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The External Policy Of Napoleon Bonapart

The Career in Military

Napoleons early military career was incredibly successful upon his graduation from cole Royale Militaire. At the age of sixteen, Napoleon was given the position of second lieutenant in La Fre artillery brigade. He served in this position in Valence and Auxonne until after the beginning of the Revolution in 1789. He spent most of the next few years on the island of Corsica, where there was a struggle between royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. He supported the Jacobin faction and earned the standing of lieutenant-colonel of a group of volunteers. After running into conflict with the nationalist leader Pasquale Paoli, Bonaparte and his family left Corsica and fled to the French mainland in June 1793. Napoleon was chosen as artillery commander in the French forces that were attacking Toulon, which was occupied by British troops. He was then promoted to chef de bataillion, which was the position of commander major. He was convinced that the key to Toulon lay in capturing the fort protecting Point lEguillete, a promontory commanding the outer harbouri He then captured Point lEguillete and used this position to threaten British ships, which forced them to evacuate. He placed guns at Point lEguillete, threatening the British ships in the harbour, forcing them to evacuate.ii Within a day of the battle, all of the British infantries had left Toulon. Toulon was once again in French control.

Leader of Army
During this time, he became a close friend of Augustin Robespierre, who was the younger brother of the French Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. As a compensation for his assistance, Napoleon was promoted to Brigadier-General when he was only 24 years old. He later became senior gunner to General Dumerbions army in Italy, which was the most important of attacks against the Austrians. Because of Napoleons thorough planning the French captured both Loano and the area known as the Barricades. After the fall of the revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre, Napoleon was temporarily imprisoned in the Chteau dAntibes. He was wrongly accused of treason and was released within two weeks. On March 27, 1796, Napoleon took command of the French Army of Italy and led it on a successful invasion of Italy. He then traveled to Lombardy with his soldiers and drove out the Austrians that had occupied that region before. He also defeated the army of the Papal States. In early 1797, Bonaparte drove his army into Austria and commanded the Austrians to sue for peace. The result of this was the Treaty of Campo Formia, which gave control of northern Italy, the Low Countries, and Rhineland to France. There was also a secret clause in the treaty that gave Venice to Austria. After the treaty was signed, Napoleon marched on to Venice and forced them to surrender, which ended over 1,000 years of independence. After this, Napoleon organized many of the territories in Italy that were under French control into the Cisalpine Republic.

Italian Campaign
Napoleons extraordinary military achievements all happened due to his excellent knowledge of ordinary military tactics. An example of this is his use of artillery strategies to support his infantry. He often described it as I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning.iii He was also an expert on intelligence and also deception and always knew when to strike. He often won battles by using spies to collect information about his enemies and by disguising his own troops. In the Italian campaign, Napoleons army took 160,000 prisoners, 2,000 cannons, and 170 standards.iv Almost all the phases of war had been included in this year-long expedition and at the end Bonapartes apprenticeship was over. The Eagle had found wings, beak, and talons.v

Egyptian Expedition
In his next military expedition, Napoleon wanted to seize Egypt, which was a province of the Ottoman Empire. He hoped to protect French trade interests and challenge Britains access to India. The Directory was distressed by the idea but they agreed, hoping that Napoleon would fail and he would lose power. Napoleon was thrilled and started to plan his expedition right away. Years after this expedition, Napoleon wrote his inspirations as follows: In Egypt I found myself freed from the obstacles of an irksome civilization. I was full of dreams. I saw myself founding a religion, marching into Asia, riding an elephant a turban on my head and in my hand a new Koran that I would have composed to suit my need. The time in I spent in Egypt was the most beautiful of my life because it was the most ideal.vi In May of 1798, Napoleon was chosen as a member of the French Academy of Sciences. His Egyptian expedition team included a group of

167 scientists including mathematicians, naturalists, chemists, and mapmakers. One of their findings was the Rosetta Stone. Hoping to gain the support of the Egyptian peoples, Napoleon claimed that he was a liberator of the people from Ottoman oppression, and praising the precepts of Islam.vii Napoleon successfully captured Malta from the Knights of Saint John and then arrived at Alexandria, briefly avoiding chase by the British Royal Navy. When he arrived, he fought the Battle of the Pyramids against an old power in the Middle East, the Mamelukes. Napoleons forces were greatly outnumbered but in the end, 300 French and about 6,000 Egyptians were killed and Cairo was successfully captured by the French. Even though the French were successful on land, they werent so successful at sea. All the ships that Napoleon and his troops had used to sail to Egypt had returned to France except for some that stayed to support the army on the coast. The British troops under Horatio Nelson fought the French in the Battle of the Nile. All of the remaining French ships were either destroyed or captured except for two. The French troops were landbound and Napoleon was unable to strengthen the French position in the Mediterranean Sea.

In early 1799, Napoleon led his troops into Syria and conquered many advanced Ottoman forces in several battles but his troops were greatly weakened by diseases - the bubonic plague mostly - and mediocre supplies. Napoleon then led 13,000 French soldiers and they defeated the coastal towns of El Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa. The attack against Jaffa was extremely vicious. About 2,000 soldiers of Jaffa who were trying to surrender were bayoneted. The French soldiers then turned to the town and started killing the residents of Jaffa. Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days, and the massacre ended with even more bloodshed, as Napoleon ordered 3,000 more Turkish prisoners executedviii who Napoleon claimed had

broken parole granted in earlier operations.ix Later, many of Napoleons troops were greatly weakened by the plague and they were unable to diminish the fortress of Acre and so he and all of his troops returned to Egypt. Along the way, Napoleon killed prisoners and soldiers who were infected with the plague so they could travel faster. When they were back in Egypt, Napoleon defeated an Ottoman invasion by sea at Abukir. Napoleon then returned to France, leaving his army under General Kleber.

Temportal peace;Treaty of Amiens


Both France and Britain had become tired of war and signed the Treaty of Amiens in October 1801 and March 1802. This called for the withdrawal of British troops from most colonial territories it had recently occupied.[74] The peace was uneasy and short-lived. Britain did not evacuate Malta as promised and protested against Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation, though neither of these territories were covered by the treaty. The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803, and he reassembled the invasion camp at Boulogne.

War of the Third Coalition

Great Britain broke the Peace of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Napoleon set up a camp at Boulogne-sur-Mer to prepare for an invasion of Britain. By 1805, Britain had convinced Austria and Russia to join a Third Coalition against France. Napoleon knew the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle and planned to lure it away from the English Channel. As the Austrian army marched on Bavaria, he called the invasion of Britain off and ordered the army stationed at Boulogne, his Grande Arme, to march to Germany secretly in a turning movementthe Ulm Campaign. This encircled the Austrian forces about to attack France and severed their lines of communication. On 20 October 1805, the French captured 30,000 prisoners at Ulm, though the next day Britain's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar meant the Royal Navy gained control of the seas. Six weeks later, on the first anniversary of his coronation, Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz. This ended the Third Coalition, and he commissioned the Arc de Triomphe to commemorate the victory. Austria had to concede territory; the Peace of Pressburg led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and creation of the Confederation of the Rhinewith Napoleon named as its Protector. Napoleon would go on to say, "The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought."

Middle-Eastern alliances
Even after the failed campaign in Egypt, Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East. An alliance with Middle-Eastern powers would have the strategic advantage of pressuring Russia on its southern border. From 1803, Napoleon went to considerable lengths to try to convince the Ottoman Empire to fight against Russia in the Balkans and join his anti-Russian coalition. Napoleon sent General Horace Sebastiani as envoy extraordinary, promising to help the Ottoman Empire recover lost territories. In February 1806, following Napoleon's victory at Austerlitz and the ensuing dismemberment of the Habsburg Empire, the Ottoman Emperor Selim III finally recognised Napoleon as Emperor, formally opting for an alliance with France "our sincere and natural ally", and war with Russia and England. A Franco-Persian alliance was also formed, from 1807 to 1809, between Napoleon and the Persian Empire of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, against Russia and Great Britain. The alliance ended when France allied with Russia and turned its focus to European campaigns.

War of the Fourth Coalition


The Fourth Coalition was assembled in 1806, and Napoleon defeated Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in October.[93] He marched against advancing Russian armies through Poland and was involved in the bloody stalemate of the Battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807. After a decisive victory at Friedland, he signed the Treaties of Tilsit; one with Tsar Alexander I of Russia which divided the continent between the two powers; the other with Prussia which stripped that country of half its territory. Napoleon placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jrme as king of the new Kingdom of Westphalia. In the French-controlled part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw with King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony as ruler.

Continental System
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on the 16 May 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree on the 21 November 1806, which brought into effect a large-scale embargo against British trade.[1] This embargo ended on April 11, 1814 after Napoleon's first abdication. The United Kingdom was an important force in encouraging and financing alliances against Napoleonic France. In addition, the British government enacted a naval blockade of the French and French-allied coasts, on the 16 May 1806.[2] Napoleon didn't have the resources to attempt an invasion of the United Kingdom or to decisively defeat the Royal Navy at sea. Napoleon resorted instead to economic warfare. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain was emerging as Europe's manufacturing and industrial centre, and Napoleon believed it would be easy to take advantage of an embargo on trade with the European nations under his control, causing inflation and great debt. In November 1806, having recently conquered or allied with every major power on the European continent, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree forbidding his allies and conquests from trading with the British. The UK responded with the Orders in Council of 1807 issued 11 November 1807.[3] These forbade French trade with the UK, its allies or neutrals, and instructed the Royal Navy to blockade French and allied ports. Napoleon retaliated with the Milan Decree of 1807, which declared that all neutral shipping using British ports or paying British tariffs were to be regarded as British and seized. Napoleon's plan to defeat Britain was to destroy its ability to trade. As an island nation, trade was the most vital lifeline. Napoleon believed that if he could isolate Britain economically, he would be able to invade the nation after the economic collapse. Napoleon decreed that all commerce ships wishing to do business in Europe must first stop at a French port in order to ensure that there
could be no trade with Britain. He also ordered all European nations and French allies to stop trading with Britain, and he threatened Russia with an invasion if they did not comply as well.

Effects of the System


The System had a significant effect on British trade, with British exports falling between 25% to 55% compared to pre-1806 levels. Belgium and Switzerland benefited the most - particularly the industrialized north and east of France, and south of Belgium, which saw significantly increased profits due to the lack of competition from British goods (particularly textiles, which were produced at a much cheaper cost in Britain). Southern France, especially the port cities of Marseille, Bordeaux and La Rochelle, suffered from the reduction in trade. Moreover, the prices of staple foods rose for most of continental Europe. The Dutch economy suffered greatly by the strong reduction of the overseas trading, even though the king Louis Napoleon, brother of emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, only half-heartily supported the blockade. The embargo encouraged British merchants to seek out new markets aggressively and to engage in smuggling with continental Europe. Napoleon's exclusively land-based customs enforcers could not stop British smugglers, especially as these operated with the connivance of Napoleon's chosen rulers of Spain, Westphalia and other German states. Britain, by Orders in Council (1807), prohibited its trade partners from trading with France. The British were able to counter the plan by threatening to sink any ship that did not come to a British port or chose to comply with France.

Peninsular War
Portugal did not comply with the Continental System, so in 1807 Napoleon invaded with the support of Spain. Under the pretext of a reinforcement of the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, Napoleon invaded Spain as well, replaced Charles IV with his brother Joseph and placed his brother-in-law Joachim Murat in Joseph's stead at Naples. This led to resistance from the Spanish army and civilians in the Dos de Mayo Uprising. In Spain, Napoleon faced a new type of war, coined since then as guerrilla, in which the local population, inspired by religion and patriotism, was heavily involved. This early type of national warconsisted of various types of low intensity fighting (ambushes, sabotage, uprisings...) and open support to the Spanish-allied regular armies. Following a French retreat from much of the country, Napoleon took command and defeated the Spanish Army. He retook Madrid, then outmanoeuvred a British army sent to support the Spanish and drove it to the coast.[98] Before the Spanish population had been fully subdued, Austria again threatened war, and Napoleon returned to France. The costly and often brutal Peninsular War continued in Napoleon's absence; in the second Siege of Zaragoza most of the city was destroyed and over 50,000 people perished. Although Napoleon left 300,000 of his finest troops to battle Spanish guerrillas as well as British and Portuguese forces commanded by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, French control over the peninsula again deteriorated.

War of the Fifth Coalition

In April 1809, Austria abruptly broke its alliance with France, and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts. After early successes, the French faced difficulties in crossing the Danube and suffered a defeat in May at the Battle of AspernEssling near Vienna. The Austrians failed to capitalise on the situation and allowed Napoleon's forces to regroup. He defeated the Austrians again at Wagram, and the Treaty of Schnbrunn was signed between Austria and France. Britain was the other member of the coalition. In addition to the Iberian Peninsula, the British planned to open another front in mainland Europe. However, Napoleon was able to rush reinforcements toAntwerp, owing to Britain's inadequately organised Walcheren Campaign. He concurrently annexed the Papal States because of the Church's refusal to support the Continental System; Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating the emperor. The pope was then abducted by Napoleon's officers, and though Napoleon had not ordered his abduction, he did not order Pius' release.

Napoleon's Downfall and First Abdication


In 1810, Russia withdrew from the Continental System. In retaliation, Napoleon led a massive army into Russia in the summer of 1812. Rather than engaging the French in a full-scale battle, the Russians adopted a strategy of retreating whenever Napoleons forces attempted to attack. As a result, Napoleons troops trekked deeper into Russia despite being ill-prepared for an extended campaign. In September, both sides suffered heavy casualties in the indecisive Battle of Borodino. Napoleons forces marched on to Moscow, only to discover almost the entire population evacuated. Retreating Russians set fires across the city in an effort to deprive enemy troops of supplies. After waiting a month for a surrender that never came, Napoleon, faced with the onset of the Russian winter, was forced to order his starving, exhausted army out of Moscow. During the disastrous retreat, his army suffered continual harassment from a suddenly aggressive and merciless Russian army. Of Napoleons 600,000 troops who began the campaign, only an estimated 100,000 made it out of Russia. At the same time as the catastrophic Russian invasion, French forces were engaged in the Peninsular War (1808-1814), which resulted in the Spanish and Portuguese, with assistance from the British, driving the French from the Iberian Peninsula. This loss was followed in 1813 by the Battle of Leipzig, also known as the Battle of Nations, in which Napoleons forces were defeated

by a coalition that included Austrian, Prussian, Russian and Swedish troops. Napoleon then retreated to France, and in March 1814 coalition forces captured Paris. On April 6, 1814, Napoleon, then in his mid-40s, was forced to abdicate the throne. With the Treaty of Fontainebleau, he was exiled to Elba, a Mediterranean island off the coast of Italy. He was given sovereignty over the small island, while his wife and son went to Austria.

Hundred Days Campaign and Battle of Waterloo


On February 26, 1815, after less than a year in exile, Napoleon escaped Elba and sailed to the French mainland with a group of more than 1,000 supporters. On March 20, he returned to Paris, where he was welcomed by cheering crowds. The new king, Louis XVIII (1755-1824), fled, and Napoleon began what came to be known as his Hundred Days campaign. Upon Napoleons return to France, a coalition of alliesthe Austrians, British, Prussians and Russianswho considered the French emperor an enemy began to prepare for war. Napoleon raised a new army and planned to strike preemptively, defeating the allied forces one by one before they could launch a united attack against him. In June 1815, his forces invaded Belgium, where British and Prussian troops were stationed. On June 16, Napoleons troops defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny. However, two days later, on June 18, at the Battle of Waterloo near Brussels, the French were crushed by the British, with assistance from the Prussians. On June 22, 1815, Napoleon was once again forced to abdicate

Foreign Achievements.
a.Napoleon succeeded in converting France from a semi-powerful nation to adominant nation b.Treaty of Luneville (February 1801) i.Austria abandoned possessions on Italian peninsula c.Treaty of Amiens (March 1802) i.Britain returned most colonial territories it had won since beginning of the war. d.Reorganization of Germany. i.Imperial Recess of 1803 - 112 states of HRE went out of existence, 6 freecities remained. ii.Napoleon attracted secondary states indebted to France and willing toaccept French leadershipiii. iii.Confederation of the Rhine July 1806. e.Battle of Austerlitz (December 2, 1805) i.Possibly greatest military battle by Napoleonii. ii.Napoleon defeated both Russian and Austrian armies, gained minorterritories. f.Grand Empire of 1810. i.Included France, Holland, Papal States, Illyrian provinces, and many moreterritories. g.Continental System (1806). i.Berlin Decree (November) banned commerce with Britainii. ii.For two years (1810-12), proved that continent did not need Britain. h.Overall, Napoleons ingenious military and foreign policy strategies helped toestablish Frances powerful presence in Europe