that the fuel lines be blanked off.

CAUTION
THERE ARE ACCESSIBLE AREAS IN THE BOILER THAT COULD EXPOSE PERSONNEL TO

HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS. SOME OF THESE AREAS ARE THE FURNACE VESTIBULE AT THE CYCLONE INLET, WHERE QUICK DROP-OFFS INTO THE FURNACE AND CYCLONE EXIT, THE JVALVE, WHERE HOT BED MATERIALS COULD ACCUMULATE, AND VIRTUALLY EVERY ACCESS DOOR, WHERE BACK KICK COULD OCCUR. BEFORE OPENING ANY ACCESS DOOR, FOR ANY REASON, GUARD EXERCISE AGAINST EXTREME CAUTION TO

THESE

DANGERS.

WEAR

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND STAND TO ONE SIDE (DO NOT JUST FACE THE DOORS) WHEN
93

OPENING DOORS. USE SUITABLE BREATHING APPARATUS NECESSARY, AND SAFETY CLOTHING, AS

WHEN ENTERING THE BOILER.

CARRY OR INSTALL ADEQUATE LIGHTING AND ALWAYS BE AWARE OF IMMEDIATE

SURROUNDINGS WHEN INSIDE.

CAUTION
PROPER GAS SNIFF AND TESTING PROPER SHOULD O2 BE

ACCOMPLISHED ESTABLISHED.

LEVELS

c. Only approved safety types of lights and flashlights should be used when inspecting and working in the boiler. d. During outages, the pressure containing parts and other internal surfaces should be inspected when possible. Unusual signs of wear or accumulations should be investigated and the causes corrected. e. Inspect each air distribution grid plate nozzle for plugging and clean out as necessary. f. When inspection door are opened for access, the used gaskets should be replaced with new ones. g. During overhaul periods, the under-bed burner should be carefully inspected for any damage and maintenance repairs be made. h. Repair all tube leaks as soon as possible. Leaks which are allowed to persist can cause further damage due to water or steam cutting of adjacent tubes. Repairs should not be attempted on parts which are still subjected to pressure. Repair to pressure parts should be accomplished when all pressure has been removed and the system isolated.
94

i. Combustion control equipment and other control equipment such as feedwater regulators and steam temperature controllers should be kept in optimum adjustment at all times. Efficiency depends upon the proper functioning of these equipments. j. Check all fuel and limestone feed piping and bed material extraction piping for plugging, erosion, overheating, etc. Repair or replace as necessary. k. All valve and packing leaks should be repaired during the outage period. This will help prevent forced outages. l. Thoroughly inspect the general conditions of all thermocouples and pressure taps and repair as necessary for reliable operation. m. Check plenum floor for accumulation of spent bed material due to back sifting through grid plate air nozzles. Remove material if excessive. n. Careful inspection of the boiler pressure parts should be made to monitor any erosion of tubes. Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements as well as tube outside diameters should be recorded on a regular basis (1 2 times a year). The areas to be monitored include the furnace wall tubes, HRA inlet screen tubes, superheater tubes and economizer tubes. o. The cyclone, J-valve, furnace bottom/roof and furnace exit refractory should be inspected on a regular basis and repaired as necessary.

4 Figure

Fig 1-1 Optimum size distribution for coal

95

96

Fig 1-2 Sectional side elevation of boiler

97

Fig 1-3 Steam and water diagram of boiler

98

Fig 1-4 Gas and air diagram of boiler

99

Fig1-5 Drum internals

100

Fig 1-6 Arrangement of downcomers

101

Fig 2-1 The boiling out pressure for different design pressure

102

Fig 3-1 Oxygen measurement of approximately % by volume on a wet basis

103

Fig 3-2 Relationship between bed pressure and fluidizing velocity

104

Fig 3-3 The minimum steam temperature after spray

105

Fig 3-4 Relationship between bed pressure and height of static bed material

106

Fig 3-5 Cold start curve

107

Fig3-6 Warm start curve

Fig3-7 Hot start curve

108

109

Fig 3-8JValve Piping Connection Drawing

110

5 Table
Table 1 Thermodynamic Calculation Collecting Table for Coal rank COAL2 in Boiler Design Boiler Specification Name & sign Unit Result Name & sign Unit Result Rating steam outlet Boiler rating vapour t/h 130 510 temperature tgr volume D Steam outlet Bar (g) 100 Drum working Bar (g) 111 pressure Pgr pressure Pgt Economizer inlet Bar (g) Feedwater 170 116 feedwater pressure Pgs temperature tgs Continious % 2 Cooling air 30 blowdown rate Ppw temperature tlk Fuel Calculation Name & sign Unit Result Name & sign Unit Result As-received basis % 62.61 As-received basis % 4.08 Cy Hy As-received basis % 6.09 As-received basis % 1.01 Oy Ny As-received basis % 0.72 As-received basis % 13.89 Sy Wy As-received basis % 13.89 Combustionable % 40 Ay group volatile Low heating value kcal/kg 5831 Fuel check value kcal/kg 5820 Qdwy Qv Theoretic air value Nm3/kg 6.43 VAirA Furnace outlet Boiler outlet excessive / 1.2 1.25
excessive air coefficient air coefficient

Temperature of bottom ash discharged from furnace bottom Carbon contents in fly ash

200

Material circulation ratio

21.2

Carbon contents in bottom bottom ash

111

Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Moisture Ca/S Moore ratio

% % /

Name & sign Heat loss due to flue gas exhaust q2


Loss due to mechanical incomplete combustion q4

Unit %

Limestone Features 90 Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 0.2 Inertia index 2.5 Desulfurazing efficiency Heat Balance Calculation Result Name & sign Loss due to chemical 5.29
incomplete combustion q3

% % %

3.0 1.0 83

Unit %

Result 0.1

1.07

Loss due to heat radiation q5 SO2 sulfation radiation Manufacturer margin Guaranteed boiler heat efficiency Fuel consumption B Total burnt air

0.4

Decalescence in calcining limestone Heat loss due to bottom ash radiation q6


Calculated boiler heat efficiencygl

% %

0.39 0.04

% %

-0.37 0.25

% kg/h kg/h kg/h mn3/h kg/h mn3/h mn3/h

93.09 15224 952 0 132400 2303 53500 55300 Furnace

% Kg/h Mn3/h

92.8 15389 118800

Calculated fuel consumption Bj Limestone consumption Inertia material Flue gas at boiler outlet Fly ash Primary input air in furnace bottom Secondary input air

Total bottom ash Bottom bottom ash Coaling input air input air for returning material Name & sign

Kg/h Kg/h Mn3/h Mn3/h

3071 768 10000 1150

Name & sign Bed temperature"

Unit

Result 899

Unit

Result 917

Outlet flue gas temperature" Boiler outlet discharge

Fly ash concentration at boiler outlet

g/mn3

17.5

Primary discharge mg/mn3 of SO2

1671

112

Discharge of SO2 mg/mn3 after desulfurization Discharge mg/mn3 concentration of NOx Name & sign Desuperheater type Unit

284 Discharge concentration of CO Desuperheater calculation Result


Desuperhe ating by water spray

<300

mg/mn3

<250

Name & sign Spraying water temperature T

Unit

Result 170

Total water sprayed by desuperheater D Water sprayed by desuperheater I D


Steam temperature at desuperheater I inlet t1

T/h

7.4

T/h

3.5 409
Steam temperature at desuperheater I outlet t2

388

Water sprayed by desuperheater II D


Steam temperature at desuperheater II inlet t1 Name & sign

T/h

3.9 453
Steam temperature at desuperheater II outlet t2

426

Heat transfer component calculating results collection Unit Screen Cyclone Wall High Low type separator enclosur temp. Temp. superhe e superheat superhe ater superhe er ater ater 427 426 425 426 425 / / 388 917 867 319 867 / 344 822 668 426 668 576 370

Tube size Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Working medium inlet temperature Working medium outlet temperature

mm

453

344

370

510

409

113

Flue gas average velocity Name & sign

m/s

11.7

10.3

Unit

Economize Economizer Economize Economizer r IV III r II I

Tube size Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Working medium inlet temperature Working medium outlet temperature Flue gas average velocity

mm m/s

324 576 466 240 275 8.4

324 466 389 214 240 8.1

324 389 313 188 214 8.0

324 313 260 170 188 6.9

Primary ducting air preheater 401.5 260 / 30 185 7.6

Secondary ducting air preheater 401.5 / 135 30 185 7.2

114

Table 2. Boiler check coal rank COAL1 thermodynamic calculation collection table Boiler Specification Name & sign Unit Result Name & sign Unit Result Rating steam outlet Boiler rating vapour t/h 130 510 temperature tgr volume D Steam outlet bar(g) 100 Drum working bar(g) 111 pressure Pgr pressure Pgt Economizer inlet bar(g) Feedwater 170 116 feedwater pressure Pgs temperature tgs Continious % 2 Cooling air 30 blowdown rate Ppw temperature tlk Fuel Calculation Name & sign Unit Result Name & sign Unit Result As-received basis % 48.73 As-received basis % 3.53 Cy Hy As-received basis % 14.03 As-received basis % 0.48 Oy Ny As-received basis % 0.11 As-received basis % 30 Sy Wy As-received basis % 3.11 Combustionable % 51.2 Ay group volatile Low heating value kcal/kg 4269 Fuel check value kcal/kg 4274 Qdwy Qv Theoretic air value Nm3/kg 4.804 VAirA Furnace outlet Boiler outlet excessive / 1.2 1.25
excessive air coefficient air coefficient

Temperature of bottom ash discharged from furnace bottom Carbon contents in fly ash Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Moisture Ca/S Moore ratio

200

Material circulation ratio

20.1

% % /

Carbon contents in bottom bottom ash Limestone Features 90 Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 0.2 Inertia index 2.5 Desulfurazing efficiency

% % %

3.0 1.0 30

115

Name & sign Heat loss due to flue gas exhaust q2


Loss due to incomplete mechanical combustion q4

Unit %

Heat Balance Calculation Result Name & sign Loss due to 6.03
incomplete chemical combustion q3

Unit %

Result 0.1

1.62

Loss due to heat radiation q5 SO2 sulfation radiation Manufacturer margin Guaranteed boiler heat efficiency Fuel consumption B Total burnt air

0.4

Decalescence in calcining limestone Heat loss due to bottom ash radiation q6


Calculated boiler heat efficiencygl

% %

0.06 0.05

% %

-0.03 0

% kg/h kg/h kg/h mn3/h kg/h mn3/h mn3/h

91.75 20881 160 3764 142000 3549 54600 56600 Furnace

% kg/h mn3/h

/ 20936 121200

Calculated fuel consumption Bj Limestone consumption Inertia material Flue gas at boiler outlet Fly ash Primary input air in furnace bottom Secondary input air

Total bottom ash Bottom bottom ash Coaling input air Input air for returning material Name & sign

kg/h kg/h mn3/h mn3/h

4732 1183 10000 1150

Name & sign Bed temperature"

Unit

Result 888

Unit

Result 900

Outlet flue gas temperature" Boiler outlet discharge 25

Fly ash concentration at boiler outlet Discharge of SO2 after desulfurization Discharge concentration of NOx

g/mn3

Primary discharge mg/mn3 of SO2

325

mg/mn3 mg/mn3

228 <300 Discharge concentration CO mg/mn3 of <250

116

Desuperheater calculation Name & sign Desuperheater type Unit Result


Desuperhe ating by water spray

Name & sign Spraying water temperature T

Unit

Result 170

Total water sprayed by desuperheater D Water sprayed by desuperheater I D


Steam temperature at desuperheater I inlet t1

T/h T/h

8.1 3.5 410


Steam temperature at desuperheater I outlet t2

389

Water sprayed by desuperheater II D


Steam temperature at desuperheater II inlet t1

T/h

4.6 452
Steam temperature at desuperheater II outlet t2

421

Heat transfer parts calculation result collection Name & sign Unit
Wall High Low wing wall Cyclone separator enclosure temperature temperatur superheater superheater e superheater

Tube size Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Working medium inlet temperature Working medium outlet temperature Flue gas average velocity

mm m/s

427 / / 389 452 /

426 900 855 319 344 /

425 855 / 344 367 /

426 817 665 421 510 12.7

425 665 574 367 410 11.1

117

Name & sign

Unit

Economize Economizer Economizer Economizer Primary r IV III II I ducting air preheater

Secondary ducting air preheater

Tube size Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Working medium inlet temperature Working medium outlet temperature Flue gas average velocity

mm m/s

324 574 467 245 282 9.1

324 467 392 218 245 8.8

324 392 316 190 218 8.6

324 316 262 170 190 7.5

401.5 401.5 262 / 30 185 8.3 / 141 30 185 7.8

118

Table 3. Boiler check coal rank COAL3 thermodynamic calculation collection table Boiler specification Name & sign Unit Result Name & sign Unit Result Rating steam outlet Boiler rating vapour t/h 130 510 temperature tgr volume D Steam outlet bar(g) 100 Drum working bar(g) 111 pressure Pgr pressure Pgt Economizer inlet Feedwater 170 bar(g) 116 feedwater pressure temperature tgs
Pgs

Continious blowdown rate Ppw Name & sign


As-received basis Cy As-received basis Oy As-received basis Sy As-received basis Ay Low heating value Qdwy

Unit % % % % kcal/kg Nm3/kg /

Theoretic air value VAirA


Furnace outlet excessive air coefficient

Cooling air temperature tlk Fuel calculation Result Name & sign As-received basis Hy 62.74 As-received basis Ny 8.89 As-received basis Wy 1.32 10.25 Combustionable group volatile Fuel check value Qv 6024 6.587 1.2
Boiler outlet excessive air coefficient

30

Unit % % % % kcal/kg

Result 4.76 1.02 11 40 5990

1.25

Temperature of bottom ash discharged from furnace bottom Carbon contents in fly ash Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Moisture Ca/S Moore ratio

200

Material circulation ratio

22.3

% % /

Carbon contents in bottom bottom ash Limestone features 90 Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 0.2 Inertia index 2.5 Desulfurazing efficiency

% % %

3.0 1.0 90

119

Name & sign Heat loss due to flue gas exhaust q2


Loss due to mechanical incomplete combustion q4

Unit %

Heat balance calculation Result Name & sign Loss due to chemical 5.26
incomplete combustion q3

Unit %

Result 0.1

1.09

Loss due to heat radiation q5 SO2 sulfation radiation Manufacturer margin Guaranteed boiler heat efficiency Fuel consumption B Total burnt air

0.4

Decalescence in calcining limestone Heat loss due to bottom ash radiation q6


Calculated boiler heat efficiencygl

% %

0.69 0.04

% %

-0.71 0

% kg/h kg/h kg/h mn3/h kg/h mn3/h mn3/h

93.14 14726 1687 0 129900 2343 52400 54000 Furnace

% Kg/h Mn3/h

/ 14888 116400

Calculated fuel consumption Bj Limestone consumption Inertia material Flue gas at boiler outlet Fly ash Primary input air in furnace bottom Secondary input air

Total bottom ash Bottom bottom ash Coaling input air Input air for returning material Name & sign

Kg/h Kg/h Mn3/h Mn3/h

3123 781 10000 1150

Name & sign Bed temperature"

Unit

Result 923

Unit

Result 883

Outlet flue gas temperature" Boiler outlet discharge Primary discharge of SO2

Fly ash g/mn3 concentration at boiler outlet Discharge of SO2 mg/mn3 after desulfurization Discharge mg/mn3 concentration of NOx

17.9

mg/mn3

2988

298 <300 Discharge concentration of CO mg/mn3 <250

120

Desuperheater calculation Name & sign Desuperheater type Unit Result


Desuperhe ating by water spray

Name & sign Spraying water temperature T

Unit

Result 170

Total water sprayed by desuperheater D Water sprayed by desuperheater I D Steam temperature at desuperheater I inlet t1 Water sprayed by desuperheater II D Steam temperature at desuperheater II inlet t1

T/h T/h

7.2 3.5 408


Steam temperature at desuperheater I outlet t2

387

T/h

3.7 452
Steam temperature at desuperheater II outlet t2 Cyclone separator

427

Heat transfer parts calculation result collection Name & sign Unit
Wing wall Wall High Low enclosure temperature temperature superheater superheater superheater

Tube size Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Working medium inlet temperature Working medium outlet temperature Flue gas average velocity

mm

427 / / 387

426 883 866 319

425 866 / 344

426 820 667 427

425 668 575 369

452

344

369

510

408

m/s

11.7

10.2

121

Name & sign

Unit

Economize Economizer Economize Economizer Primary r IV III r II I ducting air preheater

Secondary ducting air preheater

Tube size Flue gas inlet temperature Flue gas outlet temperature Working medium inlet temperature Working medium outlet temperature Flue gas average velocity

mm

324 575 465 239

324 465 388 214

324 388 312 188

324 312 259 170

401.5 401.5 259 / 30 / 135 30

274

239

214

188

185

185

m/s

8.3

8.0

7.8

6.8

7.5

7.1

Table 4. Flue Gas and Air Resistance Collection Table Coal rank Unit Primary air resistance Secondary air resistance Flue gas resistance Loop-seal device high pressure air resistance 48000

Coal 1 Coal 2 Coal 3

Pa Pa Pa

14000 13500 13500

9500 9000 9000

4000 3700 3700

Table 5. Steam water Resistance Collection Table Superheater resistance Economizer resistance Unitbar Unitbar 11 5

Table 6. JValve Air Nozzle Charge Volume Temperature 100890Descend tube air
flow Nm3/hr NANozzle button 15070A17~A20Charge aperture3520A13~A16Charge

122

aperture3520A1~A4Charge aperture5510A5~A8Charge aperture2010Subtotal 295130Ascend tube air flow Nm3/hr NBNozzle button 12050A9~A12Charge aperture2010Subtotal 14060Total435190

123