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Use Cases: 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Self-Organizing
3.11.2011

Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 1

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 2

LTE (3.9G) and LTE-A(4G)


High data rates (100Mbps (1Gbps LTE-A) downlink and 50Mbps uplink) Low latency Support Mobility No more RNC (Radio Network Controller) RNC functionalities are moved in eNodeB X2 interface for seamless mobility (i.e. data/context forwarding) and interference management

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 3

Costs
CAPital EXpenditures (CAPEX) determine the direction and level of investment telecommunications carriers make (in network equipment as well as services) CAPEX is based on a combination of two primary factors
Number of customers served Volume and quality of services provided

OPerational EXpenditures (OPEX) : running cost

Growing wireless markets imply gowing OPEX


3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 4

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Drivers For Self-Organization


High complexity and high number of parameters Operation of heterogeneous networks Expanding number of Base Stations (BSs)
Introducing of home evolved NodeBs (eNodeBs) leads to a huge number of nodes to be operated in multi-vendor scenarios
OPEX is expanding

Reduction of OPEX requires reducing human interactions by


Configuring and optimizing the network automatically while allowing the operator to be the final control instance

High quality must be ensured SONs are essential


3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 5

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Drivers For Self-Organization


SON can improve the network performance and quality of service. This can be achieved through applying different techniques that can optimize the performance of the network. Unlike 2G and 3G, in next generation mobile communication networks, there will be no need for RNC. Therefore the eNodeBs will be more interactive. There is room for cooperative management of base stations among different operators.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 6

Functionalities Of SONs

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 7

Functionalities Of SONs

Self-Configuration (plug and play)

Auto-setup Autodetection ...

neighbor Self-Planning (dynmic re-computation)

Self-Optimization (auto-tune)

Coverage & capacity Mobility robustness Load balancing ... HW/SW failuer detection Cell outage detection ...

Self-Healing (auto-repair)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 8

Self-Configuration
Definition
The process where newly deployed eNBs are configured by automatic installation procedures to get the necessary basic configuration for system operation

Works in preoperational state How


Create logical associations with the network
Establishment of necessary security contexts (providing a secure control channel between new elements and servers in the network)

Download configuration files from a configuration server (using NETCONF protocol) Doing a self-test to ensure that everything is working as intended
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 9

Self-Configuration
1. IP address allocation, selfconfiguration subsystem detection

GW

eNB
4. Transport and radio configuration

eNB eNB

Self-configuration subsystem

Normal OAM subsystem OAM subsystem


Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 10

Self-Optimization
Definition
The process where User Equipments (UE) and eNBs performance measurements are used to auto tune the network

Works in operational state How


Optimizing the configuration while taking into account regional characteristics of radio propagation, traffic and UEs mobility Analysis of statistics and deciding what are optimal parameters Detecting problems with quality, identifies the root cause, and automatically takes remedial actions

Examples: neighbor list optimization, coverage optimization, etc.


Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 11

Self-Healing
Definition
The process enabling the system detecting the problems by itself and mitigating them whilst avoiding user impact and reducing maintenance costs

Works in operational state End-to-end service recovery time should be < 1 sec How
Automated fault detection Root cause identification Recovery actions application If fault cannot be resolved, do some actions to avoid performance degradation
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 12

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Architectures Of SONs

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 13

Requirements & Taxonomy


Support of network sharing between network operators Providing an easy transition from operator controlled to autonomous operation Three architecture
Centralized SON Distributed SON Hybrid SON

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 14

Centralised SON
Centralized OAM

SON algorithms are executed in the OAM System SON functionalities reside in a small number of locations at a high level in the architecture Pros
Easy to deploy and to manage

SON
SON SON

OAM Itf-N

OAM

Cons
OAM is vendor specific (multi-vendor optimization is problematic) Not applicable for situations where selforganization tasks should be fast

eNB

eNB

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 15

Distributed SON
SON functionalities reside in the eNB at the lower level of network architecture Fully autonomous distributed RAN optimization Pros
Applicable for situations where selforganization task should be achieved fast
Centralized OAM

OAM Itf-N

OAM

Cons
Hard to deploy and manage X2 interfaces should be extended
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

eNB
SON

eNB
SON

x2

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 16

Hybrid SON
Centralized OAM

Idea is to push some of the SON functionalities on the eNB itself and some on OAMs Pros
Allowance for a high degree of automation guarantee, control and inspection
OAM

SON
SON SON

OAM Itf-N

Cons
Hard to deploy and manage Requiring of multiple interfaces extensions
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

eNB
SON

eNB
SON

x2

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 17

Use Cases

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 18

What Are The Use Cases Defined In 3GPP?


Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) Coverage and capacity optimization Energy saving Interference reduction Physical cell-ID automatic configuration Mobility robust optimization Mobility load balancing optimization Random Access Channel (RACH) optimization

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 19

Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR)


Relations between neighbor eNBs should be carefully determined since they affect the network performance
Handoff performance, call dropping probability, etc.
eNB1 eNB3

x2
The mobiles residing in the range of eNB2 may move to either eNB1 or eNB3 an in advance actions maybe done to optimize the performance (ressources reservation) eNB2

x2

x2 eNB4

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 20

Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR)


ANRs covers following steps
Neighbor cell discovery
eNB instructs UEs to do measurements New joined eNBs are detected based on the analysis of measurent results

Configuration of X2 interfaces between eNBs Connection setup with neighbor eNBs ANR optimization
Update as new eNBs join/disjoin the network How to accurately optimize the neighbor relation is still an open issue till now

Some steps work in preoperational state, while some others work in operational state
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 21

Mobility robust optimization


Power

Time Reduce the number of HO-related Radio Link Failure (RLF) Reduce the HO-related issues that lead to degradation in the QoS.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Failures due to too late HO triggering Failures due to too early HO triggering Failures due to HO to a wrong cell

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 22

Too Late HO

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 23

Too Early HO

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 24

HO To wrong cell

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 25

Coverage & Capacity Optimization


Goal
Maximizing the requirements capacity while ensuring coverage
LTE cell smaller than planned

Holes free coverage Improved capacity with given resources

Works in operational state 3 Cases


LTE coverage holes within other Radio Access Technologies (RATs) QoS degradation due to frequent inter RAT handoffs
Non LTE coverage
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

LTE coverage

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 26

Coverage & Capacity Optimization


LTE coverage holes and no alternative RAT
Significant call drops due to coverage holes

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 27

Coverage & Capacity Optimization


Isolated LTE cells
Coverage blackouts in networks border areas

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 28

Coverage & Capacity Optimization


Solution
Update the BS parameters such as height, tilt and Tx power

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 29

Energy Saving
Goal
Reduction of OPEX by saving energy resources

Works in operational state How can energy be saved


Tx power optimization
Minimal saving but possible throughout the day

Switching off some of the Tx of a cell


Possible where antenna diversity is not required

Complete eNB switch off


Maximum saving but possible only during low load times Also if users are away from home eNB and closed subscriber group cells
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 30

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Interference Reduction
Goal
Improving the network performance by means of reducing the interference between its equipments

Works in operational state Many limitations due to the applied frequency band
Interference depends on frequency band characteristics

Solutions
Decrease eNBs density
Hard to apply due to the capacity decrease and the existence of home eNBs that are not under the control of the network operator

Power control and/or reconfigure the wireless setup Interference cancellation, coordination and randomization
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 31

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Physical Cell-ID Automatic Configuration


Goal
Automatically configure the physical Cell-ID (collision and confusion free assignment of physical Cell-ID)

Works in preoperational state


A part of self-configuration procedure

Main limitation is that there is only 504 physical Cell-IDs available Solution
eNB-based solution (distributed solution) OAM-based solution (centralized solution)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 32

Physical Cell-ID Automatic Configuration


eNB-based solution (distributed solution)
eNB chooses an arbitrary Cell-ID eNB instructs UEs to do measurements, collects and analyses measurements results eNB starts communicating with neighbors using X2 interfaces In case the eNB has detected a conflict, a new Cell-ID is assigned and the procedure is repeated again

OAM-based solution (centralized solution)


eNB instructs UEs to do measurements, collects and sends the results to the OAM The OAM assigns a Cell-ID to the eNB Cell-ID assigning procedure may require doing updates to other eNBs in the network

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 33

Conclusions
Future mobile communication networks will be much more dynamic and hard to manage SONs are a necessity
Optimize the performance Reduce OPEX

Three Architecture for SON


Centralized, distributed and Hybrid

Very important: SONs should allow the network


operator to be capable of doing any required changes
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 34

Summary (what do I need to know)


Why Self-organization in next generation networks? How can self organization be used in different use case such as
ANR Mobility rubostness Energy saving PCI

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 35

References
Self-Organizing Networks (SON):Concepts and Requirements, 3GPP TS 32.500 V0.3.1 (2008-07) LTE Operations and Maintenance Strategy, white paper http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry%20Solutions/Service%20Providers/Network %20Operators/LTE/_Document/Static%20Files/LTE%20Operability%20SON%20White%20Paper.pdf OAM Architecture for SON, 3GPP TSG SA WG5 & RAN WG3 LTE Adhoc, R3-071244 ,13th 14th June 2007 Self-X RAN, http://www.wiopt.org/pdf/WiOpt09_Keynote_Speech3.pdf Self-Organizing Networks, NEC's Proposals For Next-Generation Radio Network Management, http://www.nec.com/global/solutions/nsp/mwc2009/images/SON_whitePaper_V19_clean.pdf, February 2009 Self Organizing Networks: A Manufacturers View, ICT Mobile Summit Santander, Spain, June 2009 S. Feng, E. Seidel, Self-Organizing Networks (SON) in 3GPP Long Term Evolution, http://www.nomor.de/uploads/gc/TQ/gcTQfDWApo9osPfQwQoBzw/SelfOrganisingNetworksInLTE_200805.pdf Next Generation Mobile Networks Beyond HSPA and EVDO, NGMN Alliance, December 2006 NGMN Recommendation on SON and O&M Requirements, NGMN Alliance, December 2008 NGMN Use Cases related to Self Organizing Network, Overall Description, NGMN Alliance, December 2008 E. Bogenfeld, I. Gaspard, Self-X in Radio Access Networks, end-to-end efficiency FP7 Project, December 2008 Self-organizing Networks (SON) in 3GPP Long Term Evolution, Nomor Research GmbH, May 2008 Self-configuring and Self-optimizing Network Use Cases and Solutions. 3GPP TR36902 v1.2.0, June 2009

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 36

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 37

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Network
Large Size Mostly Static Data-centric Private Nets.

Node
Limited resources Battery No Global ID

Applications
Habitat Monitoring Smart home, building , metering (smart Grid) Surveillance and rescue ..

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 38

SENSOR NETWORKS ARCHITECTURE


Sink

Internet, Satellite,

Task Manager

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 39

Characteristics of sensor nodes


Low cost*, size, and weight per node Limited resources
Computing : microcontroller Storage: few KB of RAM, 100s of KB of flash. Communication: low range , poor connectivity, sometimes only broadcasting.

Normally rely on batteries.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 40

Characteristics of sensor nodes


Prone to failures More use of broadcast communications instead of point-to-point Nodes do not have a global ID such as an IP address The security, both on physical and communication level, is more limited than in classical wireless networks

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 41

CHARACTERISTICS OF WSNs
Very large number of nodes Nodes need to be close to each other Asymmetric flow of information Communications are triggered by queries or events Limited amount of energy Mostly static topology

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 42

APPLICATIONS

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 43

Military Applications:
Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition Battlefield surveillance Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain Targeting Battle damage assessment Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) attack detection and reconnaissance

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 44

Environmental Applications
Tracking the movements of birds, small animals, and insects Monitoring environmental conditions that affect crops and livestock Chemical/biological detection Pollution study Precision agriculture Flood detection, and Forest fire detection.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 45

Habitat Monitoring
http://www.greatduckisland.net Great Duck Island in Maine.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 46

Health Applications

Providing interfaces for the disabled Integrated patient monitoring Diagnostics Telemonitoring of human physiological data Tracking and monitoring doctors and patients inside a hospital, and Drug administration in hospitals

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 47

Smart Roads
Traffic monitoring, accident detection, recovery assistance

Finding out empty parking lots in a city, without asking a server (car-to-car communication) Vehicle tracking and detection

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 48

Smart Grid
Monitoring product quality Factory Floor Automation Constructing smart homes Constructing smart office spaces Smart spaces

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 49

Smart Grid
WSN is able to offer customers and utilities a convenient, cost-effective way to monitor energy creation in real-time, as well as manage the deployed system componentsuality Factory Floor Automation Constructing smart homes Constructing smart office spaces Smart spaces
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 50

WSNs, How To Self-Organize?


Supervised self-organization
An overlay layer of supervision (can be provided by the user or an overlay management system) Better described with centralized self-organization

Unsupervised self-organization
Little or no interaction with the ultimate user/ management system Better described with distributed self-organization

Hybrid self-organization
Inherits properties of both, supervised and unsupervised
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 51

Where Is Self-Organization Required?


Goal: Enable WSNs to adapt themselves based on their environment (not being application-specific) Self-organization techniques are required in many tasks, such as
Deployment and topology control of WSNs Address management Channel access Routing Power efficiency Quality of Service (QoS ) .....
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 52

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Deployment of WSNs

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 53

Deployment Issues! What Does it all mean?


Question
How should sensor nodes be deployed so that a required QoS is guaranteed?

Challenges
Which parts of the area should be covered to detect particular events? What number of sensor nodes is needed and where should they be placed physically?

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 54

Deployment Issues! What Does it all mean?


Adequate deployment simplifies other tasks
Clustering, access to the medium, routing, etc.

Deployment problem can be complicated if


Cost minimization is required Some parts of the area need to be covered better than others Nodes of different types and sensing capabilities are present The area is not a two dimensional plane

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 55

Research Challenges
Relocation of nodes positions and may roles
A strategy for inter-nodes communication to reposition themselves is essential (self-organization efficient network)

Nodes deployment in three dimensional space


Most existing solutions assume the deployment to take place in two dimensional space In real terrain, the deployment is three dimensional and is a NP hard complexity problem

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 56

Channel Access Control (MAC)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 57

Requirements
MAC mechanism should provide
Energy conservation Fairness High throughput and low delay Scalability Robustness against frequent topology change High degree of self-organization ..

Restrictions
Limited energy, computational, and communication resources in WSNs
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 58

POWER CONSUMPTION
RADIO

20
Power (mW)

15 10 5 0

SENSOR

CPU

TX

RX

IDLE

SLEEP

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 59

59

Taxonomy
Contention-based protocols
Allow nodes to independently access to a shared medium Nodes are not required to form a cluster or certain topology Suitable for applications with rather unpredictable occurrence, network topology and network mobility Pros
Good scalability in term of new nodes joining the network

events

Cons
Organization of sleep and wake-up phases is complicated For energy efficiency, control overhead is required to keep neighbors synchronized Idle listening, collisions, overhearing, etc.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 60

Taxonomy
Schedule-based (TDMA-based) protocols
Time is divided into time slots, each is assigned to a node Suitable for stationary networks with almost predictable traffic Pros
Avoid collisions, idle listening and schedules sleep without overhead

Cons Dynamically changing the frame length and time slot assignments in
a cluster in difficult (node changes or inclusions) Poor scalability and poor mobility Effective slot assignment in multi-hop networks is also challenging. Moreover, inter-cluster communication is complicated High quality time synchronization is required

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 61

S-MAC
Contention-based protocol S-MAC provides mechanisms to circumvent listening, collisions, and overhearing Does not require more than 1 wireless interface

idle

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 62

S-MAC
Each node alternates between a fixed-length listen and a fixed-length sleep period according to its schedule The listen period of S-MAC can be used to receive and transmit packets Neighbors are coordinate, so that their listen periods start at the same time

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 63

S-MAC
Each neighbor (B or C) wishing to transmit a SYNCH packet picks one of the time slots randomly and starts transmitting if no signal was received in any of the previous slots

Synch A

CTS RTS

B and C goes back into sleep mode and waits for As next wakeup A knows a neighbor B and Cs schedule, A can wake at appropriate times and send its own SYNCH packet to B/C

Phase 1 Synch phase

Synch

C
A listens for RTS neighboring nodes. packets from Phase 2 RTS phase Phase 3 CTS phase

Node A transmits a CTS packet if an RTS packet was received in the previous phase

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 64

S-MAC
Nodes use RTS/CTS handshake and maintains a NAV variable NAV is used to switch off a node to avaoid overhearing Schedule of node A and its neighbours can be synchronized, i.e A can reach all with a single synch S-MAC allows the neighbouring nodes to agree on the same schedule and thus forms a virtual cluster Virtual cluster solely refers to the exchange of schedules, not data

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 65

S-MAC
Pros
Circumvents idle listening, collision and overhearing Message passing approach of S-MAC reduces the latency of passing and entire message

Cons
In message passing approach, a single node can block the medium for a long time It is hard to adapt the length of the wakeup period to changing load situations, since this length is essentially fixed (as is the length of the listen period)
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 66

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Routing Schemes

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 67

Constraints & Requirements


Constraints
Energy and bandwidth constrains Mostly no global addressing Energy-efficient and reliable routing mechanisms Maximizing the network lifetime Minimizing or even eliminating data traffic redundancy Efficient resource management Satisfying stationary as well as mobile sensor networks regardless if the events monitored are static or dynamic Cope with different data delivery modules (event-driven, query-driven, continuous and hybrid)
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 68

Requirements

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Taxonomy
Routing protocols
Data-centric routing protocols Hierarchical routing protocols

Location-based routing protocols


Network flow and routing protocols QoS-aware

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 69

Data-Centric Routing Protocols


Basic idea
Sink sends queries to certain regions and waits data from sensors located in that region

Attribute-based naming is necessary to specify the properties of data required Pros


Can be used for periodic monitoring Energy efficient by removing redundant transmissions Not good for tracking application

Cons

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 70

Hierarchical Routing Protocols


Basic idea
Build a hierarchy among nodes and assign different roles to nodes

Aim at maintaining energy consumption of sensor nodes either by enabling multi-hop communication within a particular cluster or by aggregation and fusion of data Pros
Scalability Reduced number of transmissions Energy efficiency Data aggregation

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 71

Hierarchical Routing Protocols


Cons Cluster head selection and cluster formation Example: LEACH

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 72

Clustering based Hierarichal Routing


3:Cluster Inter-cluster Phase1: 2: Intra-cluster Phase Head communication Selection

r r

BS
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 73

Location-Based Routing Protocols


Geographic Routing
Position,localization errors, Dead ends

Local information
Send data to N42-(x1,y1) (x1,y1)
D2 D1
Node Position

N32 N51 D2>D1

(x,y) (x,y)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 74

Location-Based Routing Protocols


Basic idea
Distance between two nodes is calculated using location information Energy consumption resulting from transmitting a packet to a particular sensor node can be estimated (efficient energy utilization)

Protocols designed for Ad hoc networks with mobility in mind may be applicable for sensor networks as well Pros
Better routing decisions Table less Guaranteed delivery
3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 75

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

Location-Based Routing Protocols


Cons
Getting location information is a costly operation Local maximum problem

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 76

Research Challenges
Energy efficiency and robustness against node mobility Self-optimization and self-healing capabilities of routing mechanisms

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 77

Summary (what do I need to know)


What is wireless sensor network? Some Applications of WSNs Characteristics of Sensor Networks? Why Self-organization WSN?
Why Self-org in MAC Why self-org in Deployment and topology control

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 78

References

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, A Survey on Sensor Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102 116, August 2002. H. Karl and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks. John Wiley & Sons, 2005. A. Awad, C. Sommer, R. German, and F. Dressler, Virtual Cord Protocol (VCP): A Flexible DHT-like Routing Service for Sensor Networks, in 5th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (IEEE MASS 2008). Atlanta, GA: IEEE, September 2008, pp. 133142. A. Awad, R. German and F. Dressler, "Exploiting Virtual Coordinates for Improved Routing Performance in Sensor Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 10 (9), pp. 1214-1226, September 2011. M. Caesar, M. Castro, E. B. Nightingale, G. OShea, and A. Rowstron, Virtual Ring Routing: Network routing inspired by DHTs, in ACM SIGCOMM 2006. Pisa, Italy: ACM, September 2006. Jin, Zhang, Jian-Ping, Yu, Si-Wang, Zhou, Ya-Ping, Lin, Guang, Li. 2009. "A Survey on Position-Based Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks, Algorithms 2, no. 1: 158-182. Akkaya, K. and Younis, M., A survey of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks, Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks 2007, Vol. 3 I (3). pp. 325-349.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Integrated Communication Systems Group www.tu-ilmenau.de/ics

3GPP Long Term Evolution LTE and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) Dr.-Ing. Abdalkarim Awad Page 79