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Who is (are) the main character(s) = the protagonist(s) ?/ the minor (secondary) characters? Characterization: What do the characters look like? Qualities, virtues / flaws? How do they speak? Attitudes, habits, behaviour, characteristics? Are the characters stereotyped or individualized? `Round (complex, many-sided) vs. `flat (onesided, stereotyped) characters (= does the character change or develop? How?) What are the relationships / interactions between the characters? The characters motivation, goals, objectives How are the characters created: 1. by name ? 2. physical appearance ? 3. through speech, how they talk / what they speak about ? 4. from what other charcters say about them ? 5. from descriptions or actions of the character ?

SETTING - time, place, milieu, atmosphere (the background against which the story unfolds)
Time? When does the action take place past / present / future season, year, period, ? What is the time span of the story? Are there any jumps in time (flashbacks / flash forwards)? Place? House, outside, town, countryside? One place or several? Is the setting important for the plot or secondary? Environment / milieu (social class, traditional or modern society, modern life vs. old-fashioned,)? Lifestyle, norms, values (idealistic vs. materialistic; religious, modern, old-fashioned?)

Some questions you can ask a text of fiction (1) before

ANALYSIS OF FICTION novels short stories

you discuss themes and messages (2) and put the text into perspective.

NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE & LANGUAGE - How is the story told??

I. Narrator & Point of View: How does the reader get information (description, action, dialogue, thoughts, statements made by characters,)? From which angle are the characters and the action observed? Narrator: who tells the story?
Omniscient (=all-knowing) narrator (i.e. moves freely in time and space)? Or a narrator with limited knowledge? First-person vs. third-person narrator? Is the (first-person) narrator a character in the story (does he take part in the events)? / Is she/he an anonymous observer? Is the narrator reliable or unreliable (i.e. can she/he be trusted)? Adult narrator? A child or young person? One or several narrators? How does the choice of narrator affect the story? Through whose eyes are characters and events seen ? When is the story told ? (the situation of the narrator `now vs. `then?) Did the events happen a long/short time ago (cf. Does the narrator tell what happened from a mature / immature point of view, from `nowor `then)? Vocabulary Sentence structure (simple / complicated)? Literary language / colloquial / slang? Figures of speech: symbols, metaphors, comparisons, In what tone of voice does the narrator speak (matter-offact, seriously, ironically, humorously)?

PLOT - What happens?

Basic plot scheme: Starting point (the initial situation)? Conflict: what problems/complications arise? How do they arise? The climax (confrontation, fight, ) Resolution: Is / How is the conflict solved? Happy or unhappy ending? Open ending?

The conflict: What kind of conflict? `Inner conflict (the characters are struggling within themselves) or `relational conflict (the character is struggling with someone else) Conflict between man and man? / man and nature? / man and society? / Causes of the conflict? Consequences (personal / social / economic/)? Is the conflict solved in the end? Have things changed or not?

Narrative perspective :

II. Language & style:

(1) (2)

Not all questions are always relevant it all depends on the text. There is not always a message in the text.