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ESP TARGET SITUATION NEEDS ANALYSIS: THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE NEEDS AS PERCEIVED BY ENGINEERING DOMAIN IN THE RIYADH AREA

A Dissertation Submitted to college of languages, Sudan University of Science & Technology for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Democratic Republic of Sudan

By: EHAB FOUAD ALI AHMAD

Supervised by: Dr. Ishraga Bashir Mohammed Alhassan 2013

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ABSTRACT English Language Teaching in KSA is divided into many need based segments at different levels, such as General Purpose or Academic English at lower level or English for Specific Purpose at higher level. Focus shifted from study of Language to Literature to its commercial use in modern times. Industrial & Scientific Advancement gave boost to engineering domain in KSA which required multinational work force and world class technology. Resulting situation was the immediate need for local work force which knows both technology as well as language that deals with multilingual world and global technology. Post ESL, ESP, though the approach is not a new approach to Saudi as many research studies have already been conducted in various domains, however, there has been an emerging need to have customized syllabus in Engineering Domain that fits local needs. The present study investigates the English language communicative needs of engineering professionals in the Riyadh area and their views on ESP mechanism in the country which provides empirical data serving Saudi ESP context. The study has used the framework of needs analysis to investigate the extent of English use in the careers of engineering professionals, the required level of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in different activities, and the perception of engineering professionals towards their English language preparation during their previous college study. Three questionnaires were constructed and distributed to key stake holders such as students, employees and HR managers in Riyadh. They represent different kinds of population. The sample population consisted of students of College of Engineering - Majmaah University where470 questionnaires were distributed. Out of these 470 questionnaires, they all came back. 204 questionnaires were distributed to employees from different companies such as Aramco, SABEC, etc. The findings reveal that English language is used extensively at the workplace and plays an important role in the careers of engineering professionals. It indicates that the listening and speaking skills seem more challenging as perhaps it does not give time to think or react in work place immediate or specific situations. Writing seems challenging as well perhaps due to various forms of genre or discourse. However, academic organization and education system seems to be giving more importance to technical vocabulary, reading and writing compared to listening and

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speaking. English language courses that engineering professionals study seems inadequate in relating the English language used in the work place. Students, employee, and HR Managers showed unhappiness over the ESP mechanism which lacks coordination among policy, curriculum, syllabus, and training and even collaboration between academic organization and industry required for students training, internship, or any kind of opportunity to make student adapt to work place situations throughout the academic year. There is lack of opportunity of having guest lectures from industrial trainers. Teaching does not have content to replicate exact work place communicative situations and assessment does not check to what extent student is ready for organizational communicative needs. Finally, KSA seem to be in need of common platform for ESP stakeholders where problems can be discussed and solutions can be found. More or less, facility such as CDC, placement center, or national skills inventory or information related to policy, curriculum, and syllabus etc. seemed out of reach. INDEX WORDS: English as a Second Language, English for General Purpose, English for Specific Purpose, Stake holders, Linguistic &Communicative Competence, Needs Analysis, Work Place Situations, Target Needs Analysis.

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DEDICATION

With all Praise and Thanks To Almighty Allah for his gift of intellect, time, and energy, I dedicate my work to Mussab Al-shamy (a brave TV cameraman martyred in Rabia on August, 14, 2013) and the rest all who stood by the Truth and against the oppression.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank Allah for his help and guidance throughout my life. My gratitude is extended to my father who used to encourage me learn English (May Allah have Mercy Upon him), to my mother for her continuous prayers, encouragement, and patience. My deepest love and appreciation go to my wife Naglaa who not only helped me in study, but also carried most of the burden in raising our children. I am also grateful for my children who provided me with a continuous source of determination.

I would also like to express my greatest gratitude to the associate professor and the head of my dissertation committee Dr. Ishraga who has provided me with support and encouragement throughout my study. Her academic advice and meticulous revisions provided me with guidance during all phases of this dissertation. I would also like to thank Mr.Asif Vahora, a lecturer of English at Majmaah University whose inputs and feedback related to materials and statistics for this study was significant.

Finally, I would like to thank my beloved country Egypt, the new face after revolution where one feels that all efforts are not going to be forgotten

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..............................................................................................v TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................................................................vi

CHAPTERS ONE INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2-The Background of the Study ...1 1.3- The rationale of the Study. 2 1.4 The Objectives of the study 3 1.5 The Research Questions ...3 1.6 The Methodology of the Study ...4 1.7 The limitation of the study ....5 1.8 Summary .5

TWO LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................6 2.1 Overview of the Origin of ESP 6 2.2 Need Analysis Definition & Models ...21 2.3 ESP IN THE FRAMEWORK OF NEED ANALYSIS ...30 2.4 Previous Studies in ESP .49

THREE METHODOLOGY...................................................................................................54 3.1 Population and Setting................................................................................56 3.2 Developing the Questionnaire ............................................................,......57

FOUR DATA, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS...................................................61 4.1 Data, Interpretation, and Analysis of Employee Questionnaire....................................................................................................64 4.2 Data, Interpretation, and analysis of the HR Manager questionnaire ......105

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4.3 Data, Interpretation, and analysis of the Student Questionnaire.129

FIVE RECOMMENDATION, DISCUSSION & DIRECTION TO RESEARCH......... 150 5. 1 Hypothesis 150 5. 2 Questionnaires Analysis & Conclusion Summary ...151 5.3 Recommendations .154 5.4 Suggestions .167 5.5 Direction to Research .....167 5.6 Proposed Sample Unit ....169

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................217 APPENDICES220 APPENDIX A: Questionnaire (English Version).................................... 220 APPENDIX B: Questionnaire (Arabic Version)........................................231

LIST OF TABLES Table 2.11 Requirement of ESP Competencies in Modern World47 Table 4.1 The Questionnaire Division.61 Table 4.2 Sample Population of Respondents61 Table 5.1 Questionnaire Analysis & Conclusion Summary.152

LIST OF CHARTS Chart 2.1 Purpose Motivated Target Oriented Communication.9 Chart 2.2 Shifts from LSP to ESP to RBESP/JBESP...9 Chart 2.3 Shifts within ESP 20 Chart 2.4 Linear vs. cyclical processes of needs analysis.22 Chart 2.5 Major Needs Analysis Areas..30 Chart 2.6 Needs classification in ESP.....32 Chart 5.1 ESP coordination requirements for ESP Course......172

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TABULAR RESPONSE DATA & GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

Note: Tables & Graphs 4.1 to 4.85 (related to Questionnaire Data) and Tables/Charts related to Sample Unit have not been covered in this index.

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1-INTRODUCTION Teaching English for Specific Purpose in KSA has its roots within the deployment of ESL friendly resources in the country and ever growing use of English in multilingual organizational communicative needs. Though the approach is not a new and ESP has been taught either as a separate program or as interwoven within the ESL syllabus in colleges, few researches have been conducted to devise courses for specific domain and organizational needs in KSA. Ever growing use of customer oriented English in various domains of service oriented industry floods the market with ESP books aimed at customer service. However, there are certain domains such as Engineering which requires additional skills such as Technical English. Thus, requirement of English varies based on domain, position and workplace situations. In multilingual organizations in KSA that updates with modern times needs English for organizational maintenance and progress as well as to deal with multilingual work place situations. There are many ESP books for the engineering field but are not customized for KSA and this leaves scope for further research and finding out what suits most in industrial organization in KSA and how is the challenge responded by academic organization in KSA.

1.2-THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Over the last few years, many researchers have offered many books and articles with new approaches from different theoretical perspectives. For example, a survey (Veil, Jean-Claude,
2002) was conducted in Finland by National Board of Education on the language and communication

skills

in

the

fields

of

industry

and

business.

They

have

studied

the

English

language/communication needs of industry and business employees and showed how language teaching could best equip students with the skills required in professional life. The survey has

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revealed that compared with engineers, employees in production jobs, installation and repair workers do not need to use foreign languages as much as the members of the other group. Similar studies have been carried out in other European and Asian countries (see Perrin, 2003; Ponger, 2003; Edwards, 2000; Le So-Mui and Mead, 2000). In his study on writing and interacting in the discourse community of engineers, Pogner (2003:865) has concluded that writing in the discourse community of engineers cannot be isolated from its contexts, from the chains of communication of which it is a part, or from the interaction between the writers (consultants) or readers (Clients). This research is an exploratory study of the use of English by Engineering Students. It attempts to examine the communication needs of engineering students in the workplace by shedding light on their perceptions of needs, wants and lacks. Also it attempts to explore the workers' attitudes toward English and the use of English in the workplace. The sample consists of two hundreds of students enrolled in different levels in College of Engineering, Majmaah University. The data is going to be collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews, and analysis of authentic workplace texts. The workers' perceptions of their needs, wants and lacks are greatly affected by their attitudes toward English. The study concentrates on orientations toward the importance of studying ESP as a means of communication in relation to the group of workers using it and the workplace in which it is used. 1.3- THE RATIONALE OF THE STUDY The rationale behind choosing such a topic for students of Engineering for the purpose of investigation is because English is needed and is used extensively in the field of engineering and work. One more important point is that Graduates from Saudi Universities are likely to face difficulties coping with communication in positions in which the working language is English. This is not only because the amount of time and their exposure to English are insufficient, but also because the courses offered do not prepare them adequately for the job market. This research shall present the steps for conceiving an acceptable curriculum that would enable identifying specific workplaces in which the language of communication is English. It is widely recognized that a high percentage of todays school leavers find themselves unemployed due to lack of relevant skills and qualifications and low educational attainment.

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English has become a major vocational requirement in this age of technology and globalization. The English language courses taught by the Saudi Universities seem to incorporate a large part of the needs for English in the workplace. However, the courses taught to the students of engineering need adjustments to meet the work needs. Consequently, the present research is meant to provide the educational policy makers and course designers with reliable information about the need for vocational English so that they might reconstruct the existent courses and curricula to be more functional and successful.

1.4. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study partially aims at studying language use, attitudes, and the workers' perceptions of ESP in light of their abilities and 'real world' need. The main idea of the current study is to focus on developing communicative competence in a specific field in English , such as Engineering and to discover the role of the teacher and the learner in teaching and Learning English for Specific Purposes. The study provides a literature of written and spoken courses in ESP, knowledge and skills regarding: the historical and theoretical importance and foundations of ESP. 1.5. THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study tries to answer these questions: 1. To what extent does the syllabus of the engineering fulfill the workplace needs? 2. What are the needs of the workplace? 3. How can the gap between English for Academic purposes and occupational purposes be bridged? Hypotheses of the study: The current study is based on the following set of hypotheses: 1. ESP plays a vital role in the learning process nowadays.

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2. There is a gap between English taught in schools and the workplace. 3. The English taught to Engineering students in Saudi Arabia is not enough to prepare students for the workplace. 4. Educators use technology to provide diverse and culturally relevant experiences to help students develop an understanding of the world. 5. The use of learning ESP in the classroom deepens understanding and this requires appropriate techniques and strategies. 1.6. THE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY: Questionnaires and interviews are the two research tools used for the present study. 1. Contacting workplace such as ARAMCO AND SABEC 2. Arranging interviews with employees and managers. 3. Arranging workplace observations. 4. Designing language modules based on the way English is used in these workplaces. 5. Inserting the modules into the relevant curricula. 6. Needs analysis within the work place is going to be designed. 7. The specific language problems of employees are identified, those at the present moment, those at the time of carrying out a project, and those with regard to future occasions. 8. The companys main elements and resources are going to be analyzed and identified. 9. The real employees and their use of English are going to be analyzed, and efforts are going to be made to improve their future communicative competence. 10. Needs analysis is going to be carried out in order to exploit and develop individual communicative skills.

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1.7. THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There might be some limitations to this study. This Study is limited to the students of the college of engineering Firstly, the scope of this study includes 200 students who are enrolled in different levels at college of Engineering, Majmaah University who study English as a second language. Secondly, the study is limited to Saudi male students. (And it is possible to generalize the results from such a sample). Reconsider thus, this makes this study applicable in K.S.A and similar communities. Finally, as long as this study is concerned with ESP, its results can be considered where English is considered to be the second language. The researchers students have all studied English for at least 6 years at secondary school and Prep schools, and probably before that. 1.8. SUMMARY As students enter the workplace in a variety of disciplinary areas and roles, the format and model for using English will inevitably differ. Adjustments will have to be made to the standards and requirements of each corporation or agency where a student might work after graduation. Students must be able to take an idea and consistently follow through with the presentation of that idea in English. In order to meet fundamental workplace English expectations, a student must be able to at least identify the purpose for learning English effectively, use grammar, syntax, and conceptual knowledge to convey and support that purpose. The setting of this study will take place in College of Engineering, Majmaah University. The subjects of this study will be about 200 students who study English at level one. The researcher will hand over need analysis to help in devising a curriculum for students. The researcher will devise an ESP course for students of at least 10 units.

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE ORIGIN OF ESP Definition of E.S.P.


As for a broader definition of ESP,

Hutchinson and Waters (1987) theorize,


"ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning"

Strevens' (1988) defines ESP as; may be, but is not necessarily: 1. restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g. reading only); 2. not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology He gives following characteristics in ESP; I. Absolute Characteristics ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner; ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves; ESP is centered on the language (grammar, lexis, and register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities. II. Variable Characteristics ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English;

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ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level; ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students; Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners.

Anthony (1997) observed that; ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English; ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level; ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students; Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998)

He notes that there has been considerable recent debate about what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach which has been widely used over the last three decades. Dudley-Evans and St. John (1997) assert that; ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline. ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting. He further notes that it is not clear where ESP courses end and general English courses begin; numerous non-specialist ESL instructors use an ESP approach in that their syllabi are based on analysis of learner needs and their own personal specialist knowledge of using English for real communication.

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Types of ESP David Carter (1983) identifies three types of ESP: o English as a restricted language o English for Academic and Occupational Purposes o English with specific topics. ESP English for Specific Purpose can be better analyzed within the framework of communicative needs of individuals at various levels. Language has been used as medium of communication worldwide to fulfill various human needs. These needs are expressed by using language, body language, sign language and so on. As far as language is concerned, it has been used orally and in written form to communicate facts in the form of scientific and technical text, fiction in the form of literary text or even in day to day life for general purpose communication. Apart from general purpose communication, there also remains individual purpose that requires specific use of language that can fulfill the desired purpose.

A child may express few isolated words to convey his basic needs such as hunger, thirst etc. However, in case of more abstract and complex needs based on specific situations of all stake holder in communication process such as encoder & decoder or keeping in mind the variables in communication process such as psycholinguistic and socio-linguistic environment of encoder and decoder, nature of message, specification for the code, the process needs in depth analysis at each stage from start to an end.

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5. Target Decoder's Response

1. Purpose as 'Stimulus'

4. Messege Delivery

2. Intended Message

3. Code Selection (language suitable to target decoder & target situation)

Chart 2.1 Purpose Motivated Target Oriented Communication The following diagram showing root of ESP remains in the use of language for specific purpose where use of language is the core area. It also shows direction to which this trend is moving while use of language always being the core and root.

Chart 2.2 shift from LSP to ESP to RBESP/JBESP

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[A] LANGUGE IS USED FOR SPECIFIC FUNCTION / REASON / PURPOSE AT SENTENCE LEVEL.

Language samples can be analyzed to investigate underlying functions of individuals. These functions are also needs of individuals such as to express ideas, emotions, and desires etc. which initiate the communication. They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You? [Surah al-Baqarah: 2:30]

To communicate, educate, entertain, warn, suggest etc. remain as few of the countless such purposes behind the initiation of the communication with the target audience.

The curiosity of the angel remains the primary need or function to initiate Specific Use of Language that can meet the desired end result. In given verse, the underlying need remains to educate themselves by asking question, clarifying their doubts, fulfill their curiosity, as well as to praise the Almighty.

EXAMPLE OF USE OF LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE IN QURAN - 2:30

Encoder: Angels play the role of encoder here in the above mentioned verse. Specific Function /Reason / Purpose: Asking about unknown facts and their lack of knowledge remain a primary need for using language for their individual purpose Use of Language: It reflects their choice of words as per needs and target situations. Further analysis shows that words were carefully chosen keeping in mind the glory of Almighty and that it can communicate their specific query. Question also reflect their feeling of surprise over unusual action. Example situation in a verse shows contrast in situations and show what is expected as part of communication.

Decoder Reception: Decoder, being Almighty himself, already knows the question, answer and their purpose of communication replies, confirming and fulfilling their query.

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End result: Communication ends with decoders reception and reply serving the purpose of communication Language is used by teachers for specific purpose such as to impart education. Holy Quran also has references showing the importance of language in following verse. One of such examples is mentioned below.

And He taught Adam the names of all things; [Quran 2- 31]

In spite of knowing the answer, question is formed not to know the answer but as a motivational question that initiate thinking and to bring desired level of consciousness over the issue. Tell me the names of these if you are truthful. [Quran 2- 31]

Language is also being used to test the knowledge level as well as to help the process of retaining the knowledge as shown in verse given below. O Adam! Inform them of their names. When he had informed them, Allah said: Did I not tell you that I know what is unseen in the heavens and on Earth, and I know what you reveal and what you hide? [Quran 2- 31/33]

[B] LANGUGE IS USED FOR SPECIFIC FUNCTION / REASON / PURPOSE AT DISCOURSE LEVEL.

At times, entire piece of writing can have specific purpose and various sentences will be formed and grouped to core purpose. Extracts from Classical Letters with such specific purpose have been provided with analysis related to implied purpose which formed the discourse and resulting outcome or reaction of the discourse on the target audience.

Late in the six year A.H., on his return from Hudaibiyah, the Prophet Muhammad, decided to send messages to the kings beyond Arabia calling them to Islam. In order to

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authenticate the credentials of his envoys, a silver seal was made in which were graven the words: "Muhammad the Messenger of Allah". [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/872,873]

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS BASED ON EXTRACTS FROM CLASSICAL LETTERS ON VARIOUS OCCASIONS

[1] To King of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) "This letter is sent from Muhammad, the Prophet to Negus Al- Ashama, the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Peace be upon him who follows true guidance and believes in Allah and His Messenger. "..I have dispatched my cousin, Jafar (may Allah be pleased with him) with a group of Muslims, to you. Do be generous towards them and give up haughtiness." Should you reject this invitation, and then you will be held responsible for all the evils of the Christians of your people."

Above extracts reflect direct fearless style of expression, conditional greeting, warning, and reasoning without being impolite. End result was that a letter served the purpose as he accepted invitation to Islam

[2] To the Vicegerent of Egypt, called Muqawqas If you accept Islam, Allah, the Sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you will bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts.

Above extracts reflect direct fearless style of expression, conditional greeting, warning, and reasoning without being impolite. End result was that even when Muqawas did not accept Islam, in his reply he starts his letter saying "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. From Muqawqas to Muhammad bin Abdullah. Peace be upon you. He believes the trueness of prophet and also sends two maids as gift.

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[3] To Chosroes, Emperor of Persia From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to Chosroes, king of Persia. I am the Messenger of Allah sent to all people in order that I may infuse fear of Allah in every living person, and that the charge may be proved against those who reject the Truth.

Above extracts reflect purpose of explaining the reason behind why he has been sent as a messenger, message itself, global applicability, and individual appeal and implied warning to Chosroes. Style is simple and direct and yet few words express a lot and create desired result. End result was that the proud monarch was enraged by the style of the letter as the name of the Prophet had been put above his own name. He tore the letter into shreds and forthwith dictated a command to his viceroy in Yemen to send a couple of troopers to arrest the Prophet and bring him to his presence. His proud and assumption about his greatness made him do so. [4] From Haudhabin Ali, Governor of Yamama to Prophet (PBUH)

"The Faith, to which you invite me, is very good. I am a famous orator and poet, the Arabs highly respect me and I am of account among them. If you include me in your government, I am prepared to follow you."

Letter reflects the purpose of invitation to Islam in reasonable manner. End result was that though he put condition which was unacceptable, however, he had to say that the faith to which prophet invites him is very good.

[5] To The Envoyto Caesar, King of Rome "Say (O Muhammad [pbuh]): O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims. " [The Noble Qur'an 3:64]

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Letter used Quran verses relevant to situation as in case of many other letters. End result was that he king did not embrace Islam for it was differently ordained. However, he and the Muslim envoy were returned to Madinah with the compliments of the emperor. His observation was; I have already known that a Prophet must arise but it has never occurred to me that he will be an Arab from among you. If I was sure I would be faithful to him, I might hope to meet him, and if I were with him, I would wash his feet.

[6] Communication between Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) & Mundhir bin Sawa, Governor of Bahrain [a] Letter from Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent to Mundhir bin Sawa, Governor of Bahrain and letter contained, I read your letter, which you wrote to t he people of Bahrain extending to them an invitation to Islam. Islam appealed to some of them and they entered the fold of Islam, while others did not find it appealing. In my country, there live Magians and Jews, and therefore you may inform me of the treatment to be extended to them." [b] Letter in reply to above letter, contained the message from prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as My messengers have highly praised your behavior. You shall continue in your present office. Give the new Muslims full chance to preach their religion. I accept your recommendation regarding the people of Bahrain, and I pardon the offences of the offenders; therefore, you may also forgive them. Of the people of Bahrain whoever wants to go on in their Jewish or Magian faith, should be made to pay Jizya (poll-tax)."

Implied Purpose remained to invite to Islam. End result was that many accepted Islam, in case of letter addressed to people and king. Specific solution provided to a raised query by King regarding non-Muslims in easy to understand way.

[7] To Harith Al-Ghassani, King of Damascus I invite you to believe in Allah Alone with no associate, thence after your kingdom will remain yours."

Letter reflects the invitation to Islam and hidden fearless warning regarding consequences of not accepting Islam and also showing worldly benefit of accepting the invitation. End result was that

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showing his character, king upon hearing the letter read in his audience, was madly infuriated and uttered: "Who dares to dispose me of my country, Ill fight him (the Prophet)," and arrogantly rejected the Prophets invitation to the fold of Islam. Though, he did not accept invitation, he could understand the implied warning (which he did not believe as he was ordained with that sort of fate. [8] To the King of Oman, Jaifer, and his Brother Peace be upon him who follows true guidance; thereafter I invite both of you to the Call of Islam. Embrace Islam. Allah has sent me as a Prophet to all His creatures in order that I may instill fear of Allah in the hearts of His disobedient creatures so that there may be left no excuse for those who deny Allah. If you two accept Islam, you will remain in command of your country; but if you refuse my Call, youve got to remember that all your possessions are perishable. My horsemen will appropriate your land, and my Prophethood will assume preponderance over your kingship."

Implied purpose was to give invitation and warning with full description about consequences based on their choices. End result was that both of the brothers accepted Islam

Thus, above all examples show use of language by Prophet Muhammad while inviting various kings where styled remains simple, direct in nature, having precise use of words, and creating desired effect in the mind of his target audience. Above all, they were without any selfless motive and having concern for the target audience. However, when there is selfish motive, human being tend to be extra cautious and desperate to bring desired result in their favor which results in formation of very formal letter or praising the target audience to win their favor. Letters from British asking permission of trade in India and aimed to the Kings of India as well as the unemployed Indian babu class asking employment or promotion with British government are the example with Specific Purpose Motivated Language and Target Reader Oriented Discourse.

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DISCOURSE ANALYSIS BASED ON 1759 LETTER FROM BRITISH OFFICER

[1] Extract from Letter by ROBERT CLIVE to William Pitt British Prime Minister (1759) The close attention you bestow on the affairs of the British nation in general has induced me to trouble you with a few particulars relative to India, and to lay before you an exact account of the revenues of this country, the genuineness whereof you may depend upon, as it has been faithfully extracted from the Minister's books. The great revolution that has been effected here by the success of the English arms, and the vast advantages gained to the Company [British East India Company] by a treaty concluded in consequence thereof, have, I observe, in some measure, engaged the public attention; but much more may yet in time be done, if the Company will exert themselves in the manner the importance of their present possessions and future prospects deserves. I have represented to them in the strongest terms the expediency of sending out and keeping up constantly such a force as will enable them to embrace the first opportunity of further aggrandizing themselves; and I dare pronounce, from a thorough knowledge of this country's government, and of the genius of the people, acquired by two years' application and experience, that such an opportunity will soon offer. The reigning Subah [provincial governor of the Mughal Empire], whom the victory at Plassey invested with the sovereignty of these provinces, still, it is true, retains his attachment to us, and probably, while he has no other support, will continue to do so; but Muslims are so little influenced by gratitude, that should be ever think it his interest to break with us, the obligations he owes us would prove no restraint: and this is very evident from his having lately removed his Prime Minister, and cut off two or three principal officers, all attached to our interest, and who had a share in his elevation. Moreover, he is advanced in years; and his son is so cruel, worthless a young fellow, and so apparently an enemy to the English, that it will be almost unsafe trusting him with the succession. So small a body as two thousand Europeans will secure us against any apprehensions from either the one or the other; and, in case of their daring to be troublesome, enable the Company to take the sovereignty upon them.

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There will be the less difficulty in bringing about such an event, as the natives themselves have no attachment whatever to particular princes; and as, under the present Government, they have no security for their lives or properties, they would rejoice in so happy an exchange as that of a mild for a despotic Government: and there is little room to doubt our easily obtaining the Mughal's grant in confirmation thereof, provided we agreed to pay him the stipulated allotment out of the revenues, viz. fifty lacs [i.e. 5 million rupees] annually. This has, of late years, been very ill-paid, owing to the distractions in the heart of the Mughal Empire, which have disabled that court from attending to their concerns in the distant provinces: and the Vizier has actually wrote to me, desiring I would engage the [Subah] to make the payments agreeable to the former usage. . . . That this would be agreeable to the Mughal can hardly be questioned, as it would be so much to his interest to have their countries under the dominion of a nation famed for their good faith, rather than in the hands of people who, a long experience has convinced him, never will pay him his proportion of the revenues, unless awed into it by the fear of the Imperial army marching to force them thereto. But so large a sovereignty may possibly be an object too extensive for a mercantile Company; and it is to be feared they are not of themselves able, without the nation's assistance, to maintain so wide a dominion. I have therefore presumed, Sir, to represent this matter to you, and submit it to your consideration, whether the execution of a design, that may hereafter be still carried to greater lengths, be worthy of the Government's taking it into hand. I flatter myself I have made it pretty clear to you, that there will be little or no difficulty in obtaining the absolute possession of these rich kingdoms; and that with the Mughal's own consent, on condition of paying him less than a fifth of the revenues thereof. Now I leave you to judge, whether an income yearly of upwards of two millions sterling, with the possession of three provinces abounding in the most valuable productions of nature and of art, be an object deserving the public attention; and whether it be worth the nation's while to take the proper measures to secure such an acquisition, an acquisition which, under the management of so able and disinterested a minister, would prove a source of immense wealth to the kingdom, and might in time be appropriated in part as a fund towards diminishing the heavy load of debt under which we at present labor. Add to these advantages the influence we shall thereby acquire over the several European nations engaged in the commerce here, which these could no longer carry on but through our indulgence, and under

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such limitations as we should think fit to prescribe. It is well worthy of consideration, that this project may be brought about without draining the mother country, as has been too much the case with our possessions in America. A small force from home will be sufficient, as we always make sure of any number we please of black troops, who, being both much better paid and treated by us than by the country's powers, will very readily enter into our service. . . . The greatest part of the troops belonging to this establishment are now employed in an expedition against the French in Deccan; and, by the accounts lately received from thence, I have great hopes we shall succeed in extirpating them from the province of Golconda [in central India], where they have reigned lords paramount so long, and from whence they have drawn their principal resources during the troubles upon the coast. . . . May the zeal and the vigorous measures, projected from the services of the nation, which have so eminently distinguished your ministry, be crowned with all the success they deserve, is the most fervent wish of him who is, with the greatest respect, Your most devoted humble servant, [Signed] Robert Clive Calcutta, 7th January, 1759 John Murray (1836) in his book, The Life of Robert includes this letter and it was addressed to William Pitt, then, the British Prime Minister. Clive discusses several issues of geo-political and economic interest that concerned a British government that was increasingly interested in imperial matters. The purpose was to reflect political and economic concerns regarding take-over to India

End result was that Robert Clive with this letter was Successful in getting desired support from British government to establish British Rule in India

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LANGUAGE USED FOR ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL BENEFITS Language, throughout the history, has been used for various specific purposes and following example show how it played a key role to achieve desired targets.

1609: Emperor Jahangir issued Farman permitting the English to establish a factory at Surat. 1615: FIRST TREATY WITH MUGHAL EMPEROR: Sir Thomas Roe was instructed by James 1 to arrange a commercial treaty with Emperor Nurudin Salim Jahangir. He was successful in obtaining two Farmans from the Mughal Court confirming free trade with exemption from inland toll. This gave The Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories around Surat in exchange for rare commodities from Europe. This provided a secure base for operations to wage trade wars with Portuguese and Dutch governments and merchants.

1632: The English obtained the Golden Farman with the right to trade in the kingdom of Golkunda for a fixed customs duty, from the Sultan of Golkunda. 1651: Nawab Shuja-ud-din of Bengal granted the English, the right to carry on their trade on payment of a fixed duty. 1667: The English obtained the royal Farmanto trade in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. 1684: The East India Company receives Chinese permission to trade from Guangzhou (Canton) importing silk, tea and porcelain. Trade was made with the Chinese Hongs (trading companies) who controlled trade within China. In England, the demand for tea booms, in 1664 The Company placed an order for Tea for 100lbs, by 1750 annual imports had reached 4,727,992Lbs. Having initially traded tea for silver, the English are concerned that too much silver is leaving their shores. They begin to trade the highly addictive drug opium for tea, this leads directly to the opium wars between Britain and China, as the Chinese government tries to stop this trade.

1691: The Governor of Bengal gave the English Company Dastaks (Free trade passes) on the payment of a fixed duty.

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1717: English obtained a number of trade concessions from the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar after the Emperor was cured of a painful disease by the English Surgeon William Hamilton.

ESP in General English for Specific Purpose in General includes use of English language around the world which produced countless books representing fact or fiction. The target audience was general and there aimed to fulfilling general need of the audience at large.

ESP in Particular ESP in particular at covers specific domain or specific role.

Task Based ESP Role Based ESP General Skills Based ESP e.g. Technical English Domain based ESP e.g. English for Engineering e.g. English for Mechanical Engineer e.g. English for writing SOP (Service Operational Procedure) at Armaco

Chart 2.2 Shifts within ESP Thus ESP to world in general and to Saudi Arabia is not a new phenomenon. However, it is just transition from use of language in specific purpose to use of English for Specific Purpose with the global rise of English as a global language of science, technology, and commerce and being it a link language across the multilingual world.

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2.2 NEED ANALYSIS DEFINITION & MODELS

When the focus shifted from linguistic approach to communicative approach, language teaching started to focus more on communicative needs of students and society at large. Keeping in mind the complex nature and infinite scope of linguistic, it was important to teach what can be more useful to target learners to ensure that they dont end up study getting discouraged otherwise. As a result, important question was to decide the needs/wants/lacks of students in context to target language in ESL. Whereas, going beyond it, ESP raises a question such as why a learner should continue studying General English for No Obvious Reasons even at college level when he or she has to use English for Specific purpose throughout the career in to specific domain or while having specific work position. Furthermore, it also raises questions about what target learners need to study in ESP keeping in mind his future job in specific domain or based on specific role. Thus, the focus has no more been only on linguistic competence but also on communicative competence based on specific function or purpose within specific domain or role. Call Center Outsourcing to India by USA based companies is successful example of ESP in last decade. Even within century, we have use of language for specific purpose such as East India Companys letter writing to Indian Kings asking permission for Business. Beyond that, we have use of letter almost 1400 years before, by prophet to kings, with specific purpose of inviting them to Islam. In all these examples, language was based on function or specific purpose of communication. What we see today is commercial version of ESP for better communication between B2C (Business to Consumer) or B2B (Business to Business) communication at global level. Though previous studies have been made in ESP, there is an urgent need to study all stakeholders at large who are either part of ESP mechanism at national level or are influencing indirectly. In this respect, the present study attempts focus on the field of needs analysis as a method of not only analyzing the needs of given individuals(learners) or communities; but also as a tool that can help in making better informed decisions in ESP at national level. And before indulging in the understanding needs/wants/lacks of all stake holders, it is important to clarify the concept of NEEDS, WANTS, LACKS in general and ESP context. NEEDS ANALYSIS DEFINITION

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The word "assess" comes from the Latin term "assidere," which means to "sit beside. This is almost as if we sit beside a person to know the problem. Richterich (1983: 2) notes the difficulty of reaching an agreed on definition of needs analysis is in that The very concept of language needs has never been clearly defined and remains at best ambiguous. Whereas, Berwick (1989: 52) simplifies need as the discrepancy between a current state of affairs and a desired future state. Process-minded and participatory-oriented adult educators "sit beside" learners to learn about their proficiencies and backgrounds, educational goals, and expected outcomes, immersing themselves in the lives and views of their students (Auerbach, 1994). Needs analysis, resource management, task prioritization, etc. are of the very few approaches that play very important role in the overall development of any organization, be it academic, commercial or of any nature.

The role of Needs Analysis in ESP has been acknowledged by several scholars and authors such as Munby, 1978; Richterich and Chancerel, 1987; Hutchinson and Waters, 1987; Berwick, 1989; Brindley, 1989; Tarone and Yule, 1989; Robinson, 1991; Johns, 1991; West, 1994; Allison et al. (1994); Seedhouse, 1995; Jordan, 1997; Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998; Iwai et al. 1999; Hamp-Lyons, 2001; Finney, 2002). Also, the importance of carrying out a needs analysis is emphasized by Fulcher (1999), McDonough (1984), and Carrol (1980, cited in Fulcher, 1999)

Chart 2.4 Linear vs. cyclical processes of needs analysis

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(Dudley - Evans and St John 1998 : 121).

Within ESP context, the needs assessment process can be used as the basis for investigate developing curricula and classroom practice that are responsive to the needs of ESP learners who again fulfill the communicative needs of corporate sectors in general and even focusing on skill shortage based on ESP within specific domain, job, or function. The concept of need analysis has been studied so far through various perspectives and proposed various interpretations accordingly. In this regard, the concept of needs is viewed as generic term or umbrella term which can cover a lot of specific segments. Thus, needs in ESP can be considered as expected level of communication of target performer, both in linguistic and communicative aspects, in a way that they fulfill communicative goals of organization. TYPES OF NEEDS WITHIN ESP CONTEXT

Need Analysis Concepts in chronological order has been provided as follows. 1983: Porcer (1983: 129) differentiate that term need from term lack adding that; Speaking of a need (language or other) is not the same as speaking in general of what is lacking. A need does not exist prior to a project; it is always constructed. This shows that Students while working during internship or participation in live project at work place may realize that need arise at the time of participation in actual environment and it may or may not be addressed or even occur while learning in artificial academic environment. 1980-1986 Kopp (1986) and Pennington (1980)(quoted in Knox, 1997: 56) maintain that adults may be unaware of some of their educational needs, which may be implicit in their attitudes and choices, and may be aware of other educational needs, which they can state explicitly in response to some questions. Accordingly, it would be helpful to use needs assessment procedures to confirm and discover both implicit and explicit needs important to adult learners.

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This shows that if students are given genre and discourse sample from live industry, it can help to identify to what extent ESP syllabus and teaching is successful in preparing the students when the need arise as in case of constructed needs

1987 Richterich and Chancerel (1987) point out that due to the fact that needs vary too much from person to person, the system should be continually adapted.

Richterich and Chancerel (1987: 3) further ague that experience shows that in general the learner is little aware of his needs and, in particular, he is unable to express them except in very vague terms.

The identification and analysis of needs should be a continuous process (Richterich and Chancerel, 1987; Knox, 1987).This can help both administrators and teachers to adapt necessary changes. This shows that need based syllabus designed keeping in mind learners individual needs or student centered individually customized need based syllabus is very challenging and require constant review of ever-changing needs of learner in both academic and industry context. As opposed to this, industry needs within specific domain or based on specific job can have common communicative needs or common linguistic and communicative features appearing in their standardization in genre or discourse. 1988 Brookfield (1988: 221) defines felt needs as wants, desires and wishes of the learner. This shows that it is important that target learners do not end up learning what they like to learn rather than what is required of them to learn as per industry ESP requirement.

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For instance, a learner my adapt to communicate in less formal way if he is more comfortable that way even when work place communication demands formal genre or discourse at times. 1989 Berwick (1989: 55) views perceived needs as those that the educators make judgments about in other peoples experience, while felt needs are viewed as the ones that the learners have. Brindley (1989) and Robinson (1991) consider all factual information about the learner (language proficiency, language difficulties, use of language in real life) as means to collect data about objective needs; whereas cognitive and affective needs of the learner in language learning (such as confidence, attitudes, expectations) are considered as data about subjective needs. This shows that it is also important to focus on perceived or assumed needs that they do not differ from target needs keeping in mind ESP needs at work place. Otherwise, ESP curriculum may be designed or syllabus may be planned based on perceived needs, ESP teacher may end up teaching what he is fond of or ESP student may end up learning what he is fond of rather than what is required. Difference between real needs and perceived needs must be analyzed. 1990 Richards (1990) deals with this issue from the point of curriculum development, and he thinks that the data to be collected from learners, teachers, administrators, and employers in the planning process will help to identify general and specific language needs and content of a language program. Besides, it will provide data to review and evaluate the existing program. This shows that sample of genre and discourse can be gathered, a job profile may be researched to prepare inventory of skills in demand, and industry may be consulted before deciding about ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus, teacher training, teaching methodology, approaches to assessments, evaluation, formation of CDC Career Development Cell, Placement Cell etc. 1991 Peck (1991) categorizes the concept in terms of academic, social, and emotional needs.

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Pecks definition hints at the fact that concept of needs would differ from person to person due to varying degree of influence of ESP stakeholders on Target ESP Learners. This creates unique profile of target learners in sociological, psychological, academic, or professional context. 1993 Hutchinson and Waters (1993: 54) define target needs as the ones the learner needs to do in the target situation, these are necessities, lacks, and wants. What the learner needs to do in order to learn is referred to learning needs. Hutchinson and Waters (1993) believe that the relationship between necessities as perceived by a sponsor or an ESP teacher, and what learners want or feel can be at extreme poles. They suggest that learners perceived wants and wishes should be considered carefully, and due to objective and subjective reality of needs, each learning situation should be considered uniquely and systematically. This shows that Target Work Place Communicative Situations are the Target Needs in ESPs context. ESP research must keep this set of needs at core. 1994 West (1994) in his landmark state - of - the - art article notes that before the 1970s, needs analyses were based on teacher intuitions and sometimes informal analyses of students needs. Compared to present days, the projection of the needs may seem different both in approaches and finding, showing a constant change and process of redefining itself. This shows that new approaches can be used if the need arise as approaches are meant to be applicable in recent times and in case of adopting earlier approaches blindly, we may compromise with the current needs in ESP. 1997 According to Knox (1997: 56), "The curriculum content and learning experiences should be negotiated between learners, teacher, and coordinator at the beginning of the project and renegotiated regularly during the project" (p. 20).

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For Johns (1991), needs analysis is the first step in course design and it provides validity and relevancy for all subsequent course design activities. This shows that the decision making process must have all stake holders as participation and to negotiate their needs rather than a common academic practice where non-academic stakeholders are not considered important enough to influence decision related to policy, curriculum, syllabus, training, etc.

1999 According to Iwai et al. (1999), the term needs analysis generally refers to the activities that are involved in collecting information that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the needs of a particular group of students. This shows that curricular developers have to be precise about what issues they are going to address and it requires them to collect required information that can help them address those issues concerning all stake holders in various situations and targeting various needs. Thus, learners and teachers may have different needs. This why needs analysts should be cautious in collecting information from various sources due to the multiplicity and diversity of the views on prerequisites for an ESP. Within ESP context, a student comes to know about actual ESP need while confronting the real communicative situations at work place. It is challenging to identify these needs in advance and make inventory of gaps between what has been taught in ESP syllabus and what is required while working. Any linguist would agree with the fact that the process of learning is obviously affected by the psycholinguistic profiling (attitude of the learner towards the content, teacher, teaching, etc.,) socio-linguistic profiling (social influences and attitude towards target language etc.) also affect ESP mechanism in society at large. Therefore, the customization must be made at all levels in all segments.

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At the beginning of the program, needs assessment might be used to determine types of appropriate program and course content. During the program, it assures that learner and program goals are being met, and allows for necessary program changes. At the end of the program, it can be used for assessing progress and planning future directions for learners and the program. This can maximize the likelihood of students' participation. Finally such focus on satisfying learners needs will help the learners to insist on learning and applying what has been learnt.

APPROACHES TO NEED ANALYSIS Jordan (1994) indicates that the main two approaches in needs analysis are; 1. The Target-Situation Analysis 2. The Present-Situation Analysis. A careful needs analysis should involve Present Situation Analysis (PSA) and Target Situation Analysis (TSA). Bloor emphasizes that operation of both analyses during a term is certainly desirable. Robinson (1991) also holds that TSA and PSA are complementary and form an efficient form of needs analysis. Differences between TSA & PSA TSA Target Situation Analysis During 1970s, the concept of need analysis became part of literature on ESP and was largely defined in terms of the target situation analysis, (TSA), what learners are required to do with the foreign or second language in the target situation. Robinson, 1991 mentioned that Learners language requirements regarding the target situation are identified through TSA.

PSA Present Situation Analysis

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PSA aims at finding out the students English proficiency level and their existing language requirements at the beginning of a language program.

Richterich, and Chancerel (1997) mentioned that it draws attention to the gap between what students are able to do with language at the beginning of the course and what they need to do at the end of the course. This gap is also known as lacks. at times. Thus, in ESP context, it is Focus on Learners Drawback in Present Situation.

It also covers other aspects concerning to the prevailing situation, including learners psychological, sociological, academic, professional environment. Bloor (1984) defines PSA as a learner-centered needs analysis, and the latter one as a targetcentered analysis. Need Analysis & Approaches Deficiency analysis: Deficiency analysis is concerned with the necessities that the learner lacks Strategy analysis: Strategy analysis seeks to establish the learners preferences in terms of learning styles and strategies, or teaching methods Means analysis: Means analysis examines the constraints - local situation - to find out the ways of implementation of a language course. Analytic Analysis: Expert opinion Discrepancy Analysis: what people know and what they ought to know Democratic Approach: Learner points of view (Stuffle beam et al, 1985, quoted in Berwick, 1989). Diagnostic approach: The learners needs to be used in social services (Berwick, 1989) Wide Angled Approach: Hutchinson and Waters (1987) and Widdowson (1983) espoused a wide -angle approach to the curriculum, arguing that language and skills should be taught through a variety of topics, one reason being that students may find anarrow - angle approach demotivating. Narrow Angled Approach: A greater focus on the learner in needs analyses gave rise to the negotiated syllabus, which, as Brindley (1989) points out, can involve

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accommodation and compromise regarding not only what is to be learnt but also taking into account students preferred ways of learning and cognitive style. Wide & Narrow Angled Approach in Continuum: Basturkmen (2010) notes these two aspects should be seen on a continuum. For example, to take the case of Business English, a course focusing on broad academic skills encompassing many sub - fields such as marketing and accounting would fall at the wide - angled end of the continuum whereas a course on English for accountants would be relatively narrow - angled. TECHNIQUES IN NEED ANALYSIS There are many Data Collection Methods. The present case study will use various ways (one, two, or more than two from the following) to find authentic and significant data that can help the research to find out problematic patterns in ESP and come up with practical solution and recommendations. In short, needs can also be categorized as explained in the following diagram.
Psycholinguistic needs in English Socio-linguistic needs in English Professional communicative needs in English

Chart 2.5 Major Needs Analysis Areas

2.3 ESP IN THE FRAMEWORK OF NEED ANALYSIS

ESP is a branch of applied linguistics with focus on overall needs of all stake holders that are directly or indirectly part of the mechanism. The types of needs could be general or

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specific;

[1] General Linguistic Needs for internal communication & intellectual growth: e.g. language requirement for cognitive process and intellectual growth of an individual throughout the life [2] General Linguistic Needs for external communication & socio-cultural development: Needs: e.g. language requirement for social interaction with friends, relatives etc. in informal situations throughout the life [3] Specific Linguistic Needs for Academic Purpose: e.g. as a medium of education and assessment [4] Specific Linguistic Needs for Professional Purpose e.g. language required for carrying out various tasks in job or business in formal situations or dealing with similar formal situations

Above all needs can have two levels; 1. The current status of linguistic and communicative competence of the target learner / student of ESP 2. Target status of linguistic and communicative competence of the target learner / student of ESP An ESP researcher has to focus on both the actual as well as ideal environment and has to develop and implement the syllabus that can bridge the gap between these two.

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Chart 2.6 Needs Classification in ESP

According to Iwai et al. (1999), The term needs analysis generally refers to the activities that are involved in collecting information that will serve as the basis for developing a curriculum that will meet the needs of a particular group of students. Widdowson (1981), a linguist and an early pioneer of the approach, describes the general concept of ESP by stating that; If a group of learners needs for a language can be accurately specified, then this specification can be used to determine the content of a language program that will meet these needs. Needs analysis, carried out to establish the what and the how of a course, is the first stage in ESP course development, followed by curriculum design, materials election, methodology,

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assessment, and evaluation. However, these stages should not be seen as separate, proceeding in a linear fashion. Rather, as noted by Dudley - Evans and St John (1998) , they are interdependent overlapping activities in a cyclical process. A broad, multi - faceted definition of needs analysis is provided by Hyland (2006: 73): Needs analysis refers to the techniques for collecting and assessing information relevant to course design: it is the means of establishing the how and what of a course. It is a continuous process, since we modify our teaching as we come to learn more about our students, and in this way it actually shades into evaluation the means of establishing the effectiveness of a course. Needs is actually an umbrella term that embraces many aspects, incorporating learners goals and backgrounds, their language proficiencies, their reasons for taking the course, their teaching and learning preferences, and the situations they will need to communicate in. Needs can involve what learners know, dont know or want to know, and can be collected and analyzed in a variety of ways. Hutchinson & Waters (1992) argue that if learners, sponsors, and teachers know why learners need English, that awareness will have an influence on what will be accepted as reasonable content in the language course and what potential can be exploited. The ESP approach uses the needs analysis framework as the main tool to define learners needs in a specific field because the awareness is more recognizable in a specific target situation representing a real -lifesituation.

To understand various approaches and identify development pattern, one needs to study its history chronologically.

ESP PUBLICATION EXAMPLES (1920 TO PRESENT DAYS)


1920 1962 Babu English as Tis Writ Barber, C. L. (1962) Some measurable characteristics of modern scientic

prose. Contributions to English Syntax and Philology, Gothenburg Studies in English,14. Reprinted, with a commentary, in J. M. Swales (ed.) (1988) Episodes in ESP:A Source and Reference Book on the Development of English for Science and Technology. 115. New York: Prentice-Hall.

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1969

Ewer, J. R. and G. Latorre (1969) A Course in Basic Scientic English. Swales, J. M. (1971-1976) Writing Scientic English. London: Thomas

London: Longman. 1971

Nelson & NewYork: Cengage. 1972 Lackstrom, J. E., Selinker, L., and Trimble, L. P. (1972) Grammar and

technical English. English Teaching Forum: X(5).Reprinted, with a commentary, in J. M. Swales (ed.) (1988), Episodes in ESP: A Source and Reference Book on the Development of English for Science and Technology. 5868. New York: PrenticeHall. 1976 Bates, M. and Dudley-Evans, T. (Series eds.) (197680) Nucleus: English

for Science and Technology. Harlow: Longman. 1976 Godman, A. (1976) The language of science from the viewpoint of the

writer of science textbooks. In J. Richards (ed.), Teaching English for Science and Technology (Anthology Series 2). 719. Singapore: Regional English Language Centre Singapore University Press. 1976 Richards, J. C. (ed.) (1976) Teaching English for Science and Technology

(Selected papers from the RELC Seminar on the teaching and learning of English for scientic and technological purposes in Southeast Asia).Singapore: SEAMEO Regional English Language Centre, Singapore University Press. 1976 Selinker, L., Todd Trimble, M., and Trimble, L. (1976). Presuppositional rhetorical information in EST discourse. TESOL Quarterly 10: 28190. 1977 Richterich, R. and Chancerel, J. L. (1977) Identifying the Needs of Adults

Learning a Foreign Language. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1978 Bley-Vroman, R. (1978) Purpose, device, and level in rhetorical theory. In M. Trimble, L. Trimble, and K. Drobnic(eds.) English for Specic Purposes: Science and Technology. 27888. Corvallis, OR: English Language Institute, Oregon State University. 1978 Trimble, M. T., Trimble, L., and Drobnic, K.(1978) English for Specic

Purposes: Science and Technology. English Language Institute: Oregon State University. 1980 Du Bois, B. L. (1980) The use of slides in biomedical speeches. ESP Journal 1:4550. 1980 Johns, T. and Dudley-Evans, A. (1980) An experiment in team-teaching of

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overseas post-graduate students of transportation and plant biology. Team Teaching in ESP: 13755. London: The British Council 1981 Swales, J. M. (1981) Aspects of Article Introductions. Birmingham, UK:

Aston University, The Language Studies Unit. Republished University of Michigan Press (2011). 1981 Tarone, E., Dwyer, S., Gillette, S., and Icke, V. (1981) On the use of the passive in astrophysics journal papers. ESP Journal1: 12340. Reprinted, with a commentary, in J. M. Swales (ed.) (1988), Episodes in ESP: A Source And Reference Book on The Development of English for Science and Technology. 188 205. New York: Prentice-Hall. 1982 Hatch, E. and Farhady, H. (1982) Research Design and Statistics for Applied

Linguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 1982 Waters, A. (ed.) (1982) Issues in ESP. Lancaster, UK: Lancaster Practical

papers in English Language Education,Vol. 5. 1983 Mead, R. and Henderson, W. (1983) Conditional form and meaning in Adams-Smith, D. (1984) Medical discourse: Aspects of authors comment. economics text. ESP Journal 2: 1391. 1984 ESP Journal 3: 2536. 1984 Holes, C. (1984) Textual approximation in the teaching of academic writing

to Arab students: A contrastive approach in J. M. Swales and H. Mustafa (eds.), English for Specic Purposes in the Arab World. 22842. Birmingham, UK: The Language Studies Unit, University of Aston. 1984 Swales, J. M. and Mustafa, H. (eds.) (1984) English for Specic Purposes in West, L. L. (1984) Needs assessment inoccupation-specic VESL or how to

the Arab World. Birmingham, UK: The Language Studies Unit, University of Aston. 1984 decide what to teach. The ESP Journal 3:14352. 1985 Dubois, B. L. (1985) Popularization at the highest level: Poster sessions at biomedical meetings. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 56:6784. 1985 Hanania, E. and Akhtar, K. (1985) Verb form and rhetorical function in

science writing: A study of MS theses in biology, chemistry, and physics. The ESP Journal4: 4958. 1986 Doushaq, H. (1986) An investigation into stylistic errors of Arab students learning English for Academic Purposes. English for Specic Purposes 5: 27

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40.ELFA Project (http: www.eng.helsinki. elfa).English for Specic purposes (1990) Special issue on Latin America 11(2).ESP World (http: www.espworld.info).Ewer, J. R. (1971) Further notes on developing an English programme for students of science and technology, English Language Teaching 26, 1, and 3.Reprinted, with commentary, in J. M. Swales (ed.) (1988) Episodes in ESP: A Source and Reference Book on the Development of English for Science and Technology. 4557. New York: Prentice-Hall. 1986 Horowitz, D. (1986) What professors actually require: Academic tasks for the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly 20:44562. 1986 Jacobson, W. H. (1986) An assessment of communication needs of nonnative speakers of English in an undergraduate physics lab. English for Specic Purposes5: 17388. 1986 Zak, H. and Dudley-Evans, T. (1986).Features of word omission and abbreviation in telexes. English for Specic Purposes 5: 5972. 1987 Bhatia, V. (1987) Textual mapping in British legislative writing. World Hutchinson, T. and A. Waters (1987) English for Specic Purposes: A Malcolm, L. (1987) What rules governs tense usage in scientic articles? Englishes 6: 110. 1987

Learning-Centered Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1987 English for Specic Purposes 6: 3144. 1987 Rounds, P. (1987) Multifunctional personal pronoun use in an educational Swales, J. M. and Johns, A. M. (1987) Editorial. English for Specic setting. English for Specic Purposes 6: 1330. 1987

Purposes 6:163. 1988 Bazerman, C. (1988) Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and Activity Harvey, A. and Horsella, M. (1988, August36). Technical Communication

of the Experimental Article. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. 1988

via Computational Abstracts: Implications for ESP. Paper presented at the Second International Eindhoven LSP Conference, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. 1988 11321. 1988 Johns, A. M. (1988) The discourse communities dilemma: Identifying Hopkins, A. and Dudley-Evans, A. (1988)A genre-based investigation of the discussion sections in articles and dissertations. English for Specic Purposes7:

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transferable skills for the academic milieu. English for Specic Purposes 7:5560. 1988 1988 Kerridge, D. (1988) Presenting Facts and Figures. London: Longman. Murray, D. E. (1988). Computer-mediated communication: Implications for

ESP. English for Specic Purposes 7: 318. 1988 Selinker, L. (1988) Using research methods in LSP: Two approaches to applied discourse analysis. In M. L. Tickoo (ed.), ESP: State of the Art. 3352. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 1988 Swales, J. M. (1988). Episodes in ESP: A Source and Reference Book on

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ChangingWorld. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press. 2009 Bhatia, V. (2009) Intertextual patterns in English legal discourse. In D. Belcher(ed.), English for Specic Purposes in Theory And Practice. 186204. Ann Arbor,MI: University of Michigan Press. 2009 Bjrkman, B. (2009) From code to discourse in spoken ELF. In A.

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Literature Review. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 2009 we think you will understand The shifting relationship between correctness and effectiveness in ELF. In A. Mauranenand E. Ranta (eds.), English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, 32347.Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 2009 Johns, A. M. (2009) Genre awareness forthe novice academic student: Anon-going quest. Language Teaching 41:23752. 2009 Prez-Llantada, C. (2009) Textual, genre and social features of spoken grammar: A corpus-based approach. Language Learning and Technology 13: 4058. 2009 Swales, J. M. (2009) Worlds of genre. In C.Bazerman, A. Bonini, and D. Figueredo(eds.), Genre in a Changing World. 113.West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press. 2009 Press. 2009 Wagner, A. and Bhatia, V. (eds.) (2009) Diversity and Tolerance in SocioTardy, C. (2009) Building Genre Knowledge. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor

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Shift from Linguistic Competence to Communicative Competence

Overview of ESP history shows us the clear shift from linguistic competence to communicative competence. Most of the earlier publication in ESP seemed focused on giving importance to linguistic competence. Scholars like Chomsky with their emphasis on linguistic competence also influenced the approaches modeled on linguistic theories of those days. The focus in language

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education was helping the learners with their linguistic competence that can suit various social and interactive situations.

However, things changed with concept of communicative competence and process was now reversed. Focus shifted from study of language as a form to study of language as a function. Hymes (1972) criticized Chomskys restricted view concerning the notion of competence and performance. Chomsky had introduced the concept of competence (e.g. speakers grammatical knowledge of their language) and performance (e.g. the actual production of language as an imperfect image of competence) to propose the existence of innate properties of language which he considered to be the central force guiding language acquisition. He proposed the term communicative competence for this concept to account for the social dimension of language acquisition. He bases his proposal on both psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic notions of language acquisition. Thus, communicative competence represents grammatical competence as well as psycholinguistic & sociolinguistic and competence.

Table 2.11 Requirement of ESP competencies in modern world

Communicative Approach focusing on English for Specific Purpose The profile of needs analysis serves a targeted group of learners and aims at what a learner of a particular language needs to do and say independently in a foreign language environment. Munby (1978) indicates that the selection of instructional materials in needs analysis is based on a systematic analysis of specific learners' needs for the target language by analyzing Need

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Analysis Approach Focusing on Target Group (ESP Learners), with their reasons for learning (motivational factors), place and time of anticipated target use, others with whom the user will interact (e.g. peers), content areas (e.g. genre/discourse), skills (Linguistic and Communicative Skills), level of proficiency required.

Needs analysis as a framework provides an empirical basis for course design that sets up a suitable environment to promote SLA.

Needs analysis relates communicative competence development to the materials and activities used in the classroom. Hall (2001) indicates that the first step in designing instruction for the communicative approach to language teaching is to conduct a needs analysis. Thus, needs analysis aims at identifying the particular communicative activities that a particular group of learners is expected to participate in as users of the target language. Providing this kind of communicative activity will help to promote learners communicative competence. Robinson (1991) indicates that by taking into account the target needs and the present needs of competence, a model of needs analysis is built on the concept of communicative competence. West (1994) argues that a model of needs analysis would be a study of interlanguage, error analysis, and diagnostic testing. The point to make in this regard is that needs analysis can be looked at from an SLA prospective as a diagnostic tool of the interlanguage development of the target group of learners by linking their English language proficiency with the communicative function of language in the target situation. When defining the goals of SLA, Ellis (1997) indicates that one of the goals of SLA is to improve language teaching. The area of language use in SLA provides the theoretical basis for the ESP process (Nunan 1988). In conclusion, the impact of the communicative competence theory and the social function of language on the ESP field demanded a shift in focus from the language system to language use. This shift in focus paved the way for needs analysis to emerge as a main source for providing empirical data to design activities for a certain group of learners based on their language use. The outcome of this shift provides data to develop second language communicative competence in a specific field.

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2.4 Previous Studies Usually, Needs are analyzed of language programs serving adults in academic and professional programs. The overview has been provided based on a sampling of recent studies in needs analysis conducted in various parts of the world. This overview will present studies conducted in chronological manner.

In short, the field of ESP so far includes a number of needs analyses conducted on language programs in many different areas. Needs analysis has been conducted in ESL settings and EFL settings representing academic and professional ESP programs. In Arab Gulf countries, needs analysis studies have covered a group of different specialties. Al-Busaidi (2003) investigated academic English, Almulhim (2001) and Al-Bazzaz (1994) looked at business English, and Al- Gorashi (1988) investigated military English needs.

However, not many studies to date seem to have looked specifically at the overall needs of all stakeholders including needs of corporate sectors, needs of the ESP trainers, Organizational Needs for ESP Courses, and finally ESP needs of the students.

Research Studies Examples in ESP


[1] Rattanapinyowong (1988) conducted a study on Medical students of Mahidol University in Bangkokregarding Students perceived needs and attitude about learning English as a Second Language. 351 questionnaires to medical, nursing, and related fields students and Interviews with teachers revealed following points; Insufficient Academic Needs Fulfillment Need for Customized Course for Specific Medical Professions

[2] Lambardo (1988) conducted a study on Students of the School of Economics regarding Perceived Needs and Attitudes about Learning English as a Second Language A survey of 200 students revealed following points;

Better job works as motivation for the course Technical terminology comprehension as a major problem in reading

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Oral reports and meeting important to succeed in their field Listening skills considered the most important followed by speaking, reading, and writing.

[3] Jafre-Bin-Zainol-Abidin (1992) conducted a study on Science graduates in Malaysia regarding English language needs for business purpose. Outcome of questionnaire to the science students, personnel managers and employees revealed following points; The participants ranked the use of English and the importance of each language skill The students rank reading as the most important skill The employees ranked each skill differently based on the nature of their jobs All skills were needed to perform basic tasks

[4] Eggly (1999) conducted study on International internal medicine residents at Wayne State University in Michigan in the United States regarding the relationship between English language proficiency and medical residency success. Outcome of the Test of English for International Communication & questionnaire for 20 students revealed that; The participants scored high grades in the Test of English for International Communication Language skills were identified in the questionnaires as the primary weakness The medical knowledge was not linked to English ability A training course in English for medical purposes was recommended

[5] Shi (2001) conducted study on Junior medical students in the first part of their clinical training at the University of British Columbia regarding the cognitive processes and linguistic skills to achieve various learning objectives to make diagnostic hypotheses with experienced doctors. Transcripts of video/audiotapes of six 1-hour sessions of ward teaching and the use of technical terms to translate information from doctor-patient to doctor-doctor discourse were used. The video sequences and teaching tasks were also used to raise students' awareness of the cognitive and linguistic features of the discourse. Improvisation occurred through students' performance through practice. It revealed that the authentic data from student performance can be exploited to construct a tightly focused curriculum addressing students' needs

[6] Seferoglu (2001) conducted study on Turkish government- sponsored USA based masters or doctoral degrees students and students seeking admission in USA regarding ESP needs as perceived

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by the students and to explore the extent to which classroom instruction in the language program in Turkey responded to these needs. The questionnaires about the importance of the English language in academic life, TOEFL preparation, and daily activities etc. for 309 USA based students and 21 students attending the language program in Turkey were prepared. It revealed that The academic needs in learning English is far more important than everyday needs. Exam such as TOEFL as immediate need for admission

[7] Bosher (2002) conducted study on ESL students in Nursing Programs regarding EFL Needs Analysis to determine reasons for failure. Interviews, observations, and questionnaires were used to gather information about the objective needs of students. It revealed following points; Communicating with clients and colleagues in the clinical setting was perceived as the greatest difficulty. A development of course focusing Speaking and Listening in a Health-Care Setting, assertiveness skills, therapeutic communication, information-gathering techniques, and the role of culture in health-care communication and a variety of methods and materials

[8] Kittidhaworn (2002) conducted study on the undergraduate engineering students in a public university in Thailand. A study conducted within the EFL field included a two-part questionnaire for English language needs of 182 second year students focusing demographic data: gender, specialty, years of studying English in the school, English proficiency in Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing skills. The second part with 45 items of English-language needs in four major areas: Language Structures, Rhetorical Categories, Language Functions, & Language Skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing). The study revealed that; The majority of Thai engineering students have equal perceived English language needs in all four major areas Perceived English language needs do not vary widely by demographic variables.

[9] Al-Busaidi (2003) conducted study on EFL learners at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in the Sultanate of Oman. It was a need analysis study about identifying effective program practices fulfilling academic needs. Interviews, e-mail dialogues, and a questionnaire for college and

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language program faculty members, undergraduate students was prepared and its outcome revealed following points;

The participants realized the importance of the intensive program as a means for academic preparation. Some major gaps in the intensive programs curriculum The lack of integration between language and college courses Academic skills with no enough coverage in the language program, negatively affecting learners' readiness for academic study A hybrid content-based curriculum model to integrate language and college courses A core language course based on the content of introductory college course An academic skills course to make academic skill instruction more effective A credit-bearing university course be offered in the intensive program [9] cooperation was needed between the Language Center and college teachers in order to raise awareness about learners' needs.

[10] Almulhim (2001) conducted study on Saudi employees in 101 companies representing different business sectors in the eastern providence of Saudi Arabia to find out the level of English proficiency required in the four skills for employee. A questionnaire was prepared for different companies to be filled out by 308 employees and managers. Its outcome revealed following points; The English language knowledge requirement for employment in most companies Variance in level of proficiency among different companies Managers and employees rated listening as the most important skill followed by speaking, reading, and writing respectively An intermediate level of proficiency is considered sufficient to conduct the job

[11] Al-Bazzaz (1994) conducted study on the students of College of Business Studies in Kuwait regarding a needs analysis study to investigate students low achievement in English. A questionnaire, Interviews and observations for students and teachers revealed following points; English was used to communicate with non-native speakers of Arabic in different areas involved with the business sector The language knowledge required to deal with the labor market was attainable, but it was not

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adequately covered in the English language courses taught to students of business A model for course development

[12] Al-Gorashi (1988) conducted study on Military cadets in Saudi Arabia regarding English language needs for military cadets as perceived by junior officers. 212 questionnaires were

prepared for officers representing different branches in the military to investigate the role of the English language in different activities required by their jobs and the kind of English language preparation that they undertake. The study revealed following points; Role of English varied depending on the nature of each military branch Certain language skills important and others did not The overall assessment considered reading and listening as the most important required skills The English language preparation that the officers received was poor and not meeting the job requirement

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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part discusses an overview about different types of methods used in conducting needs analysis. The second part describes the setting and participants of the study. The third part describes the process of developing the questionnaire. The fourth part discusses the piloting and validation process. The last part describes the data collection process.

Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. A number of different methods for conducting needs analysis were listed by Robinson (1991).These include questionnaires, interviews, case studies, tests, and authentic data collection (e.g. analyzing actual manuals and written assignments). Jordan (1997) adds to these methods advanced documentation (e.g. requesting extra information that includes educational background, previously attended courses, and other relevant aspects), language tests at home, self-assessment, class progress tests, direct monitoring, structured interviews, learner diaries, previous research comparisons, and follow up investigations.

In all, methods used in needs analysis are varied. However, the most widely used tools are case studies, interviews and questionnaires (West, 1994). A case study is used to investigate a learners communication needs. It has also been used as a teaching method and as part of professional development, especially in business and legal education. The problem-based learning (PBL) movement is such an example. When used in (nonbusiness) education and professional development, case studies are often referred to as critical incidents. Case study can help experimenters adapt ideas and produce novel hypotheses which can be used for later testing.

It provides a very close examination of what the learner needs to learn based on his/her personal language ability. However, the drawback of this approach is that it requires a long

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period of time and data collected cannot necessarily be generalized to the wider population. This leads to data being collected over longitudinal case studies not always being relevant or particularly useful.

Interviews are another method to investigate issues in depth. It is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interview method is used to discover how individuals think and feel about a topic and why they hold certain opinions. It also deepens understanding and explains statistical data. It usually contains open-ended questions aimed at guiding the subjects responses. These give the researcher a wide variety of different responses that give a sense of the perceived language needs. However, the disadvantage of this approach can be very time-consuming: setting up, interviewing, transcribing, analyzing, feedback, reporting and they can be costly. One more disadvantage is that the interpretation of the open-ended questions might not represent the intention of the subject. The subject also might be influenced in a face to face interview to give answers that satisfy the researcher. Moreover, in order to achieve a statistical generalization, the researcher needs to interview a large number of subjects which can be costly and time consuming.

For these reasons, the majority of studies in needs analysis use questionnaires as the primary method of data collection. Jordan (1997) indicates that the use of questionnaires is most convenient when dealing with large scale of data collection. Questionnaires enable the researcher to collect data from a large number of subjects in a short period of time. However, their main drawback is that the subjects might misinterpret the questions. Thus, it is crucial to pretest questionnaires before the distribution process. Another drawback is that the response rate can be low, especially when the questionnaire is mailed to the subjects rather than distributed and collected in person.

In all, Jordan (1997) indicates that there is no single approach to conduct needs analysis.

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Every researcher has different circumstances that influence the choice of method in conducting his/her investigation. It falls to the researcher to choose the method that best serves his/her goals and circumstances. Questionnaires were determined to be the best means of investigation in this study. They were selected as the source of data collection for the following reasons:

1. Large amounts of information can be collected from a large number of people in a short period of time and in a relatively cost effective way. 2. Can be carried out by the researcher or by any number of people with limited affect to its validity and reliability. 3. Can be analyzed more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research 4. They require minimal time from participants and provide a flexible and convenient way to participate in the study. 5. Participants could be assured of a certain degree of anonymity in their could respond candidly. responses and

3.1 POPULATION AND SETTING

Saudi nationals employ a multinational and a multilingual workforce. English is considered to them the language used to communicate with each other. The sample population focused on Saudi nationals in the workplace who graduated from the College of Engineering and college of Computer Sciences and technology. The sample population was selected from five departments in college of Engineering and Employees in Riyadh area in order to cover all the mentioned above.

The literature on conducting questionnaires in second language research indicates that there is no rule in setting the optimal sample size. However, Dornyei (2003) indicates three major guidelines to determine an appropriate sample size: 1- Having 1% to 10% of the targeted population is adequate to represent an accurate sample of the population. 2- The return rate with voluntary questionnaires is between 20% to 50%.

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3- L2 studies based on questionnaires need a minimum of 100 respondents to reach statistical significance.

The researcher first obtained data on the number of students from Majmaah University in order to have an idea about the number of graduates joining companies. In choosing companies, the aim was to choose that are concerned with varying types of employees where English is the language used to communicate because of the large number of foreigners working in order to be able to know to what extent the lack and the gap between English taught and used in the work place, and to maximize the chances of getting respondents covering different Engineering fields. The researcher started by selecting two major companies in Riyadh area; SABEC and ARAMCO, the other source is Majmaah University from where the subjects graduate. No. of respondents included 57 HR Managers, 204 employees, and 470 Engineering Students which helped the researcher to come up with valuable data for this research. To sum up, the sample for this investigation consisted of two big companies representing a number of different employees and engineers. Participants were Saudi nationals working at ARAMCO and SABEC, students of college of engineering and college of sciences and computer technology.

3.2 DEVELOPING THE QUESTIONNAIRE: An outline of the questionnaire development has been provided here. Both English and Arabic questionnaires have been provided in appendix in the end as reference.

Questionnaire has been prepared focusing on following three key stake holders. The Stake holders: Engineering Students studying in Engineering Branch in KSA HR Office / HR Manager in KSA Employee in Engineering Domain in KSA

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Questionnaire design for this study followed common principles of designing questionnaires in second language research. Later, they are informed about the importance and context of the questionaries and how their true answers can help the researcher in identifying the problems or in assessing the ESP Type of Questions: They have been asked closed question and have been instructed answer with correct choice from YES /SOMETIMES OR TO SOME EXTENT/NO as the case may be. They have been instructed to provide further descriptive evidence if possible to get more information about what leads them to own specific perception. Important key words such as ESP, ESL, ESP STAKE HOLDERS, ESP POLICY, FOIREGN LANGUAGE POLICY etc. have been explained in brief to enable them to understand the questions in better ways.

Area of Information Personal Information (e.g. Name, work or study location, work position etc. have been asked to confirm that questions are answered by the concerned people and their contact detail in case there is need to contact them if the need arise) Background Information (e.g. Education, Occupation etc. whatever the case may be) Involvement in ESP related Research, publication etc. Views on o Nations ESP Policy o Nations ESP Curriculum o ESP Syllabus at college level o ESP Training o ESP Assessment o ESP Evaluation o ESP Stake Holder Relationship Network

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o Facilities (e.g. National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship etc.) o ESP Information & Task Coordination Miscellaneous (e.g. any other question or view that is not covered in the research)

The above areas are common for all stake holders. However some more questions have been asked keeping in mind the Employee and HR Manager to cover ESP areas comprehensively which are as follow. For instance, HR Managers/ HR Office staff have been asked to identify the need for improvisation in following skills / knowledge areas.

Skills: Listening Speaking Reading Writing

Knowledge: Technical vocabulary Familiarity with genre and discourse format in various job situations

The following job functions have been covered within an engineering domain. Budget Planning & Finance Factory Planning Human Resource Recruitment & Training Licensing & company Registration Product / Service Approval Product Planning & Formulation Import of Machinery, Raw Materials Manufacturing Quality Control

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Inventory Marketing Sales Planning & Export Accounts Research & Development H R Training Brand Promotion in New Markets Export Guidance in Overseas Territories Portfolio Management

Similarly, employees in engineering domains have been asked to identify the job functions where they feel their comfort level based on their LSRW skills and technical vocabulary and discourse/genre format. Employees have also been asked if their FORMER ESP/ESL COURSE IN COLLEGE / UNIVERSITY covered those areas or not.

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CHAPTER FOUR DATA, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS

The purpose of this chapter is to present and analyze the collected data from the sample population. Tabular Data, Graphical Chart and conclusion has been provided in this chapter for each question.

The questionnaire was made on three key stake holders 1. Employee 2. Engineering Students 3. HR professionals Table 4.1 Questionnaire Division Respondents Type Employee questions) Part No. of Questions 21 18 18 24 21 choices /Areas 3 Choices 5 Areas 5 Areas 3 Choices 3 Choices

(57 1 2A 2B

H R Manager Students

1 1

Questionnaire Division shows that three main key holders in ESP were covered and a significant number of questions have been asked. Choices have been provided so that data can easily be interpreted and be useful for research purpose.

Table 4.2 Sample Population of Respondents

Employee Questionnaire No. of Respondents: Organizations they represented 204 ARAMCO, SABEC, ALBAWANY Constructions BBC Paints, IGADA Electronics, Oger Constructions, TATA Indian group, ALWAIN Legal consultants, STC,

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Saudi Plastic Company, AL-SAIF Construction Consultants Type of Positions they represented Type of Domains they represented:
Junior &, senior engineers, assistant engineers, consultants, technicians etc. Mechanical, civil, electrical, computer Science etc.

Employee Questionnaire shows that 204 employees were covered representing leading companies of Saudi Arabia, covering various positions and field of Engineering.

HR Manager Questionnaire Type. of Respondents: Organizations they represented 57 Saudi Source Training Company, Education Experts Company, Prince Salman Institute for Studies and Consulting Services, Horizon National Center For Training, Myhrgulf, Applied Studies and Community Services training Centre, Institute of Public Administration training Centre Type. of Domains they represented: Mechanical, civil, electrical, computer Science etc

HR Manager Questionnaire shows that 57 HR Managers representing leading companies of Saudi Arabia were asked questions as their views were important due to their exposure to both incoming staff and existing company requirement in English Language.

Students Questionnaire No. of Respondents: Type. of Respondents: Type of Organizations they represented: Type of Domains they represented: 470 Engineering Students Majmaah University
Mechanical, civil, electrical, computer Science etc.

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Students Questionnaire shows that 470 Engineering students representing various domains of Engineering in Saudi Arabia were asked questions which provided significant data to a researcher leading to interpretation of current ESP situations in KSA.

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4.1 DATA, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE QUESTIONNAIRE Part I Question Area: Education 1A - Do you have linguistic and communicative competence in English required for every day work situations as per companys standard? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.1 Q.1A Response Data


Frequency 1 14 2 173 3 17 Total 204 1 205 Percent 6.8 84.4 8.3 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation for Q.1A Response

Missing Total

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking ESP skills required for communicative tasks 84.4 % of the employees agreed that their existing skills in English required for every day work was not up to the standard as, having it only to some extent and 8.3% said no which means total 92.7 % hint at need for customized industry oriented ESP syllabus for current students as well as in service training programs for working people. 6.8 % who claimed for having skills as per organization standard must be given communicative task to verify further. Their profile can be analyzed in terms of their education, experience, and ESP exposure compared to those who said they did not have required linguistic and communicative competence as per organizational standard.

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Question Area: Education 1B: Do you feel that English that you studied in academic life covers all communicative needs of your organization? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.2 Q.1B Response Data
Frequency 1 48 2 135 3 20 Total 203 2 205 Percent 23.4 65.9 9.8 99.0 1.0 100.0

Graphical Representation

Missing Total

Interpretation & Comments: English Education not enough to cope up with Work Place Communication 65.9 % of the people agreed that English that they studied in academic life did not cover all communicative needs of their organization, having it only to some extent and 9.8% said no which means total 75.7 % hint at need for customized changes in existing ESP courses in our academic institution and make it keeping in mind their actual working needs. 23.4% who claimed that their past course covered those required skills can be asked to tell us more about their past college, ESP course content and how it was taught. Their course content and teaching methods and post study ESP exposure and experience can be analyzed compared to those who said their course did not cover required linguistic and communicative competence as per organizational standard to understand difference in content coverage and methods of teaching.

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Question Area: Active Research 2A: Do you refer to ESP related books? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.3 Q.2A Response Data
Frequency 1 86 2 82 3 36 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 42.0 40.0 17.6 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Limited use of ESP books as reference 40 % of the people agreed that they do not refer to any ESP related books, having it only to some extent and 17.6% said no which means total 57.6 % show that they are not in the habit of improvising their skills through ESP related books or to limited extent. However, 42% agreed that they go through ESP related books at times which is a positive outcome. They can be asked further what kind of books they review and to what extent they are helpful in their everyday tasks. Also their opinions can be helpful in determining which sort of ESP book or which publication they refer and why or their common agreement on syllabus can help syllabus maker to design generic and yet industry approved syllabus.

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Question Area: Active Research 2B: Do you try to share/publish your views on ESP online or offline, formally or informally? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.4 Q.2B Response Data


Frequency 1 25 2 33 3 146 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 12.2 16.1 71.2 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lack of publication or sharing ESP related view online/offline 71.2 % of the employee confirmed that they do not share/publish their view on ESP online or offline, formally or informally, and 16.1% having it only to some extent which means total 87.3 % show that they are not in the habit of any ESP related discussion or publication. Merely, 12.2% agreed that they share/publish something on ESP at times which is a like a dimlight in the tunnel. They can be asked further about what kind of information or view they share and to what extent it is relevant to their everyday tasks in the organization. Similar shared views can be combined or brought on same common platform for other stakeholders benefit.

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Question Area: Active Research 2C: Do you analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related Project in your organization? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.5 Q.2CResponse Data
Frequency 1 77 2 63 3 64 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 37.6 30.7 31.2 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Effectiveness Consciousness & Awareness in ESP related project 37.6 % of the employees confirmed that they analyze effectiveness of any ESP related Project in their organization. Their views can be gathered to check to what extent they are effective to each individual and in general and what content and teaching method is used. However, 31.2% employees confirmed they do not analyze effectiveness of ESP related project and 30.7%of employees having it only to some extent which means total 61.9 % show that they are not analyzing the effectiveness in general. Those who like to analyze effectiveness can be asked what motivates them to do so and what kind of criteria they employ to check effectiveness of ESP related project in their organization.

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Question Area: Active Research 2D: Do you explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.6 Q.2D Response Data
Frequency 1 107 2 48 3 45 4 2 Total 202 Missing 3 Total 205 Percent 52.2 23.4 22.0 1.0 98.5 1.5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Use of Internet Resources in ESP 52.2 % of the employees confirmed that they explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations. 23.4% used internet to some extent for this reason and this shows that there is strong requirement and motivation to learn even after formal education is over. However, 22% employees confirmed they do not use internet resources in ESP and they can be asked what other sources they use to meet the organizational communicative needs.

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Question Area: Policy Framing 3A: Do you feel that ESP policy at college/university is in line with organizational needs? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.7 Q.3A Response Data
Frequency 1 3 2 106 3 95 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 1.5 51.7 46.3 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: ESP Policy at College not aligned to organizational needs 1.5 % of the employees feel that policy at college/university is in line with organizational needs. Remaining 51.7 % say that its only up to some extent and remaining 46.3 % reveal that ESP policy is not in line with the organizational needs. This is an alarming situation for all stake holders to put things in place and have industry oriented ESP policy.

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Question Area: Policy Framing 3B:Do you think you can contribute with your feedback on policy at college/university/national level? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.8


Q.3B Response Data Frequency Percent 1 48 23.4 2 111 54.1 3 42 20.5 Total 204 99.5 Missing 4 2 Total 205 100.0 Graphical Representation

Conclusion: Growing Interest in Feedback on ESP Policy 23.4 % of the employees confirmed that they can contribute with their feedback on policy at college/university/national level. 54.1% of them agreed that they can contribute with their feedback to some extent. Only 20.5% felt that they have no role to play in it. So majority of them seem to be able to provide their valuable feedback on ESP policy at college/university/national level. Their views can be gathered and brought on common ESP platform and inventory of important ideas and their applicability and popularity can be verified and ranked.

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Question Area: Curriculum 4A: Did your past ESP curriculum remain in line with nations ESP policy? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.9 Q. 4A Response Data


Frequency 1 56 2 82 3 66 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 27.3 40.0 32.2 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Conclusion: Scope for better coordination in ESP policy & Curriculum 27.3 % of the employees confirmed that their past ESP curriculum remained in line with nations ESP policy. 40 % of them felt that it was in line to some extent. However, majority of them were unhappy saying it was not in line with nations ESP policy. This hints towards their unhappiness of past ESP curriculum which shows lack of coordination between ESP policy and curriculum.

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Question Area: Curriculum 4B: Did your ESP professor/lecturers update you with trends in ESP curriculum? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.10 Q. 4B Response Data


Frequency 1 2 2 106 3 93 Total 201 Missing 4 Total 205 Percent 1.0 51.7 45.4 98.0 2.0 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking regular updates in ESP Trends Mere 1% of the employees felt that their former ESP professor/lecturers update them with trends in ESP curriculum. 51.7% of them felt they were updated about ESP trends only to some extent and 45.4% said that they were not updated at all about ESP trends. This shows that most professor/lecturers were either unaware about new trends or did not feel it important to make the student aware about it or the curriculum had no scope or education to way to keep both teacher and students updated about the new trends throughout the course.

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Question Area: Syllabus 5A: Do you feel your past ESP syllabus was in line with nations ESP curriculum standard? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.11 Q.5A Response Data


Frequency 1 91 2 41 3 72 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 44.4 20.0 35.1 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for better coordination between ESP Syllabus and ESP Curriculum 44% of the employees felt that past ESP syllabus was in line with nations ESP curriculum standard. However remaining 20 % of them felt it was in line to some extent only and 35.1 said syllabus was not in-line with nations curriculum standard. This shows majority were still not happy with syllabus and felt it was not falling in line with curriculum standard.

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Question Area: Training 6A: Was ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.12 Q.6A Response Data


Frequency 1 31 2 77 3 96 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 15.1 37.6 46.8 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking training in line with approved syllabus Mere 15.1% of the employees felt that ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus. However remaining 37.6 % of them felt it was in line to some extent only and 46.8 were not happy with the training thinking that it was following the syllabus. This hints towards the need to make training based on agreed syllabus and fulfilling its objectives and serving the target purpose.

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Question Area: Training 6B: Did you have any classes in your college from guest faculty from industry? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.13 Q.6B Response Data
Frequency 1 8 2 36 3 160 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Percent 3.9 17.6 78.0 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Conclusion: Lacking Classes from Visiting Faculty from Industry Mere 3.9% of the employees said that they had any classes in your college from guest faculty from industry. 17.6 % of them had classes on certain occasions. However remaining 78% revealed that they had no such classes from guest faculty from industry which means there was lack of coordination between industry and academics and had no way to update students about industrial environment, needs, and trends. This hints towards the need to improvise industrial and academic relations and work on joint training programs and projects.

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Question Area: Assessment 7A: Did assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.14 Q.7A Response Data
Frequency 1 6 2 82 3 116 Total 204 1 205 Percent 2.9 40.0 56.6 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Missing Total

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking Comprehensive Assessment of Curriculum / Syllabus Mere 2.9% of the employees said that assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum. However remaining 40% revealed that it could not cover full syllabus or curriculum and 56.6% telling it did not cover full syllabus/curriculum. This hints towards the need to coin a new that assess all target skills and knowledge of a candidate and ensure that result become perfect criteria to judge if students is equipped with ESP skills and knowledge to meet the organizational needs and standards or not.

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Question Area: Evaluation 8A: Was evaluation of the ESP program in line with approved course objectives? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.15 Q.8A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 30 34 140 204 1 205 Percent 14.6 16.6 68.3 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking Comprehensive Evaluation in line with approved course objectives Mere 14.6 % of the employees said that evaluation of the ESP program was in line with approved course objectives. However remaining 16.6% of them revealed that it did not match the approved course objectives and 68.3% telling program did not match with the approved course objectives at all. Thus there is a strong need to bring coordination between ESP program and its objectives and ensure that objectives are fulfilled at the end of the program.

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Question Area: Stake Holder Relationship Network 9A: Is there good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.16 Q.9A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 27 108 69 204 1 205 Percent 13.2 52.7 33.7 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for good relationship network among all stake holders Mere 13.2% of the employees said that there was good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry However remaining 52.7 % of them revealed that they were familiar to some extent with stake holders role in the society. 33.7% of them said there was no such network among ESP stakeholders. Thus, it shows that there is lack of coordination among three important stake holders of the society which may not allow initiating any sort of joint projects.

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Question Area:Stake Holder Relationship Network 9B: Are you familiar with the role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.17

Q. 9B Response Data
1.00 2.00 3.00 Total Missing Total Frequency 25 107 72 204 1 205 Percent 12.2 52.2 35.1 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lack of awareness about role of ESP Stake holders Mere 12.2% of the employees said that they were aware about the role ESP stake holders can play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country. However remaining 52.2 % of them revealed that relationship network was not good. 35.1 of them revealed they are not familiar with role of ESP stake holders in society and hint towards bringing more awareness in people.

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Question Area: National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10A: Do you have access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.18 Q.10A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 36 34 134 204 1 205 Percent 17.6 16.6 65.4 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange, Skills inventory etc. Mere 17.6% of the employees said that they have access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. However remaining 16.6 % of them revealed that access to such facility was to some extent and limited only. 65.4 of them revealed they do not have access to any such facility which hint towards country having one such centralized platform and facility.

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Question Area: National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10B: Did your college or university have CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.19 Q.10B Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 81 56 65 203 3 205 Percent 39.5 27.3 31.7 99.0 1.5 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for Initiation of CDC/Placement Center 39.5% of the employees said that college or university have CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility which is a good thing. However remaining 27.3 % of them revealed that access to such facility was to some extent and 31.7% of them denied having such facility. Thus existing facilities need to be centralized on common platform and those colleges who lack any such facility can have guideline and center in line with centralized CDC and placement center for better standardization and coordination.

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Question Area: Information Task & Coordination 11A:Do you have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc.? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.20 Q.11A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 75 5 124 204 1 205 Percent 36.6 2.4 60.5 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for improving access to ESP related information 36.6% of the employees said that they have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc. However remaining 2.4 % of them revealed that access to such information was to some extent and majority of them, 60.5% revealing that they had no access to such information. Thus, it hints towards bringing transparency in education world and there is need to make such information available to all as each one has right to access such information. These are not kind of documents that should be kept in close cupboard but out for people on common platform for better awareness, understanding and mutual benefits.

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Question Area: Miscellaneous 12A: Do you want to share with us any important question or information related to ESP not discussed in this questionnaire? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.21 Q.12A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 64 83 55 202 3 205 Percent 31.2 40.5 26.8 98.5 1.5 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for coordinating ESP related views on common platform 31.2% of the employees said that they would like to share with us any important question or information related to ESP and 40.5 also wanted to share something to some extent. 26.8 felt that they did not find anything left to discuss which is mixed response.

Half of them seem willing or having important information to share but there is lack of common platform for them to meet and share regularly. Half of them showing that they did not want to share assuming that questionnaire touched upon all important ESP related issues.

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Part II (A & B)Employee comfort level in linguistic and communicative skills required for job function and background academic training Table & Graph 4.22 Employee comfort level
Job Function Area Listening Ease of use 33.7 0 0 1.5 11.7 21.0 35.6 32.7 1.5 1.0 2.0 18.0 .5 .5 14.1 17.1 1.0 0 Cov erag e 1.5 0 0 .5 6.8 46.8 34.1 1.0 1.0 2.0 24.4 1.0 .5 25.4 3.9 1.0 0 Speaking Ease of use 0 15.6 55.1 1.0 15.1 12.7 18.0 21.5 16.6 29.8 11.2 10.7 15.6 39.0 1.0 0 1.5 0 264. 4 Cove rage .5 .5 43.9 7.3 9.3 1.0 2.0 24.4 23.4 31.7 1.0 1.5 .5 1.0 25.9 38.5 6.3 1.0 Reading Ease of use 7.8 23.4 3.4 17.6 47.8 16.6 39.0 13.2 40.5 37.1 21.5 23.9 27.8 14.1 16.1 14.1 11.7 Cov erag e 2.0 66.8 8.8 43.4 55.1 9.8 .5 0 31.2 24.9 1.5 62.4 66.8 50.2 45.4 10.7 2.0 0 481. 5 Writing Ease of use 1.5 25.4 16.6 56.6 22.4 5.9 3.9 5.9 21.5 4.4 17.6 27.3 28.3 4.9 24.4 3.4 19.5 19.0 308. 5 Cov erag e 43.4 28.3 45.4 21.5 24.4 37.1 39.0 55.1 26.8 1.0 40.5 3.9 10.7 2.9 4.4 30.2 37.6 10.7 462. 9 Technical Words Ease Cov of erag use e 56.6 52.2 34.6 3.9 23.9 1.5 22.9 2.4 43.4 2.9 26.3 19.5 27.3 47.3 19.5 27.3 41.0 43.9 64.9 65.9 65.4 635 26.8 3.9 2.9 23.9 19.0 17.1 40.0 32.2 30.7 20.5 18.0 20.0 19.0 51.7 84.9 468. 2

1. Budget Planning& Finance 2. Factory Planning 3. Human Resource Recruitment & Training 4. Licensing & company Registration 5. Product / Service Approval 6.Product Planning & Formulation 7. Import of Machinery, Raw Materials 8. Manufacturing 9. Quality Control 10. Inventory 11. Marketing 12. Sales Planning & Export 13. Accounts 14. Research & Development 15. H R Training 16. Brand Promotion in New Markets 17. Export Guidance in Overseas Territories 18. Portfolio Management Total

0 149. 191.9 9

14.1 389. 219.7 7

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Conclusion: The chart shows Listening and Speaking Skills are not fully covered by academic industry and also employee not comfortable in it compared to technical words or reading.

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Table & Graph 4.23


Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A1 Response Data Budget Planning& Finance Frequency Percent 1 3 4 5 Total Missing Total 69 16 3 116 204 1 205 33.7 7.8 1.5 56.6 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B1 Response Data


Budget Planning& Finance 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 3 1 4 89 107 204 1 205 Percent 1.5 .5 2.0 43.4 52.2 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Interpretati According to 33.7% of the employees, listening was their area of comfort zone for job functions such as Budget Planning & Finance even when its academic coverage is up on & Comments to 1.5% only.
Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Speaking about Budget Planning & Finance seem naturally challenging that none claimed being comfortable to it and reason could be its mere 0.5 academic coverage. Reading related to Budget Planning & Finance was covered up to 2 % and 7.8% seemed comfortable with it. Writing related to Budget Planning & Finance was covered academically up to 43.4% and yet mere 1.5% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 52.2% coverage related to Budget Planning & Finance was in-line with 56.6 calling it as their comfort zone and it seemed as if courses were aimed towards vocabulary rather than teaching LSRW skills.

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Table & Graph 4.24


Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A2 Response Data Factory Planning 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 32 48 52 71 203 2 205 Percent 15.6 23.4 25.4 34.6 99.0 1.0 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B2 Response Data Factory Planning 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 1 137 58 8 204 1 205 Percent .5 66.8 28.3 3.9 99.5 .5 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking None claimed that listening skills related to factory planning was covered and they were also not comfortable related to listening on such topic. Speaking related to factory planning was covered upto 0.5% and yet they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 15.6% which shows speaking gets improved over the years even if it may not be covered at all. However, poor speaking coverage during course is example Reading related to factory planning was covered upto 66.8 % and 23.4% seemed comfortable with it in the job function related to factory planning. Writing related to factory planning was covered academically upto 28.3% and 25.4% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 52.2% coverage of technical words related to factory planning was in-line with 56.6 comfort zone and it seemed as if courses were aimed towards vocabulary rather than teaching LSRW skills.

Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary

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Table & Graph 4.25


Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A3 Response Data Human Resource Recruitment & Training 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Graphical Representation for Response

Frequency 113 7 34 49 203 2 205

Percent 55.1 3.4 16.6 23.9 99.0 1.0 100.0

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B3 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Human Resource Recruitment & Training Frequency Percent 2 90 43.9 3 18 8.8 4 93 45.4 5 3 1.5 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking None claimed that listening skills related to HR Recruitment & Training was covered and they were also not comfortable related to listening on such job functions. Speaking related to HR Recruitment & Training was covered up to 43.9% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 55.1 % which shows speaking in this area is given more importance resulting in employee being comfortable. Reading related to HR Recruitment & Training was covered upto 8.8 % and 3.4% seemed comfortable with it. Writing related to HR Recruitment & Training was covered academically upto 45.4% and 16.6% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 1.5% coverage of technical words related to HR Recruitment & Training was met with 23.9% comfort zone which shows that they became well versed with vocabulary while working.

Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary

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Table & Graph 4.26


Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A4 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response

Licensing & company Registration Frequency Percent 1 3 1.5 2 2 1.0 3 36 17.6 4 116 56.6 5 47 22.9 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B4 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Licensing & company Registration Frequency Percent 1 1 .5 2 15 7.3 3 89 43.4 4 44 21.5 5 55 26.8 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Licensing & company Registration was covered up to 0.5% and so was their comfort level up to 1.5%. Speaking related to Licensing & company Registration was covered up to 7.3% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 1 %. Reading related to Licensing & company Registration was covered up to 43.4 % and 17.6% seemed comfortable with it. Writing related to Licensing & company Registration was covered up to 21.5 and 56.6% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 26.8 % coverage of technical words related to Licensing & company Registration was met with 22.9 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.27


Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A5 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Product / Service Approval Frequency Percent 1 24 11.7 2 31 15.1 3 98 47.8 4 46 22.4 5 5 2.4 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B5 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Product / Service Approval Frequency Percent 1 14 6.8 2 19 9.3 3 113 55.1 4 50 24.4 5 8 3.9 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Interpretation & Comments: Listening Listening skills related to Product / Service Approval was covered up to 6.8 % and so was their comfort level up to 11.7%. Speaking Speaking related to Product / Service Approval was covered up to 9.3% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 15.1 %. Reading Reading related to Product / Service Approval was covered up to 55.1 % and 47.8% seemed comfortable with it. Writing Writing related to Product / Service Approval was covered up to 24.4 and 22.4% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. Technical 3.9 % coverage of technical words related to Product / Service Approval was met with Vocabulary 2.4 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.28 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A6 Response Data Product Planning & Formulation Frequency Percent 1 43 21.0 2 26 12.7 3 34 16.6 4 12 5.9 5 89 43.4 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B6 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Product Planning & Formulation 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total

Frequency 96 2 20 76 6 200 5 205

Percent 46.8 1.0 9.8 37.1 2.9 97.6 2.4 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Product Planning & Formulation was covered up to 46.8 % and so was their comfort level up to 21%. Speaking related to Product Planning & Formulation was covered up to 1% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 12.7 %. Reading related to Product Planning & Formulation was covered up to 9.8 % and 16.6% seemed comfortable with it. Writing related to Product Planning & Formulation was covered up to 37.1% and 5.9% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 2.9 % coverage of technical words related to Product Planning & Formulation was met with 43.4 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.29 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A7 Response Data Import of Machinery, Raw Materials Frequency Percent 1 73 35.6 2 37 18.0 3 80 39.0 4 8 3.9 5 6 2.9 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B7 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Import of Machinery, Raw Materials 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total

Frequency Percent 70 34.1 4 2.0 1 .5 80 39.0 49 23.9 204 99.5 1 .5 205 100.0 Interpretation & Comments: Listening Listening skills related to Import of Machinery, Raw Materials was covered up to 34.1 % and so was their comfort level up to 35.6%. Speaking Speaking related to Import of Machinery, Raw Materials was covered up to 2% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 18 %. Reading Reading related to Import of Machinery, Raw Materials was covered up to 0.5 % and 39 % seemed comfortable with it. Writing Writing related to Import of Machinery, Raw Materials was covered up to 39% and 3.9% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. Technical 23.9 % coverage of technical words related to Import of Machinery, Raw Materials was Vocabulary met with 2.9 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.30 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A8 Response Data Manufacturing Frequency Percent 1 67 32.7 2 44 21.5 3 27 13.2 4 12 5.9 5 54 26.3 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B8 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Manufacturing 1 2 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 2 50 113 39 204 1 205 Percent 1.0 24.4 55.1 19.0 99.5 .5 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Manufacturing was covered up to 1 % and so was their comfort level up to 32.7%. Speaking related to Manufacturing was covered up to 24.4% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 21.5 %. Reading related to Manufacturing was covered up to 0 % and 13.2 % seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Manufacturing was covered up to 55.1% and 5.9% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 19 % coverage of technical words related to Manufacturing was met with 26.3 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.31 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A9 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Quality Control Frequency Percent 1 3 1.5 2 34 16.6 3 83 40.5 4 44 21.5 5 40 19.5 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B9 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Quality Control Frequency Percent 1 2 1.0 2 48 23.4 3 64 31.2 4 55 26.8 5 35 17.1 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Quality Control was covered up to 1 % and so was their comfort level up to 1.5%. Speaking related to Quality Control was covered up to 23.4% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 16.6 %. Reading related to Quality Control was covered up to 31.2 % and 40.5 % seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Quality Control was covered up to 26.8% and 21.5% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 17.1 % coverage of technical words related to Quality Control was met with 19.5 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.32 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A10 Response Data Inventory 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 2 61 76 9 56 204 1 205 Percent 1.0 29.8 37.1 4.4 27.3 99.5 .5 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B10 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Inventory 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 4 65 51 2 82 204 1 205 Percent 2.0 31.7 24.9 1.0 40.0 99.5 .5 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Inventory was covered up to 2 % and so was their comfort level up to 1%. Speaking related to Inventory was covered up to 31.7% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 29.8 %. Reading related to Inventory was covered up to 24.9 % and 37.1 % seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Inventory was covered up to 1 % and 4.4% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 27.3 % coverage of technical words related to Inventory was met with 40 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.33 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A11 Response Data Marketing Frequency Percent 1 4 2.0 2 23 11.2 3 44 21.5 4 36 17.6 5 97 47.3 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B11 Response Data Marketing 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Frequency 50 2 3 83 66 204 1 205 Percent 24.4 1.0 1.5 40.5 32.2 99.5 .5 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Graphical Representation for Response

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening skills related to Marketing was covered up to 24.4 % and so was their comfort level up to 2 %. Speaking related to Marketing was covered up to 1% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 11.2 %. Reading related to Marketing was covered up to 1.5% and 21.5% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Marketing was covered up to 40.5 % and 17.6% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 32.2 % coverage of technical words related to Marketing was met with 47.3 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.34 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A12 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Sales Planning & Export Frequency Percent 1 37 18.0 2 22 10.7 3 49 23.9 4 56 27.3 5 40 19.5 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B12 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Sales Planning & Export 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary

Frequency 2 3 128 8 63 204 1 205

Percent 1.0 1.5 62.4 3.9 30.7 99.5 .5 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening skills related to Sales Planning & Export was covered up to 1 % and so was their comfort level up to 18 %. Speaking related to Sales Planning & Export was covered up to 1.5% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 10.7 %. Reading related to Sales Planning & Export was covered up to 62.4% and 23.9% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Sales Planning & Export was covered up to 3.9 % and 27.3% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 30.7 % coverage of technical words related to Sales Planning & Export was met with 19.5 % comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.35 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A13 Response Data Accounts 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 1 32 57 58 56 204 1 205 Percent .5 15.6 27.8 28.3 27.3 99.5 .5 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B13 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Accounts Frequency Percent 1 1 .5 2 1 .5 3 137 66.8 4 22 10.7 5 42 20.5 Total 203 99.0 Missing 2 1.0 Total 205 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Accounts was covered up to 0.5 % and so was their comfort level up to 0.5 %. Speaking related to Accounts was covered up to 0.5% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 15.6 %. Reading related to Accounts was covered up to 66.8% and 27.8% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Accounts was covered up to 10.7 % and 28.3% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 20.5 % coverage of technical words related to Accounts was met with 27.3% comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.36 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A14 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Research & Development Frequency Percent 1 1 .5 2 80 39.0 3 29 14.1 4 10 4.9 5 84 41.0 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0 Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B14 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Research & Development 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary

Frequency 52 2 103 6 37 200 5 205

Percent 25.4 1.0 50.2 2.9 18.0 97.6 2.4 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening skills related to Research & Development was covered up to 25.4 % and so was their comfort level up to 0.5 %. Speaking related to Research & Development was covered up to 1% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 39 %. Reading related to Research & Development was covered up to 50.2% and 14.1% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Research & Development was covered up to 2.9 % and 4.9% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 18% coverage of technical words related to Research & Development was met with 41% comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.37 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A15 Response Data H R Training 1 2 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Frequency 29 2 33 50 90 204 1 205 Percent 14.1 1.0 16.1 24.4 43.9 99.5 .5 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B15 Response Data H R Training Frequency Percent 1 8 3.9 2 53 25.9 3 93 45.4 4 9 4.4 5 41 20.0 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0

Graphical Representation for Response

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to H R Training was covered up to 3.9 % and so was their comfort level up to 14.1 %. Speaking related to H R Training was covered up to 25.9% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 1 %. Reading related to H R Training was covered up to 45.4% and 16.1% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to H R Training was covered up to 4.4 % and 24.4% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 20% coverage of technical words related to H R Training was met with 43.9% comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.38 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A16 Response Data Brand Promotion in New Markets 1 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Graphical Representation for Response

Frequency 35 29 7 133 204 1 205

Percent 17.1 14.1 3.4 64.9 99.5 .5 100.0

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B16 Response Data Graphical Representation for Response Brand Promotion in New Markets Frequency Percent 1 2 1.0 2 79 38.5 3 22 10.7 4 62 30.2 5 39 19.0 Total 204 99.5 Missing 1 .5 Total 205 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Listening skills related to Brand Promotion in New Markets was covered up to 1 % and so was their comfort level up to 17.1 %. Speaking related to Brand Promotion in New Markets was covered up to 38.5% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 0 %. Reading related to Brand Promotion in New Markets was covered up to 10.7% and 14.1% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Brand Promotion in New Markets was covered up to 30.2 % and 3.4% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 19% coverage of technical words related to Brand Promotion in New Markets was met with 64.9% comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.39 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A17 Response Data Export Guidance in Overseas Territories Frequency 1 2 2 3 3 24 4 40 5 135 Total 204 Missing 1 Total 205 Graphical Representation for Response

Percent 1.0 1.5 11.7 19.5 65.9 99.5 .5 100.0 Graphical Representation for Response

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B17 Response Data Export Guidance in Overseas Territories Frequency 2 13 3 4 4 77 5 106 Total 200 Missing 5 Total 205

Percent 6.3 2.0 37.6 51.7 97.6 2.4 100.0

Interpretation Listening skills related to Export Guidance in Overseas Territories in New Markets & Comments was covered up to 0 % and so was their comfort level up to 1 %.
Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary Speaking related to Export Guidance in Overseas Territories was covered up to 6.3% and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 1.5%. Reading related to Export Guidance in Overseas Territories was covered up to 2% and 11.7% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Export Guidance in Overseas Territories was covered up to 37.6 % and 19.5% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 51.7% coverage of technical words related to Export Guidance in Overseas Territories was met with 65.9% comfort zone.

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Table & Graph 4.40 Comfort Level in Communicative Tasks Q.A18 Response Data Portfolio Management 3 4 5 Total Missing Total Graphical Representation for Response

Frequency 29 39 134 202 3 205

Percent 14.1 19.0 65.4 98.5 1.5 100.0

Communicative Skills Coverage in ESP Course Q.B18 Response Data Portfolio Management 2 4 5 Total Missing Total Listening Speaking Reading Writing Technical Vocabulary

Graphical Representation for Response

Frequency 2 22 174 198 7 205

Percent 1.0 10.7 84.9 96.6 3.4 100.0

Interpretation & Comments:


Listening skills related to Portfolio Management was covered up to 0 % and so was their comfort level up to 0 %. Speaking related to Portfolio Management was covered up to 1 % and they seemed confident and comfortable enough up to 0%. Reading related to Portfolio Management was covered up to 0% and 14.1% seem comfortable with it. Writing related to Export Guidance in Overseas Territories was covered up to 10.7 % and 19% of employee called it as their area of comfort zone. 84.9% coverage of technical words related to Portfolio Management was met with 65.4% comfort zone.

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4.2 DATA, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF HR MANAGER QUESTIONNAIRE

1A-Do you have qualification enabling you to distinguish candidates having General English and ESP? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.41 Q.1A Response Data Graphical Representation

2 3 Total Missing Total

Frequency 14 42 56 1 57

Percent 24.6 73.7 98.2 1.8 100.0

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking ESP skills required for differentiating ESP from General English None of HR Managers claimed having any specific qualification in ESP and 24.6% revealed that they have qualification to some extent and 73.7 % of them said that they do not have any such qualification. Reason could be that while studying MBA or similar course, at most they might might have Business English as one of the papers and then after they did not try to go for any diploma or certifications in Business Communication that can help them identify candidates with General English or ESP.

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Question Area: ESP Education 1-B Do you give priority to candidates having studied English for Specific Purpose in Saudi Arabia over those having Overseas General English Education? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.42 Q.1B Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 14 28 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 24.6 49.1 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for preferring ESP over General English or Native English 24.6% of the HR Managers preferred Local Candidate with ESP qualification over Candidate with Overseas General English Education. Moreover 24.6% also preferred ESP Candidate to some extent, which makes total 49.2 are in favor of ESP candidates, more or less. However, there are 49.1% of HR Managers who sided by overseas candidate even if he would have General English which shows that they give more importance to overseas exposure rather than students having ability to use English in Organizational environment. Thus, overall, trend is still in favor of General Overseas English Program rather than Saudi based ESP Program, showing their lack of faith in local education emphasizing their perception that overseas education is better than local education.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-A Do you refer to ESP related books? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.43 Q. 2-A Response Data
2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 42 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 73.7 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking use of ESP books as References Surprisingly, none of HR Manager seems having enough time to go through any ESP related books as none of them said yes. However, 24.6 % of them agreed to be referring to some extent which is positive thing. However, majority of them, making it 73.7% revealed that they do not refer to any ESP related books. This shows they may struggle to understand the recent trends or changes in organizational communication and standard.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-B Do you try to share/publish your views on ESP online or offline, formally or informally?

Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.44 Q. 2-B Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 28 14 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 49.1 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope of Coordinating ESP related Ideas / publication 24.6% of HR Managers agreed that they try to share/publish their view on ESP online or offline, formally or informally. 49.1% agreed to be sharing or publishing to some extent or on some occasions. Thus, total 73.7% seem to have developed their own perceptions/understanding about ESP and must be expressing or publishing on various platforms. Their perception or views can be brought on common platform to understand what criteria or yardstick they use while assessing candidate. 24.6% of them said they did not try to share or publish and reason could be that they might be too busy or so far have not found any proper platform so far to express their views.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-C Do you analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related Project in your organization? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.45 Q. 2-C Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 28 14 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 49.1 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for awareness in effectiveness of ESP related project 24.6% of HR Managers agreed that they analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related project in their organization. 49.1% agreed to be analyzing the effectiveness to some extent or on some occasions. Thus, total 73.7% seem active in analyzing effectiveness in ESP related project. 24.6% of them said they did not try ever to analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related project in their organization.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-D Do you explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.46 Q. 2-D Response Data


1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 28 14 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 49.1 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Partial Use of Internet Resources in ESP As in case of expressing views about ESP, similarly, 24.6% of HR Managers agreed that they explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations. 49.1% of them explored internet with such intention to some extent or on certain occasions. Thus, total 73.7% seem to have used internet based resources to uplift their organizations communication standard. 24.6% of them said that they did not use internet resources with such intention.

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Question Area: Policy Framing 3-A Do you feel that ESP policy at college/university is in line with communicative requirement in industry?

Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.47 Q. 3-A Response Data
1 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 28 28 56 1 57 Percent 49.1 49.1 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for improvisation in alignment of ESP policy and Organizational Needs Regarding their view over ESP policy at college/university being in line with communicative requirement in industry, there are two extreme ends where 49.1% show happiness over present ESP policy. However, it does not mean entire industry is happy as 49.1% also show their unhappiness saying policy is not in line with communicative requirement within the industry.

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Question Area: Policy Framing 3-B Do you feel that ESP curriculum and college/university policy is in line with National ESP Policy?

Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.48 Q. 3-B Response Data
1 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 42 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 73.7 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: College Curriculum not aligned with National ESP Policy Merely, 24.6 felt that ESP curriculum and college/university policy is in line with National ESP Policy. Majority of them, making it 73.7% hold opposite view. This shows that majority of them must have realized the difference between national ESP objectives and varying degree of implementation at college/university level.

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Question Area: Policy Framing 3-C Do you think you have a role to play in reviewing policy in ESL at college/university/national level? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.49 Q. 3-C Response Data
3 Missing Total Frequency 56 1 57 Percent 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking awareness about importance of reviewing ESL policy Regarding English as a second language, they refused to accept that they have any role to play in reviewing policy at college/university/national level. This shows their perception that mere academic organizations have a role to play in policy framing where they dont have anything to do with.

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Question Area: Curriculum 4-A Did your past ESP curriculum remain in line with nations ESP policy? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.50 Q.4-A Response Data


3 Missing Total Frequency 56 1 57 Percent 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking coordination in ESP policy & Curriculum 98.2% of HR Manager seemed unhappy saying past ESP curriculum was not in line with national ESP policy. This shows there was no coordination even earlier between curriculum and policy.

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Question Area:Curriculum 4-B Did your ESP professor/lecturers update you with trends in ESP curriculum? Syllabus Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.51 Q.4-B Response Data
2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 28 28 56 1 57 Percent 49.1 49.1 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking regular updates in ESP Trends 49.1% said their ESP professors/lectures did not update them with trends in ESP curriculum. Similar number, up to 49.1 of them said they were updated to some extent or on certain occasions. None of them accepted fully that they were always updated.

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Question Area: Syllabus 5-A Do you review ESP related syllabus of any organization and try to see to what extent it fits to your organizational needs? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.52 Q.5-A Response Data


2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 42 14 56 1 57 Percent 73.7 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: organizational needs

Scope for better coordination between Syllabus &

None of HR Managers agreed fully that they review ESP related syllabus of any organization and try to see to what extent it fits to your organizational needs. 24.6 % of them agreed to some extent and 24.6 revealed they do not do review any syllabus to check if its fits their organismal needs or not and do what extent.

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Question Area:Training 6-A Was ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.53 Q.6-A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 28 14 14 56 1 57 Percent 49.1 24.6 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for better training in line with approved syllabus 49.1% of HR Managers happy with the ESP training, agree telling it in line with approved syllabus. 24.6 % of them agreed to some extent and 24.6 revealed they do not think it is in line with approved syllabus.

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Question Area: Training 6-B Do you invite guest faculty from academic industry to train your junior or senior staff in ESP?

Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.54 Q.6-B Response Data
2.00 3.00 Total Missing Total Frequency 42 14 56 1 57 Percent 73.7 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for more classes from Visiting Faculty from academic industry 73.7% of them invite guest faculty from academic industry to train their junior or senior staff in ESP to some extent which shows their faith in faculties from academic industry where organization can have chance to train the staff in specific area. 24.6% of them said they do not invite anyone from academic industry which shows no connection or collaboration in training purpose. Significant thing to observe was none of them fully accepted that they always invite guest faculty which hint at need based relationship rather than strong and permanent active relationship.

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Question Area: Syllabus 6-C Do you send your professional trainers as guest faculty to academic organization to train your potential future employees? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.55 Q.6-C Response Data
2.00 3.00 Total Missing Total Frequency 28 28 56 1 57 Percent 49.1 49.1 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for more classes for industrial ESP trainers to train students 49.1% of them agree that send their professional trainers as guest faculty to train the students considering them as future potential employee and equal number of them, making it 49.1% of them denied sending any of their professional trainers to academic organization. This shows that majority of organization prefer to train their existing employee rather than future employee.

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Question Area: Assessment 7-A Did assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.56 Q. 7-A Response Data
1 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 42 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 73.7 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Syllabus

Lacking Comprehensive Assessment of Curriculum /

Mere 24.6 agree that assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum. 73.7 of them are of the view that assessment in ESP course does not cover full syllabus or curriculum.

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Question Area:Evaluation 8-A Was evaluation of the ESP program in line with approved course objectives? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.57 Q.7-B Response Data
1 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 42 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 73.7 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking Comprehensive Evaluation of the ESP Program in line with approved course objectives Mere 24.6 agree that assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum. 73.7 of them are of the view that assessment in ESP course does not cover full syllabus or curriculum.

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Question Area: Stake Holder Relationship Network 9-A Is there good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.58 Q.9-A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 28 14 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 49.1 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for good relationship network among all stake holders 24.6 % of HR Managers agree that there is good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry. However, remaining 49.1% agree to some extent only and remaining 24.6 feel that the relationship network is not good.

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Question Area: Stake Holder Relationship Network 9-B Are you familiar with the role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.59
Q.9-B Response Data 2.00 3.00 Total Missing Total Frequency 42 14 56 1 57 Percent 73.7 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0 Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lack of awareness about role of ESP Stake holders None of the HR Managers claim that they are well aware with the role ESP stake holder in the society which shows there is lack of information related to stake holders potential influence in shaping the future of ESP in the country. 73.7 % of them are familiar to some extent with this role and remaining 24.6 are not aware to any extent.

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Question Area: National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10-A Do you have access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.60 Q. 10-A Response Data
2 Missing Total Frequency 56 1 57 Percent 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments:

Scope for improvisation in access to facilities such as

National Employment Exchange, Skills inventory etc None of the HR Managers fully agreed or disagreed regarding access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. 98.2% of them agreed to have such access to some extent, which probably could be some well-known job portal that can provide list of candidates sorted out city wise or skill wise. However, none agreed that they are always having access which means that there is lack of common platform or even data such as inventory of skilled candidate or skill shortage list etc.

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Question Area: National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10-B Did your organization have any contact with CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility from educational organization? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.61 Q.10-B Response Data
2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 28 28 56 1 57 Percent 49.1 49.1 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for Initiation of CDC/Placement Center 49.1% of HR Managers agreed partially that they have access to some extent and remaining 49.1% confessed they had no such contact with Career Development Center or Placement Center of any academic organization. This shows poor relationship network between academy and industry.

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Question Area: National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10-C Do you have active connection / cooperation / collaboration with any academic organization to organize any joint-tasks? (E.g. campus interview, employee training at academic organization, students internship/project participation/training at your organization etc.) Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.62 Q. 10-C Response Data
2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 42 14 56 1 57 Percent 73.7 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: industry & academics

Scope for better cooperation & collaboration between

No HR Manager fully agreed saying they always had active connection / cooperation / collaboration with any academic organization to organize any joint-tasks. 73.3 agreed partially saying to some extent. Whereas 24.6 clearly refused of having any such connection. This hints towards lack of coordination and collaboration for mutual benefits.

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Question Area: Information & Task Coordination 11-A Do you have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc.? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.63 Q. 11-A Response Data
2 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 14 42 56 1 57 Percent 24.6 73.7 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking proper access to ESP related information 73.7% of people agreed that they did not have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc. 24.6% of them said they had access to some extent and none of them said they always had access. This hints towards making the academic system and publication accessible for all.

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Question Area:Miscellaneous 12-A Do you want to share with us any important question or information related to ESP not discussed in this questionnaire? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.64 Q. 12-A Response Data
1 3 Total Missing Total Frequency 42 14 56 1 57 Percent 73.7 24.6 98.2 1.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: platform

Scope for coordinating ESP related views on common

73.7 % of people have important question of information related to ESP which is not part of the questionnaire. Their views and useful information, and opinions from time to time can be brought on common platform. 24.6 do not have anything else to share or do not wish to discuss.

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4.3 DATA, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE

Question Area: Qualification 1-A Do you have linguistic and communicative competence in ESL required for ESP course? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.65 Q. 1-A Response Data


Frequency 1 140 2 155 3 175 Total 470 Percent 29.8 33.0 37.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Insufficient ESL Competencies for ESP Course Mere 29.8 % of students have agreed that their competence in ESL is enough for taking any ESP course. Remaining 33% of the students have competence to some extent and majority 37.2% believe their level of competence is not enough for an ESP course which indicate towards bringing overall changes in the entire academic system from top to bottom.

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Question Area:Qualification 1-B Do you have relevant experience in using English in professional work environment? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.66 Q. 1-B Response Data
Frequency 2 295 3 175 Total 470 Percent 62.8 37.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lack of Experience in using English in Professional Work Environment None agreed to have fully relevant experience in using English in work environment. 62.8% agreed to some extent that could be probably due to their occasional involvement in professional interactions during training, internship or outside college environment. However, 37.2 replied having no such experience which shows that they were perhaps never been put in any professional work environment or did not have chance to work in any industrial live project or internship involving their interaction in English. This hints towards training students for work place situation by creating artificial workplace like environment and teaching work-place communicative tasks.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-A Do you refer to ESP related books? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.67 Q. 2-A Response Data
Frequency 2 155 3 315 Total 470 Percent 33.0 67.0 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking use of ESP books as reference None of the students answered that he would always be referring or reading to ESP related books. 33% said they referred to some extent or on some occasions. Whereas, majority 67% did not read any ESP related book. This shows that either they are not referred good ESP books or are not having access to them or not motivated or competent enough to read them.

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Question Area:Active Research 2-B Do you try to share/publish your views on ESP online or offline, formally or informally? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.68 Q. 2-B Response Data
Frequency 2 395 3 75 Total 470 Percent 84.0 16.0 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope of Coordinating ESP related Ideas / publication None of the students claimed to be sharing or publishing online or offline anything about ESP and around 84% of them agreed to some extent. 16% of them never shared or published anything online or offline, formally or informally. However, effort should be to know what these 84% if students share or publish related to ESP. Their views must be brought to common platform to understand their level of understanding or problems in ESP studies.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-C Do you analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related Project in your organization? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.69 Q. 2-C Response Data
Frequency 2 110 3 360 Total 470 Percent 23.4 76.6 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for awareness in effectiveness of ESP related project

None of them analyze effectiveness of ESP related project and around 23.4% of students agreed to be analyzing to some extent. Majority are not trying to verify the effectiveness of the project. This shows lack of analytical skills in checking how effective the ESP project is.

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Question Area: Active Research 2-D Do you explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.70

Q. 2-D Response Data Frequency 1 315 2 80 3 75 Total 470

Graphical Representation Percent 67.0 17.0 16.0 100.0

Interpretation & Comments: Use of internet resources for improving ESP skills 67 % of students are using internet based resources in ESP and try to apply knowledge and skills to improve their communication standard in work place situations. This is positive outcome. 17% of them are using internet based resources to some extent. Around 16% of them are not using any such internet resources for any such reasons. This hints towards organizing and recommending the right resources online for better and improved results.

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Question Area:Policy Framing 3-A Do you feel that ESP policy at college/university is in line with organizational needs? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.71 Q. 3-A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Frequency 65 155 250 470 Percent 13.8 33.0 53.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for improvisation in alignment of ESP policy and Organizational Needs 13.8 % of students believe that ESP policy at college/university is in line with organizational needs. However, remaining 33% agree to some extent only and majority 53.2% are not happy saying it is not in line with organizational needs. This hint towards coordinating the ESP policy to align with the organizational ESP needs.

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Question Area:Policy Framing 3-B Do you think you can contribute with your feedback on policy at college/university/national level? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.72
Q. 3-B Response Data Frequency 1 75 2 395 Total 470 Graphical Representation Percent 16.0 84.0 100.0

Interpretation & Comments: Interest in Feedback on ESP Policy 73.7 % of people have important question of information related to ESP which is not part of the questionnaire. Their views and useful information, and opinions from time to time can be brought on common platform. 24.6 do not have anything else to share or do not wish to discuss.

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Question Area: Curriculum 4-A Did your past ESP curriculum remain in line with nations ESP policy? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.73 Q. 4-A Response Data
Frequency 2 395 3 75 Total 470 Percent 84.0 16.0 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lack of coordination in past ESP curriculum and ESP policy 84% of students agreed that past ESP curriculum being in line with nations ESP policy. However, none of them agreed being it in line fully. 16% were unhappy revealing that curriculum did not remain in line with the ESP policy. Their unhappiness hint towards bringing things in coordination and to find out what wrong they find in the ESP education system.

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Question Area:Curriculum 4-B Did you have any classes from guest faculty from industry? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.74 Q.4-B Response Data
1 2 3 Total Frequency 65 75 330 470 Percent 13.8 16.0 70.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for more Classes from Visiting Faculty from Industry 13.8 of students said they had classes from guest faculty or they assumed that their existing faculty having industrial experience. 16% of students agreed that they had certain classes or to some extent. Majority of them, making it 70.2% revealed that they had no classes from guest faculty from industry. This hint towards need for more classes from industry professionals or teaching content directly from work place to make them adapt to work place situation much before they start their job.

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Question Area: Curriculum 4-C Did your ESP professor/lecturers update you with trends in ESP curriculum? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.75 Q. 4-C Response Data
2 3 Total Frequency 75 395 470 Percent 16.0 84.0 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for regular updates in ESP Trends None of the students agreed that any of their ESP teacher/professors updated them with the trends in ESP curriculum. Mere 16% of them agreed that they were updated to some extent or on certain occasions. Majority of them, making it 84% of them revealed they were not updated. This hints towards making a common online platform where students or teachers can be updated about recent trends in ESP.

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Question Area: Syllabus 5-A Do you feel your past ESP syllabus was in line with nations ESP curriculum standard? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.76
Q. 5-A Response Data Frequency 1 65 3 405 Total 470 Graphical Representation Percent 13.8 86.2 100.0

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for syllabus alignment with national curriculum standard Mere 13.8% of students agreed that their past ESP syllabus was in line with nations ESP curriculum standard. Whereas remaining, making it 86.2% of them revealed that past ESP syllabus was not in line with nations ESP curriculum standard. This hints towards lack of coordination in aligning syllabus with national curriculum standard.

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Question Area:Training 6-A Was ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.77 Q. 6-A Response Data
Frequency 1 65 2 405 Total 470 Percent 13.8 86.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for better training in line with approved syllabus Mere 13.8% of students agreed that their ESP training was in line with approved syllabus. Whereas remaining, making it 86.2% of them revealed that it was not in line with approved syllabus. This hints towards lack of coordination in aligning training with syllabus.

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Question Area:Assessment 7-A Did assessment in ESP courses cover full syllabus/curriculum? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.78 Q. 7-A Response Data Frequency Percent 2 470 100.0 Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Syllabus

Lacking Comprehensive Assessment of Curriculum /

100% of them believed that ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum on certain occasions. This shows that course either remains incomplete or skills remain undeveloped at the end of the year. This hints towards more planning and coordination to meet agreed objectives.

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Question Area: Evaluation 8-A Was evaluation of the ESP program in line with approved course objectives? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.79 Q. 8-A Response Data
Frequency 1 65 2 405 Total 470 Percent 13.8 86.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Lacking Comprehensive Evaluation of the ESP Program in line with approved course objectives Mere 13.8% of students agreed that evaluation of the ESP program was in line with approved course objectives. Whereas remaining, making it 86.2% of them revealed that it was in line with approved course objectives to certain extent. This hints towards lack of coordination between ESP course objectives and ESP program.

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Question Area: Stake Holder Relationship Network 9-A Is there good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.80 Q. 9-A Response Data
Frequency 2.00 85 3.00 365 Total 450 System 20 470 Percent 18.1 77.7 95.7 4.3 100.0

Graphical Representation

Missing Total

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for good relationship network among all stake holders None of the students agreed to any relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry. Mere 18.1% of students agreed that such network exists to some extent. Whereas remaining, making it 77.7% of them revealed that such network did not exist or had no good relationship among the all stake holders in ESP. This hints towards lack of coordination between ESP stake holders.

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Question Area:Stake Holder Relationship Network 9-B Are you familiar with the role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.81 Q. 9-B Response Data
Frequency 2.00 155 3.00 295 Total 450 System 20 470 Percent 33.0 62.8 95.7 4.3 100.0

Graphical Representation

Missing Total

Interpretation & Comments: Lack of awareness about role of ESP Stake holders None of the students agreed that they are familiar with the role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country. 33% of students agreed to some extent.. Whereas remaining, making it 62.8% of them show that they are not familiar with the exact role of all stake holders in society. This hints towards lack of information on students side and need to bring more awareness.

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Question Area:National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10-A Do you have access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc.? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.82 Q. 10-A Response Data
2 3 Total Frequency 405 65 470 Percent 86.2 13.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments:

Scope for improvisation in access to facilities such as

National Employment Exchange, Skills inventory etc None of the students agreed that they have access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. 86.2% agreed that they are aware about such facility so some extent. 13.8% of students show that they are not familiar with any such facilities. This hints towards lack of information on students side and need to make efforts for generating skills shortage list, existing skills list, and existing job database.

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Question Area: National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship 10-B Did your college or university have CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.83 Q. 10-B Response Data
1 2 3 Total Frequency 65 75 330 470 Percent 13.8 16.0 70.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Scope for Initiation of CDC/Placement Center 13.8% of the students agreed that their college or university have CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility. 16 % agreed that they have such facility so some extent. 70.2% of students show that they are not familiar with any such facilities. This hints towards lack of such facility or lack of coordination to initiate such facility for the Students such as career development cells and placement centers etc.

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Question Area:Information & Task Coordination 11-A Do you have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc.? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No

Table & Graph 4.84 Q. 11-A Response Data


2 3 Total Frequency 220 250 470 Percent 46.8 53.2 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: Students believing that there is lack of easy access to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc. None of the students agreed fully that they have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc. 46.8% agreed that they have such facility so some extent. 53.2% of students show that they do not have access to such information. This hints towards lack of common platform having access to such information.

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Question Area: Miscellaneous 12-A Do you want to share with us any important question or information related to ESP not discussed in this questionnaire? Choices: 1. Yes 2. To some extent 3. No Table & Graph 4.85 Q. 12-A Response Data
1 2 3 Total Frequency 140 265 65 470 Percent 29.8 56.4 13.8 100.0

Graphical Representation

Interpretation & Comments: platform

Scope for coordinating ESP related views on common

29.8% of people have important question of information related to ESP which is not part of the questionnaire. 56.4 % of them having something to share to some extent. Whereas 13.8% of them do not have anything to share. Their views and useful information, and opinions from time to time can be brought on common platform.

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CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, Interpretation & Comments, RESULTS / FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the present study finding and provides recommendations that can lead to improvisation to current ESP situation in KSA in general and regarding ESP in engineering domain in particular. The model lesson represents the need for development of customized syllabus in ESP for Engineering domain and provides the model units that have been developed keeping in mind the both the actual status of target learners and the target needs in KSA. 5. 1 HYPTOTHESIS The researcher started his work with study of following things. KSA Nature & Scope of Finding & Implementation on Past ESP Research Nature & Scope of Past ESP research in general context as well as in specific context of

Unlike earlier research work, present work does not limit its scope with mere needs of the students or course book designed to fulfill those needs. Here effort is extended to focus on things at large from policy to real industry situations where decision that shape the future of language in the country as well its outcome in industry that reflects those decisions. Success of any research depends on several factors such as its scope of study and possibility of implementation of the recommendation. To make this research more useful, researcher has tried to extend its scope as well as focused on recommendation and future direction of research very carefully. The research being an exploratory study of the use of English by Engineering Students, attempts to examine the communication needs of engineering students in the workplace by shedding light on their perceptions of needs, wants and lacks. Also it attempts to explore all variables in ESP mechanism in KSA that brings end result. This enabled researcher to have certain hypothesis

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and verify it The study sample consists of two hundreds of students enrolled in different levels in College of Engineering, Majmaah University. However, the scope of research was extended to other stake holders such as HR Manager as well as working employee as both were former students as well having exposure of both academics and industry and these were the people to let researcher know what differences they see or how they find level of ESP in KSA. The data has been collected by means of a questionnaire. The study concentrates on orientations toward the importance of studying ESP as a means of communication in relation to use of English in Saudis industrial context. The Researcher had the following set of objectives for this study: 1. To find out the needs of the workplace 2. To find out if the syllabus of the engineering fulfills the workplace needs 3. To find out how the gap between English for Academic purposes and occupational purposes can be bridged Apart from this objectives, hypothesis were as follows. 1. ESP plays a vital role in career of an Engineer as well as important factor in industrial operations. 2. Today's Education does not respond fully to industrial communication challenges. 3. There is a lack of coordination among ESP stake holders which if solved, situation in ESP can be improved.

5.2 QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS & Interpretation & Comments SUMMARY Apart from confirming hypothesis, stakeholders present similar views within each areas and helping the researchers with understanding the problematic patterns and come up with better recommendations.

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Table 5.1 Questionnaire Analysis & Conclusion Summary


Area Education & Background Employee Lacking ESP skills required for communicative tasks English Education not enough to cope up with Work Place Communication Active Research Limited use of ESP books as reference Lack of publication or sharing ESP related view online/offline Effectiveness Consciousness & Awareness in ESP related project Partial Use of Internet Resources in ESP Policy Framing Scope for improvisation in alignment of ESP policy and Organizational Needs HR Manager Lacking ESP skills required for differentiating ESP from General English Scope for preferring ESP over General English or Native English ESP Student Insufficient ESL Competencies for ESP Course Lack of Experience in using English in Professional Work Environment Lacking use of ESP books as reference Scope of Coordinating ESP related Ideas / publication Scope for awareness in effectiveness of ESP related project

Lacking use of ESP books as reference Scope of Coordinating ESP related Ideas / publication Scope for awareness in effectiveness of ESP related project

Partial Use of Internet Resources in ESP Scope for improvisation in alignment of ESP policy and Organizational Needs

Use of internet resources for improving ESP skills Scope for improvisation in alignment of ESP policy and Organizational Needs

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Growing Interest in Feedback on ESP Policy

Curriculum

Scope for better coordination in ESP policy & Curriculum Lacking regular updates in ESP Trends Scope for better coordination between ESP Syllabus and ESP Curriculum Lacking training in line with approved syllabus Scope for Visiting Faculty from Academic industry

College Curriculum not aligned with National ESP Policy Lacking awareness about importance of reviewing ESL policy Lacking coordination in ESP policy & Curriculum Lacking regular updates in ESP Trends Scope for better coordination between Syllabus & organizational needs Scope for better training in line with approved syllabus Scope for more classes from Visiting Faculty from academic industry Scope for more classes for industrial ESP trainers to train students Lacking Comprehensive Assessment of Curriculum / Syllabus Lacking Comprehensive Evaluation of the ESP Program in line with approved course objectives Scope for good relationship network among all stake holders Lack of awareness about role of ESP Stake holders Scope for improvisation in access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange, Skills inventory etc Scope for Initiation of CDC/Placement Center

Interest in Feedback on ESP Policy Lack of coordination in past ESP curriculum and ESP policy Scope for regular updates in ESP Trends Scope for syllabus alignment with national curriculum standard Scope for better training in line with approved syllabus Scope for more Classes from Visiting Faculty from Industry

Training

Assessment

Evaluation

Stake Holder Relationship Network

National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship

Lacking Comprehensive Assessment of Curriculum / Syllabus Lacking Comprehensive Evaluation of the ESP Program in line with approved course objectives Scope for good relationship network among all stake holders Lack of awareness about role of ESP Stake holders Scope for improvisation in access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange, Skills inventory etc Scope for Initiation of CDC/Placement Center

Lacking Comprehensive Assessment of Curriculum / Syllabus Lacking Comprehensive Evaluation of the ESP Program in line with approved course objectives Scope for good relationship network among all stake holders Lack of awareness about role of ESP Stake holders Scope for improvisation in access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange, Skills inventory etc Scope for Initiation of CDC/Placement Center

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Information Task & Coordination Miscellaneous

Part II

Scope for improving access to ESP related information Scope for coordinating ESP related views on common platform Listening & Speaking Skills not covered fully in ESP course

Scope for better cooperation & collaboration between industry & academics Lacking proper access to ESP related information Scope for coordinating ESP related views on common platform

Lacking proper access to ESP related information Scope for coordinating ESP related views on common platform

5.3RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendation in this chapter covers 12 different areas from policy framing at national level to implementation within classroom and goes even beyond to industrial settings where students skills are measured and this is where, how successful is the ESP policy can be determined. While forming recommendation both research finding as well as current status has been kept in mind and effort has been made in such a way that this chapter describes the nature of the problem and its scope and does not end with mere recommendations but also offers recommendation which if implemented with the right sprit at national level can solve the problem at large. Recommendation Area: 1. National ESP Policy Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Islamic nation with Arabic as predominant language which has its own unique importance in terms of religion, culture, society. It is also a link language ( Lingua Franca) among local and migrant Arabs and in active use in the society within both social and industrial settings. It is used as language of print and electronic media. Country also has Arabic as interface language in digital device such as mobile, computer etc. Within this predominant Arabic speaking environment, English acts as a second language in school, as major language of higher education, partially in use by print and electronic media, and language that connects KSA with outer non-Arabic speaking world. It also acts as common language used in international operations and relations in this multilingual world, which covers

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international business, international relations, and requires that country remains bilingually and professionally equipped without disturbing its socio-cultural and religious settings that would always, remain in favor of Arabic. Looking back to historical and classical example, we find that non-Arabic languages were learnt by companion of the prophet such as Zayd (May Allah be pleased with him) for translating the foreign letters or to reply to them. So bi-lingual trend must be encouraged, be it for preaching or countrys own academic, industrial, and scientific progress. Saudi Arabia, being a center of Islamic world has major role to play where it can be model nation both in terms of its success in religious, academic, industrial, and socio-cultural progress and awareness to entire world. From being a country that fuels the world with its oil based energy, now has time to focus its attention to several other industry segments to meet the ever growing unemployment rate and make the country from export dependent country to a country that not only exports oil but also other things. English language plays in important role to connect the country to scientific advancement and technology implementations. This will

becomes possible when policy is made to befriend English language learning opportunities and when people are made aware about why they need to learn language and make the country emerge as pioneer rather than the one who borrows the technology. All is possible when youth is made more innovative and bilingually equipped. Following recommendations can be implemented at national policy level to make the country bilingual in true sense. [1] Allowing English to emerge as link language and purposefully making class multilingual Language is social phenomenon. Long back, two kids Amla and Kamla were found from forest and they lived their childhood in forest and had developed behavior similar to animals. They did not have linguistic abilities as they did not hear any language in their life. If they had got their birth in Arab country, they would have been speaking Arabic instead. Similarly, if they had been placed in multilingual environment, they would have been multilingual. Certain states in India, kids easily speak at least 4 languages due to local multilingual environment and country's language policy giving priority to each language. For example, people in Gujarat speak Gujarati being it a local language of the state, which is also language of state

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level politics and media. People of Gujarat also know Hindi as it is language of popular TV channels and movies in India. Many of them know English as it is language of education, language of country's leading newspapers and TV Channels. Absence of common language while talking to certain southern state who do not know Hindi force them to use English while communicating with them at work place. Due to their migration within India, the also learn forth language or due to any other attachment such as Urdu being a religious language of Muslims, it has also become language for Islamic lectures. This proves that multilingual environment creates a situation where English emerges as lingua franca. English always remain as link language even in multilingual classrooms where foreign students study in European school or colleges where a lot of Arab, Indian, Russian, Chinese, and Korean students study in the same class and English acts as lingua franca. This situation also helps local European students. Thus, local students are forced to communicate in English or they naturally pick up speaking or communicative competence due to their natural use outside the classroom. In another example, when immigrant Bengali people work on labor visa to Saudi Arabia, with their lack of ability to communicate in English, they have to depend on picking up Arabic or making it as lingua franca to communicate with Arabs. This makes them learn faster than the one who know English. In similar such situation, where those people who work at tourist places in India as guide, they pick up English and many foreign languages due to their daily interaction with tourist from all parts of the world. Thus, it proves the proverb that necessity is the mother of invention in a way that local Saudi students would be forced to pick up English and will learn to use it for their survival in multilingual work environment. If Muslim students from overseas countries are encouraged to study in Saudi, there is no threat of any cultural influences compared to sending Saudi youth to abroad and face cultural influence related issues. Saudi Arabia may invite overseas Muslims students from various countries through student exchange programs or by giving admission to them. A multilingual scenario naturally gives birth towards making English as a common language. Also they have to communicate while playing sports or while doing project work outside classroom where team can be formed in a way that a lot of multilingual students are in the same team making English as a link language. This also allows even foreign students to understand Saudi's Islamic life style and benefit from it. As opposed to this, in local setting where all students are speaking Arabic, they always make Arabic

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as language of the classroom and their internal communication both inside and outside classroom. So to make them adapt to multilingual work environment, they should be made to adapt to multilingual classroom right from beginning. [2] Forming multilingual Team having shared project If students are multilingual, it can also allow teacher to form multilingual teams and give shared project that allows extra opportunity to communicate with each other and work on shared project. They can be sent to study trip in a team for a short time upon its end they can submit their project experience and submit project report. To pick up live skills, they can be made part of any live work project as a part of college's relationship with industrial network. [3] Making English as language of interface in computer in school and colleges & Popular Digital Devices in younger generation Teenagers and youth use Mobile and digital devices to a great extent. India is multilingual country. Initially certain companies try to provide local language support to Indian market but it was not easy for them as country is divided into many provinces speaking different local languages. As a result, English remained as common interface and today a village person who has never gone to school is comfortable using Mobile having English interface as that is the only interface available in both Mobile and Computer. Country cannot have policy to ban Arabic interface but at least can make a rule that keep English as the only interface in certain devices that may be popular in youth or all computer in school and colleges having English only interface with bilingual typing support. In another example, people from Maldives are familiar with Hindi as they are fond of Hindi TV Channels form India. Thus even when it is not their language, country can understand Hindi to a great extent without investing a single dollar on teaching it. [4] Exploiting Youth's Psychology towards Celebs to teach English Youth in India have tendency to get influenced by celebrity, who are mainly movie stars or sports persons and when they see them using English in their interview and while speaking to media in press conferences, youth naturally gets attracted towards English and consider it important enough to survive in urban and modern world. If celebs are invited to address on

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English TV channel of Saudi or if things are written about them in English newspapers, youth are tend to use English to reach out to them. Thus, their psychological situation can be exploited for good reason - for teaching English to them. Government can boost public and private channel in English where local youth can be hired as they become role model to them when society see them having native like English speaking abilities. [5] Localization of English Capabilities There is growing tendency in Saudi Arabia which consider youth to see English as foreign language. As opposed to this, country like India does not depend on foreign native speakers or foreign books as entire education system is indigenous. This gives country experience and confidence and as a result country is not only using English just like local language in education, media, science, and technology and even in social settings but also producing English teachers who teach abroad. This has created a situation where there are more non-native English Speakers than native speakers of English in UK. To bring localization in KSA, Saudi government can focus more on starting a chain of Institute of English Language Training & Research or Central Institute of English & Foreign Language Training & Research to give Saudis younger generation a kind of confidence that not only English, but also many other foreign languages they can learn for the purpose of Islamic propagation and for Saudis industrial and scientific development. Just like India, Saudi too can have their own teachers who can have equal confidence and capabilities that they can go abroad to teach or can have their own English Writers who can write in both local and international media. This is possible if more institutions are open focusing on Mass Media where English is language for studying Journalism and Media both at academic level and in practice while broadcasting English TV programs to the world audience. Lately, in Al Jazeera English Channel, what we see is some faces who speak native English or Native like English even while having their roots in Arab world. Similarly, Saudi too can have platform that train local youth and make them role model who be example and give confidence to local youth. This can also be used to showcase local innovation in science & technology or any creative work or idea by country's young and innovative leader. There is also perception that education is monopoly of western world and to remove this

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perception, country can invest money into making a museum or gallery to showcase the past and present contributors and their work. Similarly, country can organize city level or national level Creative Writing Competitions or Public Speech Competitions in English on various topic on popular TV channel. A Saudi based TV channel named as 'Youth' for youth must be started which gives opportunity to a new face every day after providing them training for participation in a program. This TV channel must be in English and can have different program such as news or program addressing various youth related issues. Similarly a newspaper in English can be started where all article and editing is done by them. This can invite articles from various colleges throughout Saudi every day and involve them compulsory with their contribution. This can make them both confident and help them feel that they can also use English professionally. A county can have its own sensor board that guideline and provide approval for each publication or broadcasting content and can also guide the TV channel about what kind of content of TV channel or Print Media can be allowed. Thus, without fear of getting youth in to different culture, country can protect the youth and still can teach them English as second language or English for specific purpose. Recommendation Area: 2. ESP Curriculum, Syllabus, Training & Evaluation at National Level Students often end up complaining that they are being taught what may not be useful in their life. Within context of English, if they are made to deal with textbook that seem teaching words or language in general that seem without any obvious purpose, they consider it boring and not relevant to their present day life. Thus a set of skills, content, material, resources, processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives etc. have to seem relevant in a way they can identify and consider both meaningful and relevant. In case of English language, present day curriculum try to include set of objectives where they can learn General Purpose English or study of Language as Form rather than its actual use within local context. Thus what they learn at end of the year remains something different from what they will require. They learn vocabulary that they may or may not use in their entire life or study general purpose LSRW skills rather than actual skills required in their area of work.

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Thus they are assessed for how much they know at the end of the year rather than how skillfully they use language to serve various purpose. Thus students, unfortunately are still evaluated for their memorization of content or knowledge of English as a form rather than to what extent and how skillfully they can use English. Thus following recommendations are required to bring positive changes at national level. Before KSA can agree on things to include with the ESP curriculum, all top companies of Saudi must be consulted about their work place English requirement and should be asked to submit communication samples such as various organizational Forms, Service Operational Procedure, Product Manuals, Sample Telephonic Conversation, Reports, Meeting Documents etc. after signing non-disclosure agreement and taking into confidence that government needs this data to prepare customized curriculum, syllabus, and evaluation and would not reveal their document to anyone unless they approve it to use for academic purpose or will not reveal their identity unless they allow to do so. These communication sample can be studied by the panel of professors and they should enlist of skills, write list of discourse with their model sample, and put all things on website. Later government can inform concerned companies to submit their NOC (confirming that list of skills cover their organizational requirements and that they have no objection with the curriculum, syllabus, and evaluation as mentioned on website). Finally, government's ESP website can enlist all agreed set of skills and discourse that are agreed upon and included in ESP program. This is the way; even students can also understand which discourse is popular and to what extent and can assess their own standard against both communication format as well as nature of language. Sample online content for Government ESP website before decisions regarding Curriculum, Syllabus, and Evaluation can be taken. In case of skills inventory database, later skills can be classified and grouped keeping in mind job position. Thus ESP curriculum, Syllabus and Evaluation has to be made keeping in mind the overall organizational needs for specific positions and customization to this level will time, energy, resources and will lead country towards maximum optimization in academic world where professional world will be real yardstick to measure to what extent academic world can deliver the skilled human resources both in terms of quantity and quality.

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The way, in industrial organization, there is set of client requirement regarding product or services and to meet them, organization has to carry out procedure which again classified at each stage of production and those who carry out the process have to focus on their exact task rather than overall task. Educational organization similarly has to teach the exact content keeping in mind the target position and target work place situations. Thus process has following stages. [1] Call for Organizational Communication Sample At least top 100 companies in KSA covering both manufacturing and service industry should be listed on website and must be invited to help the nation with their organization's communication sample so that it can be further catalogued and classified to prepare data required for ESP curriculum, syllabus and evaluation. [2] Enlisting Skills and Model Communication Discourse / Genre KSA Government would enlist required skills and model communication sample (discourse/genre samples) at each and every stage within each department of the company. This database may be used later to rate their quality and ranking can be provided or together with academic experts, its language can be edited or made better. [3] Call for Industrial Approval Industry can be asked to submit their no objection certificate or approval certificate after their evaluation of online first draft of designed curriculum, syllabus, and evaluation rules, which subject to change after reviewing industry feedback (considering both suggestions and objections). This step confirms that their organization needs and interests are kept in mind and this will also improve government's relationship with industry which in turn will result in more joint exercise towards removing unemployment and combined growth. [4] Joint Work for Final Draft Preparation A panel consisting both academic and industrial heads can be set to carry out this task with final approval of their work subject to overall approval by industry after online publication for open evaluation.

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[5] Joint-Training has to be done both by academic ESP experts as well as visiting industry trainers to ensure that students remain updated both by teaching methodologies as well as work place situations. [6] Academic-Industrial Evaluation and Grading A part of evaluation has to be judged within industrial environment where instead of question paper designed by academic people, a real form or task can be brought from industry and student should be evaluated based on his application in industrial communicational environment. Students must be credited against their overall participation in industry tasks, training, internship, projects, exam, industrial and academic trainer's feedback apart from formal examination.

Recommendation Area 3. ESP Curriculum, Syllabus, Training & Evaluation in Classroom Classroom situations must follow to ESP Syllabus which is in line with ESP Curriculum which is again, in line with ESP Policy at national level. Training & Evaluation must be done keeping in mind the organizational needs and standard. In today's modern era, offline as well as Online Community Interaction has become like a 24/365 school for people to get exposure and learn many things. Give a new technical device in kid's hand and he would be operating it nicely after some time. His prior experience of interface helps him to adapt to new device, its interface, and features. This does not require them to go through its manual even when its provided but never read by anyone. Thus interest and prior experience leads to new learning experience in no time. Classroom learning can be made equally interesting where students can also relate it to their previous learning experience and familiarity and can have further exposure and learning experience. Unfortunately, today's text books are still theoretical where teacher has to summarize its content and students have to memorize it and repeat it in paper based exams. This sort of classroom experience brings boredom and do not even develop problem solving skills. Within ESP Classroom Environment of today's time, students still study more about vocabulary and meaning rather than their extended use in different ways. this has also been reflected in

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questionaries outcome where they seem to be more comfortable with vocabulary compared to listening and speaking skills. Descriptive and content based syllabus also force teachers to complete the syllabus rather than completing the annual objectives of developing skills as he too would be measured on the basis of his syllabus completion rather than his effort for developing skills. This also tends the teachers to focus more on being 'syllabus finisher' rather than 'skills developer'. Students also understand that they are credited for their content in the exam rather than their actual participation in communicative task in the classroom. This tend them to memorize when the exam comes and remaining year, they remain inactive for they know that their duty is now more or less passive where they just have to go to class and seat. Within KSA's context, in absence of customized ESP syllabus, most universities will have to depend on ESP textbook in syllabus which are prepared by foreign writers meeting local communicative needs or meeting their local organizational standards. These textbooks remain generic and their listening, speaking, reading or writing tasks may not be in line with the present needs or Saudi based organization as they were not prepared after consultation with the Saudi based organizations. Teaches would be making questions paper based on university's paper based evaluation system which motivates memorization rather than understanding or problem solving skills. Textbook also do not include exact communication sample used by industry and language remain generic rather than focusing on specific domain, role or task in Saudis context. Thus, English or any language can be learnt inside four walls of classroom but it cant only be mastered by its use in real social situations. Similarly, ESP can be learnt in classroom setting but it has to be mastered within live industrial communication settings. Therefore an effort of ESP teachers should be to focus on industry and use its communication sample as content for teaching and ESP student must be credited for functional use rather than his knowledge of English as a form. The way doctors are not given their degree unless they complete their medical internship for at least one year, similarly ESP student should have industrial internship as a partial requirement to fulfill the ESP training and at the of his training, he should be made to report on organizational communicative tasks and his contribution or participation.

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Recommendation Area: 4. Academic Industrial Partnership Academic Industrial MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) are advised to be signed on various occasions regularly for the following purposes. [1] Mutual Dependency & Relationship Industry has to depend upon qualified and skilled human resources and their training responsibilities always remain on academic organization where lecturers and professors have to teach students kind of English without prior personal experience to find out to what extent classroom teaching is relevant to industrial work place situations. To avoid this situation, MoU can be signed to allow industrial organization to utilize academic organization resources including classroom, teachers, teaching resources, and customized material prepared for their employee on specific units. In return, they are supposed to agree in MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) to let academic organization utilize their industrial areas for case study, project participation, training, and internship for students. In case of joint meeting, Career Development Cell & Placement Center can represent respective universityand Human Resource Department can represent their respective Industrial organization or in case of joint event both industry experts and academic staff can be the audience. [2] Creating Artificial Work Place Environment within Academic Settings Technical Academic Organizations in India run small workshop where students engage in various industrial task under supervision and they also get chance to apply their technical skills. Based on same idea, Saudi can also extent to open workshop run by university's technical colleges which carry out exact industrial task on small scaled and try to serve client with their product and services. Government may utilize unused or second hand machine and can use for workshop for the students. Students too can be given mock positions where they form various departments and operate it like small scaled company and get live feedback from teaching supervisor regarding their communication and technical supervisor can guide towards their technical operations. In Hotel Management Institute, this technique is also used where hotel management student gets chance every day to learn practical skills in hotel like environment where within an institute we

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find small reception, one model room used for housekeeping training, one small restaurant like setting with a table, chair and service facility and of course kitchen with ingredients. Here students get training related to front-office operations, housekeeping, and food and beverage production and so on. Similarly, a technical workshop or mock company run like real company with actual orders taken from outside can give chance to students to carry out all operations from manufacturing to selling. All mock department such as reception, Human resource office, General manager office, various departments such as accounts, finance etc can be organized and students can be posted. This workshop can be run in parallel to teaching hours or students can have duty after the classes on part time basis. Here they can have chance to use their technical as well as ESP skills as they would be doing all communication task under the supervision of both technical as well as ESP supervisors. They can be evaluated with mock orders without informing them or supervisor can send mock person with mock order where they can be checked if they can take certain order or respond to work place situations or not. Their telephonic communication can also be recorded when mock call in English is made with specific order or inquiry. They can be given amount to operate their small organization account or their earning from their real orders can also be used to operate this account and to see to what extent they run it successfully. All skills form manufacturing, selling, marketing, customer relations, etc can be judged at one place within this setting. Once model company is bigger, it can also be used for refresher courses or can be used for further innovation and research purpose. However, being it for student training, no post has to be permanently filled by any student or employee and post must be terminated once student completes his course to vacate it for existing student. However, innovative students can be hired as advisor to the model company or workshop or can be given honorary post or can be encouraged to start a sister company on their own. Entire procedure can have following steps listed here in brief. Case Study by Technical & ESP Supervisors of Industrial Companies, Workshops, Tasks, Technical Requirements, Safety Requirements, Skills Requirements, Human Resource Requirements etc. Seeking Government and Industrial help and resources to make workshop or small scaled

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company to carry out agreed tasks required to give students actual work place like training. Government should fulfill requirement such as clearing land, making site as per workshop requirement under the guidance of both technical and academic supervisors Formation of Company, slogan, vision, mission, and document describing company policy and operations. This can be done by students team formed from various branches such as business, Engineering, and English under the supervision of subject supervisors. Formation of Organizational Structure (departments and positions) by Technical & ESP Supervisors Posting Students with Time Specific Mock Positions, Job Descriptions, and Responsibilities Mock Supervisors observing real incoming client request and in case of no client order for product or services, giving mock undeclared mock orders and observing students response and activity. Technical Supervisor observing technical logbooks and reading and ESP supervisors keeping an eye on organizational communication (both oral and written) in case or oral communication, a meeting or telephonic conversation with client or mock client can be recorded and telephone line can be set with this facility to record their phone without informing them. This data can be used for call and speech analysis purpose in language lab. A real operative budget can be deposited in account and it can be managed by them and observed by supervisors and companys profit, loss, etc. can be reported annually by students of accounts or business department and various instruction must be given to student CEO to discuss company profit/loss, current status/future goals etc. and meeting communication must be recorded by ESP supervisor for further language lab analysis and feedback. Their ESP related contribution can be credited by ESP supervisor and similarly technical work can be evaluated by technical supervisor. Company can have organizational departments with required basic facilities and utilities such as HR office (with phone, computer, desk, file cabinet, punching card machine etc.), engineering workshop (with required second hand or abandoned but working machinery

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and tools), Finance & Accounts department (with phone, computer with accounts software, desk, file cabinet), Marketing & Sales Department (with phone, desk, file cabinet, computer and printer for product /service marketing materials & publishing, and sales management software), Reception & Customer Services (reception desk to handle walking client and manage incoming calls to company)General Manager Office to coordinate all department, and meeting room.

5.4 SUGGESTIONS Finally, this study has provided empirical data on a certain group of learners who belong to the Engineering profession and graduated from Engineering colleges. Though the aim is to have a clear picture of their English language Engineering needs to enhance the English language courses at the college level, the picture does not yet cover the entire wide spectrum of the ESP process. The following recommendations may facilitate further recommended areas of research in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of the wide spectrum of the ESP field.

5.5 DIRECTION TO RESEARCH Here are the sample questions that current researcher raises and ESP research community are welcome to delve deeper into it. Has the policy document ever been prepared and published online/offline for public access? Were the people who designed it were having experience required for designing policy? Who formed that panel who designed the policy? Did they make nationwide survey to ask opinions of teachers, industry people, and society in general, etc.? Does the policy reflect voice of people or does it target the actual and exact national needs in terms of industry and society at large? Was it made to suit the KSAs religious, socio-cultural, educational, and industrial settings? Did it compromise with the target objectives due to this modification to suite it in local context?

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Has this document been compared with policy of any other country? To what extent it was better or worst compared to policy document of any other country? How? What was the guiding factor to design it? What was achieved at the end of the year since it was designed? How was the policy implemented across the country? Was it reviewed in fair manner? What were the criteria to review to rate it? Was it assessed formally? What was the yardstick to measure its success or failure? Were the target achieved? To what extent? What was achieved in time since its last implementation compared to progress shown by any other country after their last policy changes implementation? Who or what factor were held responsible for failure or what changes were brought?

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5.6 PROPOSED SAMPLE UNIT

ESP COURSEBOOK 2013 FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN KSA

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SAMPLE COURSE INDEX UNIT 1 GETTING AN ENGINEERING JOB IN KSA The objectives of the unit: Lesson 1 - Analysis of Engineering Company, Engineering Job, & Engineering Student Lesson 2 - Communicating for an Entry Level Job in Engineering Domain Lesson 3 - Interview Analysis

UNIT 2 DEALING WITH PEER IN ENGINEERING COMAPNY IN KSA: The objectives of the unit: Lesson 4 - Induction Day Lesson 5 - Analysis of company environment, location, policy, rights,

responsibilities, organizational structure etc. Lesson 6 - Identifying people and adapting to their psychological, socio-cultural and linguistic background Lesson 7 - Dealing with DIFFICULT PEOPLE

UNIT 3 DEALING WITH TASKS IN ENGINEERING COMAPNY IN KSA The objectives of the unit:

Lesson 8 - Routine log book entry & face to face / telephonic /email based Briefing Lesson 9 - Weekly/Monthly/Annual/Situational Report Writing Lesson 10 Meeting with peer / client Lesson 11 Presentation Lesson 12 Dealing with work emergencies

UNIT 4 HANDLING PROMOTION / CAREER SETBACKS

Lesson 13 - Handling promotion Lesson 14 - Handling career setbacks (e.g. staff reduction, transfer etc.)

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UNIT 5 ENTREPRENEUR SKILLS IN ENGINEERING DOMAIN

Lesson 15 - Starting a small scale company Lesson 16 Winning a tender

General Objectives of the ESP Course follow teachers instructions and complete all the tasks in sequence individually or in group in case of group tasks understand the course objective, book objective, lesson objectives, and will try to understand what is intended from your study. consult teacher in classroom as well as online on 24 * 365 basis in Facebook, Chat messenger, on Email, Skype or any how and would carry out all tasks given in book with active participation and discussion with teacher and other students. sign at the end of the task and provide feedback such as their view about usefulness of the task participate in any ESP related activity in campus as well as off campus industrial opportunities submit reports, presentation, audio, video recording, etc. in time

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Industrial Exposure for Transforming Classroom Learning into Work-place Situations

Understanding of Agreed ESP Course Objectives

Student Participatoin & Contribution in All Tasks

ESP Tacher 24 * 365 Support

Chart 5.1 ESP coordination requirements for ESP Course Lesson 1 Getting Job Market Information

Lesson Objectives for the Students (at the beginning of the course)

The students will be able to; study the academic and industrial trends in Engineering Domains on the basis of skill demand and supply principles in Engineering Job Market in KSA prepare list of potential employers in Engineering Domain in KSA understand Engineering Companys Profile (vision, mission, introduction, type, nature, scope), Job profile of Entry Level Job in Engineering Domain (qualification, skills, and experience requirements, nature and scope of job) understand the gap between job requirement and existing level and skills and try to fill this gap with theoretical study and practical participation in concerned areas develop CV & Cover Letter based on potential employers /job advertisement

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Lesson Objectives for the Students The teacher will; provide handouts if and when necessary ensure that students complete all tasks in sequence and within given time frame. organize classroom Assessment at the end of the lesson

Lesson Brain Storming Questions The teacher will prepare presentation on following questions and later discuss this in the classroom. ENGINEERING COMPANY 1. What is an Engineering company and how is it unique from non-engineering companies? 2. What does it do? and who are its clients or customers? 2 in 1 3. What is the General Profile of KSA based Engineering Company? 4. What is the current scenario in engineering industry in KSA? 5. What is expected from engineering industry at global level? 6. What is expected from engineering industry in KSA? ENGINEER 1. How does an Engineers job differ from non-engineering job? 2. What is the general profile of engineering student? 3. What is expected from an Engineer in global context? 4. What is expected from an Engineer in Saudi context? 5. Whom does he serve and who are his customers or clients? 6. What is the current scenario in Engineering Domain in KSA?

ENGINEERING STUDENT 1. How does an Engineering Student differ from Non-engineering Student? 2. What is the general profile of engineering student? 3. What is expected from an Engineer Student in Global context? 4. What is expected from an Engineer Student in Saudi context? 5. What are the current trends in Engineering Colleges at global level?

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6. What is the current scenario in Engineering Colleges in KSA?

CASE STUDY

The teacher will provide case study analysis of Saudi Based Engineering Company profile Role Profile CV & Cover letter for Entry Level Engineering Job

SAMPLE CASE STUDY 1 Table 5.2 Case Study of Saudi Aramco


NO. 1 PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION Company Name Example SAUDI ARAMCO Area of Discussion Name hints at earlier collaboration ARabAMericanCompany and later word SAUDI was added when it became absolute Saudi venture. Teacher and students will discuss more examples as name may give a lot of information about vision, nature, scope, or type of company etc. The teacher will explain the examples where words such as international, Pvt. SERVICES etc. are used and their significance. The teacher will discuss various logo designs and find out what they convey. No. of words=22 (excluding slogan) The teacher will discuss preciseness and economy of words while

Company Logo

Company Slogan & Image Statement

Powering Possibilities We do so much more than provideenergy to the world.

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Company Vision

Introduction to Company

General Operations

writing vision statement We also grow new businesses, fuel the of the company and will economy and drive innovation. make the students write more such vision statements based on sample company profile that teacher will give. Our commitment to remain the world leader No. of words = 59. in the production of petroleum-based Teacher will reduce energy is complemented by our commitment wordiness without to help solve a host of pressing issues. We compromising with the believe we can make a difference wherever meaning and show how we do business by investing in innovation to do it. and entrepreneurship, creating educational The student will try to opportunities, powering economic progress, replace underlined parts increasing environmental awareness, and with better phrases. working in partnership for energy sustainability. The worlds need for energy is growing, but No. of words =52 so too is our ability to meet that demand. The teacher will discuss Our teams have been discovering new and the structure of ideas better ways of delivering petroleum energy and language it since 1933. Find out more about our represent those ideas. leadership, our history and the people who 1. Global situation and make us the worlds leading integrated companys response to petroleum enterprise. that situation 2. Companys operation since 1933 3. Companys rank and credit. Teacher will discuss words used for appeal to readers to know more, and the way statement said (a) how old it is (b) its importance in global petroleum enterprises (c) credit to leadership and staff. To maintain our legacy of reliability, our The teacher will discuss operations span the globe and range from if use of comma after exploration and producing to refining, refining is typing error chemicals, distribution and marketing. or grammatical error Learn more about our global presence, our and does it change the world-class facilities and our current meaning if we keep or projects. remove it. The teacher will try to discuss if

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Expertise Area or uniqueness

Society & Environment

Were constantly striving to bring new technologies to bear in our operations. From developing new and improved processes to adapting off-the-shelf tools to meet our needs, our researchers are at the forefront of investigating ways to improve the performance of petroleum and lighten its environmental footprint. Our corporate social responsibility vision is to be an influential leader in creating social and economic opportunities for the welfare of the Kingdom and in other locations where our affiliates do business.

underlines words can be rephrased to make it better or not such as writing it as exploration, production, and purification of chemicals, distribution and promotion. The teacher will discuss why underlined part could have been included under the title Society and Environment. The

B2B Relations

10

Connection with Talent

11

Public Relations

At Saudi Aramco, we make every effort to work with leading businesses. We realize that developing partnerships leads to more jobs and a stronger domestic economy. We also share our expertise with others and learn from them as well. We encourage and support those with entrepreneurial spirit and work collaboratively with our business partners for continuous improvement. Be part of a diverse global culture, working on challenging projects with dynamic, talented people in a world-class environment. Well expect the best from you, but well give you a lot in return. Read the latest news and speeches by our management, subscribe to RSS news feeds, learn about upcoming events and browse

In combined theme of companys social and environment responsibility, focus is only on economic opportunity. Only detailed article has focus on environmental issues. The teacher will redraft and show how theme of environment can be interwoven in the same paragraph. The teacher will appreciate the words that shows the importance of give and take spirit in B2B relations and how it has been emphasized here.

The teacher will explain what kind of talent company try to attract for their existing and new projects. The teacher will explain what kind of documents company website

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our multimedia library.

publishes on their website and why publication is important in maintaining PR.

TASKS 1 JOB RELATED WEBSITES

Task Background: The ESP teacher and students will discuss about the immediate target of any Engineering Student after he or she completes the engineering course which remains to be Qualified Engineer and get relevant job in their field of study.

The teacher will discuss that upon receiving the qualification, first thing they will require is to apply to job immediately, get interview calls, and secure job. However, a student with no idea about how to search job will struggle in spite of his having good grades due to his ignorance about job searching skills.

Task Objectives: The following task will train the students with job searching skills that will enable the students to apply immediately when they pass out and students will have edge over those who delay or do not know how to apply. Regular exercise of this task and comparative analysis of data

throughout the year will help you to understand job trends in Engineering Field.

Task 1: Research Based Information Transfer Make a list of Top Ten Website in Arab World for Engineering Jobs and fill in required data.

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e.g. Sample websites: www.bayt.com, www.naukrigulf.com, www.gulftalent.com


Top Ranking Engineering Job Sites in KSA and Arab World Top Ten Engineering Unique Features Disadvantage Job Portal

Remark

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

2 SKILL SHORTAGE V/S AVILABILITY IN JOB MARKET

Task Background: The ESP teacher and students will discuss about recent trends in Engineering Job market such as skills shortage in Engineering Domain, availability of existing skilled work force, average graduates pass out per year etc.

Task Objectives: The following task will train the students about how to find out real time information related to skills in demand in their domain and demographic details about potential jobs.

Task 2: Research Based Information Transfer Find required information through Internet Research.

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Make a table showing data related to number of Engineering Graduates who passes out against availability of jobs. This is to make students aware about how competitive job market is becoming day by day and requires candidate to have required skills for better chances for the job in desired field. If they do not develop required technical and communicative skills, they may end up with job other than your area of interest and study.

The students will find relevant information from websites of Ministry of education and Ministry of Human Resources. In case they may not find the required data, they may even contact the concerned authority or teacher to ask how they can have this information.

The teacher and students will use Google or any other Search Engine to find out popular Websites related to Engineering Jobs in Riyadh/KSA/Arab World and transfer the data related to Recruitment Trends such as Skill Shortage Area, Location, availability of candidate etc.

Engineering Skill Shortage v/s Availability of Qualified Engineers in KSA Domain of Engineering Pass outs Availability of Jobs Remark Year: ________ Civil Petroleum & Gas Mechanical Electrical Chemical Other Total

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

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3 - ACADEMIC-INDUSTRIAL RELATIONSHIP

Task Background: The teacher makes a list of companies in Saudi with their contact details and communicate for arranging field trip, negotiating for internship, training, placement etc. in collaboration with Placement Cell or Career Development Center. In case of unavailability of such placement, teacher can take responsibility to act as coordinator between industry and engineering college after consultation with the university management.

The teacher discusses the importance of Academic-Industrial Relations and consults with students, industry, and academic management and make planning for Academic Industrial Cooperation & Collaboration Opportunities

To imitate the task, search for Top 100 Companies in KSA on internet with details such as industry type, nature of organization (public/private), size of company, contact details etc. and prepare the common leaflet or marketing material for CDC/Placement Cell explaining the benefits of cooperation in brief and email to all companies in the list using group email features after consulting with the teacher. The teacher may divide the class and distribute list of companies to find contact details.

Task Objectives: The students realize the importance of Academic-Industrial Relations and participate actively.

Task 3: Students discusses in a group and prepare a rough draft about how to carry out Academic-Industrial Cooperation & Communication in consultation with your teacher / university. Students prepare a final proposal requesting academic-industrial cooperation and collaboration opportunities. The teacher enlist the ideas that can make strong

academic and industrial relationship and will collaborate with both management and industry to implement it.

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Academic Industrial Cooperation & Collaboration Opportunities ESP EVENT / Participant Communication log Approved JOINT Task Organization & (write detail about Dates contact details communication outcome) Industrial Visit & Case Study / Review Live Project Participation Training Internship Campus Interview for future potential placements

Activity In charge

ESP Teacher Remark

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

4 JOB MARKET TRENDS Task Background: The teacher will explain the importance of being familiar with job trends in Engineering Market. The teacher will explain how data will help them understand trends in engineering job market.

Task Objective: To help the students to learn about how to filter job based on their background or needs. .

Task 4: Make a Target Search based on NaukriGulf.com and summarize job trends descriptively as reflected in the table.

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Jobs in Engineering Domain in Arab World Jobs by Total Jobs Engineering Jobs Location

Civil

Petro-chemical

Mechanical

Electrical

Abu Dhabi Dubai UAE Bahrain Kuwait Dammam Riyadh Saudi Arabia Oman Qatar
Job based on Engineering Roles in KSA Civil Petrochemical Fresher Junior Engineer Senior Engineer

Mechanical

Electrical

Other

Summary of Academic & Industrial Trend based on above data: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

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5 JOB ADVERTISEMENT

Task Background The teacher will explain the importance of reading job profile carefully to find out what skills it requires and this also helps to understand what kind of preparation is required to be successful in interview and work. The teacher should provide job description samples and discuss it with the students.

Task Objective: The students must know the list of Engineering Jobs related website in KSA and Arab world and able to comprehend job profile and if it matches to their profile or not. The Teacher will download real job advertisement in Engineering Field in KSA and explain various criteria that influence the selection process.

Task 5 Read the following Advertisement from www.bayt.com and choose from the given answers. Some of the questions may not have direct reference or information and can be logical in nature.

Fresh Graduates Engineers (Electrical, mechanical) Wanted

Hill Metals - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Date

Posted:

2013/04/29

14:16:16

Ref.

JB2303605

Job Description Fresh BSC Engineers (Mechanical, electrical). Having good academic record and able to work in manufacturing environment. Good Communication skills; bi-lingual fluency (Arabic & English).

Job Details: Job Location: Jeddah , Saudi Arabia Company Industry: Industrial Company Type: Employer (Private Sector)

Monthly Salary Range: Unspecified Manages Others: No Number of Vacancies: 10

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Job Role: Engineering Skills: Communication Skills , Computer Literacy Team Building Joining Date: Unspecified Employment Status: Full time Employment Type: Employee

Career Level: Entry Level Years of Experience: Min: 0 Max: 0 Residence Location: Unspecified Gender: Male Degree: Unspecified

About This Company Hill Metals is one of the leading steel businesses in Saudi Arabia and Middle East. The organization procure and process thousands of tons of metal scrap generated by consumers, industry and demolition sites all across Saudi Arabia and middle east and produce high quality steel Billets and Rebars. With a diverse workforce from seven different nationalities, state of the art manufacturing facility and focus on quality and customer service, Hill Metals is committed to produce safe and sustainable steel to cater increasing demand of the region.

Questions:

[1] What does company do with metal scrap? [a] Buying and recycling metal scrap [b] Buying and selling metal scrap [c] Manufacturing metal scrap

[2] What could be the possible main duty for Mechanical Engineer based on given information? [A] Helping company with marketing operations [b] Working with manufacturing process [c] Exporting Steel Billets and Rebars.

[3] Why does company mainly need bi-lingual fluency and good communication skills? [a] As the company has multilingual staff [2] As company requires Engineers help company in global import-export operations [3] As company wants engineers to handle customer services

[4] Why does company mainly need Team Building Skills? [a] As the company possibly want to promote their brand by making their own Football Team [b] As the company requires Engineers help company to work on larger projects which needs

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coordination between staff [c] As company wants to assess which candidate can be future General Manager

[5] Why is the salary not mentioned? [a] It means company will allow best candidate to decide his own salary [b] Salary will depend on skills and experience shown during the interview [c] It will be decided by the government upon candidates selection
Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation Student Signature upon task completion: ESP Teacher Signature:

6 ANALYSING CV AGAINST JOB REQUIREMENT

Task Background: The teacher will discuss with students about various job requirements and how candidates are assessed from organizations perspective.

Task Objective: The students will learn how to analyze CV in relation to job requirement.

Tasks 6 Information Transfer Here are three different profiles. Transfer the information into given table and find out which profile seems more suitable to job profile given in Task 5. Provide logical reasoning at the given space supporting your answer.

CANDIDATE 1

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Mr. ABC is 2012 pass out from college of engineering, KSU. His major was Electrical Engineering. He scored 75% in his graduation. He also has internship experience and has participated in live industry project while studying at college. His internship is from PQR electrical engineering Co. Ltd. where he was working at manufacturing plant. He is Native Arab and having good communicative skills in English, after having passed ESP course form KSU. He is looking for full time experience in any electrical company.

CANDIDATE 2 Mr. DEF is 2008 pass out from college of engineering, KSU. His major was Electrical Engineering. He scored 65% in his graduation. He got scholarship to do MSc in Electrical Engineering and went to Germany. Post MSc, he taught as assistant lecturer for around two years over there and returned to KSA in 2012. He is assisting his father in business and also planning to do PhD in USA if he gets scholarship. However, his father suggests him to work in KSA in the field of his study. He is thinking about working in KSA if he gets any opportunity to work there. He is native arab and having good communicative skills in English. He is looking for some experience in any electrical company till he can have scholarship to do PhD.

CANDIDATE 3 Mr. XYZ is working as Supervisor in Electric Company. He is Diploma in Mechanical Company. He has 11 years of experience as Supervisor. However, as the company is small there is no scope for further growth. However his skills include talking to staff speaking Arabic, Hindi, Bengali and he can easily communicate with people from Asia and Middle East. He is looking for a job change to have better experience in his area of study.

CRITERIA Education Experience Area Experience Duration Technical skills Linguistic skills Communicative skills Management skills Availability

CANDIDATE 1

CANDIDATE 2

CANDIDATE 3

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7 EXPOSURE TO JOB APPLICATION PROCESS

Task Background: The teacher will discuss with students about various sources where job are advertised and importance of communicative with all potential employers and responding to all relevant advertisement for improved rate of success in job hunting. The teacher will provide sample CV and cover letter and analyses candidates strength and weakness against specific advertised job. The teacher will also provide model CV in their field of domain for fresh graduate and teach to make required modification if and when needed.

Task Objective: The students will make inventory of resources which provide existing job database. The students will be able to filter the job and study the job related trend for improved career related decisions. The teacher will be able to assess their Job Hunting Skills.

Task 7: Teacher will sign in as employer and put dummy advertisement on popular job website matching the requirement of the students and will not reveal where the advertisement is put. Later, students will be told to register with website as job searching candidate and apply to job matching their criteria. The teacher will assess job searching skills, CV, Cover Letter and will give individual feedback. Teacher will short list candidates and call for dummy interview.

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

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Task Background: All companies differ in one way or the other, in their vision, mission, nature of work, score of work, type of venture, size, infrastructure, policy, marketing strategy etc. The teacher will discuss all common criteria that give unique identification to a company and provide sample profile of major company within each domain of engineering in KSA.

Task Objective: The students will learn about language and purpose of industrial communication which build their external image.

Task 8: Visit Engineering Company Websites and read product/service leaflets. Try to find following information from them.

Company Website: Logo, slogan, vision, mission, nature, scope etc. Product Leaflets: Review, description, specification etc.

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

9 USE OF REVERSE DICTIONARY APPROACH

Task Background: The teacher will fill the following table and explain how to learn and retain technical vocabulary based on look, listen and learn approach. ESP teacher will not be able to teach all technical words, having limited time and limited exposure to technical concepts. However, he can help with teaching the right technique that can help the students learn and retain more and more words.

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Type of dictionary Bi-lingual Learners Advanced Etymological Multimedia Technical Reverse Dictionary

Content & Purpose

Importance of Picture

Importance of Audio

Importanc e of example

Other unique features

Mimicking mother Tongue Acquisition Model

Pictures are presented first allowing students to guess meaning first.

Audio is used as reinforcement to retain visual clues.

Example is given to explain the central theme of the picture.

Dictionar y is organized thematic ally rather than alphabeti cally.

Task Objective: The students will learn about language and purpose of industrial communication which build their external image. Tasks 9 Reverse Dictionary (From visuals to words as in case of real life language immersion) [a] Look at the images and write their use.

1. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________

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3. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________

[b] Classify images according to domain.

Folder for Separate Branch of Engineering Mechanical Civil Electrical

Image No. or Name

[c] Find more images related to your domain of study and name each important part as shows below.

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Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

10 ENGINEERING GRAMMAR WITH FUN

Task Background: The teacher will provide teach grammar in humorous context. The approach should be teaching grammar with humor and make grammar class interesting. Task Objective: The students will learn use of simple present tense without stress.

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Tasks 10 Grammar with FUN Fill in the gaps with proper verb forms for the given below list to complete the joke. Key words: Sit, lean, ask, play, take, catch, persist, explain, decline, try, know, see, agree, pull, look, search, wake Clever Engineer A mathematician and an engineer are ____ next to each other on a long flight. The mathematician _____over to the engineer and ____if he would like ____a fun game. The engineer just wants to ____a nap, so he politely declines and rolls over to the window ____a few winks. The mathematician _____ and _____ that the game is real easy and lots of fun. He explains, "I ask you a question, and if you don't know the answer, you pay me $5. Then you ask me a question, and if I don't know the answer, I'll pay you $5." Again, the engineer politely ______ and ____to get to sleep. The mathematician, now somewhat agitated, says, "Okay, if you don't know the answer, you pay me $5, and if I don't ____ the answer, I'll pay you $50!" This catches the engineer's attention, and he ____no end to this torment unless he plays, so he ____to the game. The mathematician asks the first question. "What's the distance from the earth to the moon?" The engineer doesn't say a word, but reaches into his wallet, _____ out a five-dollar bill and hands it to the mathematician. Now, it's the engineer's turn. He asks the mathematician "What goes up a hill with three legs and comes down on four?" The mathematician ____up at him with a puzzled look. He takes out his laptop computer and _____all of his references. He taps into the air phone with his modem and searches the net and the Library of Congress. Frustrated, he sends e-mail to his co-workers all to no avail.

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After about an hour, he ____the engineer and hands him $50. The engineer politely takes the $50 and turns away to try to get back to sleep. The mathematician then hits the engineer, saying, "What goes up a hill with three legs, and comes down on four?" The engineer calmly pulls out his wallet, hands the mathematician five bucks, and goes back to sleep.
Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

Sample Students Resources for Lesson 1


Topic Free Ebook Real-Resumes For Engineering Jobs Anne McKinney, Editor How to write Engineering CV Electrical Engineer Video Resume Civil Engineer Video Resume in support to Paper Based CV Blog about Engineering CV and Tips Link http://www.scribd.com/doc/295313 94/real-resumes-for-engineeringjobs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= PlBl4Vg_uBU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= VcCtcpTn8qo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= L-7kzx2ZUUM http://www.engineersforum.com/2010/12/best-formatfor-an-engineeringresume/forum.com/2010/12/bestformat-for-an-engineering-resume/ Students Remark/Feedback

Teacher may find more resources on www.scribd.com or on YouTube and give you handout having link. Teacher must ask for feedback to see to ensure real learning takes place. ***

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Lesson 2 Communicating for an Entry Level Job in Engineering Domain

Lesson Objectives for the Students The students will; study the ways to communicate regarding Engineering Job Market in KSA study the communication sample such as telephonic communication to HR, interview scripts etc.

Lesson Objectives for the teacher The teacher will; provide handouts if and when necessary ensure that students complete all tasks in sequence and within given time frame. organize classroom Assessment at the end of the lesson

Lesson Brain Storming Questions The teacher will prepare presentation on following questions and later discuss this in the classroom.

Communication Model 1) What is communication and how is it different from one way conversation? 2) What are types of barriers in Communication? How to avoid barriers? 3) What are the trends in communication in present days?

Telephonic Communication 1) What are the barriers in Telephonic Communication? 2) What are the ways to improvise telephonic communication?

Face to Face Communication 1) What are the barriers in face to face communication?

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2) What are the ways to improvise face to face communication?

Transcript Case Study- Telephonic Communication with HR-transcript


Engineering student: (calling..) HR Office: Good Afternoon, HR at Aramco, how do we help you sir? Engineering Student: Good Afternoon sir, I am Majid from Riyadh. I have recently qualified as Mechanical Engineer from KSU. I am interested to know if there is any current vacancy for Mechanical Engineer at entry level or not. HR Office: hold on please, we will transfer your call to our HR manager. (after a while ) HR Manager: Good Afternoon, HR Manager at Aramco, Mr. Faizal Al Ghamidi speaking. How may I help you? Engineering Student: Good Afternoon sir, I am Majid from Riyadh. I have recently qualified as Mechanical Engineer from KSU. Wanted to know if there is any opportunity to work for Aramco for any entre level position or not. HR Manager: well, company puts advertisement about any such vacancy on website. You are welcome to register your cv on our website or can send cv to our email hr@aramco.com Engineering Student: Sir, I checked on website and it does not show any current vacancy. However, company provides information on website that it always welcome new talent with an innovative mind and therefore, I would like to have an opportunity to prove my worth to company. HR Manager: yes, you are right; we do appreciate young and new talent. You can send us CV once again and this time let us know what role you can play for the company and your area of interest and any such innovation if you think you are able to carry out.

CALL Analysis HR Initiation to respond quickly (normally within three rings) and standard way of greeting, polite introduction, and showing readiness to help. Response to greeting followed by self-introduction of the student, and purpose of calling

Initiating the standard procedure for incoming call according to its importance and call classification. Call is transferred to concerned person and department and concerned person is briefed about incoming call before a call transfer. Response to greeting followed by self-introduction and purpose of calling. A repetition is necessary as HR Manager may be unaware to information given to HR executive. HR Manager guides about normal policy of recruitment and guidance towards application procedure. Student defending his purpose of calling and reminding politely about why he has to call on being unable to get any response. Student desperate to generate fresh interest in him. HR Manager affirming the company policy about new talent and telling to provide details along with CV (rather than excusing for not being able to reply to earlier CV and not even demotivating the student that if he did not get response means company may not be interested or there may not be requirement at present on realizing candidates genuine interest and willingness to be part of company) Student showing gratitude and thanks for information and guidance. HR Manager hinting towards his closing a call.

Engineering Student: ok, sir, I will do the same as per your instruction. Thanks for your guidance and motivation. HR Manager: Ok, gentleman, wish you all the best. Is there anything else he would like to know?

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Engineering Student: No, that was all I wanted to know for a while. Thank you sir, I appreciate your guidance and information.

Student closing a call with showing gratitude and happiness.

FOLLOWING UP [After few days in case not getting any reply from company]

HR Office: Good Afternoon, HR at Aramco, how do we help you sir?

Engineering student: Good Afternoon, This is Majid from Riyadh, a recent mechanical engineering graduate from KSU. Few days back I had a conversation with HR manager and upon his instruction I had submitted my CV but still there is no reply even after almost one week. HR Office: Hold on for a while! (after few min.) Thanks for your patience, we have shortlisted you for the interview and we would inform you soon for interview date. Engineering student: Thank you sir for being called for an interview, may I know your name please? HR Office: This is HR Executive Mr. Mansour. It was pleasure talking to you. Is there anything else we can do for you? Engineering student: No, that was all I wanted to know for a while. Thank you Mr. Mansour, I appreciate your guidance and information.

HR Initiation to respond quickly (normally within three rings) and standard way of greeting, polite introduction, and showing readiness to help. Response to greeting followed by selfintroduction of the student, and purpose of calling

Initiating the standard procedure for incoming call according to its importance and call classification. Call is answered with required information Student showing gratitude and thanks for information and guidance. Standard way of HR Executive for closing a call. Student closing a call with showing gratitude and happiness.

AFTER ONE WEEK, HAVING NO RESPONSE FROM HR


HR Office: Good Afternoon, HR at Aramco, how do we help you sir? HR Initiation to respond quickly (normally within three rings) and standard way of greeting, polite introduction, and showing readiness to help. Student introducing and referring to earlier communication, telling reason behind calling and requesting to contact the concerned person.

Engineering student: Good Afternoon, This is Majid from Riyadh, a recent mechanical engineering graduate from KSU. Few days back I had initial conversation with HR MANAGER Mr.Al-Gamidi followed by news regarding my shortlisting for interview with HR EXECUTIVE Mr. Mansour and I was informed that company has shortlisted me for interview. However, so far I havent got any call or email. So may I talk to Mr. Mansour or Mr. Al-ghamidi? HR Office: Hold on for a while! (after few min.) Thanks for your patience, Unfortunately, Mr. Mansour is on leave today and Mr. Gamidi is busy in meeting. However, as per our record, you have been called for interview on next Monday 9 am at

Initiating the standard procedure for incoming call according to its importance and call classification. Call is answered with required information.

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companys HR Office in Riyadh. We have again sent you email regarding full details and get back to us without any hesitation in case any query. Please add our email id in your contact list so that our emails possibly do not reach to your spam box. Engineering student: Thank you sir for your kind support, may I know your name please? HR Office: This is HR Executive Mr. SalimAfzal. It was my pleasure talking to you. Is there anything else I can do for you? Engineering student: No, that was all I wanted to know for a while. I confirm about my arrival for the interview at said time and venue. Thank you Mr. Salim, I appreciate your guidance and information.

Student confirming with whom is the communication made and records in his diary to follow up later if required. Standard way of HR Executive for closing a call. Student closing a call with showing gratitude and happiness.

Differences between face to face and telephonic conversation


Area of comparative analysis Non-verbal communication Telephonic conversation Missing except it is video calling Face to Face conversation Facial expression, gesture, posture, body language, dressing etc. as non-verbal communication Voice property playing a key role Voice property playing a key role giving giving non-verbal clues such as non-verbal clues such as from, voice from, voice modulation, pitch, modulation, pitch, intonation etc. intonation etc. reflecting reflecting psychological status such as psychological status such as attitude and interest of speaker. In attitude and interest of speaker addition to these clues, listener has more visual clues to confirm what is communicated by voicing. Pronunciation, stress, intonation, Pronunciation, stress, intonation, MTA MTA etc. showing his command etc. showing his command and fluency and fluency level with ESL level with ESL Choice of words showing his Choice of words showing his familiarity familiarity with vocabulary with vocabulary required for required for communication for communication for specific purpose. specific purpose. Choice of register showing his Choice of register showing his familiarity familiarity with words keeping in with words keeping in mind formal or mind formal or informal informal situations. situations. Range of sentence showing Range of sentence showing command command over sentence over sentence formation required for formation required for specific specific situations. situations.

Voicing & psychological aspects

Speech delivery & fluency

Word preciseness

Register

grammatical accuracy

ESP student must prepare and record his speech and behavior patterns in different situations on various mock interviews and ask for feedback form teacher in both telephonic and face to face

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conversations. If technical knowledge of Engineering student is like finished product, then communication is like attractive packing without it product cant be sold to a better price. ESP teacher will discuss various potential situations where students might have to deal with HR Manager on telephonic communication and Interview Panel in face to face communication.

11 CALLING TO HR Task Background: The teacher will give handout to students explaining various situations where student might have to call HR. The teacher will make the student write script and record conversation and then practice on mock calls to teacher and ask for feedback. Task Objective: The students should be able to learn persuasive telephonic skills in English.

Tasks 11 Study the following situations in table and prepare script, audio and be ready for mock call to teacher. Your teacher will tell you date on or before that data you have to provide script, transcript, and audio.
No. situations Submission Date for Script, phonetic transcript, and audio

You read advertisement in the newspaper about vacancy in your field of domain. However, engineering company has put the condition to have at least one year experience. You do not have one year full time experience. However, you do have in study industrial experience of training, internship, and project participation of reputed engineering companies. Make a call to HR to persuade for considering your case for interview. You are recent mechanical engineering graduate and looking for internship or training experience overseas. Convince HR Manager for interview regarding your communicative skills, cultural exposure, and technical knowledge required for Saudi based companys overseas project. You are recent petro-chemical engineering student from KSU, with potential to win scholarship for masters program overseas. However, you are more

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10

interested in doing research in companys live oil exploration project under the guidance of companys senior research team rather than earning overseas degree. Convince company for interview regarding your skills, knowledge and interest to be hired to work on research project if successful in interview. You are a group of civil engineering students and want to start your own construction firm in near future. You need experience and want to work on same project so that can share experience and learn from each other. Represent yourself and your friends and request HR Manager to hire your group as Trainee Engineers or as Volunteers telling you all have shared goals and interest in working and learning together (and without revealing your actual purpose and future plan). You are going London to study further. You have come to know that local company has its ongoing project in London where you are going to study. Convince HR Manager for interview regarding any part time working opportunity to work at their site in London to gain experience while studying at the same time. Convince the company that your communicative skills in English and your dedication can be of great help in their London project. Call HR office telling you are unable to appear for the interview on said date as you would be out of country to attend important family function. Request to consider your exceptional case as still you are available to appear online on Skype for interview or face to face at later date when you are back from the trip. Your internship has been approved. However, company letters have terms to join initial training in companys branch in Dammam from next week. However, you are unable as you have to appear for exam at KSU starting from next week. Convince regarding new training dates. Your senior supervisor at site has not allowed you to visit certain area citing reasons of safety and has not allowed you to take technical photograph citing companys policy. Convince HR Manager that you need to visit sites and take images for academic purpose as a part of project report to be submitted to college at the end of the internship and not for commercial reasons. At the end of your internship, you are supposed to submit report to college within a week and it needs signature of site supervisor who at present is on long leaves. In charge supervisor refuses to sign your project. Convince HR Manager to get signature from in charge supervisor instead so that you dont meet project submission deadline or find any alternative solution. Make a call to HR Manager negotiating for better salary and remuneration package which seems very less compared to current industry standard. Show that you are genuinely interested in job but request to consider salary package once again.

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

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12 Preparing for interview

Task Background: The teacher will give handout to students explaining various situations where student may make mistakes during interview if they face unexpected questions. The teacher will make the student write script and record answers after script approval and then students can prepare for mock interview with the ESP teacher and ask for feedback.

Task Objective: The students should be able to learn how to answer both general and technical questions.

Tasks 12 Here are some standard questions that you will hear time and time again. Once you practice answering these questions, you will become more fluent and confident with your answers. Provide feedback as Easy/Difficult. In case of difficult questions, provide reasons about what makes you think them as difficult and your teacher will discuss their possible answers.
Q.No. Question Feedback as easy/difficult and later your teacher will provide script for difficult ones. Discuss reason with teacher in case of seemingly difficult questions.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Common general interview questions Tell me a little about yourself. Why should I hire you? How do you define success? Where would you like to be in five years? Ten years? Describe your personality. What past accomplishments have given you satisfaction? Why? What made you choose to apply to this position? Why do you want to leave your current position?

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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Wage negotiation interview questions What kind of salary do you need? Do not be harsh during salary negotiations. Do not mention your expected salary on the resume? Let the employer first make the salary offer. Try to delay the salary discussion till the end. What kind of salary would you require to accept this position? What kind of salary do you believe you will be earning after five years? What kind of salary do you think you deserve? Do not lie about your previous salary. Employers can often verify your salary history by contacting your previous employers. Your own background and qualifications. If you are asking for an above-average salary, are you above average in your credentials? Common experience interview questions How would you define a great work environment? Have you ever worked for a difficult person? Have you mostly worked alone or in groups? How many projects can you handle at one time? What was your workload in your current/last position? What are some things you find difficult to do on the job? Why? Common education interview questions What tertiary qualifications have you attained? What if (if any) self-improvement courses have you attended? What certificates have you attained? What is the most recent skill you have learned? What have you learned from your past jobs? Common competencies interview questions What are your strengths? Describe a time when there was disagreement in your team. What achievements in your life are you most proud of? Tell me about the biggest change that you've had to deal with at work. How do you respond to change? How do you feel about supervising people older than you? What is your weakness? What was your greatest achievement in your job? What experience have you had working in a team? Do you think conflict or differences of opinion can ever be seen as positive? Tell me about a time when you used tact and diplomacy Tell me about a time when you had to unexpectedly change your approach during a project. Tell me about the last time you had a disagreement with someone Give me an example of when a project or task you were managing suffered a setback. Tell me about the most difficult person you have worked with Common behavioral interview questions

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44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74

How do you work with new people? We have a problem with ______. How would you handle this problem? Are you a persistent person? Give me an example of this, if so. Where do you stand with your former employer? Explain a difficult situation in which you were involved and how you handled it. Other stress interview questions Why are manhole covers round? Why did you switch to political science? Is it because you couldnt handle engineering? Why did you do so poorly on this test? What kinds of people do you find it difficult to work with? What are some of the things that you find difficult to do? How would you evaluate me as an interviewer? What interests you least about this job? See this pen Im holding? Sell it to me. You need to work a full whole one month because of quarter results nearby what reason will you give to exempt from the work? If you are a leader of the team, what could you do better than the truly leader? What do you think that you have learned from it? Would you like to have your bosss job? Why should I hire an outsider when I could fill the job with someone inside the company? Why were you out of work for so long? If you caught a student cheating on their test, what would you do? How do you feel this interview is going? Common goal setting interview questions By what date do you want to achieve your goal? What (exactly) do you want to achieve? How do you know you are committed to achieving your goal? Who needs to be involved in this goal process in order to accomplish it successfully? Why invest time and energy into this goal? Why would this goal relate to purpose, vision, or organizational values? Finally one extra question; What day will you commit to, to start to achieve your goal? These stages are short term goals, which are integrated steps to achieving the long term goal. They're also a measure of progress to achieving the long term goal.' Who possesses the skills and talent necessary to meet the goal or do we need to train? What would change once you achieved your goal? Then I define what needs to be done, in working stages, to achieve that goal.

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75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85

86 87 88 89

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

'I start with the big picture, and define what I'm trying to achieve on the long term as the strategic goal. Describe a difficult decision you had to make. Would you make the same decision again faced with the same situation? Common management skills interview questions What are your weaknesses/strengths? How do you motivate people? How do you react to pressure? How do you handle a subordinate whose work is not up to expectations? How do you coach a subordinate to develop a new skill? Explain a situation when you have had to deal with a difficult person. What have you done to develop the skills of your staff? When do you give positive feedback to people? Tell me about the last time you did? Give an example of how you handle the need for constructive criticism with a subordinate or peer? Common conflict resolution interview questions Have you ever been deal with any difficult team member or worker? How did you do that? How do you go about problem-solving? What Is conflict resolution? Tell us about any experience of dealing with power struggle. What had you done to convert it to a win-win situation? Tell me about a situation when you were given job instructions and you were unable to comprehend the instructions. How did you go about completing the task? Describe the most difficult conflict you have ever had to deal with. What types of disputes can be addressed through conflict resolution? Provide any example for a successful solution you had brought to a conflict. Common last job interview questions Why did you leave your last job? Tell me about your last position and what you did? If you dont leave your current job, what will happen there? How far can you advance? What did/do you enjoy most/least about your last/p resent job? Common new job interview questions What are you looking for in a job? What kind of people do you like to work with? What type of work environment do you prefer? Do you have any questions for me? What do you know about this position? What do you know about this company? Explain why you are qualified for this job. Are you looking for a permanent or temporary job? Why?

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107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

Common stressful interview questions What are your worst characteristics? How long have you been looking for a new job? Why? How would you rate your performance in this interview so far? How long would you stay with us? Have you ever had problems getting along with others? Tell me about the weakest argument in your writing sample. What can I tell you about my organization? Do you think the questions Im asking you are fair? What can you bring to the table that someone else could not? The answer you just gave me was ridiculous. Tell me what you really think What outside interests do you pursue? Do you have any reservations about the job of the company?

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

13 Mock Interview Preparation Task Background: The teacher will give handout to students explaining various situations where student might find it difficult to answer the questions. The teacher will make the student write script and record conversation for mock interview and ask for feedback.

Task Objective: The students should be able to cope up with seemingly difficult questions in interview

Task 13 Here are sample Interview questions for mock interview. Prepare script, audio and be ready for mock interview to teacher who would pose as HR Manager. Your teacher will tell you date on or before that you have to provide script, transcript, and audio and get ready for the mock interview.

Date for submission of script / transcription / audio: ________________

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Tell me about yourself? Why did you leave your last job? What kind of salary are you looking for? How do you respond to the change in workplace? Do you like to work independently? What do you know about our organization? What has been your biggest professional disappointment? Tell me about the most fun you have had on the job. How do you manage stress at your workplace? What plans do you have for improving your qualifications? Have you ever been asked to leave a position? What are your main achievements when you were working in your previous position? If you had enough money to retire right now, would you? Why are you interested in this position? How do you approach the problem when a customer calls you and says they cannot access the database?

16.

What qualifications and experience do you have that make you feel that you could do this job successfully?

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

What is your salary expectation? What are your strong points? Weak points? Do you prefer working with others or by yourself? What is your ultimate career goal? What are you doing to achieve that goal? What personality traits do you most admire in a person? Why? How would you describe the perfect job? What would be characteristic of such a position? What do you think determines a persons progress in a good organization? What have you learned from some of the jobs you have held? Any important lessons? What have you done which shows initiative and willingness to work? Do you have any questions?

23. 24. 25. 26.

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Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

***

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Lesson 3 Interview Analysis

Lesson Objectives for the Students The students will; analyze the engineering job interviews in classroom situations where teacher will perform the role of interviewer and student as interviewee and remaining students will analyze question and answer and write their feedback. enlist do and donts in engineering interview

Lesson Objectives for the teacher The teacher will; interview students with set of general questions, prepare and fill up interview analysis sheet use audio-video recording utilities to report on their language and visual clues. request industry to include teacher as observer or provide interview audio, video or script for academic purpose. use internet resources and interview video and provide feedback to students prepare presentation on Engineering Interview & Analysis after consultation and observing one such interview with Saudi Based industry and later discuss this experience and analysis in the classroom.

Lesson Brain Storming Questions Do we always end up saying what we intend to? What are the questions that can puzzle us the most? How do we know how much we know about something? What is the difference between self-confidence and over-confidence? How to know how we sound to others in terms of linguistic competence? How to know how we seem to others in terms of our views, opinions, ideas etc.? Do we try to get feedback from people around us all the time? What is difference between formal conversation in interview setting and chitchat among friends?

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Sample Pre-Interview Checklist Form for Candidate Date: ________ No: _________ Candidate Name: ___________________ Position Applied for: _________________ Contact No.: ________________ Email: ________________________________________ Ref

Areas Last Interview Feedback Implementation Career Goals

Things to do Set goals to keep you motivated and on track. Short Term Goal: To have entry level post in the area of study based on existing skills, knowledge and utilize in industrial environment. Long Term Goal: Expanding your current role to reach a management position to make a meaningful difference to society in general and organization in particular. Keep record of various job advertisements to be able to follow up and to create PR within industrial network to be able to remain informed and updated about market trend and better opportunities. Know organizations slogan, vision, mission, nature and scope of organization, organizational structure, job descriptions, and scope of individual and organizational growth. Research into details about job description for the position you are applying or are capable of. Try to focus on communicative and technical requirement for each and every process both on and off site. e.g. Reading data or maintaining technical logbook Installing or maintaining technical stuff using service operational procedure Preparing status reports etc. Ensure that you find out distance from home to interview location and try to reach in time. Note down in your phone reminder or activity planner book in case you may forget. Each HR Office might be having piles of CV. HR Manager may not have time to read your entire biography at times and may complain about its length. As opposed to this, when they may want to go in details and may complain if CV is brief. There is no agreement on what kind of CV is better. So the best way out is to make CV which can serve both situations. Visual elements in CV help in situation when HR Managers want to go through quickly into your

Job Advertisement /Interview Call Letter

Organization Knowledge

Job Description Knowledge

Interview Location, Date & Contact Details

CV & Passport Size Picture

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CV and can understand overall background in no time. As opposed to this same CV can include a lot of things based on the principle of word economy and word preciseness. In general, your order of CV should be as follows. Picture on left side Name & Contact Details on upper right. Career Objectives Experience (in case of being fresher, you may add your past internship, training experience etc.) Education (If you are currently studying, you may show your current academic status and past finished qualifications.) Awards (Avoid adding trivial certificates that may not be of interest to HR Manager.) References (Preferably from academics and industry) General Details (Date of birth, marital status, passport no., validity etc.) Keep a set of soft copies of educational certificate in both email and in pen-drive. Educational Certificate may include; Degree/Diploma Certificates Transcript Mark sheet Experience Certificate Appointment Letter Letter of References, Letter of Appreciation etc. Dressing: Interview clothes should be appropriate and understated. Neutral colors are safest, but that doesnt mean that black is best. Focus on what people are wearing in the industry in the same domain. Dont wear something that employers tend to think youre a joke. In general, be careful when it comes to accessories and jewellery as too many of these can distract from you as a person. Hats and caps are never acceptable. Appearance: Make sure you are well groomed and pay attention to your personal hygiene you want to be remembered for your fantastic contribution, not your perfume natural or otherwise. Fingernails must be clean, use a mouth freshener before going into the interview and make sure unruly eyebrows, nose and ear hair are plucked and trimmed. Women should be sure to wear light, natural make-up and keep their hair away from the face. Eye Contact: Good eye contact is essential during an

Educational Documents Scanned & Photocopy

Experience Documents Scanned & Photocopy Reference Letters Appearance & Dressing

Body Language

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Presentation Skills

Positive Attitude

Linguistic Skills

Communicative Skills

interview, although staring at somebody intensely over a long time can be very off-putting. If you find eye contact difficult, try talking to the interviewers left or right ear. Gestures & Postures: Keep your body language open and relaxed. Closed hand movements and crossed arms give the impression of being defensive. By sitting comfortably with your back against the chair you will appear confident. Shake Hand: Get a friend to check your handshake to ensure that it is neither the wet fish nor the knucklecrusher. A good handshake should be vertically palm to palm, with a firm grip, while maintaining eye contact. Consider yourself as salable object. Every salable object needs proper presentation in a showcase to attract the customers. Similarly, your knowledge and skills need proper presentation and communication to sale it in job market at better rate. During Interview follow the tips as given below; Offer examples not assertions. Put presentation skills training into practice! Let the interviewer talk Have your own question prepared You may be nervous. If you find that difficult, use pauses to help you pace what you are saying. Deep breathing while waiting will also help you relax. Positive and relaxed mind has more chance of solving the problems than negative and stressed mind which may find fault with the system, people, self, or lack of ability or awareness rather than trying to contribute their bit first. We all differ in our knowledge and usage of language. We have to take care of following points; Clear & Audible Voice Quality Clear Pronunciation Proper Accent or Accent Free Speech Use of Intonation Patterns in speech Overall Fluency Positive Words to create desired effect Word Preciseness Word Economy Simplicity in Structure Formation Grammatical Accuracy Good Communication requires reading the audience to find out if your message is received the way you intended or not. During Interview, you should get some hint from reading interview panel that whatever you speak they can comprehend and its right on target as per your desire. Practice in your class to see if you can convince anyone about something with your speech or not. It may be easy convincing known person such as your friends but

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Error Free Introductory Speech Practice

Subject Knowledge

PR Skills

Follow up Communication with HR

communicating to stranger for the first and time and selling your idea needs practice and in-depth analysis about what right or wrong goes in your communication. Its an open secret know to entire world about what you are asked first in the interview. Since you meet the HR Manager for the first time, he or she wants to have a quick overview and you become the first person who communicates so much within first few minutes of the interview where you try to tell all your positive points first in brief. However, it is also possible that you may be communicating bit different than what you intend. For instance, while saying, you are able to communicate well to customer and clients from corporate sectors and at the same time if you make linguistic or communicative errors, you give a hint that what you say is different from what you unknowingly communicate. Subject knowledge is the real stuff that you try to sell in attractive packing. Packing may amuse most but to an experienced and serious HR Manager or Technical Engineer during interview would not be impressed or diverted too easily and will come hard with questions that check how effective you would be to handle various situations in industry. So be prepared with all fundamentals as well as current innovation of the year that may not be covered by your subject textbooks. PR Skills is the most important skills that help in networking with people in your field of study or work at times. If you have got extrovert personality, it becomes easy to make new friends or to win heart and trust of even strangers so easily. You do not need to be too friendly and informal during interview. However, at the same time need to ensure that you treat the person as human rather than a boss. Couple of good words or positive comments at the end of the interview or at the beginning of the interview may enlighten the serious situations of the interview and it may create different and confident impression in their mind. PR skills also help even in future when you need guidance, feedback or want to see if any new opportunity for you. It is important to write an email or make a brief phone to thank the person for interview and let him know that you are very much interested in the position and wait the outcome of the interview and feedback.

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Sample Interview Evaluation Form for Interviewer Date: ________ Ref No: _________

Candidate Name: _________________Position Applied for: _________________ Contact No.: ____________Email: ________________________________________

Rating Scale sample: 1=unsatisfactory 2=below average, 3=average, 4=good 5=excellent


Rating: Based on CV Relevant Qualification Relevant Knowledge Relevant Skills Relevant Experience Based on Interview Awareness about personal and organizational goals Technical Knowledge (existing knowledge and research bent of mind) Relevant Communicative Skills (clear and effective reception and expression) Aptitude (Applicability, usability) Creativity (problem-solving ability, organized in thinking process) Attitude (Flexibility, Adaptability, Sociability, self-motivation, leadership, team spirit. dedication) Health Appearance & Personality Total Score: 1 2 3 4 5

Checklist Academic and Experience Document Verification Reference No Objection Certificate Medical Certificate Police Clearance Certificate Visa Validity for Overseas Candidate Past Salary Certificate

Required

Not Required

Document Enclosure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Post Interview Status: Selected / Selected with Condition / Short listed for Next Stage /Off target Candidate interviewed by: ________________ Sample Post Interview Analysis Form (filled) Date: ________ Ref No: _________

Candidate Name: ______________________ Position Applied for: _________________ Contact No.: ___________________ Email: ________________________________________

Last Interview Feedback Implementation

+ points Implemented feedback in certain areas such as ______ Immediate Career goals are understood Have got print out of the call letter. Have got good understanding of vision, mission, nature and scope through its website Know major responsibilities

Career Goals

Job Advertisement /Interview Call Letter

Organization Knowledge

- points Need to work on pronunciation and clarity of voice and organization of ideas Long term goals are not clearly defined or agreed upon. Need to file it for interview follow up & future opportunities Need to keep in mind these things as it can guide how to answer certain questions

Job Description Knowledge

Interview Location. Date & Contact Details

CV & Passport Size Picture

Educational Documents Scanned & Photocopy

Lack in-depth knowledge of field work procedures Luckily, head office of Yet to figure out how company and interview far is the location from location is in same city I home and how to reach live in. in time. Could have been late due to heavy traffic. Implemented new Needs content concept of visual CV organization, language and personal website editing, and word on free server like economy. Picture seems too informal, www.ucoz.com need to change. Have all documents Need to rename ready and scanned meaningfully in case of scanned documents

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Experience Documents Scanned & Photocopy Reference Letters

Have all documents ready and scanned Have got reference letters both from academics and industry

Appearance & Dressing Body Language

Look good in formal dress. Seemed to be in good control of body language while introductory part and greeting.

Positive Attitude

Error Free Introductory Speech Practice

It becomes difficult to have positive attitude when we realize that we have messed up with certain question or interview situations and our facial expression start showing that feeling of guilt or sadness. However, you should try to be cool and calm. Had clear flow of speech.

Need to reduce size for easy email attachment. One of the reference letters has certain personality traits as negative. Need to get better references Need to know company dress code Eye contact focused on one person rather than focusing each one equally. In case of wrong answers or seemingly unsatisfactory answers, eye contact missed, face became pale, and posture became stiff. Seemed overconfident with certain claims about past work experience.

Presentation Skills

Linguistic Skills

Was able to listen to questions attentively.

Communicative Skills

It seemed bit mechanical due to over practice, isnt it? Should have used examples rather than trying to convince directly. Need to work on suprasegmental features such as pronunciation of certain common and technical words, stress, intonation etc. Need to learn a lot in negotiating skills, persuasive skills, etc.

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Subject Knowledge

PR Skills

Some of the questions asked about ____ I could not answer. I feel I could not give satisfactory answers to questions about _____ Need to learn a lot in building new relationship and managing it. Have got contact number of interviewer for feedback and follow up.

Follow up Communication with HR

14 Mock Interview Analysis Task Background: The teacher will give show various interview forms used by HR for analysis and discuss importance of each point.

The students will observe the live interview between one of the students and ESP teacher and fill in their feedback form.

Later, teacher would discuss on common feedback from audience in all aspects.

Task Objective: The students should be able to understand what happens during interview and how they are judged by others.

Task 14 Teacher will give printout of empty Sample Interview Evaluation Form for Interviewer as given in this lesson and students playing the role of audience will fill in the required information while observing interview of one of the student playing the role of candidate and teacher playing the role of HR Manager. In case of students CV and sample job advertisement, he may show them

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on screen to audience of students to fill in data related to CV. If possible, record the interview so that data can also be used later for analysis and reuse.

Task Report Task Marks: Students Feedback Teachers Observation

Student Signature upon task completion:

ESP Teacher Signature:

***

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References Arabian Cultural Mission in the U.S.A. (1991). Education in Saudi Arabia (1st ed). Brumfit, C.J. & Johnson, K. (1989).The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching.Oxford University Press. Dudley-Evans, Tony (1998). Developments in English for Specific disciplinary approach. Cambridge University Press. Purposes: A multi-

ed.). Oxford ; New York: Published for and on behalf of the Council by Pergamon Press. Edwards, P. (1996). Action research on creative/verbatim task production. In: J.Pique, J. VicentAndreu- Beso, D.J. Viera (eds) (1996). English in Specific Settings. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia, pp. 175-179. Ellis, M. & Johnson, C. (1996). Teaching Business English.Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers.Oxford University Press. Graddol, D., Leith, D., & Swann, J. (1996). English : History, diversity, and change. Milton Graves, K. (1996). Teachers as course developers. England: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Hall, J. K. (2001). Methods for teaching foreign languages : Creating a community of learners in the classroom. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill Prentice Hall. Halliday, M. A. K. (1973). Explorations in the functions of language. London,: Edward Arnold. Harding, K (2007) English for Specific Purposes, Oxford University Press Harrison, R. (1996). The training of ESP teachers in Russia. English for Specific Purposes Russia, 2: 24-26. Hutchinson, T. & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes.A Learning-centred Approach. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Johns, Ann M. & Dudley-Evans, Tony (1991). English for Specific Purposes: International in Scope, Specific in Purpose. TESOL Quarterly 25:2, 297-314. Johns, Ann M. & Dudley-Evans, Tony (1991). English for Specific Purposes: International in Scope, Specific in Purpose. TESOL Quarterly 25:2, 297-314. Jones, G. (1990). ESP textbooks: Do they really exist? English for Specific Purposes, 9, 89-93. Jones, G. (1990). ESP textbooks: Do they really exist? English for Specific Purposes, 9, 89-93. Kennedy, C. & Bolitho, R. (1984). English for Specific Purposes.McMillan Publishers. Keynes England, London ; New York: Open University; Routledge. Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: issues and applications. N.Y.: Longman.

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Mackay, R., & Palmer, J. (Eds.). (1981). Languages for Specific Purposes: Program design and evaluation. London: Newbury House. Mackay, R., &Mountford, A. (Eds.). (1978). English for Specific Purposes: A case study approach. London: Longman. McDonough, J. (1984). ESP in perspective: A practical guide. London: Collins ELT. meeting the needs of second language learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Munby, J. (1978). Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nazarova, T. (1996). English for specific purposes in Russia: a historical perspective. English for Specific Purposes - Russia, 1: 4-5. Nunan, D. (1987). The teacher as curriculum developer: An investigation of curriculum processes within the Adult Migrant Education Program. South Australia: National Curriculum Resource Centre. Nunan, D. (1988). Syllabus Design. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nunan, D. (Ed.). (1992). Collaborative language learning and teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pilbeam, A. (1979). The Language Audit.Language Training. practical guide. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Reeves, N & Wright, C. (1996). Linguistic Auditing. A Guide to Identifying Foreign Language Communication Needs in Corporations. Multilingual Matters LTD. Richterich, R., & Council of Europe. (1983). Case studies in identifying language needs (1st Robinson, P. (1991). ESP Today.Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall. Seferoglu, G. (2001). English skills needed for graduate study in the US: multiple perspectives.iral, 39(2), 161-170. Selinker, E. Tarone & V. Hanzeli (Eds.), English for academic and technical purposes: Selinker, L., Tarone, E., &Hanzeli, V. (Eds.). (1981). English for Academic and Technical Purposes: Studies in honor of Louis Trimble. London. Shi, L., Corcos, R., & Storey, A. (2001). Using student performance data to develop an English course for clinical training. Shoemaker, C. (1983). English needs of community college students: A faculty survey. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Regional Conference on English in the two year college, Overland Park, Kansas. Strevens, P. (1988). ESP after twenty years: A re-appraisal. In M. Tickoo (Ed.), ESP: State of the art (1-13). SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.

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Studies in honor of Louis Trimble (pp. 1-11). Cambridge, MA: Newbury House. Sysoyev, P.(1999). Principles of teaching English for Specific Purposes in Russia. English for Specific Purposes - Russia, 11: 13-15. Tarone, E., & Yule, G. (1989). Focus on the language learner: Approaches to identifying and meeting the needs of second language learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The General Organization for Technical Education and Vocational Training. (1998, February).The report of curriculum development department. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Vorobieva N. (1996). Needs analysis for an international relations department. English for Specific Purposes - Russia, 2: 15-18. Vygotsky L. (1978). Mind and society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Washington, D.C. Widdowoson, H. G. (1981). English for specific purposes: Criteria for course design. In L. Witkin, B. R., & Altschuld, J. W. (1995). Planning and conducting needs assessments Yogman, J., &Kaylani, C. (1996).ESP program design for mixed level students.English for Specific Purposes, 15, 311-24.

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APPENDICES APPENDIX A: Questionnaire Guideline (English Version) And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know [it]. (Quran 2:42)

ESP Oriented Issues & Stake Holders / Questionnaire Set / April 2013 [As partial fulfillment for Research work aimed to understand improvise ESP in KSA]

Dear ESP Stakeholder, Questionnaire Set in your hand is carefully prepared and it is to gather important data required for Research in ESP Oriented Issues & Stake Holders and its outcome will Insha Allah, help us while dealing with ESP related matters at national level. Forming transparent and strong relationship between all stake holders at national level is the need of the hour.

We appreciate your true and honest answers as it will help the society at large in understanding needs in ESP at national level and will help in bringing a revolutionary changes in countrys ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus, training, assessment, evaluation etc. and successful cooperation of stakeholders resulting in mutual beneficiary relationship and resulting beneficiary projects at national level. Being a part of responsible ummah and citizen of the country, its imperative to help any effort to bring positive changes in the society.

This way, we can help society in general and nation in particular with required information to raise academic standard, and that way, the industry with skilled and intellectual resources, and ultimately, the society with better employment opportunities.

Information provided by you is not meant to hold any individual responsible but to study the nature of the problem and aim towards solution at national level. Any personal info regarding the people who submitted the answers would not be used against any individual person or organization.

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Please tick mark relevant answer as YES /SOMETIMES OR TO SOME EXTENT/NO and provide descriptive details or link to website in forth column supporting your answers and helping us understand how you carry out that task. You may write answers in detail referring question number on extra sheet if you wish to do so.

Important Key words: ESP English for Specific Purpose. E.g. English for Engineering / English for Engineers ESL English as a Second Language ESP Stake Holders People who use English for Specific Purpose or influence in one way or the other. Genre - A category of artistic composition, as in music or literature, characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter. E.g. Email, Report, Business Proposal, Presentation, Meeting Agenda etc. Discourse -spoken communication. E.g.Telephonic conversation, Meeting Speech etc.

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Questionnaire for Employee Name: _______________ Qualification; ____________________________ Organization:_____________________ Position:_____________________ Contact no.________________________ Email ___________________________________

Part I
N o : Area Questions Yes, Alhamdu -lillah. Someti mes / To some extent, Masha Allah. Not at prese nt, Insha Allah, in future .

ESP EDUCATION

Active Research

[A] Do you have linguistic and communicative competence in English required for every day work situations as per companys standard? [B] Do you feel that English that you studied in academic life covers all communicative needs of your organization? [A] Do you refer to ESP related books? [B] Do you try to share/publish your views on ESP online or offline, formally or informally? [C] Do you analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related Projectin your organization? [D] Do you explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations? [A] Do you feel that ESP policy at college/university is in line with organizational needs? [B] Do you think you can contribute with your feedback on policy at college/university/national level?

Policy Framing

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Curriculum

[A] Did your past ESP curriculum remain in line with nations ESP policy? [B] Did your ESP professor/lecturers update you with trends in ESP curriculum? [A] Do you feel your past ESP syllabus was in line with nations ESP curriculum standard? [A] Was ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus? [B] Did you have any classes in your college from guest faculty from industry?

Syllabus

Training

7 8

Assessment Evaluation

Stake Holder Relationship Network

[A] Did assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum? [A] Was evaluation of the ESP program in line with approved course objectives? [A] Is there good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry? [B] Are you familiar withthe role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country? [A] Do youhave access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. [B] Did your college or university have CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility? [A] Do you have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc.? [A] Do you want to share with us any important question or information related to ESP not discussed in this questionnaire?

1 0

National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship

1 1 1 2

Information & Task Coordination Miscellaneous

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Part II [A] Tick mark your skills and knowledge area based on your comfort level in carrying various communicative tasks for each job function. Keep it blank in case you feel you dont have linguistic and communicative skills for that area or specific skills in it.
Use of English for General Business Purpose Listening Speaking Reading Writing based on based on based based specific specific on on job job specific specific function function job job function functio n

Job Function

Techni cal words specific to job functio n

Budget Planning& Finance Factory Planning Human Resource Recruitment & Training Licensing & company Registration Product / Service Approval Product Planning & Formulation Import of Machinery, Raw Materials Manufacturing Quality Control Inventory Marketing Sales Planning & Export Accounts Research & Development H R Training Brand Promotion in New Markets Export Guidance in Overseas Territories Portfolio Management

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[B] Tick mark your skills and knowledge area that your FORMER ESP/ESL COURSE IN COLLEGE / UNIVERSITY covered. Keep it blank in case you feel your course did not cover skills required for that area.
STUDY of English for General Business Purpose Listening Speaking Reading Writing Techni based on based on based based cal specific specific on on words job job specific specific specific function function job job to job function functio functio n n

Job Function

Budget Planning& Finance Factory Planning Human Resource Recruitment & Training Licensing & company Registration Product / Service Approval Product Planning & Formulation Import of Machinery, Raw Materials Manufacturing Quality Control Inventory Marketing Sales Planning & Export Accounts Research & Development H R Training Brand Promotion in New Markets Export Guidance in Overseas Territories Portfolio Management

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Questionnaire for HR MANAGER Name: _______________ Qualification; ____________________________ Organization:_____________________ Position:_____________________ Contact no.________________________ Email ___________________________________

N Area o :

Questions

Yes,

To some extent / someti mes

No,

ESP EDUCATION

[A] Do you have qualification enabling you to distinguish candidates having General English and ESP? [B] Do you give priority tocandidates having studied English for Specific Purpose in Saudi Arabia over those having Overseas General English Education?

Active Research

[A] Do you refer to ESP related books? [B] Do you try to share/publish your views on ESP online or offline, formally or informally? [C] Do you analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related Projectin your organization? [D] Do you explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations?

Policy Framing

[A] Do you feel that ESP policy at college/university is in line with

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communicative requirement in industry? [B] Do you feel that ESP curriculum and college/university policy is in line with National ESP Policy? [C] Do you think you have a role to play in reviewing policy in ESL at

college/university/national level? 4 Curriculum [A] Did your past ESP curriculum remain in line with nations ESP policy? [B] Did your ESP professor/lecturers update you with trends in ESP curriculum? 5 Syllabus [A] Do you review ESP related syllabus of any organization and try to see to what extent it fits to your organizational needs? 6 Training [A] Was ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus? [B] Do you invite guest faculty from academic industry to train your junior or senior staff in ESP? [C] Do you send your professional trainers as guest faculty to academic organization to train your potential future employees? 7 Assessment [A] Did assessment in ESP courses covered full syllabus/curriculum? 8 Evaluation [A] Was evaluation of the ESP program in line with approved course objectives? 9 Stake Holder [A] Is there good relationship network

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Relationship Network

throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry? [B] Are you familiar with the role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country?

1 0

National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship

[A] Do you have access to facilities such as National Inventory Employment of Skilled Exchange Candidates, and Skill

Shortage, Existing Jobs etc. [B] Did your organization have any contact with CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility from educational organization? [C] Do you have active connection / cooperation / collaboration with any academic organization to organize any joint-tasks? (E.g. campus interview, employee training at academic organization, students at

internship/project

participation/training

your organization etc.) 1 1 Information & Task Coordination 1 2 Miscellaneous [A] Do you want to share with us any important question or information related to ESP not discussed in this questionnaire? [A] Do you have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc.?

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Questionnaire for ESP (English for Specific Purpose) Students Name: _______________ Course:_____________________ Department & University:_____________________ Contact no.________________________ Email ___________________________________

N o :

Area

Questions

Yes, Alhamdulillah.

Sometimes / To some extent, Masha Allah.

Not at present, Insha Allah, in future.

Qualification

[A] Do you have linguistic and communicative competence in ESL required for ESP course? [B] Do you have relevant experience in using English in professional work environment? [A] Do you refer to ESP related books? [B] Do you try to share/publish your views on ESP online or offline, formally or informally? [C] Do you analyze the effectiveness of any ESP related Project in your organization? [D] Do you explore internet resources in ESP and apply knowledge and skills to improve your communication standard in work-place situations? [A] Do you feel that ESP policy at college/university is in line with organizational needs? [B] Do you think you can contribute with your feedback on policy at college/university/national level? [A] Did your past ESP curriculum remain in line with nations ESP policy? [B] Did you have any classes from guest faculty from industry? [C] Did your ESP professor/lecturers update you with trends in ESP curriculum?

Active Research

Policy Framing

Curriculum

5 6 7

Syllabus Training Assessment

[A] Do you feel your past ESP syllabus was in line with nations ESP curriculum standard? [A] Was ESP training provided in line with approved syllabus? [A] Did assessment in ESP courses covered full

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8 9

Evaluation Stake Holder Relationship Network

syllabus/curriculum? [A] Was evaluation of the ESP program in line with approved course objectives? [A] Is there good relationship network throughout the course among all stake holders from academics, industry, and ministry?

[B] Are you familiar with the role ESP stake holders play in the society in shaping the future of ESP in the country? 1 0 National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship [A] Do you have access to facilities such as National Employment Exchange and Inventory of Skilled Candidates, Skill Shortage, Existing Jobs etc.?

[B] Did your college or university have CDC Career Development Center or Placement Center or any similar facility?

1 1 1 2

Information & Task Coordination Miscellaneous

[A] Do you have access to information related to ESP policy, curriculum, syllabus etc.? [A] Do you want to share with us any important question or information related to ESP not discussed in this questionnaire?

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APPENDIX B: )Questionnaire (Arabic Version Questionnaire for Employee ____________________________ ;Name: _______________ Qualification _____________________Organization:_____________________ Position: ___________________________________ Contact no.________________________ Email Part I
N o Area Questions
1 ESP EDUCATION

ESP ESP ESP ESP


7 8 Assessment Evaluation Stake Holder Relationship Network

Active Research

Policy Framing

Curriculum

Syllabus

Training

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ESPESP
National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship & Information Task Coordination Miscellaneous

10

....

11

12

) ( . /

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() .

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____________________________ ;Name: _______________ Qualification _____________________Organization:_____________________ Position: ___________________________________ Contact no.________________________ Email
N o:
1

Area

Questions

ESP EDUCATION

][A ][B

Active Research

][A )(ESP ][B )(ESP ][C

][D )(ESP

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Policy Framing

][A )(ESP / ][B / /

][C /
4 Curriculum

][A ( )ESP .

][B /
5 Syllabus

][A ][A ][B

Training

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][C
7 Assessment

][A ?][A ][A ][B ESPESP

Evaluation

Stake Holder Relationship Network

10

National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship

][A .... ][B

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][C // / / ( / / )

11

& Information Task Coordination

][A ][A

12

Miscellaneous

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( )
_______________ Name: _____________________Course:_____________________ Department & University: _______________________________ Contact no.________________________ Email
No: Area /
1 Qualification

][A

][B
2 Active Research

][A )(ESP ][B )(ESP ][C ][D )(ESP

Policy Framing

][A / )(ESP ][B / /

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Curriculum

][A )( ESP . ][B ][C

Syllabus

][A ][A ][A ][A ][A ][B ESPESP

Training

Assessment

Evaluation

Stake Holder Relationship Network

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10

National Employment Exchange for Placement, Training, Internship

][A .... ][B

11

& Information Task Coordination

][A .... ][A

12

Miscellaneous

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ESP Publication Examples (Published by Cambridge)

[A] English for Academic Purposes

Cambridge Academic English Designed specifically for students at university and on foundation courses, this integrated skills course develops language and real academic skills essential for successful university studies across disciplines. With authentic lectures and seminars, language informed by Cambridge Academic Corpus and the Academic Word List, the course guarantees that students are learning English that is up-to-date and relevant to them.

Skills and Language for Study A three-level course (B1+ to C1) in academic skills and language aimed at students preparing for university-level studies in English.

Academic Encounters 2nd Edition Bernard Seal, Miriam Espeseth, Sanabria Kim and Jessica Williams

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The Academic Encounters Second edition series uses a sustained content approach to teach skills necessary for taking academic courses in English. There are two books for each content area.

Academic Encounters Carlos Sanabria, Kim Sanabria, Miriam Espeseth, Yoneko Kanaoka, Jessica Williams, Kristine Brown, Susan Hood and Jennifer Wharton The Academic Encounters series uses a sustained content approach to teach skills necessary for taking academic courses in English. There are two books for each content area.

Academic Vocabulary in Use Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell The perfect study aid for anyone using English for their academic work.

Cambridge Academic English Martin Hewings and Craig Thaine Course Consultant Michael McCarthy A three-level (B1+ to C1) integrated skills course for higher education students at university or on foundation courses.

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Communicative Syllabus Design John Munby This book provides a model for specifying the syllabus content relevant to the differing needs of ESP learners.

In Focus Charles Browne, Brent Culligan and Joe Phillips A corpus-informed, three-level (pre-intermediate through high intermediate) EFL course aimed at university and college students in American English markets, especially N. E. Asia.

Learning to Learn English Gail Ellis and Barbara Sinclair A course in learner training which enables students to become more effective learners and take on greater responsibility for their own learning.

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Making Connections Kenneth J. Pakenham, Jo McEntire and Jessica Williams The series helps students gain insight into how academic text is organized and how to read effectively.

Skills and Language for Study Sarah Clark, Tamsin Espinosa, Craig Fletcher, Fred Gooch, Claire Henstock, Blair Matthews, Alistair McNair, Neil McSweeney and Clare Walsh Skills and Language for Study is a three-level course (B1+ to C1) in academic skills and language aimed at students preparing for university-level studies in English.

Study Listening 2nd Edition Tony Lynch A course for intermediate and advanced level students focusing on listening to lectures and notetaking.

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Study Reading 2nd Edition Eric Glendinning and Beverly Holmstrm This book for intermediate and above students includes authentic texts from textbooks, journals, reference works and study guides.

Study Skills in English 2nd Edition Michael Wallace A complete course for students who are currently attending a university or college or who hope to begin university or college studies soon.

Study Speaking 2nd Edition Kenneth Anderson, Joan Maclean and Tony Lynch This course is for intermediate and above students who need to speak English in connection with academic work.

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Study Tasks in English Mary Waters and Alan Waters A complete course in English for Academic Purposes at intermediate level upwards.

Study Writing 2nd Edition Liz Hamp-Lyons and Ben Heasley A course in written English for academic purposes. Adult courses American English

Ventures Ventures is a five-level, standards-based ESL series for adult-education ESL.

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Touchstone Touchstone is an innovative series for adult and young-adult learners of English.

Interchange 4th Edition Jack C. Richards, with Jonathan Hull and Susan Proctor Interchange Fourth Edition is a four-level series for adult and young-adult learners of English from the beginning to the high-intermediate level.

Interchange 3rd Edition Jack C. Richards, with Jonathan Hull and Susan Proctor Interchange Third edition is a four-level series for adult and young-adult learners of English from the beginning to the high-intermediate level.

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Interchange Companion to the TOEIC 3rd Edition Chris Kerr The Interchange Third Edition Companion to the TOEIC Test provides authentic-feeling TOEIC-style practice linked to Interchange Third Edition through topic, grammar, and vocabulary.

Let's Talk 2nd Edition Leo Jones Let's Talk Second Edition is a fully revised edition of Let's Talk, the successful three-level speaking and listening course that takes students from a high-beginning to a high-intermediate level.

New Interchange Jack C. Richards, with Jonathan Hull and Susan Proctor New Interchange is a multi-level series for adult and young-adult learners of English from the beginning to the high-intermediate level.

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Nice Talking With You Tom Kenny and Linda Woo Nice Talking with You is a two-level oral communication series designed to get students talking.

Passages Jack C. Richards and Chuck Sandy Passages is a two-level, multi-skills course that takes students of English from the highintermediate to the advanced level.

Passages 2nd Edition Jack C. Richards and Chuck Sandy

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Passages, Second Edition, is a thoroughly revised edition of Passages, the successful two-level, multi-skills course that takes adult and young-adult learners of English from the highintermediate to advanced level.

Touchstone Michael McCarthy, Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Easy and enjoyable to teach, Touchstone offers a fresh approach to the teaching and learning of English.

Ventures Gretchen Bitterlin, Dennis Johnson, Donna Price, Sylvia Ramirez and K. Lynn Savage Ventures is a six-level, standards-based ESL series for adult-education ESL.

Ventures 2nd Edition

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Gretchen Bitterlin, Dennis Johnson, Donna Price and Sylvia Ramirez Ventures 2nd Edition is a six-level, standards-based ESL series for adult-education ESL.

Viewpoint Michael McCarthy, Jeanne McCarten and Helen Sandiford Viewpoint is an innovative course that's based on extensive research into the Cambridge English Corpus, taking students to a higher level of proficiency to become effective communicators.

Adult courses: British English

English Unlimited English Unlimited is a six-level goals-based course for adults. Centred on purposeful, real-life objectives, it prepares learners to use English independently for global communication.

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Activate Your English Activate Your English is a short course for adults.

Advance Your English Annie Broadhead This short intensive course provides 40 hours of material, making it the perfect choice for advanced adult/young adult students who want to make rapid progress.

English365 Steve Flinders, Bob Dignen and Simon Sweeney English365 is a three-level course in Business and general English.

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English Unlimited Theresa Clementson, Alex Tilbury, Leslie Anne Hendra, David Rea, Adrian Doff and Ben Goldstein English Unlimited is a six-level (A1 to C1) goals-based course for adults. Centred on purposeful, real-life objectives, it prepares learners to use English independently for global communication.

face2face 2nd Edition Chris Redston and Gillie Cunningham face2face Second edition is the flexible, easy-to-teach, 6-level course (A1 to C1) for busy teachers who want to get their adult and young adult learners to communicate with confidence.

face2face First edition Chris Redston, Gillie Cunningham and Jan Bell

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face2face is a six level general English course for adults and young adults. It goes from Starter level through to Advanced.

Language in Use Adrian Doff and Christopher Jones A popular and highly acclaimed four level course which both interests and stretches learners.

New Cambridge Advanced English Leo Jones New Cambridge Advanced English places a strong emphasis on vocabulary, collocation and idiom. It includes CAE exam-style exercises but is suitable both for exam and non-exam candidates.

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The New Cambridge English Course Michael Swan, Catherine Walter and Desmond O'Sullivan The New Cambridge English Course is a four-level course for learners of English.

Business and Professional English

Flightpath - Aviation English for Pilots and ATCOs Flightpath is the definitive course for pilots and Air Traffic Control Officers who need an ICAO4 level of English.

International Legal English Second edition A new, expanded edition of the most authoritative legal English course book. Essential to any lawyer practising commercial law in English this course book also prepares for the International Legal English Certificate qualification.

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Be My Guest Francis O'Hara Be My Guest is a language course for pre and in-service students of English in the hotel industry at the elementary to lower intermediate level.

Cambridge English for Engineering Mark Ibbotson A short self-study or classroom course (40-60 hours) for engineers who need to use English in the workplace.

Cambridge English for Human Resources George Sandford Cambridge English for Human Resources is the definitive course for learners who need to use English in a human resources environment.

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Cambridge English for Job-hunting Colm Downes A short self-study or classroom course (40-60 hours) for professionals and students who need to apply for jobs in English.

Cambridge English for Marketing Nick Robinson Edited by Jeremy Day Endorsed by the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM), this short course (40-60 hours) uses practical tasks and realistic scenarios to develop the specialist language and communication skills needed for a career in marketing.

Cambridge English for Nursing Virginia Allum and Patricia McGarr A short self-study or classroom course (40-60 hours) for nurses who need to use English in the workplace.

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Cambridge English for Scientists Tamzen Armer Cambridge English for Scientists is a short course (40-60 hours) for student and professional scientists.

Cambridge English for the Media Nick Ceramella and Elizabeth Lee A short self-study or classroom course (40-60 hours) for media studies students and professionals working in advertising, journalism and other media-related occupations.

Communicative Syllabus Design John Munby This book provides a model for specifying the syllabus content relevant to the differing needs of ESP learners.

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Contact US! Dr Jane Lockwood and Hayley McCarthy CONTACT US develops high-end professional English language communication skills for the BPO industry.

English for the Financial Sector Ian MacKenzie English for the Financial Sector helps learners to prepare for a career in finance and enables those already working in the industry to improve their financial English.

English in Medicine 3rd Edition Eric Glendinning and Beverly Holmstrm The third edition of this well established course for doctors, medical students and other medical professionals.

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Flightpath Philip Shawcross Flightpath is the definitive course for pilots and Air Traffic Controllers who need an ICAO4 level of English to work in the industry.

Good Practice Marie McCullagh and Ros Wright Good Practice is a course for doctors and medical students who need to communicate with patients in English, and can be used in the classroom or for self-study.

Infotech 4th Edition Santiago Remacha Esteras

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Now in its fourth edition, Infotech is a comprehensive course in the English of computing, used and trusted by students and teachers all over the world.

International Legal English 2nd Edition Amy Krois-Lindner, Translegal and Jeremy Day International Legal English Second edition is the definitive course for students who need to work in the international legal community.

International Legal English Amy Krois-Lindner, TransLegal and Jeremy Day International Legal English is the definitive course for students who need to work in the international legal community.

Introduction to International Legal English

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Amy Krois-Lindner, Matt Firth and TransLegal Introduction to International Legal English is an intermediate level course for law students or newly-qualified lawyers who need to use English in their legal work or studies.

Needs Analysis for Language Course Design Marjatta Huhta, Karin Vogt, Esko Johnson and Heikki Tulkki Edited by David R. Hall An essential toolkit for language teachers who need to design language courses for working professionals, vocational schools, undergraduate and graduate students.

Professional English in Use Engineering Mark Ibbotson Professional English in Use Engineering is another addition to the Professional English in Use series. ISBN 9780521734882

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Professional English in Use Finance Ian MacKenzie Professional English in Use Finance is the latest exciting addition to the bestselling English Vocabulary in Use titles. ISBN 9780521616270

Professional English in Use ICT Santiago Remacha Esteras and Elena Marco Fabr A welcome addition to the highly successful and popular Vocabulary in Use titles. ISBN 9780521685436

Professional English in Use Law Gillian D. Brown and Sally Rice Professional English in Use Law is a brand new addition to the Professional English in Use series. ISBN 9780521685429

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Professional English in Use Management Arthur Mckeown and Ros Wright A must have for MBA students and professional managers who need to use English at work.

Professional English in Use Marketing Cate Farrall and Marianne Lindsley Professional English in Use Marketing provides specialist vocabulary reference and practice for marketing professionals, as well as business and marketing students.

Professional English in Use Medicine Eric Glendinning and Ron Howard Professional English in Use Medicine is a brand new addition to the Professional English in Use series.

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Safe Sailing Stephen Murrell, Peter Nagliati and Captain Stefano Canestri This CD-ROM provides thorough practice of the International Maritime Organizations Standard Marine Communication Phrases (IMO SMCPs).

Welcome! 2nd Edition Leo Jones Welcome! is an intermediate level course for people who need to use or who are preparing to use English in their day-to-day work in the tourism, hospitality and travel industries.