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101 1045_05F9_c1

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Introduction to WAN Technologies


Session 101

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1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN) Environment Requirements Technologies Interface Signaling Protocols
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Take-Away Message

By selecting the right WAN technology and hardware, you can


Build a uniform multiservice network for DVV consolidation Reduce recurring network operation costs (such as bandwidth)
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WAN Networking Environment


Other Access Backbone

Telecommuters

Home Offices

Branch Offices

Regional Offices

Headquarters

Multiple Networking Environments where All Users Require Ubiquitous Access to Corporate Applications

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WAN Networking Challenges

Increased Scope of WAN Multiple Traffic Types Increasing Traffic Volumes Telecom Budget

Telecom Manager

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Multiple Traffic Types

IP IPX AppleTalk SNA

Wide Area Network

Voice Video

Leased Lines, Satellite, Microwave, Circuit Switched, X25, Frame Relay, ATM, POS
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Networked Application Growth


2000 1998
More Than 300% Growth in WAN Traffic by 2002

Voice Video Teleconference Office Applications


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Client to Server Server to Server Internet/Intranet


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Source: Gartner Group


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Telecom Budgets

Although Traffic Old Telecom Volumes Are Budget Increasing, Telecom Budgets Are Not in Fact in Some Cases Decreasing
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New Telecom Budget

Agenda
1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wide Area Network (WAN) Environment Requirements Technologies Interface Protocols


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Wide Area Network Requirements


Minimize Bandwidth Costs Maximize Efficiency Maximize Performance Support New/Emerging Applications Maximize Availability Minimize Management and Maintenance Multiservice Consolidation Bandwidth Efficiency Performance and QoS Guarantees Emerging IP Services Carrier-Class Reliability Ease of Operation and Management
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Wide Area Network Costs


Capital costs (hardware): non-recurring
Written off over three to five years
Hardware Costs 8.0% Software Costs 2.7%

Bandwidth rental costs: recurring


One to five year contracts Penalties for cancellation Highest month recurring expense
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Transmission Costs 87.8%

Maintenance 1.5%

Source: Data Communications


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WAN Service Requirements


LAN interconnectivity
Router and workgroup switches

Multiservice Networking
FR/LL WAN Router ATM/LL Workgroup Switch PBX VPN/LL

Emerging IP services Voice toll bypass


PBX tie trunking and voice switching

Videoconferencing
Room-to-room, desktop

Legacy data
SNA, X.25, async data

ISDN Videoconferencing FR/LL Legacy Data

TDM migration
Transport option for aging TDM systems
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Wide Area Connectivity Requirements


Flexible trunking
Sub-rate leased lines (64kbps to T1/E1) n x T1/E1 leased lines T3/E3 leased lines OC-3/STM-1 leased lines Public/private services
OC-3
Public Network

T3/E3

nx T1/E1

STM-1

Bandwidth efficiency
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Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN) Environment Requirements Technologies Interface Protocols


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Message

By selecting the right WAN technology and hardware, you can


Build a uniform multiservice network for DVV consolidation Reduce recurring network operation costs (such as bandwidth)
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WAN Technologies
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Link Physical Network Link Physical Network Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Link Physical Packet Switching Frame Switching Cell Switching Circuit Switching

CPE A

WAN Switch A

WAN Switch B

CPE B Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) X.25/HDLC, SNA/SDLC ATM POS

Circuit Switching Frame Switching Cell Switching Frame/Cell

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Circuit Switching (TDM) Overview


PBX PBX

Available bandwidth is statically partitioned amongst the applications Each application has access to the allocated bandwidth only; no single application can burst up to the entire bandwidth capacity Example: available bandwidth = 24 DS0s
Four channels for router data; eight for voice calls; six for video; six channels not allocated

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Circuit switching delay: application frame size/ allocated bandwidth Variability in delay: low
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Circuit SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Predictable Performance
As Bandwidth Is Allocated Statically, All Applications Get Consistent Performance and Predictable Delay

Protocol-Independent
End Devices Can Be Using Any Protocol over the Wide Area Network

Can Be Used for Multiservice Applications Consolidation

Cons
Inefficient Bandwidth Utilization
No Dynamic Allocation of Bandwidth No Bursting CapabilityOne Application Cannot Use Bandwidth Allocated to the other Even if that Traffic Is Not Present

Bandwidth Limited
Once All of the Available Bandwidth Is Allocated, Additional Bandwidth Must Be Procured
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X.25 Switching Overview

Cells, frames, or packets within a switch but X.25 packets at egress Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated Only useful for data applications X.25 switching delay: can increase with number of switches in path Variability in delay: high Layer 3 switchingPVC, SVC-based
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Traffic Handling in an X.25 Network


2048 Bytes 256kbps

Network

256kbps

Router sends X.25 packet to first X.25 switch


Assume that the call has been set up and a data size of 128 agreed by both ends with a window size of 7
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Traffic Handling in an X.25 Network


2048 Bytes 256kbps

Network
128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes

256kbps

Network
128 Bytes

256kbps

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Router sends X.25 a window (7) of (128) packets; the X.25 switch responds with RRs for correctly received packets or RNR for incorrect ones
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Traffic Handling in an X.25 Network

128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes

128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes

Network
128 Bytes 128 Bytes

The network transports the packets across the network; the packets are delivered to the far end using the same window mechanism as the input to the network
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Traffic Handling in an X.25 Network

128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes 128 Bytes

Network
2048 Bytes 128 Bytes

Last window sent to router and whole frame re-assembled and sent
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X.25 Switching-Pros and Cons


Pros
Excellent in Highly Errored Environments
Protocol Goes Looking for an Error

Protocol-Independent
End Devices Can Be Using any Protocol over the Wide Area Network

Cons
Unable to Guarantee Performance
Due to Windowing Mechanism, Throughput and Performance Is Very Slow

High Delay and Variability in Delay


Each Switch Has to Receive an Entire Window before Forwarding It to the Next Switch; Therefore Transit Delay Increases with Number of Switches in the Path The FIFO Mode of Each Switch Causes a Variability at Each Switch

Typically Data Only


As a Result of High Delay and Variability in Delay, X.25 Switches Are More Suited for Data-Only Environments that Have Little or No Delay-Sensitive Applications
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Frame Switching Overview


PBX PBX

Either cells or frames within a switch but frames only at egress Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated Each application gets access to all available bandwidth; any application can burst up to the entire bandwidth capacity Frame switching delay: increases with number of switches in path (queuing and serialization delay) Variability in delay: can be high for FIFO queuing switches
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Traffic Handling in Frame-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
PBX

Channels

Router sends frame to first frame switch

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Traffic Handling in Frame-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
PBX

Channels

2048 Bytes

256kbps
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
2.048Mbps

PBX Ten Voice

PBX

Channels

First frame switch waits for the entire frame, adds header and forwards to next switch
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Traffic Handling in Frame-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
PBX

Channels

2048 Bytes

256kbps
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
2.048Mbps

PBX Ten Voice

PBX

Channels

Second frame switch waits for the entire frame, and forwards to next switch
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Traffic Handling in Frame-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
PBX

Channels

2048 Bytes

256kbps
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps
2.048Mbps

PBX Ten Voice

PBX

Channels

Last frame switch waits for the entire frame, adds header and forwards it to router
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Frame SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Dynamic Allocation of Bandwidth
Available Bandwidth Is Allocated Dynamically to Any Application that Needs It One Application Can Use Bandwidth Allocated to the other If that Traffic Is Not Present

Can Be Used for Multiservice Applications


Frame Switches Are Used for Multiservice Applications (DVV) (Less over Subscription and Reasonable Speed Links)

Cons
Unable to Guarantee Performance (in FIFO Mode)
Frame Switches Typically Operate in FIFO (First in-First out) Mode, so One Application Can Impact the Performance of Others

Medium Delay and Variability in Delay


Each Switch Has to Receive an Entire Frame before Forwarding It to the Next Switch; Therefore Transit Delay Increases with Number of Switches in the Path The FIFO Mode of Each Switch Causes a Variability at Each Switch
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Cell Switching Overview


PBX PBX

Cells only within a switch and cells only at the egress of a switch Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated Each application gets access to all available bandwidth; any application can burst up to the entire bandwidth capacity Cell switching delay: low delay Variability in delay: low
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Traffic Handling in Cell-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

Router sends frame to first cell switch

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Traffic Handling in Cell-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

First cell switch starts to receive the frame; as it receives enough data to fill up the payload of one cell, it adds header and forwards to next switch
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Traffic Handling in Cell-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

Second cell switch receives the cell and switches it to the next switch
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Traffic Handling in Cell-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

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Next cell switch receives the cells and forwards to next switch till the last switch where all cells are collected until the last cell is received
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Traffic Handling in Cell-Switched Network


2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels


2048 Bytes

Channels

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice
2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps 2.048Mbps

256kbps Ten Voice PBX Channels

Channels

Last switch assembles the frame and forwards to the attached router
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Cell SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Dynamic Allocation of Bandwidth
Available Bandwidth Is Allocated Dynamically to Any Application that Needs It One Application Can Use Bandwidth Allocated to the other if that Traffic Is Not Present

Guaranteed performance
Cell Switches with Efficient Traffic and Bandwidth Management Schemes Can Ensure that Each Application Receives Guaranteed Performance (TM, QoS Queuing, CAC, PNNI/UNI Etc.)

Low Delay (Controlled and Bounded) and Low Variability in Delay


Using Fixed Length Cells Ensures that Network Transit Delay and Variability in Delay Is Minimized Switches Use QoS-Based Queuing and Scheduling Such as CBR, VBR, ABR

Typically Multiservice
As a Result of Low Delay, Low Variability in Delay and the Ability to Guarantee Performance, Cell Switches Are Ideally Suited to Support Multiple Services Concurrently

Cons
Overhead
However the Bandwidth Efficiency and Ability to Provide Low Delay and Low Variability in Delay in Cell Switching Easily Overcomes the Small Incremental Overhead
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Frame/Cell Switching Overview


PBX PBX

Either cells or frames within a switch and both frames and cells at egress of switch Frame switching is used for data and cells are injected for delay-sensitive traffic Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated Each application gets access to all available bandwidth; any application can burst up to the entire bandwidth capacity Frame/cell switching delay: increases with number of switches in path Variability in delay: high
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Frame/Cell Switching Pros and Cons


Pros
Dynamic Allocation of Bandwidth
Available Bandwidth Is Allocated Dynamically to Any Application that Needs It One Application Can Use Bandwidth Allocated to the other if that Traffic Is Not Present

Multiple Traffic Types


Cell Injection Process Is Used to Insert Delay Sensitive Traffic (Like Voice) During the Transfer of a Data Frame

Cons
Proprietary
There Are No Standards for Frame/Cell Switching

Unable to Guarantee Performance


Cell Injection Causes Frames to Be Partially Transmitted and Possibly Buffered Along the Path; Frame-Based Traffic (Data) Suffers at the Expense of Cell Traffic; Increased Volumes of Cell Traffic Can Impact Quality Throughput and Performance of Frame-Based Traffic

Bandwidth Inefficiency
Increased Cell Traffic Can Cause Frame Traffic to Be Discarded in the Network, Thereby Reducing the Quality Throughput or Goodput of the Network

High Delay and Variability in Delay


Frame/Cell Switches Operate as Frame Switches for Data and Have Similar Delay Characteristics; Cell Injection Causes Additional Delays for Frame Traffic
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Packet over SONET Overview


PBX PBX

Either cells or frames within a switch and SONET/SDH payload at egress of switch POS is serial transmission of multiprotocol packets over SONET/SDH framesefficient high-speed transport with low overhead Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated Any application can burst up to the entire available bandwidth capacity-packet based infrastructure Switching delay: low Variability in delay: low
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Packet over SONET Pros and Cons


Pros
Dynamic Allocation of Bandwidth
Bandwidth Is Available to Any Application that Needs It

Scalable
Underlying Technology Can Scale in Speeds with Increase in Traffic Volume

Efficiency-Overhead
Direct Mapping of Packets over SONET Payload Increases Efficiency by Removing Overhead

Fault-Tolerant, Reliability Carrier Class Redundancy with APS


With Automatic Protection Switching, Very Fast Switchovers in Case of Failure

Underlying Transport Flexibility


Can Be Used with Different Underlying Transport-SONET/SDH ADMs, DWDM Equipment

Cons
More Suited Towards Packet-Based Applications
Direct Mapping of Packets over Transport SONET/SDH Media

QOS Evolving from Best-Effort to Guaranteed Approach


Efforts Underway to Include Differentiated Service Mechanisms

Not Suitable for Low Speed Links


Typically Used over High-Speed Fiber-Based Infrastructures
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Summary of Technologies
Bandwidth Traffic Appl. Multiservice Scalability Efficiency Mgmt./QoS Performance Circuit Switching (TDM) X.25 Frame Switching Cell Switching (ATM) Frame/Cell Switching Packet over SONET

* ** *** **** *** ****


* * = Fair

*** * *** **** *** **

* * *** **** *** **

** * *** **** *** ***

* * *** **** *** ***


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* = Weak
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* * * = Good

* * * * = Excellent

Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN) Environment Requirements Technologies Interface Protocols


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Frame Relay UNI LMI


UNI between end device and network Event notification Unidirectional update requests E-LMI allows one config. of switches and router Same frame format as NNI Frame Relay Device
Short Status Enquiry Short Status Enquiry Short Status Enquiry Long Status Enquiry

ANSI ITU-T LMI

T1.617 Annex D Q.933 Annex A Signaling Gang of Four Cisco, NT, DEC

Frame Relay Device


Short Status Update Short Status Update Short Status Update

Event

Long Status Update with Event Notification or if Async Updates Used Asynchronous Status Event
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Frame Relay NNI


NNI between networks Event notification Bi-directional update requests Allows foresight updates between two Cisco networks using CLLM Same frame format as UNI Frame Relay Network 1
Short Status Enquiry Short Status Update Short Status Enquiry Long Status Enquiry Long Status Update
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ANSI ITU-T

T1.618 Annex D Q.933 Annex A

Frame Relay Network 2


Short Status Update Short Status Enquiry Short Status Update Long Status Update Long Status Enquiry
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ATM UNI and NNI


Generic Flow Control Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier CLP Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type Header Error Control (HEC) CLP

Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type Header Error Control (HEC)

UNI Header Format

NNI Header Format

Unlike Frame Relay ATM UNI and NNI formats are different UNI VPI range is 256 and VCI range is 65,535 NNI VPI range is 4,096 and VCI range is 65,535
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ATM ILMI
Private UNI ATM End System Public UNI ATM End System Public UNI Private ATM Switch

Private ATM Switch Public ATM Switch Public ATM Switch

Integrated local management interface-ilmi Use SNMP across UNI and NNI for ILMI MIB Uses AAL 5 encapsulation Used for ATM end system address (AESA) formerly NSAP addressing for svcs Automatic recognition of UNI or NNI interface protocol
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ATM ILMI (Cont.)


Get Get Response
ATM End System Public or Private ATM Switch

GetNext Set Trap

Getretrieve specified management information GetNextretrieve via traversal of MIB, management information Setalter management information Trapreport extraordinary information
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Summary

By selecting the right WAN technology and hardware, you can


Build a uniform multiservice network for DVV consolidation Reduce recurring network operation costs (such as bandwidth)
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Follow-on Sessions
WAN
Session #102 (Level 2)-Deploying WAN Technologies Session #103 (Level 3)-Advanced WAN Concepts and Troubleshooting Session #1201 (Product)-IGX/BPX/MGX Product Update Session #1208 (Product)-26xx/36xx/3810 Product Update

Optical
Session #604 (Level 1)-Introduction to Optical Carrier Services Session #605 (Level 2)-Deploying Optical Infrastructure Session #606 (Level 3)-Advanced Optical Technology Concepts Session #1202 (Product)-GSR Product Update
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Please Complete Your Evaluation Form


Session 101

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