Você está na página 1de 10

E.

Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 1 von 10
1TU-040
Turbulent Pipe Flow
Contents: Simplification of the Reynolds Equations for fully developed pipe flow,
Modelling of the Eddy Viscosity, Solution for the velocity, three layers of the
velocity profile, solution of the energy equation for the temperature
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 2 von 10
Introduction
fluctuation
z
r
max
u
Profile of the time-averaged
velovity
average (i.e. averaged over
the pipe cross section)
velocity
m
u
( ) r u
z
2300
d u
Re
m
d
>


=
Reynolds Number
) r ( u ) t , r ( u ) t , r ( ' u
d ) , r ( u
t
1
) r ( u
z z z
z
t t
t
z
r r r
r r
=

=
+
average value
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 3 von 10
Reynolds Equations in cylindrical Coordinates, 2D
Simplification for fully developed pipe flow
equation for
{
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
43 42 1
3 2 1
43 42 1 43 42 1
43 42 1
3 2 1 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
43 42 1 43 42 1
0
z z z r
0
2
z
2
z
2
z
2
0
z z
0
z r
0
r z r r
0
2
z
2
0
r r
2
r
2
0
r z
0
r r
r r
r
0
z r r
z
u u
r
u u
z
u
r
u
r
1
r
u
dz
p d
z
u u
r
u u
z
u u
r
u u
z
u
r
u
r
u
r
1
r
u
r
p
z
u u
r
u u
0 u ; 0 u 0
r
u r
r
1
z
u
r
u
r
u
=
=
= =
=
= =
= =
=



|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
.
|

\
|



|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

= =

+ +

z
u
must be modelled
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 4 von 10
( )
( )
y
u
u v
y
u
y
u
y dx
p d
y
u v
y
u
dx
p d
0
T
Re
yx T
2
2

= =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

+ =
Wall Units (Prandtl)
z
u , z
cartesian coordinates
( )
r
u u
r
u
r
r r dz
p d
0
z r z



|
.
|

\
|


+ =
cylindrical coordinates
y,v
x,u
r
u , r
Chosen formally analogous
(is justified, because effect on
the mean flow in analogous)
Eddy viscosity
(must be modelled)
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 5 von 10
Prandtls Mixing Length
) y ( u
lump of
turbulence
x,u
mean
velocity
y,v
mixing length l
defined as that downstream distance, which is
needed for the lump of turbulence, to be
completely mixed with the surrounding fluid
Turbulent shear
flow along
solid wall
(not valid close
to the wass)
y
u
l ~ u
y
u
l ~ v

lump of
turbulence
(mixed)
v ~
u ~

y
u

E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 6 von 10
( )
y
u
l
y
u
v
y
u
l
u
y
u
l v u
2
T
T

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
43 42 1 43 42 1
Eddy Viscosity Model
Prandtls mixing length
ansatz
from measurements: l = 0,4 y
Prandtl:
mixing length increases with the wall distance
fluctuations are proportional to the mixing length
eddy viscosity is proportional to the mean shear
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 7 von 10
without derivation
(
(

=
R
r
2
R
r
1
R
r
1
ln u
2 . 3
u ) r ( u
2
zm
R
max z z
universal
velocity
law
+R
u
Z
u
z max
viscous sublayer
) (
T
>
(mixing-length ansatz not valid)
0 0 r
T
= = bei
(in contrast to observations)
Solution of the z-Momentum Equation
= =
= =
) R r ( u
u ) 0 r ( u
z
max z z
Only valid in the wall layer !
Re=10
5
Re>10
6
7 / 1
max
)
R
r
1 (
u
u
=
good approximation:
1/7-power law
+R
-R
u
z max


=
=
R 2 u
Re
Re 3164 , 0
zm
4
R
with
corrected:
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 8 von 10
Energy Equation
to be inserted
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 9 von 10
q
w
=const
T
w
=T
w
(z)
Temperature problem
Pr = 100
Pr = 1
Pr = 0,01
+R
-R
T
w
(z=const.)
T(r,z=const.)
Dominated by momentum transport
heat transport mechanism:
exchange dou to turbulent fluctuations
flow dominates over heat transport,
molecular viscous sublayer
momentum transport and heat transport
equally important.
Heat transport mainly due to turbulent
fluctuations
heat transport dominates
turbulence has only a small
influence on the heat transport;
heat transport mainly due to
molecular heat conductivity
: ) l ( 1 Pr >> : 1 Pr ) Gase (
: 1 Pr ) Metalle . flss ( <<
warm
kalt
E. Laurien - Universitt Stuttgart - 1TU-040 - Turbulent Pipe Flow - 04-03 - page 10 von 10
Pr = 0,001
Heat Transfer of the fully developed Pipe Flow (schematic)
Pr) (Re, Nu
Nu
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
4,36
2300
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
Re
uncertain
1000
10
1
6