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# Institute of Business and Technology

Applied Thermodynamics
Assignment #1b
Of

Chapter 1

Recommended Books: Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering and Technology. Pearson. Fundamental of Physics by Haliday , Resnick and Walker. 9th Edition. Developed by:Adnan Alam Khan(Write2adnanalamkhan@gmail.com) Department of Computer Science & Information Technology 1

## Institute of Business and Technology

1.1 What is thermodynamics? Thermodynamics is the study of interaction between matter and energy. The name comes from the Greek words Therme (heat) and dynamis (dynamite/power), and was first used by Lord Kelvin (formerly William Thomson) in an 1849 publication. 1.1.1 Artificial subdivisions of thermodynamics There are two basic areas of thermodynamics: microscopic and macroscopic. Microscopic study: This area focuses on microscopic issues. Its main focus is the structure of matter and the interaction of molecules in collisions. It is known as statistical physics, or statistical thermodynamics. Macroscopic study: This area focuses on macroscopic (bulk) energy flow. It is typically referred to as Classical Thermodynamics, or Engineering Thermodynamics. This field focuses on the transfer of energy the transformation of energy the storage of energy 1.1.2 Engineering Thermodynamics Engineering thermodynamics, as a discipline, can be subdivided into three broad areas of study: the transformation of energy from one form into another (e.g., a car skids to a stop --> kinetic energy work--> heat) the transfer of energy across boundaries (heat + piston-cylinder container of water work --> move piston) the storage of energy in molecules (heat, internal energy) 1.2 What is Energy? Energy comes in many forms. It can be thought of as "the ability to cause change". Here are a few common forms of energy: kinetic energy *energy due to motion+ potential energy *energy due to position, or the configuration of a system] internal energy *energy stored in the molecules,both potential and kinetic-associated with temperature] chemical energy *energy due to chemical composition (i.e., energy due to the arrangement of molecules with respect to other molecules in the system)] nuclear energy *subatomic energy (i.e, energy stored in the nucleus of an atom)+ In order for energy to change from one form to another it must go through some sort of transition. The transition process is a mechanism for converting one form of energy to another. Here are two conversion mechanisms: work *mechanical energy in transit+ heat *molecular energy in transit+ 1.3 What is a system? A first step in any analysis is to describe precisely what is to be studied. If you can't do this, then you have no hope of solving "the problem". The subject under investigation is known as the system. Definition: A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. For brevity, we will use the verbiage system in place of thermodynamic system from here forward. Definition: Everything external to the system is the defined to be the system's surroundings. Definition: The area separating the system from its surrounding is the boundary of the system. The boundary may be at rest or in motion. The boundary is the collection of points that is in contact with both the system and its surroundings. It is a surface, and since a surface is a two-dimensional object, it has zero volume. Developed by:Adnan Alam Khan(Write2adnanalamkhan@gmail.com) Department of Computer Science & Information Technology 2

## Institute of Business and Technology

Definition: A closed system is a definite quantity of matter contained within some closed surface. A closed system is sometimes referred to as a control mass because the matter composing the system is assumed known for all time. Definition: A system is said to be isolated if no energy is transferred across the boundaries. Definition: An open system is a definite fixed location in space. The system is called open because mass may flow in or out of the system. An open system is sometimes referred to as a control volume because the location composing the system is assumed known for all time. Definition: For a given quantity of matter, a phase is a state where all of the matter has the same chemical composition throughout. Matter that is in the same phase is homogeneous. Definition: A property is any quantity which serves to describe a system. For our purposes, a property is any macroscopic characteristic of a system that can be assigned a numerical value at a given time without knowledge of the previous history of the behavior of the system. Definition: The state of a system is the condition of the system as determined by its properties. Definition: A process is a transformation from one state to another. Whenever any property of a system undergoes a change (e.g, a change in pressure), then by definition the state changes, and the system is said to have undergone a process (also called a transformation in older physics books). Definition: If none of a system's properties change with time, then the system is said to be in steady state. Definition: A property of a system is called extensive if its value for the overall system is the sum of the values of the parts to which the system has been divided into. Some examples of extensive properties are: mass, volume, and energy. Extensive properties, as the name suggests, depend on the extent (size) of the system. Definition: A property of a system is called intensive if its value is independent of the extent (size) of the system, and may vary from place to place and from moment to moment. Some examples of intensive properties are: density, specific volume, pressure, and temperature. Definition: A dimension is a name given to any measurable physical quantity. The Fundamental Dimensions: Mass M Length L Time T Definition: The Dimensionator [ ] is the "take the fundamental dimensions of" operator. Definition: The Uninator [ ] is the "take the Base Units of" operator. The Base SI Units: For Length the meter, denoted by m. For Mass the kilogram, denoted by kg. For Time the second, denoted by s. For Temperature the kelvin, denoted by K (this is an absolute temperature). For Electric Current the ampere, denoted by A. For Luminous Intensity the candela, denoted by cd.

Developed by:Adnan Alam Khan(Write2adnanalamkhan@gmail.com) Department of Computer Science & Information Technology 3

## Institute of Business and Technology

Static fluids Pascal's law: Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container. Archimedes principle: A body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. The zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems A and C are each in thermodynamic equilibrium with a third system B, then A and C are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other. The Four Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics: Zeroth Law (temperature satisfies a transitive property, which turns out to justify the use of thermometers) First Law (conservation of energy) Second Law (asserts energy has a quality as well as quantity) Third Law (says you can't reach absolute zero in definitely many steps).

Developed by:Adnan Alam Khan(Write2adnanalamkhan@gmail.com) Department of Computer Science & Information Technology 4