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Prefcio

Esta apostila contm duas unidades que explicam as tcnicas de leitura e recursos gramaticais utilizados para uma eficiente leitura de textos em ingls, para a maior fixao e incio de treinamento na leitura da lngua, foram adicionados como anexos exerccios do cotidiano em pesquisas de pginas da internet , livros tcnicos da rea e de artigos cientficos de matrias j estudadas. Bom estudo e Good Luck!

1 Unidade I

Tcnicas de Leitura

As tcnicas de leitura, como o prprio nome diz, vo nos ajudar a ler um texto. Existem tcnicas variadas, mas veremos as mais utilizadas. Ao ler um texto em Ingls, lembre-se de usar as tcnicas aprendidas, elas vo ajud-lo. O uso da gramtica vai ajudar tambm. As principais tcnicas so: a identificao de cognatos, de palavras repetidas e de pistas tipogrficas. Ao lermos um texto vamos, ainda, apurar a idia geral do texto (general comprehension) e utilizar duas outras tcnicas bastante teis: skimming e scanning.

a) Cognatos Os cognatos so palavras muito parecidas com as palavras do Portugus. So as chamadas palavras transparentes. Existem tambm os falsos cognatos, que so palavras que achamos que tal coisa, mas no ; os falsos cognatos so em menor nmero, estes ns veremos adiante. Como cognatos podemos citar: school (escola), telephone (telefone), car (carro), question (questo, pergunta), activity (atividade), training (treinamento)... Voc mesmo poder criar sua prpria lista de cognatos!

b) Palavras repetidas As palavras repetidas em um texto possuem um valor muito importante. Um autor no repete as palavras em vo. Se elas so repetidas, porque so importantes dentro de texto. Muitas vezes para no repetir o mesmo termo, o autor utiliza sinnimos das mesmas palavras para no tornar o texto cansativo.

c) Pistas tipogrficas As pistas tipogrficas so elementos visuais que nos auxiliam na compreenso do texto. Ateno com datas, nmeros, tabelas, grficas, figuras... So informaes

2 tambm contidas no texto. Os recursos de escrita tambm so pistas tipogrficas. Por exemplo: ... (trs pontos) indicam a continuao de uma idia que no est ali exposta; negrito d destaque a algum termo ou palavra; itlico tambm destaca um termo, menos importante que o negrito; (aspas) salientam a importncia de alguma palavra; () (parnteses) introduzem uma idia complementar ao texto.

d) General Comprehension A idia geral de um texto obtida com o emprego das tcnicas anteriores. Selecionando-se criteriosamente algumas palavras, termos e expresses no texto, poderemos chegar idia geral do texto. Por exemplo, vamos ler o trecho abaixo e tentar obter a general comprehension deste pargrafo:

Distance education takes place when a teacher and students are separated by physical distance, and technology (i.e., voice, video and data), often in concert with face-to-face communication, is used to bridge the instructional gap.

From: Engineering Outreach College of Engineering University of Idaho

A partir das palavras cognatas do texto (em negrito) podemos ter uma idia geral do que se trata; vamos enumerar as palavras conhecidas (pelo menos as que so semelhantes ao Portugus): distance education = educao a distncia students = estudantes, alunos separeted = separado physical distance = distncia fsica technology = tecnologia

3 voice, video, data = voz, vdeo e dados (ateno: data no data) face-to-face communication = comunicao face-a-face used = usado (a) instructional = instrucional

Ento voc poderia dizer que o texto trata sobre educao a distncia; que esta ocorre quando os alunos esto separados fisicamente do professor; a tecnologia (voz, vdeo, dados) podem ser usados de forma instrucional. Voc poderia ter esta concluso sobre o texto mesmo sem ter muito conhecimento de Ingls. claro que medida que voc for aprendendo, a sua percepo sobre o texto tambm aumentar. H muitas informaes que no so to bvias assim.

e) Skimming skim em ingls deslizar superfcie, desnatar (da skimmed milk = leite desnatado), passar os olhos por. A tcnica de skimming nos leva a ler um texto superficialmente. Utilizar esta tcnica significa que no precisamos ler cada sentena, mas sim passarmos os olhos por sobre o texto, lendo algumas frases aqui e ali, procurando reconhecer certas palavras e expresses que sirvam como dicas na obteno de informaes sobre o texto. s vezes no necessrio ler o texto em detalhes. Para usar esta tcnica, precisamos nos valer dos nossos conhecimentos de Ingls tambm. Observe este trecho:

Using this integrated approach, the educators task is to carefully select among the technological options. The goal is to build a mix of instructional media, meeting the needs of the learner in a manner that is instructionally effective and economically prudent. From: Engineering Outreach College of Engineering University of Idaho

4 Selecionando algumas expresses teremos:

integrated approach = abordagem (approach = abordagem, enfoque) integrada educators task = tarefa (task = tarefa) do educador s significa posse = do tecnological options = opes tecnolgicas (tecnological adjetivo) goal = objetivo a mix instrucional media = uma mistura de mdia instrucional.

Com a tcnica do skimming podemos dizer que este trecho afirma que a tarefa do educador selecionar as opes tecnolgicas; o objetivo ter uma mistura de mdias instrucionais de uma maneira instrucionalmente efetiva e economicamente prudente.

f) Scanning Scan em Ingls quer dizer examinar, sondar, explorar. O que faz um scanner? Uma varredura, no ?! Logo, com a tcnica de scanning voc ir fazer uma varredura do texto, procurando detalhes e idias objetivas. Aqui importante que voc utilize os conhecimentos de Ingls; por isso, ns vamos ver detalhadamente alguns itens gramaticais no ser Estudo da Lngua Inglesa.

Olhe este trecho: Teaching and learning at a distance is demanding. However, learning will be more meaningful and deeper for distant students, if students and their instructor share responsibility for developing learning goals: actively interacting with class members; promoting reflection on experience; relating new information to examples that make sense to learners. This is the challenge and the opportunity provided by distance education.

Poderamos perguntar qual o referente do pronome their em negrito no trecho? Utilizando a tcnica de skimming, seria necessrio retornar ao texto e entender a sentena na qual o pronome est sendo empregado. Their um pronome possessivo (e como tal, sempre vem acompanhado de um substantivo) da terceira pessoa do plural (o seu referente um substantivo no plural). A traduo de their instructor seria seu instrutor . Seu de quem? Lendo um pouco para trs, vemos que h students; logo conclumos que their refere-se a students, ou seja, instrutor dos alunos.
g) Prediction:

a atividade pela qual o aluno levado a predizer, inferir o contedo de um texto atravs do ttulo ou de outros elementos tipogrficos, como ilustraes, por exemplo. Sendo uma atividade do tipo pr-leitura, a prediction contribui para estimular o interesse e a curiosidade do aluno pelo contedo de um texto que o tpico sugere. Quanto mais cultura geral (background knowledge) tiver o leitor, mais fcil ser a sua prediction. Tomemos como exemplo o ttulo "ecologia". Um leitor com um conhecimento razovel poderia ordinariamente predizer sobre o assunto listando palavras como: Meio-ambiente Poluir Desastroso Poluentes Matar Devastao Poluio Florestas tropicais Animais em extino Proteger Protestos Chuva cida Produtos qumicos: Natureza Reflorestar Envenenar Etc... Estas palavras poderiam at no fazer parte do texto, mas muito provvel que faam. Observe agora o mesmo ttulo em ingls e avalie o grau de dificuldade comparado com aquele em portugus.

h) Critical Reading: Ao final de cada leitura, o bom leitor deveria estar atento para tudo o que lhe foi transmitido atravs do texto, procurando avaliar o contedo do mesmo mediante perguntas tais como: O texto interessante?...por que? A leitura do texto acrescentou algo novo aos seus conhecimentos? O texto foi apresentado de modo objetivo, superficial, profundo, confuso..? Voc discorda ou concorda com as idias do autor? O autor foi imparcial ou tendencioso? Voc conseguiu captar alguma Segunda intenso nas entrelinhas do texto? Voc acrescentaria algo que no foi mencionado?

j) Contextual Reference: Normalmente existem no texto elementos de referncia que so usados para evitar repeties e para interligar as sentenas, tornando a leitura mais compreensvel e fluente. Esses elementos aparecem na forma de pronomes diversos: Pessoais: he, she, it, they, etc. Demonstrativos: this, that, those, such; Relativos: who, whom, whose, that, which; Adjetivos possessivos: his, her, our. Veja alguns exemplos abaixo: - I asked my students why they had chosen the ESP course. - This description is very simple. It follows a diagram in numbered stages. - Geologists use explosive charges and seismic refraction to find oil storages. These techniques have proved to be successful in the desert.

Texto 1 LOS ANGELES Come summer 2006, Warner Brothers Pictures hopes to usher Superman into thousands of theaters after a 19-year absence. But given the tortured history surrounding that studios attempts to revive Superman, the forerunner of Hollywoods now-ubiquitous comic-book blockbusters, the Man of Steels arrival would be nothing short of a miracle. Since Warner began developing a remake of the successful comic-book franchise in 1993, it has spent nearly $10 million in development, employed no fewer than 10 writers, hired four directors and met with scores of Clark Kent hopefuls without settling on one. The latest director Bryan Singer, who directed X-Men and its sequel, was named on July 18 to replace Joseph McGinty Nichol, known as McG, who left the project after refusing to board a plane to Australia, where the studio was determined to make the film.
The New York Times, July 22, 2004.

Texto 2

[In: Antunes, Maria Alice. Insight. So Paulo: Richmond Published, 2004. pg. 289.]

Unidade II

Grupos Nominais I
Grupos nominais so expresses de carter nominal em que prevalecem os substantivos e adjetivos, cuja ordem na frase ordinariamente no corresponde ao portugus. Observe os exemplos a seguir e note que a disposio das palavras na traduo no correspondente ao ingls: A charismatic leader Black Africa Um lder carismtico frica negra South American Societies Brazil's high cost of living Sociedades da Amrica do Sul O alto custo de vida do Brasil Sempre existe no grupo nominal uma palavra mais importante (headword), que normalmente um substantivo, como voc pode ver nos exemplos acima: leader, Africa, societies, cost. Voc tambm notou que em torno das headwords orbitam outras palavras, como adjetivos, advrbios ou mesmo outros substantivos, que so chamados modificadores (modifiers). Vejamos outros exemplos e a posio das headwords e dos modifiers: The economic crisis. Affixation: Como voc sabe, existem palavras que so derivadas atravs de afixos (prefixos e sufixos) e que esses afixos podem alteram a classe gramatical das palavras, ou o seu sentido. Por isso, reconhec-las e saber o seu significado, representa um valioso recurso adicional da compreenso do texto. Ento vejamos: Inadequate (inadequado), Disconnect (desligar), Brazilian (Brasileiro), Formation (formao), Inconstitucional (inconstitucional). Grande parte dos afixos em Ingls so semelhantes ao Portugus devido sua origem grega ou latina, conforme os exemplos acima. Devemos ter em mente, porm, que muitos outros no possuem a mesma origem e so, por isso, mais difceis de compreender.

Unhappy (infeliz), Underground (subsolo), Misunderstanding (desentendimento), Useful (til), Useless (intil), Wisdom (Sabedoria), Unforgetable (inesquecvel). Quando acrescentamos um sufixo, a palavra geralmente muda sua classe gramatical, sem alterar o significado.

Palavra General Generally

Classe gramatical Adjetivo advrbio

Significado Geral Geralmente

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No caso do prefixo, torna-se uma nova palavra, porm sem alterar a classe gramatical.

Palavra Function Disfunction Form Reform

Classe gramatical substantivo substantivo verbo verbo

Significado funo disfuno formar reformar

[http://www.vestibular1.com.br/revisao/dicas_ingles_II.doc]

Grupos Nominais II Um grupo nominal um grupo de palavras formado por um substantivo e seus modificadores que podem ser artigos, numerais, quantificadores, pronomes e/ou adjetivos, por exemplo. O substantivo o ncleo semntico, ou seja, a palavra-ncleo ou chave (headword =H) e os demais elementos so modificadores (modifier = M). Um dos desafios em seu reconhecimento que a grafia da palavra a mesma, mas a ordem em que ela colocada pode trazer significados diferentes. Observe:

1) ... the master control program 1 2 3 4 (H)

2) ... the master program control 1 2 3 4 (H)

Em 1 a palavra program que recebe os modificadores ao passo que em b a palavra control que recebe os modificadores. Essa diferena significativa, pois o assunto diferente apesar da palavra estar escrita de forma idntica. No entanto, em Ingls, a ORDEM significativa. Ela tem significado. Conforme exemplos, a ltima (da esquerda para a direita) palavra da cadeia a palavra principal, ou seja, ela diz o que a coisa , enquanto que as precedentes apenas descrevem o item. Para se entender o significado

10 destes grupos nominais em ingls, preciso ler a fila de palavras de trs para frente. Na leitura teramos:

1) ... the master control program 4 3 2 1 (H)

2) ... the master program control 4 3 2 1 (H)

Os grupos nominais formam assim unidades de significado que podem se combinar em sentenas. Para permitir a construo de seqncias lineares h elementos que funcionam como elos de ligao: preposies. Observe a frase a seguir:

A three-dimensional TV picture room.

appears

over a huge wooden box in the empty

A palavra dentro do crculo caracteriza a cpsula verbal (appears) que ao identificada pode ser separada e classificada de acordo com as frmulas no quadro de formas verbais estudado anteriormente. Conforme o referido quadro : sentena=

S+V(s)+C= Presente simples). Essa diviso reduz a sentena a trs segmentos principais, a saber: S +V+ C. Com o propsito de leitura e entendimento, o que resta pode ser subdividido ainda em grupos nominais tendo as preposies como elementos separadores de unidades de sentido. Cada subdiviso por sua vez formada de uma palavra-ncleo (N) e modificadores (M) e o elemento de ligao (preposio) entre elas chamado de LINKER (L) pela funo de ligao sinttica e semntica que exerce. Observe a mesma frase aps a subdiviso e identificao de termos (o smbolo indica a separao entre os termos).

A three-dimensional TV picture

appears over a huge wooden box

in the empty room.

L m m

L m

11 O conhecimento da cpsula verbal e do grupo nominal fornece uma melhor noo de como as palavras se organizam em sintagmas para veicular mensagens. O reconhecimento das partes constituintes da cpsula verbal e do grupo nominal, respectivamente, tambm d condio de analisarmos a hierarquia entre os elementos quando se trata do entendimento textual. Tendo claro o objetivo de leitura, a viso dessa hierarquia decisiva como critrio para a busca de palavras no dicionrio. [http://www.fesppr.br/~elizabeth/apostila-parte%201/apostilaFESPfinal.doc]

Grupos Verbais (PRESENT TENSE) O present tense do verbo be (ser/estar) tem as seguintes formas: na afirmativa: Full Form I am you are he is she is it is we are you are they are na negativa: Full Form I am not you are not he is not she is not it is not we are not you are not they are not Short Form you aren't he isn't she isn't it isn't we aren't you aren't they aren't Short Form I'm not you're not he's not she's not it's not we're not you're not they're not Short Form I'm you're he's she's it's we're you're they're Significado eu sou / estou tu s / ests ele / est ela / est ele(a) / est ns somos / estamos vs sois / estais eles(as) so / esto

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na interrogativa: Full Form am I? are you? is he? is she? is it? are we? are you? are they?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form am I not? are you not? is he not? is she not? is it not? are we not? are you not? are they not? Short Form aren't I? aren't you? isn't he? isn't she? isn't it? aren't we? aren't you? aren't they?

2 As formas contradas do verbo be na afirmativa nunca ocorrem no fim de uma frase: Example Are you a student? Yes, I am. / Yes, I'm. Is he English? Yes, he is. / Yes, he's. Do you know where she is? Do you know where she's? Significado s estudante? Sim, sou. Ele ingls? Sim, ele . Sabes onde ela est?

3 Emprega-se o verbo be para:

(a) identificar pessoas ou algo: Example Who is it? It is John. What is that? It is a pen. Significado Quem ? o Joo. O que aquilo? uma caneta.

(b) descrever o estado fsico ou mental: Example I am tired. They are tall. She is happy. He is angry. Significado Estou cansado. Eles so altos. Ela est feliz. Ele est zangado.

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(c) falar sobre profisses: Example He is a doctor. She is an architect. They are(1) mechanics. John and I are(1) teachers.
(1)

Significado Ele mdico. Ela arquiteta. Eles so mecnicos. Eu e o Joo somos professores.

No se utiliza o artigo indefinido a(n) no plural.

(d) falar sobre a idade: Example Mary is ten (years old).(3) The house is(2) ten years old.
(2) (2)

Significado A Maria tem dez anos. A casa tem dez anos.

bastante frequente os estudantes portugueses da lngua inglesa empregarem o verbo to have (que incorreto) em vez do verbo be para fazer referncia idade de pessoas ou algo. (3) years old pode ser omitido quando se refere idade de pessoas. (e) falar sobre o tempo, horas, preos, etc.: Example It is cold today. It is three o'clock. It is 10. Significado Hoje est frio. So trs horas. So 10 libras.

(f) falar sobre posses: Example This is my book. This is mine. This is John's. (g) falar sobre a localizao: Example She is in the bedroom. Lisbon is in Portugal. Significado Ela est no quarto de dormir. Lisboa fica em Portugal. [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/presbe.htm] Significado Este meu livro. Este meu. Este do Joo.

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Texto complementar 3: What is a Computer Processor? The computer memory or computer RAM of a computer is a collection of integrated circuits that temporarily holds data and program information for the computer to use. When the computer is shutoff the memory in the computer RAM is erased. There are many different types of computer memory, but the most common kind that we use in our desktops today is DDR (Double Data Rate), DDR2, and DDR3 DRAM. The difference between the 3 variations of DDR is that DD2 has higher clock speeds than DDR, and DDR3 has an even higher clock speed than the DDR2 computer RAM. A laptop uses the same kinds of computer memory, but they come in a different packaging called SODIMMS, so be wary when upgrading a laptops memory that you pick you out the right kind.

[http://stevestechguide.com/what-is-computer-memory/]

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O present tense do verbo there+be (haver) tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa:

Full Form there is there are there's

Short Form

Significado h (no singular) h (no plural)

na negativa: Full Form there is not there are not Short Form there isn't there aren't Short Form there's not

na interrogativa: Full Form is there? are there?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form is there not? are there not? Short Form isn't there? aren't there?

2 A forma contrada do verbo there+be na afirmativa nunca ocorre no fim de uma frase: Example Is there any water? Yes, there is. / Yes, there's. Significado H gua? Sim, h.

3 Consideremos a frase seguinte: Example A boy is at the door. Significado Est um rapaz porta.

16 O sujeito da frase (a boy) satisfaz duas condies:


indefinido seguido do verbo be (is)

Sendo assim, mais frequente dizer-se em ingls: Example There is a boy at the door. Significado Um rapaz est porta.
(1)

sem alterar o sentido da frase, colocando there no incio da frase e o sujeito (a boy) a seguir ao verbo be (is). Vejamos mais alguns exemplos: Example (Many people are in the party.) There are many people in the party. (Someone is in the kitchen.) There is someone in the kitchen. (A man is smoking a cigar.) There is a man smoking a cigar. Significado Muita gente h / est na festa. Algum est (1) na cozinha. Um homem est (1) fumando charuto.

4 Quando o verbo be usado para exprimir existncia, a utilizao do there+be necessria: Example There is plenty of time. There are a lot of mistakes. Significado H muito tempo. H muitos erros.

Repare que estes exemplos no podem ser convertidos como os do ponto anterior: From There is plenty of time. There are a lot of mistakes. To Plenty of time is. A lot of mistakes are.

17 5 Em todos os exemplos anteriores, a palavra there no acentuada. Compare os dois exemplos seguintes, e repare no significado da palavra there: (a) there no acentuada: Example There is a girl I would like to see. Significado H uma garota com quem eu gostaria de falar.

(b) there acentuada: Example There is the girl I would like to see. Significado A est a garota com quem eu gostaria de falar.

Repare que o sujeito (a girl) do primeiro exemplo indefinido, e o sujeito (the girl) do segundo definido.

6 Em linguagem informal, a forma singular there is por vezes empregada para exprimir algo no plural em vez de there are. Esta forma no singular , no entanto, considerada por muitos incorreta. Example There's two boys at the door.
(1)

Significado Dois rapazes esto (1) porta.

Literalmente, deveria ser h. [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/presthbe.htm]

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(PAST TENSE) O past tense do verbo be (ser/estar) tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa: Full Form


(1)

Significado

I was eu fui / estive you were tu foste / estiveste (1) he ele foi / esteve (1) was she ela it ele(a) we were ns fomos / estivemos (1) you were vs fostes / estivestes (1) they were eles(as) foram / estiveram (1) (1) A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do past tense do verbo be apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase. na negativa: Full Form I was not you were not he was not she it we were not you were not they were not na interrogativa: Full Form was I? were you? he? was she? it? were we? were you? were they? Short Form I wasn't you weren't he wasn't she it we weren't you weren't they weren't na interrogativa negativa: Full Form was I not? were you not? he not? was she it were we not? were you not? were they not? Short Form wasn't I? weren't you? he? wasn't she? it? weren't we? weren't you? weren't they?

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2 Emprega-se o past tense do verbo be para: (a) identificar pessoas ou algo: Example Who was it? It was John. What was that? It was the dog. It was trying to jump over the fence. (b) descrever o estado fsico ou mental: Example I was tired. They were tall. She was happy. He was angry. (c) falar sobre profisses: Example He was a doctor. She was an architect. They were (2) mechanics. John and I were (2) teachers.
(2)

Significado Quem foi? Foi o Joo. / Quem era? Era o Joo. O que foi aquilo? Foi o co. Estava a tentar saltar por cima da vedao.

Significado Eu estive / estava cansado(a). Eles(as) eram altos(as). Ela esteve / estava feliz. Ele esteve / estava zangado.

Significado Ele foi / era mdico. Ela foi / era arquiteta. Eles foram / eram mecnicos. Eu e o Joo fomos / ramos professores.

No se utiliza o artigo indefinido a(n) no plural.

(d) falar sobre a idade: Example Mary was ten (years old) (4). The house was (3) ten years old.
(3) (3)

Significado Maria tinha dez anos. A casa tinha dez anos.

bastante freqente os estudantes portugueses da lngua inglesa empregarem o verbo to have (que incorreto) em vez do verbo be para fazer referncia idade de pessoas ou algo. years old pode ser omitido quando se refere idade de pessoas.

(4)

(e) falar sobre o tempo, horas, preos, etc.:

20 Example It was cold yesterday. It was three o'clock. It was 10. Significado Ontem esteve / estava frio. Eram trs horas. Foram 10 libras.

(f) falar sobre posses: Example That was my book. This was mine. This was John's. (g) falar sobre a localizao: Example She was in the bedroom. Salisbury was the capital of Zimbabwe. Significado Ela esteve / estava no quarto de dormir. Salisbria foi / era a capital de Zimbabwe. [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/pastbe.htm] Significado Aquele era o meu livro. Este era meu. / Esta era minha. Este era do Joo.

Texto complementar 4: Someone to remember (texto adaptado) Mahatma Gandhi was Born on Octuber 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India. At that time, India was a colony of the British Empire and many people lived in poverty because the British exploited the countrys wealth. When Gandhi was 19 years old, he went to England to study Law and became a lawyer. In London, Gandhi began to develop his philosophy of life. He read religious classics and studied different religions. When he went back to India, people celebrated his arrival but Gandhi was not happy because he wanted to live a simple life in the Indian countryside. So he traveled by train throughout India in third class and he saw the country and how people lived and worked there. He encouraged people to fight for Indias independence and organized many demonstrations, but he never used violence. After the war, in 1947, India became independent. On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was assassinated. A Hindu fanatic, who opposed Gandhis program of tolerance of all creeds and religions, shot him three times. The man who preached and practice non-violence his hole life, died violently. [In: Antunes, Maria Alice. Insight. So Paulo: Richmond Published, 2004. pg. 52.]

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O tempo verbal past simple (ou simple past) tem as seguintes formas: na afirmativa (verbos regulares, por ex. to ask): Full Form I asked you asked he / she / it asked we asked you asked they asked
(1)

Significado eu perguntei tu perguntaste (1) ele(a) perguntou (1) ns perguntamos (1) vs perguntastes (1) eles(as) perguntaram (1)

na afirmativa (verbos irregulares, por ex. to buy): Full Form Significado I bought eu comprei (1) you bought tu compraste (1) he / she / it bought ele(a) comprou (1) we bought ns compramos (1) you bought vs comprastes (1) they bought eles(as) compraram (1) (1) A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do tempo verbal past simple apenas um dos exemplos possveis entre vrios, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase. na negativa: Full Form Short Form I did not ask / buy I didn't ask / buy you did not ask / buy you didn't ask / buy he did not ask / buy he didn't ask / buy she she it it we did not ask / buy we didn't ask / buy you did not ask / buy you didn't ask / buy they did not ask / buy they didn't ask / buy na interrogativa: Full Form Did I ask / buy? Did you ask / buy? he ask / buy? Did she it Did we ask / buy? Did you ask / buy? Did they ask / buy?

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na interrogativa negativa: Full Form Did I not ask / buy? Did you not ask / buy? he not ask / buy? Did she it Did we not ask / buy? Did you not ask / buy? Did they not ask / buy? nas respostas breves: Full Form / Short Form did. Short Form Didn't I ask / buy? Didn't you ask / buy? he ask / buy? Didn't she it Didn't we ask / buy? Didn't you ask / buy? Didn't they ask / buy?

Yes,

No,

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they

did not / didn't.

2 Veja as regras ortogrficas dos verbos regulares na afirmativa do tempo verbal past simple.

3 Na afirmativa, os verbos irregulares do tempo verbal past simple variam consideravelmente, e no terminam em -ed: Base buy cut eat go take Past Simple bought cut ate went took Significado comprar cortar comer ir levar; tomar

Para consultar a lista dos verbos irregulares veja irregular verbs (na segunda coluna past simple).

23

4 Na negativa, os verbos tanto regulares como irregulares formam-se da seguinte maneira: did not + (base do verbo) = didn't + (base do verbo) Full Form I did not ask you did not buy he did not work we did not see Short Form I didn't ask you didn't buy he didn't work we didn't see Significado eu no perguntei tu no compraste ele no trabalhou ns no vimos

5 Na interrogativa, os verbos tanto regulares como irregulares formam-se da seguinte maneira: did + (sujeito) + (base do verbo) ? Full Form did I ask? did you buy? did he work? did we see? eu perguntei? tu compraste? ele trabalhou? ns vimos? Significado

NOTA: O verbo auxiliar did no possui nenhum significado em particular, mas a sua utilizao necessria tanto na negativa como na interrogativa. 6 O tempo verbal past simple estabelece uma relao somente com o passado. 7 Emprega-se o past simple para descrever:

(a) aes que ocorrem num momento bem definido do passado: Example I saw her yesterday. She bought a car last week. The First World War began in 1914. He arrived two hours ago. Significado Eu vi-a ontem. Ela comprou um carro na semana passada. A Primeira Guerra Mundial comeou em 1914. Ele chegou h duas horas atrs.

24

(b) aes que ocorrem num momento (que no mencionado) do passado e que pode ser identificado a partir de um contexto conhecido entre os intervenientes: Example I saw her in London. She arrived late. He gave me the book. Significado Eu vi-a em Londres. Ela chegou atrasada. Ele deu-me o livro.

(c) aes repetidas do passado: Example I phoned you three times. He knocked at the door several times. Significado Eu telefonei-te trs vezes. Ele bateu porta vrias vezes.

(d) hbitos do passado: Example He always studied at night. She never liked garlic. I played football every week when I was a child. Significado Ele sempre estudou noite. Ela nunca gostou de alho. Eu brincava futebol todas as semanas quando eu era criana.

(e) aes que decorrem durante um perodo de tempo no passado sem nenhuma relao com o presente: Example I lived in Lisbon for ten years before moving to Oporto. She lived in England during the Second World War. Significado Eu vivi em Lisboa durante dez anos antes de me mudar para o Porto. Ela viveu na Inglaterra durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

(f) aes quando se pergunta ou responde sobre o tempo: Example When did you come to Portugal? I came to Portugal ten years ago. Significado Quando vieste para Portugal? Eu vim para Portugal h dez anos atrs. [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/pastsimp.htm]

25

O past tense do verbo there+be (haver) tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa:

Full Form there was there were


(1)

houve houve (1)

(1)

Significado (no singular) (no plural)

A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do past tense do verbo there+be apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase.

na negativa: Full Form there was not there were not there wasn't there weren't Short Form

na interrogativa: Full Form was there? were there?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form was there not? were there not? Short Form wasn't there? weren't there?

2 Consideremos a frase seguinte: Example A boy was at the door. Significado Um rapaz esteve / estava porta.

O sujeito da frase (a boy) satisfaz duas condies:


indefinido seguido do verbo be (was)

Sendo assim, mais frequente dizer-se em ingls:

26

Example There was a boy at the door.

Significado Esteve / Estava (2) um rapaz porta.

sem alterar o sentido da frase, colocando there no incio da frase e o sujeito (a boy) depois do verbo be (was). Vejamos mais alguns exemplos: Example (Many people were in the party.) There were many people in the party. (Someone was in the kitchen.) There was someone in the kitchen. (A man was smoking a cigar.) There was a man smoking a cigar.
(2)

Significado Muita gente houve / havia / esteve / estava na festa. Algum esteve / estava (2) na cozinha. Um homem esteve / estava (2) a fumar charuto.

Literalmente, deveria ser houve / havia

3 Quando o verbo be empregado para exprimir existncia, a utilizao de there+be necessria: Example There was plenty of time. There were a lot of mistakes. Significado Houve / Havia muito tempo. Houve / Havia muitos erros.

Repare que estes exemplos no podem ser convertidos como os do ponto anterior: From There was plenty of time. There were a lot of mistakes. To Plenty of time was. A lot of mistakes were. [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/pastthbe.htm]

27 (FUTURO) O future simple tem as seguintes formas: na afirmativa: Full Form Short Form Significado I eu farei (1) shall do will do 'll do you will do you 'll do tu fars (1) he he ele far (1) will do 'll do ela she she it it ele(a) we we ns faremos (1) shall do will do 'll do you will do you 'll do vs fareis (1) they will do they 'll do eles(as) faro (1) (1) A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do future simple apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase. I na negativa: Full Form shall not do will not do you will not do he will not do she it we shall not do will not do you will not do they will not do I na interrogativa: Full Form shall / will I do? will you do? will he / she / it do? shall / will we do? will you do? will they do? Short Form shan't do / won't do / 'll not do you won't do / 'll not do he won't do / 'll not do she it we shan't do / won't do / 'll not do you won't do / 'll not do they won't do / 'll not do I

28

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form shall / will I not do? will you not do? will he / she / it not do? shall / will we not do? will you not do? will they not do? Short Form shan't / won't I do? won't you do? won't he / she / it do? shan't / won't we do? won't you do? won't they do?

nas respostas breves: Full Form / Short Form I / we shall / will. you / he / she / it / they will. I / we shall not / shan't. will not / won't. you / he / she / it / they will not / won't.

Yes, No,

2 O future simple forma-se da seguinte maneira: SHALL / WILL + (base do verbo) onde SHALL / WILL = verbo auxiliar modal

Emprega-se o shall:

na 1 pessoa do singular e plural principalmente em ingls britnico em linguagem formal na escrita, no se emprega a forma contrada 'll

Emprega-se o will:

em todas as pessoas (incluindo a 1) do singular e plural em forma contrada 'll em linguagem informal

29

Em ingls britnico, no existe nenhuma diferena em significado entre o shall e o will quando estes so empregados para informar ou prever algo no futuro. No entanto, o shall menos utilizado hoje em dia. Na negativa, adiciona-se not a seguir ao verbo auxiliar modal shall / will. Na interrogativa, invertem-se o verbo auxiliar modal shall / will e o sujeito.

3 Emprega-se o future simple para:

(a) fazer uma previso no futuro: Example I'll be in the office tomorrow. Significado Estarei no escritrio amanh.

(b) exprimir um facto no futuro: Example She'll be eighteen next week. Significado Ela far dezoito anos na prxima semana.

(c) exprimir uma deciso espontnea: Example It's okay. I'll open the window. Significado Deixe-se estar. Eu abro a janela.

(d) se oferecer para fazer algo. Emprega-se somente o shall na 1 pessoa do singular na interrogativa: Example Shall I make a cup of tea for you? Significado Queres que eu lhe faa um ch?

(e) fazer uma sugesto. Emprega-se somente o shall na 1 pessoa do plural na interrogativa: Example Shall we go? Vamos? Significado

30

(f) fazer um pedido. Emprega-se somente o will na 2 pessoa do singular / plural na interrogativa: Example Will you open the window, please? Significado Abre a janela, por favor.

(g) exprimir uma opinio. Normalmente, emprega-se um dos seguintes verbos (ex. think, suppose, doubt if, assume) ou advrbios (ex. perhaps, probably, possibly): Example I think he'll come. He'll probably come. Significado Penso que ele vir. Ele provavelmente vir.

(h) exprimir uma forte probabilidade no presente: Example Someone's ringing the bell. Oh, that'll be John. Significado Algum est a tocar a campainha. Ah, o Joo.

(i) fazer uma ameaa: Example I'll tell your father if you do that again. You'll regret this! Significado Vou dizer ao teu pai se fizeres isso novamente. Arrepender-te-s disto!

(j) fazer uma promessa: Example Don't worry! I'll talk to her! Significado No te preocupes! Vou falar com ela!

(k) fazer uma recusa: Example I won't leave the room until you tell me who she is. Significado No sairei da sala at me disseres quem ela .

31 NOTA: O future simple nas alneas (a-b) por vezes conhecido por pure future, porque exprime algo que ir acontecer no futuro. No entanto, nas alneas (c-k), o mesmo no pode ser considerado como tal, porque existe uma inteno pessoal.

4 Em ingls formal, arcaico, ou literrio, shall por vezes empregado na 2 e 3 pessoa do singular e plural para:

(a) fazer uma promessa: Example You shall have a computer for your birthday. Significado Ters um computador no teu aniversrio.

(b) fazer uma ameaa: Example You shall die. Morrers. Significado

(c) exprimir uma proibio: Example You shall not go to the theatre. Significado No irs ao teatro.

(d) fazer uma concesso: Example They shall have what they want. Significado Eles(as) tero o que quiserem. [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/futusimp.htm]

32 Texto complementar 5:

[http://www.hallmark.com]

O future "going to" tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa: Full Form I am going to do you are going to do he is going to do she it we are going to do you are going to do they are going to do Significado eu vou fazer (1) tu vais fazer (1) ele(a) vai fazer (1) ns vamos fazer (1) vs ides fazer (1) eles(as) vo fazer (1)

As formas contradas na afirmativa so: I'm / you're / he's / she's / it's / we're / they're going to do
(1)

A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do future "going to" apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase.

33

na negativa: Full Form I am not going to do you are not going to do he is not going to do she it we are not going to do you are not going to do they are not going to do Short Form you aren't going to do he isn't going to do she it we aren't going to do you aren't going to do they aren't going to do

As outras formas contradas na negativa so: I'm / you're / he's / she's / it's / we're / they're not going to do

na interrogativa: Full Form am I going to do? are you going to do? he going to do? is she it are we going to do? are you going to do? are they going to do?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form am I not going to do? are you not going to do? he not going to do? is she it are we not going to do? are you not going to do? are they not going to do? Short Form aren't I going to do? aren't you going to do? he going to do? isn't she it aren't we going to do? aren't you going to do? aren't they going to do?

34 nas respostas breves: Full Form I am. you are. he/she/it is. we are. you are. they are. Full Form / Short Form I am not / 'm not. you are not / 're not / aren't. he/she/it is not / 's not / isn't. we are not / 're not / aren't. you are not / 're not / aren't. they are not / 're not / aren't.

Yes,

No,

2 O future "going to" forma-se da seguinte maneira: BE + GOING TO + (base do verbo) onde BE = verbo auxiliar be no present tense (ex. am, is, are) Na negativa, adiciona-se not a seguir ao verbo auxiliar be. Na interrogativa, invertem-se o verbo auxiliar be e o sujeito.

3 Emprega-se o future "going to" para:

(a) prever algo num futuro imediato ou prximo. A previso baseia-se no que sabemos, vemos, ou sentimos no momento em que falamos: Example They're going to talk to her. Look at the clouds! I think it's going to rain. Significado Eles(as) vo falar com ela. Veja as nuvens! Acho que vai chover.

(b) exprimir uma inteno, um plano, ou uma deciso: Example I'm going to buy a car next week. I'm going to show you how to use this machine. Significado Vou comprar um carro na prxima semana. Vou mostrar-lhe como se utiliza esta mquina.

35 4 Embora a combinao entre "going to + go" (ou "going to + come") seja possvel, a mesma normalmente evitada por falta de boa sonncia. Como alternativa, emprega-se o tempo verbal present continuous: Example I'm going to the cinema tonight. (em vez de) I'm going to go to the cinema tonight. Are you coming to the party tonight? (em vez de) Are you going to come to the party tonight? [http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/futugoin.htm] Significado Vou ao cinema esta noite.

Vens festa esta noite?

O future continuous (ou future progressive) tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa: Full Form I shall be doing will you will be doing he will be doing she it we shall be doing will you will be doing they will be doing Na afirmativa, somente a forma contrada de will empregue: I / you / he / she / it / we / they 'll be doing A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do future continuous apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase.
(1)

na negativa:

36 Forma contrada de shall not: I / we shan't be doing

Full Form I shall not be doing will you will not be doing he will not be doing she it we shall not be doing will you will not be doing they will not be doing

Forma contrada de will not: I / you / he / she / it / we / they won't be doing I / you / he / she / it / we / they 'll not be doing

na interrogativa: Full Form I be doing? shall will will you be doing? he be doing? will she it we be doing? shall will will you be doing? will they be doing?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form I not be doing? shall will will you not be doing? he not be doing? will she it we not be doing? shall will will you not be doing? will they not be doing? Short Form I be doing? shan't won't won't you be doing? he be doing? won't she it we be doing? shan't won't won't you be doing? won't they be doing?

37 nas respostas breves: Full Form / Short Form I / we shall / will. you / he / she / it / they will. I / we shall not / shan't. will not / won't. you / he / she / it / they will not / won't.

Yes, No,

2 O future continuous forma-se da seguinte maneira: SHALL / WILL BE + (base do verbo) + ING onde SHALL / WILL BE = verbo auxiliar be no future simple

Emprega-se o shall:

na 1 pessoa do singular e plural principalmente em ingls britnico em linguagem formal na escrita, no se emprega a forma contrada 'll

Emprega-se o will:

em todas as pessoas (incluindo a 1) do singular e plural em forma contrada 'll em linguagem informal

O shall menos utilizado hoje em dia. Na negativa, adiciona-se not a seguir ao verbo auxiliar modal shall / will. Na interrogativa, invertem-se o verbo auxiliar modal shall / will e o sujeito.

3 Emprega-se o future continuous para:

(a) descrever aes que iro decorrer num determinado momento no futuro:

38 Example This time tomorrow I'll be watching football on television. John will be working for another company in two weeks' time. Don't call me after six because I'll be teaching. Significado Amanh a esta hora ver futebol na televiso. O Joo vai trabalhar para uma outra companhia dentro de duas semanas. No me telefones depois das seis porque irei dar aulas.

(b) perguntar sobre os planos de algum, ou pedir informaes sobre algo, de uma forma delicada: Example Will you be coming with your wife? Will you be joining us for the party? Will you be using this classroom tomorrow? Significado Vem com a sua esposa? Vens nossa festa? Vais usar esta sala de aula amanh?

[http://www.grammarnet.com/ghtml/futucont.htm]

1 O future perfect continuous (ou future perfect progressive) tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa: Full Form have been doing Significado eu estarei fazendo (1) tu estars fazendo (1) ele estar fazendo (1) ela ele(a) ns estaremos fazendo (1) vs estarieis fazendo (1) eles(as) estaro fazendo (1)

shall will you will have been doing he will have been doing she it we shall have been doing will you will have been doing they will have been doing

Na afirmativa, somente a forma contrada de will empregue: I / you / he / she / it / we / they 'll have been doing A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do future perfect continuous apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase.
(1)

39

na negativa: Full Form shall not have been doing will you will not have been doing he will not have been doing she it we shall not have been doing will you will not have been doing they will not have been doing I Forma contrada de shall not: I / we shan't have been doing Forma contrada de will not: I / you / he / she / it / we / they won't have been doing I / you / he / she / it / we / they 'll not have been doing

na interrogativa: Full Form I have been doing? shall will will you have been doing? he have been doing? will she it we have been doing? shall will will you have been doing? will they have been doing?

40 na interrogativa negativa:

forma completa e contrada de shall not: shall I / we not have been doing? shan't I / we have been doing? forma completa e contrada de will not: will I / you / he / she / it / we / they not have been doing? won't I / you / he / she / it / we / they have been doing?

nas respostas breves: Yes, No, Full Form / Short Form I / we shall / will. you / he / she / it / they will. I / we shall not / shan't. will not / won't. you / he / she / it / they will not / won't.

2 O future perfect continuous forma-se da seguinte maneira: SHALL / WILL HAVE BEEN + (base do verbo) + ING onde SHALL / WILL HAVE BEEN = verbo auxiliar have no future perfect simple Emprega-se o shall:

na 1 pessoa do singular e plural principalmente em ingls britnico em linguagem formal na escrita, no se emprega a forma contrada 'll

Emprega-se o will:

em todas as pessoas (incluindo a 1) do singular e plural em forma contrada 'll em linguagem informal

O shall menos utilizado hoje em dia. Na negativa, adiciona-se not a seguir ao verbo auxiliar modal shall / will. Na interrogativa, invertem-se o verbo auxiliar modal shall / will e o sujeito.

41 3 O future perfect continuous empregue para descrever uma ao contnua (muitas vezes j em progresso) que acaba antes de um determinado momento no futuro, e frequentemente utilizado com by+(expresso temporal): Example By the end of next month I will have been living here for three years. By the end of the month he will have been teaching for twenty years. She will have been working for this school for 20 years next year. Significado No fim do prximo ms faz trs anos que vivo aqui. No fim do ms faz vinte anos que ele leciona. No prximo ano vai fazer 20 anos que ela est no servio nesta escola.

O future perfect simple tem as seguintes formas: na afirmativa: Full Form I shall have done will you will have done he will have done she it we shall have done will you will have done they will have done Significado eu farei tu fars Ele far ela ele(a) ns faremos vs farieis eles(as) faro

Na afirmativa, somente a forma contrada de will empregue: I / you / he / she / it / we / they 'll have done na negativa: Full Form shall not have done will you will not have done he will not have done she it we shall not have done will you will not have done they will not have done I Forma contrada de shall not: I / we shan't have done Forma contrada de will not: I / you / he / she / it / we / they won't have done I / you / he / she / it / we / they 'll not have done

42

na interrogativa: Full Form I have done? shall will will you have done? he have done? will she it we have done? shall will will you have done? will they have done?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form I not have done? shall will will you not have done? he not have done? will she it we not have done? shall will will you not have done? will they not have done? Short Form I have done? shan't won't won't you have done? he have done? won't she it we have done? shan't won't won't you have done? won't they have done?

nas respostas breves: Full Form / Short Form I / we shall / will. you / he / she / it / they will. I / we shall not / shan't. will not / won't. you / he / she / it / they will not / won't.

Yes, No,

43 2 O future perfect simple forma-se da seguinte maneira: SHALL / WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE onde SHALL / WILL HAVE = verbo auxiliar have no future simple e PAST PARTICIPLE = verbo principal no particpio passado NOTA: O PAST PARTICIPLE dos verbos regulares termina em -ed (ex. washed, played, listened, etc.). Dos irregulares, terminado de forma diferente (ex. broken, done, known, etc.).

Emprega-se o shall:

na 1 pessoa do singular e plural principalmente em ingls britnico em linguagem formal na escrita, no se emprega a forma contrada 'll

Emprega-se o will:

em todas as pessoas (incluindo a 1) do singular e plural em forma contrada 'll em linguagem informal

O shall menos utilizado hoje em dia. Na negativa, adiciona-se not a seguir ao verbo auxiliar modal shall / will. Na interrogativa, invertem-se o verbo auxiliar modal shall / will e o sujeito. 3 O future perfect simple empregue para descrever algo que ter acabado antes de qualquer outro tempo ou algo no futuro, e frequentemente utilizado com by+(expresso temporal):

Example By the end of the year I will have saved 500. By the end of this week he will have written twenty letters. She will have done all her exams by Friday. If you don't hurry, the train will have left before you get there.

Significado At ao fim do ano eu pouparei 500. At ao fim desta semana ele escrever vinte cartas. Ela far todos os exames at sexta-feira. Se no apressares, o comboio partir antes de tu l chegares.

44

1 O future do verbo there+be (haver) tem as seguintes formas:

na afirmativa: Full Form there will be A forma contrada na afirmativa there'll be.
(1)

Significado haver (1) (singular / plural)

A traduo (para a lngua portuguesa) da conjugao do future do verbo there+be apenas um exemplo entre vrias outras possibilidades, estando este tempo verbal dependente do contexto de uma frase.

na negativa: Full Form there will not be Short Form there won't be

na interrogativa: Full Form will there be ?

na interrogativa negativa: Full Form will there not be ? Short Form won't there be ?

2 Consideremos a frase seguinte: Example Someone will be in the warehouse. Significado Estar algum no armazm.

O sujeito da frase (someone) satisfaz duas condies:


indefinido seguido do verbo be (will be)

Sendo assim, mais frequente dizer-se em ingls: Example There will be someone in the warehouse. Significado Estar (2) algum no armazm.

45

sem alterar o sentido da frase, colocando there no incio da frase e o sujeito (someone) depois do verbo be (will be).

Vejamos mais alguns exemplos: Example (Many people will be in the party.) There will be many people in the party. (Someone will be in the office.) There will be someone in the office. (Someone will be waiting for you.) There will be someone waiting for you.
(2)

Significado Haver (ou Estar) muita gente na festa. Algum estar (2) no escritrio. Algum estar (2) sua espera.

Literalmente, a palavra traduzida deveria ser Haver.

3 Quando o verbo be empregue para exprimir existncia, a utilizao do there+be necessria: Example There will be plenty of time. There will be a lot of complaints. Significado Haver muito tempo. Haver muitas queixas.

Repare que estes exemplos no podem ser convertidos como os do ponto anterior: From There will be plenty of time. There will be a lot of complaints. To Plenty of time will be. A lot of complaints will be.

Texto complementar 6: * Atividade na plataforma

46 FALSOS COGNATOS (FALSE FRIENDS): 1 Os false cognates ou false friends so palavras que tm a mesma forma, ou forma semelhante, em duas lnguas, mas que tm significados diferentes. Essas semelhanas costumam induzir os estudantes portugueses da lngua inglesa em empreg-las incorrectamente a = um, uma a (artigo definido) = the actual = real, verdadeiro actual = current, present actually = na realidade, efectivamente actualmente = at present, nowadays agenda = ordem do dia agenda = diary alias = tambm chamado; pseudnimo, outro nome alis = as a matter of fact; besides; incidentally; nevertheless almond = amndoa almndega = meatball bank = banco (instituio bancria); margem (do rio) banco (de assento) = bench, stool boat = barco, bote, pequeno navio boate (clube nocturno) = nightclub cave = caverna, gruta cave = basement, wine-cellar celebrate = celebrar (no sentido de festejar, comemorar) celebrar (um contrato) = make (a contract) comprehensive = completo, abrangente compreensivo = understanding condescending = com ar de superioridade; com ar protector condescendente = complaisant, acquiescent, obliging constipation = priso de ventre constipao = a cold

47 costume = traje, vesturio costume = custom, habit cup = chvena; taa (prmio, trofu) copo = glass decorate = decorar (no sentido de enfeitar) decorar (no sentido de memorizar) = memorize, learn by heart devolve = passar a ser da competncia de; transferir, delegar devolver = give back, return; refund discussion = discusso (no sentido de debate) discusso (briga, desavena) = argument, quarrel disinterested = imparcial desinteressado = uninterested dislocate = deslocar (de articulao, ex. brao, ombro) deslocar (movimento) = go, move, commute, travel eventually = finalmente; por fim eventualmente = fortuitously, accidentally, by chance exit = sada; sair xito = result, success; hit (in films, music, etc.) explication = explicao ou interpretao (de um texto literrio) explicao (lio) = private lesson explore = explorar (regio desconhecida); examinar, pesquisar explorar (tirar partido de; tirar proveito da boa-f) = exploit facilities = instalaes, facilidades (meios de conseguir um fim) facilidades (meios de conseguir um fim) = facilities formation = formao (no sentido de disposio, constituio) formao (profissional) = training investigation = investigao, indagao investigao (estudo cientfico) = research journal = revista (especializada) jornal = newspaper lecture = conferncia, palestra; aula; sermo, descompostura leitura = reading

48 maggot = larva de insecto magote = a crowd of people; a heap of things manifestation = manifestao (no sentido de mostrar, revelar) manifestao (no sentido de protesto) = demonstration notorious = de reputao duvidosa, com m fama notrio = well-known paper = papel; jornal; prova de exame papel (de um actor) = role particular = especfico; especial; exigente, minucioso particular (pessoal) = private pass = passar; passar em; passar por; aprovar passar (a limpo) = make (a fair copy) petrol = gasolina petrleo = oil, petroleum pilot = piloto (de avio, barco, ou porto); prtico (de nutica) piloto (automvel de corrida) = racing driver prejudice = preconceito prejuzo (dano) = damage, harm, loss presently = em breve, logo presentemente = at present pretend = fingir, simular pretender (fazer) = intend (to do) process = tratar, processar (substncia, material, etc.) processar (jurdico) = prosecute, sue, take proceedings against prorogue = interromper sesso parlamentar prorrogar = extend, prolong; adjourn prosecute = processar (no sentido jurdico) prosseguir (estudos) = continue push = empurrar puxar = pull reclaim = recuperar; reivindicar; desbravar; aterrar (com terra) reclamar = complain; claim; demand

49

reform = reformar (no sentido de modificar, melhorar, corrigir) reformar (no sentido de aposentar) = retire repair = consertar, reparar reparar (no sentido de notar) = notice resume = retomar, reassumir, reatar, recomear resumir = summarize, sum up, condense revise = rever, reexaminar revistar = search, frisk, inspect secretary = secretrio, secretria (pessoa) secretria (mesa) = desk, writing-desk sensible = sensato, razovel sensvel = sensitive soldier = militar (do exrcito) soldado (raso) = private stranger = pessoa estranha; desconhecido estrangeiro = foreigner sympathetic = compreensivo, compassivo simptico = kind, nice tranquillize = tranquilizar (com sedativo) tranquilizar = calm, quieten, reassure

50 PALAVRAS DE MLTIPLOS SENTIDOS (Lexical Ambiguity of Portuguese)

comum a todas as lnguas a ocorrncia de palavras com significado ou funo gramatical mltiplos. Freqentemente este mltiplo sentido em um idioma no tem correspondente em outro. Quer dizer: os termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas reas de significado entre diferentes idiomas. Este fenmeno, tambm chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer idioma; assim como o portugus, o ingls tambm tem inmeras palavras de mltiplo significado. , entretanto a ocorrncia do fenmeno na lngua me do aluno que causa maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular sempre mais difcil do que o inverso. Generalizar ou representar diferentes idias atravs de um nico smbolo pode se comparar ao ato de misturar o feijo e o arroz numa mesma panela: uma tarefa que no exige muito esforo. Especificar diferentes idias, as quais estamos acostumados a generalizar em uma nica palavra, em palavras diferentes da lngua estrangeira, pode-se comparar ao ato de separar o arroz e o feijo que haviam sido misturados. Certamente uma tarefa muito mais difcil. Portanto, sempre que diferentes idias representadas pela mesma palavra na lngua me do aluno corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda lngua, o mesmo ter dificuldades em expressar-se corretamente. As diferentes palavras do ingls que correspondem aos diferentes significados da palavra do portugus, podem eventualmente funcionar como sinnimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre os dois idiomas.

Exemplos no link: [http://www.sk.com.br/sk-mmw.html]

51 AFIXOS FORMAO DE PALAVRAS

A Morfologia ocupa um lugar importante no ingls tcnico e cientfico. Muitas palavras so formadas pelo acrscimo de uma slaba ou partcula antes (prefixo) ou depois (sufixo) de sua raiz. Para interpretar o significado da palavra atravs de sua anlise, deve-se decompor a palavra em pequenas partes, tais como: raiz, prefixo e sufixo. Prefixo o elemento que vem antes da raiz e altera o significado da palavra. Sufixo o elemento que vem depois da raiz e geralmente faz com que a palavra mude de classe gramatical.

PREFIXOS IN-, IM-, UN-, IL-, A-, NON-, DE- (so prefixos que expressam negao: no, oposto a) Exs.: inactive, impossible, unusual, irrellevant,illegal, amoral, non-smoker, deforestation. mis - (expressa incorreo, erro). Ex.: miscalculate dis - (expressa negao). Ex.: disconnect. mal - (pejorativo). Ex..: malformed. pseudo (imitao). Ex.: pseudo-christianity.

Prefixos que expressam tamanho ou grau: Super (acima, mais do que). Ex.: Out (fazer alguma coisa mais rpida, etc. do que). Ex.: outrun. Sur (sobre e acima). Ex.: surtax Sub (menos, mais abaixo do que). Ex.:subhuman. Over (demais). Ex.: overeat. Under (de menos). Ex.: underprivileged. Hyper (extremamente). Ex.: hypercritical. Ultra (extremamente e alm de). Ex.: ultra-violet. Mini (pouco). Ex.: miniskirt. Arch (supremo). Ex.: archduke.

52

Prefixos Locativos: Super (sobre). Ex.: superstructure Sub (abaixo, em grau inferior). Ex.: subconscious. Inter (entre). Ex.: international. Trans (atravs de, de um lugar para outro). Ex.: transatlantic.

Prefixos de tempo e ordem: Fore (antes). Ex.: foretell. Pre (antes). Ex.: pre-marital. Post (depois). Ex.: post-classical. Ex (anterior). Ex.: ex-husband. Re (novamente de volta). Ex.: re-evaluate.

Prefixos de atitude: Co (juntar). Ex.: cooperate. Counter (contra, em oposio). Ex.: counter-revolution. Anti (contra). Ex.: anti-war. Pro (a favor de). Ex.: pro-common market.

Prefixos de nmero: Uni (um). Ex.: unilateral. Mono (um). Ex.: monotheism. Bi (dois). Ex.: bifocal. Di (dois). Ex.: dichotomy. Tri (trs). Ex.: tricycle. Multi (muitos). Ex.: multi-racial. Poly (muitos). Ex.: polygamy.

53 Outros prefixos: Auto (prprio). Ex.:autobiography. Neo (novo). Ex.: neo-gothic. Pan (todo, universal). Ex.: pan-African. Proto (primeiro, original). Ex.: prototype. Semi (metade). Ex.: semicircle. Vice (adjunto). Ex.: vice-president.

SUFIXOS

Formam substantivos: -ER, -EER, -OR, -STER (aquele que faz ao). Ex.: driver, engineer, instructor, gangster. -ANT, -ENT, (agente). Ex..: consultant, resident. -ATION, -TION, -ION, -MENT (estado, ao). Ex.: exploration, location, creation, advisement. -ee (significado passivo). Ex.: employee. -al (ao). Ex.: refusal. -age (quantidade). Ex.: wastage. -ing (atividade, resultado de uma atividade). Observe que a terminao ING pode indicar a forma de gerndio em ingls ou pode formar substantivos que funcionam como adjetivo. Ex.: She is driving now. / Inflation is a serious problem for developing countries. / This is na exciting idea. -ery (RY) (corpotamento, lugar de atividade, coletividade). Ex.: slavery, refinery. -let (sem importncia). Ex.: booklet. -ette (compacto). Ex.: kitchenette. -ess (forma o feminino). Ex.: waitress. -ese (nacionalidade). Ex.: chinese. -i (an) (pertence ou ligado a). Ex.: parisian, Elizabethan. -ite (membro de). Ex.: Israelite -dom (condio de). Ex.: kingdom.

54 -ist (ocupao). Ex.: violinist. -ism (atitude, movimento poltico). Ex.: idealism, comunism. -ness, -ity (estado, qualidade). Ex.: happiness, popularity. -hood (status). Ex.: boyhood. -ocracy (sistema de governo). Ex.:democracy. -ship (status, condio). Ex.: friendship.

Formam verbos: -ify,-ize (ise), -en: Ex.: simplify, realize ou realise, darken. -ed (formam o passado regular e a forma participal para formar adjetivos). Ex.: prepared, blue-eyed person.

Formam advrbios: -ly (equivale a MENTE em portugus). Ex.: loudly, quickly. -ward (movimento, direo). Ex.: backward (s), upward (s). wise (a maneira de). Ex.: clockwise.

Formam adjetivos: -able, -ible (capaz de, com caracterstica de). Ex.: comfortable, responsible. -esque (no estilo de). Ex.: Dantesque. -ful (cheio de, caracterizado por). Ex.: proposeful. -ish (pertencente a, parecido com). Ex.: youngish. -ic, -al (ial, ical) (relativo a). Ex.:heroic, criminal, editorial, musical. -ive (ative, itive) (exprimem gradao ou no gradao). Ex.: attractive, affirmative, sensitive. -less (sem, com falta de). Ex.: useless. -like (tendo a qualidade de). Ex.: childlike. -ous (euos, ious) (caracterizado por). Ex.: virtuous, courteous, vivacious. -y (semelhante, cheio de, coberto com). Ex.: hairy.

55

Palavras de Ligao - Coeso e coerncia textual

A seo anterior menciona elementos que ligam grupos nominais: preposies. H tambm elementos de ligao entre as frases e sentenas que modulam as idias dando-lhes sentido. A mensagem de um texto se constri medida que as idias se ligam uma s outras. Prevendo essa dinmica, o escritor supe que o leitor l as frases em seqncia de modo que ele ligue uma sentena quela anterior e, do mesmo modo, a informao de um pargrafo ao anterior, o que resulta em uma rede de significados. A relao das palavras e idias do texto nas frases ou entre elas, entre sentenas e pargrafos se realiza de duas formas importantes: a coeso textual e a coerncia textual. A coeso textual se realiza atravs de palavras usadas no lugar de outras ou mesmo para substituir uma idia como um todo. Assim, para no haver repetio h a retomada de idias e elementos j mencionados no texto atravs do uso de pronomes. Estes pronomes podem substituir substantivos, locues substantivas e at mesmo toda uma idia. No

entanto, o elo coesivo entre a palavra e seu referente deve ser o mais claro possvel sob risco de causar confuso e conseqente mal-entendidos quanto ao entendimento da mensagem do texto. H o risco destas palavras serem negligenciadas pelo leitor por serem pequenas. As palavras com referentes (ou antecedentes) podem ser numerais, pronomes demonstrativos, oblquos, por exemplo. A coerncia textual, por sua vez, inclui o uso de conjunes como operadores discursivos para o tipo de relao que existe entre as sentenas e idias em nvel de

sentenas e de pargrafos. A escolha das conjunes (mas, porm, por exemplo) estabelece a natureza da ligao entre as idias. Observe as frases: a. We went to school but the teacher didn't come. (but cria uma relao de oposio entre as idias das frases) b. The teacher came and we had a nice class. (and contextualiza a soma de idias) c. The teacher came, so we were happy. (so indica uma conseqncia) Desse modo, as idias se entrelaam semanticamente atravs desses elos (and, but) que do mesmo modo que as marcam, se unem no processo de construo textual e vo consequentemente influenciar no desenvolvimento do texto. Estes elos so chamados de

56 operadores (ou marcadores) discursivos. Tais operadores tm funes consagradas na lngua e portanto podem ser listados e dotados de previsibilidade funcional. A funo dos mais freqentes segue na tabela abaixo. operadores because; therefore; thus; as and; both...and although however but nevertheless so thus therefore If; in case unless for instance; for example; such as, like; so that funo razo, causa

adio

contraste; oposio concluso

condio

exemplificao propsito

ANEXOS

Exerccios

[ http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1939 ]

[ http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1949 ]

Exerccio 1: No site Computer history v em http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?category=cmptr e em http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?category=sl e faa um resumo comparativo da histria do software e da histria do computador nos anos de 39 a 49.

Exerccios
Exerccio 2:

History
The earliest imperative languages were the machine languages of the original computers. In these languages, instructions were very simple, which made hardware implementation easier, but hindered the creation of complex programs. FORTRAN, developed by John Backus at IBM starting in 1954, was the first major programming language to remove the obstacles presented by machine code in the creation of complex programs. FORTRAN was a compiled language that allowed named variables, complex expressions, subprograms, and many other features now common in imperative languages. The next two decades saw the development of a number of other major high-level imperative programming languages. In the late 1950s and 1960s, ALGOL was developed in order to allow mathematical algorithms to be more easily expressed, and even served as the operating system's target language for some computers. COBOL (1960) and BASIC (1964) were both attempts to make programming syntax look more like English. In the 1970s, Pascal was developed by Niklaus Wirth, and C was created by Dennis Ritchie while he was working at Bell Laboratories. Wirth went on to design Modula-2, and Oberon. For the needs of the United States Department of Defense, Jean Ichbiah and a team at Honeywell began designing Ada in 1978, after a 4-year project to define the requirements for the language. The specification was first published in 1983, with revisions in 1995 and 2005/6. The 1980s saw a rapid growth in interest in object-oriented programming. These languages were imperative in style, but added features to support objects. The last two decades of the 20th century saw the development of a considerable number of such programming languages. Smalltalk-80, originally conceived by Alan Kay in 1969, was released in 1980 by the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.

Exerccios
Drawing from concepts in another object-oriented languageSimula (which is considered to be the world's first object-oriented programming language, developed in the late 1960s)Bjarne Stroustrup designed C++, an object-oriented language based on C. C++ was first implemented in 1985. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the notable imperative languages drawing on objectoriented concepts were Perl, released by Larry Wall in 1987; Python, released by Guido van Rossum in 1990; PHP, released by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994; Java, first released by Sun Microsystems in 1994 and Ruby, released in 1995 by Yukihiro matz Matsumoto. Microsoft's .NET platform (2002) is at its core imperative as are its primary target languages, VB.NET and C#. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative_programming ]

Comente sobre o que esse texto fala utilizando as tecnicas de leitura: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Exerccios

[Conceitos de linguagem de programao Robert Sebesta]

Como no aprender Ingls

Exerccios

Hi everyone, na semana passada fiz o pedido do livro de Michael A. Jacobs, Como no aprender Ingls. A encomenda chegou e no consigo parar de ler. Eu recomendo principalmente para os estudantes que esto ou passaram do nvel pr-intermedirio. Sabe aqueles erros bobos que a gente comete toda hora? Aquelas dificuldades que somente quem fala Portugus tm? Ele responde. J no prefcio, o Prof. Michael faz um questionamento interessante. Voc gostaria, precisa ou quer aprender ingls? Eu acredito que dessas trs atitudes, aquela que te levar mais longe o querer. Vocs j perceberam que a desculpa do no tenho tempo superada pela motivao? Imagine que aquela pessoa que voc est de olho a um tempo te convide para um jantar. Voc vai dizer no? Se voc realmente quer, tempo no problema. Vou contar uma historinha. Entre os anos de 2003 e 2004, eu trabalhava o dia todo, de noite tinha que ir para a faculdade e nos finais de semana eu me dedicava aos trabalhos atrasados. Resultado, no tinha tempo livre para estudar as coisas que eu realmente gostava, uma delas era o Ingls. A soluo que encontrei foi acordar 30 minutos mais cedo todos os dias e estudar uma lio, eu usava um daqueles cursos vendidos em banca de revista. Foi sofrido, mas valeu a pena. Calma gente, no precisa chorar. Eu fiz isso porque estava motivado. A disciplina muito importante. If you dont want to lose it, use it.

The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer

Eddie W.L. Cheng The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Danny C.K. Ho The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Keywords

Learning, Motivation, Job satisfaction, Involvement, Commitment, Career development

Introduction
In the twenty-first century, fierce competition among organisations will continue to be the central issue. While employee performance is one of the critical measures emphasised by the top management, employees are more concerned about their own productivity and are increasingly aware of the accelerated obsolescence of knowledge and skills in this turbulent environment. Better equipping oneself by learning new knowledge becomes a survival strategy in the career world. As a result, ``upgraded'' employees look for improving their job performance, as well as enhancing their future career prospects. Obviously, when employees transfer the learning content to their jobs, a win-win situation for both organisations and employees can be accomplished. This inevitably provides the strong ground for undertaking the test of the degree of actual transfer of newly acquired knowledge and skills to the jobs. During the past decade, learning transfer was a popular research topic that had attracted a lot of applied psychologists and management researchers to examine its effectiveness in task skill learning. In general, learning transfer can be defined as the application, generalisation and retention of newly acquired knowledge and skills in the workplace (Ford and Weissbein, 1997). Yet, among all kinds of knowledge and skills, managerial skills (also known as management knowledge) are relatively more crucial but less focused (Ford and Kraiger, 1995). Managerial skills, including interpersonal and supervisory skills, are said to be transferable to different work settings while task skills are specific to individual job requirements. Research focusing on managerial skills should therefore have higher value to learning transfer literature
The research register for this journal is available at http://www.mcbup.com/research_registers

This article examines a parsimonious model that specifies the effects of job involvement and career commitment on learning motivation and learning transfer, using structural equation modelling. The ``best fitting'' model is achieved because it has surpassed all the goodness-of-fit indices including the chi-square statistic. The results indicated that career commitment was positively related to learning motivation and learning transfer. In addition, suppressor effect may help to explain the non-significant relationships between job involvement and learning motivation, and between job involvement and learning transfer.

Abstract

Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027 # MCB University Press [ISSN 1362-0436]

with regard to the applicability of learning. In addition to improving job performance, upgrading managerial skills may enhance employees' employability. Management development is therefore essential in the contemporary management philosophy, which involves the provision of management learning programs. Generally, management learning programs can be either formal education programs (e.g. Master's degree in Management) or other short-term skillspecific courses (e.g. Certificate of Interpersonal Skill Training). In the sense of management development, formal programs are more appropriate and become more popular. Kirkbride and Tang (1990), in a recent survey, revealed that formal management courses were the most popular method of management development in Hong Kong. This may be explained by the cultural preference of Chinese who are fond of didactic teaching and learning styles (Kirkbride et al., 1989). Besides, due to a high credentialism in Asia, employees with a higher level education (e.g. a higher degree) are what Asian organisations want. Among different higher degree programs, the MBA (Master of Business Administration) degree is widely accepted as the most promising stepping-stone to management development. Since an MBA program incurs a rather expensive investment to both employees and organisations, it is worth ascertaining the transferability of the MBA knowledge to the workplace. The past learning transfer literature is not expected to have high value in helping practitioners to increase positive transfer (Baldwin and Ford, 1988). Although the early work of Noe (1986) and Baldwin and Ford (1988) attracted many research efforts to investigate factors affecting transfer of learning, the growth of theoretical knowledge and the advancement of training practices are loosely coupled. In fact, training
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www.emerald-library.com/ft

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Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

practitioners have difficulties in transforming some highly abstract constructs and complicated theoretical models into a set of principles and procedures, so that they can be applied to design, conduct, and improve training programs easily. Additionally, most of the previous studies examined task skill transfer, which were tailor-made for designing and testing the tasks required by the participating organisations. These task skills are specific to particular contexts which other organisations may not share. Practitioners hesitate to adapt such research findings to training programs and work settings that are different from the original ones. For obtaining ``generic'' results, MBA learning transfer would be an appropriate research focus. Because employees studying an MBA program might improve their job performance and enhance their future career prospects, it is worth looking into to what extent their job and career attitudes motivate them to learn and facilitate the transfer of what they have learned back to their jobs. Among different constructs of job and career attitudes, job involvement and career commitment are essential for examination (Baldwin and Ford, 1988), which has been tested recently (e.g. Mathieu et al., 1992). The study of their effects on learning motivation and learning transfer from MBA programs can make a contribution to the literature of the learning field. This research also attempts to contrast the effects of these two independent variables in order to develop a strategy for facilitating the MBA learning and transfer.

Learning motivation can be defined as the specific desire of a learner to learn the content of a training program (Noe, 1986; Noe and Schmitt, 1986). Noe (1986) suggested that, when there is no motivation, individuals, who may have the ability to master the training content, may fail to do so. Clark et al. (1993) further stated that training motivation is crucial for the most sophisticated training program to be effective. Some studies have indicated that learning motivation is related to program completion (Hicks and Klimoski, 1987; Quinones, 1995; Ryman and Biersner, 1975), training performance (Baldwin et al., 1991; Facteau et al., 1995; Mathieu et al., 1992; Noe and Schmitt, 1986; Tannenbaum et al., 1991) and task performance (Quinones, 1995). In general, past studies have revealed that higher levels of motivation to learn result in improved performance in learning (Quinones, 1995). However, there is a paucity of research that has examined the effect of learning motivation on learning transfer. Therefore, the impact of learning motivation on learning transfer of MBA graduates should be examined. Given the reported influence of learning motivation on learning performance, our proposition relates learning motivation to learning transfer. H1: Learning motivation will be positively related to learning transfer. As it is suggested that trainee motivation and attitudes play an important role in determining training effectiveness (Noe, 1986), identifying factors that have strong influence on learning motivation is of high interest to both academics and practitioners. Job involvement is proposed as having such influence. Job involvement is defined as the extent to which individuals identify psychologically with work or the importance of work to the total self-image (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965). Job involvement is conceptualised as a cognitive state of psychological identification with the job which, in turn, depends on the needsatisfying potentialities of the job (Kanungo, 1982). In a training situation, highly jobinvolved trainees anticipate higher performance as a result of doing well in training (Mathieu et al., 1992). Therefore, trainees' motivation to improve job-related skills may be affected by the extent to which they are involved in their jobs (Noe, 1986). In other words, trainees with a high level of job involvement are more likely to be motivated to learn new skills. This is because participation in training activities is perceived by individuals as a way to increase skill levels, improve job performance and elevate feelings of self-worth (Noe, 1986). Noe

Learning motivation

Job involvement

The proposed model


Figure 1 exhibits the proposed model, which hypothesises that both job involvement and career commitment will positively affect learning motivation and learning transfer, while learning motivation will positively affect learning transfer.

Figure 1 The proposed model

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Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

and Schmitt (1986) found that highly jobinvolved trainees are more motivated to learn and transfer the skills to the job. Clark, cited in Facteau et al. (1995), also found that the variation in training motivation is significantly explained by individuals' job involvement. So, in the current study, job involvement is hypothesised to predict learning motivation and learning transfer positively. H2a: Job involvement will be positively related to learning motivation. H2b: Job involvement will be positively related to learning transfer. Trainees with high commitment to their career or work are likely to exert considerable effort towards learning the training content, because these trainees have the intention of improving their job performance. When they attend training programs, they invest more effort in learning new skills or knowledge. The purpose of their investment is to increase their competence in performing their work and/or to secure their employability. Although career commitment and work commitment are correlated, they are two different concepts (Hall, 1971; Morrow, 1983) and may often have different antecedents and consequences (Morrow, 1983). Career commitment is a component of the subjective dimension of career. It is defined as ``an affective concept which represents identification with a series of related jobs in a specific field of work and is behaviourally expressed in an ability to cope with disappointments in the pursuit of career goals'' (Aryee and Tan, 1992, p. 189). One who shows more career commitment is able to persist in pursuing career goals, even if confronting obstacles and setbacks (Colarelli and Bishop, 1990). Career commitment has been included in several integrative models of organisational behaviour to study its relationship with various work-related outcomes (e.g. Aryee and Tan, 1992; Mobley et al., 1979; Price and Mueller, 1981). For example, it is positively and significantly related to both skill development (Aryee and Tan, 1992) and job performance (Darden et al., 1989), whereas it is negatively related to actual turnover (Bedeian et al., 1991). Although its effect on training has not been widely studied, the influence of its energising component (i.e. career planning) on learning transfer has been investigated (London, 1985). Colarelli and Bishop (1990) also suggested that career commitment is specifically relevant to individuals who try to develop a high level of skills, as it can help them persist long enough through years of training, development and experience across different

organisational settings. In an MBA program, which involves a high level of skill acquisition, individuals with a high level of career commitment may be motivated to sustain learning when they think that acquiring new knowledge and skills would help them remain in their chosen careers. Therefore, career commitment is proposed to influence learning motivation and learning transfer positively. H3a: Career commitment will be positively related to learning motivation. H3b: Career commitment will be positively related to learning transfer.

Career commitment

Research method
Data for the study were collected from those who had graduated from part-time MBA programs offered in Hong Kong not more than one year ago. Graduates within this range were assumed to be more likely to prevent memory distortion of perception responses and avoid obsolescence of the learned MBA content. All MBA program providers in Hong Kong (altogether 45 local and overseas higher institutions) were invited through telephone contacts. Only four (two local and two overseas) universities agreed to participate. Of those 155 identical questionnaires already sent out, 81 completed questionnaires were returned and usable, representing a response rate of 52.3 per cent. With respect to the demographic profile, 70.4 per cent of the respondents were in the 31-40 age group (n = 81). This was consistent with the job positions in that 63 per cent (n = 81) were middle level managers. In addition, 77.8 per cent of the respondents (n = 80) were male, while 66.7 per cent (n = 77) were married. Approximately half of the respondents (49.4 per cent, n = 80) reported that the organisation in which they worked employed more than 900 employees. Of the respondents, 77.8 per cent (n = 81) were working in the service sector, which might reflect the importance of this sector in Hong Kong's economy. Respondents' (n = 81) undergraduate majors were Business (34.6 per cent), Social Science (8.6 per cent), Arts and Humanities (8.6 per cent), Engineering (28.4 per cent), Computing and Information Management (8.6 per cent), and others (11.2 per cent). Their job functions included Human Resources (11.1 per cent), Marketing/ Sales (17.3 per cent), Finance/Accounting (19.8 per cent), Production (12.3 per cent), MIS (9.9 per cent), Engineering (8.6 per cent), and others (21 per cent). The demographic profile of respondents indicates that non-response biases were not likely to affect further analysis.

Participants

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Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

The endogenous and exogenous variables depicted in the model were measured using multi-item scales. Measures for the variables examined in the study are described hereinafter. The respondents were asked to provide their answers according to a ``perceived'' learning transfer measure. A 4-item scale was used to measure the extent to which MBA graduates transfer what they have learned back to the workplace. Response options ranged from (1) ``strongly disagree'' to (5) ``strongly agree''. A sample item is ``I incorporate skills, competencies, and knowledge learned in the MBA program into my daily work activities''. The scale's alpha reliability in this study is 0.88. A 4-item scale was used to measure the degree of learning motivation in an MBA program. Response options ranged from (1) ``strongly disagree'' to (5) ``strongly agree''. A sample item is ``I tried to learn as much as I could from the MBA program''. The scale's alpha reliability in this study is 0.85. A 4-item scale was used to measure the degree of job involvement of MBA graduates. Response options ranged from (1) ``disagree very much'' to (6) ``agree very much''. A sample item is ``I am very much involved personally in my job''. The scale's alpha reliability in this study is 0.76. A 4-item scale was used to measure the degree of career commitment of MBA graduates. Response options ranged from (1) ``strongly disagree'' to (5) ``strongly agree''. A sample item is ``I strongly identify with my chosen line of work/career field''. The scale's alpha reliability in this study is 0.71. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine statistically the specified relationships for this study. Recently, SEM has been extensively used for model testing. It is a powerful statistical tool that can examine the extent to which the model fits the data and the level of statistical significance of the hypothesised relationships. This research involved the test of the relationships between variables that could not be directly observed and measured (known as latent constructs), which were then measured by some observable indicators or items. These observable indicators formed the multi-item scales, which, for ensuring measurement adequacy, must secure reliability and construct,

Measures

Learning transfer

Learning motivation

Job involvement

convergent and discriminant validity. SEM can be used to validate scales and possibly modify scales for better psychometric properties since the validity of measuring scales is crucial to establish the confidence in substantive theory building and research findings (Chau, 1997). SEM permits the simultaneous estimation of both the parameters linking observable indicators to latent variables (the measurement equations) and the parameters linking the latent variables to each other (the structural equations). The model allowed for reciprocal causation among variables and correlated measurement errors (Joreskog and Sorbom, 1993). Procedurally, it helps to find the ``best fitting'' model by, in the first stage, establishing the ``best fitting'' measurement model, which then enters the second stage of testing the hypothesised structural model. The measurement model (or confirmatory factor model) specifies the relationships of the observed indicators to their posited underlying factors, while the structural model specifies the causal relationships among the latent variables as posited by the underlying theories (Segars and Grover, 1993). For computing the measurement and structural equations, LISREL (Linear Structural Relationships), which is a popular commercial statistical software, was used. Hypothesised relationships with strong theoretical support, multivariate normal distributions, interval scales, and an adequate size of sample are essential for model testing using LISREL (Chau, 1997).

Career commitment

Findings
The measurement model
Table I presents the goodness-of-fit indices for the a priori measurement model or the so-called ``combined'' measurement model (Clark et al., 1993). These indices suggested a moderate fit of the measurement model to the data. Except for the chi-square statistic and AGFI, other indices surpassed the recommended values suggested by Chau (1997). As shown in LISREL output, some indicators had very large positive standardised residuals, and attempted to load on more than one factor, as demonstrated by large modification indexes. These indicators were then deleted one by one, since the deletion of one indicator in a model may affect other parts of the model simultaneously (Segars and Grover, 1993), until the ``best fitting'' measurement model has been achieved. Based on the above-mentioned revisions, the revised measurement model, as shown in Table I, attained improvements in all goodness-of-fit indices (12 /df: 2.21 ? 1.15;

Statistical method

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Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

Table I Goodness-of-fit indices for the a priori and revised measurement models Measurement model A priori Revised Recommendeda value for good fit Chi-square (12 ) 702.75 [p = 0.0] 112.74 [p = 0.15] df 318 98 12 /df 2.21 1.15 3.0 AGFI 0.55 0.80 ! 0.80 RMSR 0.095 0.071 0.10 NNFI 0.89 0.99 ! 0.90 CFI 0.90 0.99 ! 0.90

p ! 0.05

Notes: AGFI = adjusted goodness-of-fit index; RMSR = root mean square residual; NNFI = non-normed fit index; CFI = comparative fit index Source: aChau (1997)

AGFI: 0.55 ? 0.80; RMSR: 0.095 ? 0.071; NNFI: 0.89 ? 0.99; CFI: 0.90 ? 0.99), and a nonsignificant chi-square statistic (p = 0.15) which exceeded the recommended level (p > 0.05). Individual measurement models for each variable were also computed to check whether they achieved a good fit to the data (Chau, 1997). As shown in Table II, all individual measurement models achieved a very good fit. Thus, the ``combined'' measurement model possessed good psychometric properties. The correlation matrix was shown in Table III. After the measurement model had been ``cleaned'' and said to be the best fit to the data, the revised model would enter into the second stage for testing the structural model. This stage of analysis involved the testing of the hypothesised relationships among the latent variables. The computation was based upon a simultaneous regression of the endogenous variable in the structural model on the predicted antecedents. Table IV

The structural model

presents the goodness-of-fit indices for the hypothesised structural model. All these indices surpassed the recommended values, and indicated that the model had a very good fit to the data (12 /df = 1.15; AGFI = 0.80; RMSR = 0.071; NNFI = 0.99; CFI = 0.99) and attained a non-significant chi-square statistic (p = 0.15). The results of the hypothesised structural model are depicted in Figure 2. The strength of the relationships among the constructs was represented by their path coefficients. The results indicate that learning motivation was a significant predictor of learning transfer (r = 0.31, p < 0.01), supporting H1. The hypotheses of career commitment being positively related to learning motivation (r = 0.74, p < 0.01) and learning transfer (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) were statistically significant. Thus, H3a and H3b were supported. The results also indicate that job involvement was not significantly related to learning motivation and learning transfer (H2a and H2b). These results appear to be consistent with the findings of previous

Table II Goodness-of-fit indices for individual variables in the revised measurement model Measurement model Job involvement Career commitment Learning motivation Learning transfer Chi-square (12 ) 0.15 [p = 0.93] 3.68 [p = 0.16] 0.11 [p = 0.95] 0.46 [p = 0.79] df 2 2 2 2 AGFI 1.00 0.89 1.00 0.99 RMSR 0.009 0.028 0.004 0.004 NNFI 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00 CFI 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Table III Correlations among latent variables Variable 1. Learning transfer 2. Learning motivation 3. Career commitment 4. Job involvement Likert scale (L) 5 points 5 points 5 points 6 points Mean (M) 3.74 3.88 3.51 3.76 M/La 0.75 0.78 0.70 0.63 SD 0.64 0.76 0.64 0.93 1 (0.88) 0.338* 0.527* 0.409* 2 (0.85) 0.151 0.079 3 4

(0.71) 0.488* (0.76)

Notes: Numbers in parentheses on diagonal are coefficient alphas; n = 81; a M/L ratios make the comparison of variables meaningful. The higher the ratio's value, the more the respondents agreed on the extent of the variable's existence; * p < 0.01 (two-tailed) [ 24 ]

Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

Table IV Goodness-of-fit indices for the hypothesised structural model Model Structural model Recommended* value for good fit Source: * Chau (1997)
research (Mathieu et al., 1992; Facteau et al., 1995). Comparing the results of the job and career attitudes, it seems that the pursuit of an MBA degree may represent an individual's desire to enhance his/her employability rather than job performance. moderating effects can be integrated into a series of small models for testing. From their findings, a comprehensive view can be synthesised. The non-significant relationship between job involvement and learning transfer may be explained by one of the two conditions for detecting the presence of a suppressor effect (Cohen and Cohen, 1983). According to the correlation matrix (in Table II), job involvement and learning transfer were significantly correlated (r = 0.409, p < 0.01). However, the correlations of career commitment with job involvement (r = 0.488, p < 0.01) and learning transfer (r = 0.527, p < 0.01) are even more significant; and thereby, career commitment, acting as a suppressor, suppressed the effect of job involvement on learning transfer. As Facteau et al. (1995) suggested, a suppressor variable suppresses the effect of other independent variables in explaining variance in a dependent variable. Since career commitment is positively related to learning motivation and learning transfer, it is interesting to know what factors affect career commitment. By identifying these factors, strategies for improving the level of career commitment of individuals can be formulated. Darden et al. (1989), in their study of the retail salespeople, found that a friendly, participatory approach to supervision and perceived rewards are antecedents of career commitment to retailing. Future research can incorporate these variables to examine this in the context of managerial skills' transfer. It is likely that employees working under supervisors with participative management style feel more favourable in predicting their future career paths, which in turn increases their commitment to their vocation. Moreover, the more the employees perceive that rewards such as recognition, promotion, and bonuses are associated with their respective performance, the greater will be their career commitment. Other personal attributes, such as mastery orientation (Ford et al., 1998), and environmental factors, such as rate of technology advancement and demands for new skills, are expected to affect career commitment. The major findings of this research reveal that career commitment is positively related

Chi-square (12 ) 112.74 [p = 0.15]

df 98

12 /df 1.15 3.0

AGFI 0.80 ! 0.80

RMSR 0.071 0.10

NNFI 0.99 ! 0.90

CFI 0.99 ! 0.90

p ! 0.05

Discussion
This research used a cross-sectional, selfreported methodology to collect a set of data for deriving the hypothesised model. Despite the criticism of using such a design, this methodology provides a relatively early step in explaining phenomena of interest and is possible to draw important insights (Spector, 1994). The methodology helps to understand how people feel about their career and jobs, and view their learning efforts and the use of their newly acquired knowledge and skills. On the other hand, the sample used was limited to MBA learning transfer. Caution is necessary in making any generalisation of the results to other management development programs, including formal programs (e.g. Master of Management or Doctor of Business Administration) and short courses. Nevertheless, the study has implications for researchers and practitioners. This research examined a parsimonious model of learning transfer. As mentioned previously, it is good to start testing a smaller or simple model using SEM. A series of small models can be developed to examine different sets of associated variables. For example, variables with mediating and/or

Implications for research

Figure 2 Path coefficients of the hypothesised structural model

Implications for practice

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Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

to learning motivation and learning transfer. It is clear that people with strong career commitment are more likely to plan for their career paths. Enhancing future career prospects and improving personal performance are two major career goals. For enhancing future career prospects, people should expand their employability. The demographic profile of this study disclosed that 65 per cent of the respondents were non-business graduates. It appears that these graduates pursued an MBA because they perceived their inadequacy in management competencies. In general, managerial skills appear to be as important as task skills. Most often, some short courses, such as supervisory or interpersonal skills training, are useful to those who are unsure of their ability to deal with human-relations problems. However, pursing an MBA degree would not only benefit them in fulfilling their job assignments productively, but also upgrade their managerial skills to expand their employability. On the other hand, improving personal performance can enhance the chance for promotion. As shown in the descriptive findings of Kirkbride and Tang (1990), organisations in Hong Kong selected managers for further management development on the basis of promotion prospects or plans. For achieving their career goals, such strong career committed people would enrol in a highstanding management program, such as the MBA. They would put more effort into completing the program, and would try to apply what they have learned in the program back to their jobs, intending to improve their job performance and advance in their career paths. Although the results did not show a significant relationship between job involvement and learning motivation, and between job involvement and learning transfer, organisations could not ignore the effect of job involvement on personal performance. As shown in Table III, the relatively low score (M/L = 0.63) of job involvement may be explained by those graduates who are more concerned about their own personal development. They may not prepare them for long-term engagement with the organisations in which they work. This is consistent with the work culture in Hong Kong where job security is not anticipated. Owing to various reasons such as uncertain business environment, pressure to cut costs, reengineering and restructuring, more organisations would like to sign short-term contracts with employees. For example, universities in Hong Kong usually sign a threeyear renewable contract with academic staff. In addition, due to the lack of a life-long retirement fund and inadequate lay-off subsidy, people in Hong Kong are striving to

earn more money to secure their retirement and unexpected jobless living. As a result, jobhopping is common in Hong Kong. This may influence the graduates to distinguish their jobs from their careers. They treat their careers as a life-long process and their jobs as fulfilling short-term objectives. They pay more attention to their careers, especially when they know that organisations are not concerned about their advancements. This is reflected by the fact that most of the MBA students in Hong Kong are self-financed. Nevertheless, career commitment and job involvement are significantly correlated (as shown in the correlation matrix). Therefore, employees may feel there is a brighter future if they become more involved personally in their jobs, leading to better job performance. To enhance the learning habits of employees, organisations should plan to establish employee development schemes and give employees a visible future promotion ladder from within the organisation. Prospectively, a mandatory provident fund scheme for unemployment and retirement protection will be implemented in Hong Kong in the near future, which is expected to improve the degree of job involvement of employees. Once this is achieved, the more employees become involved in their jobs, the greater their learning attitudes and their eagerness to apply what they have learned on their jobs.

Conclusion
This paper examined a parsimonious model that specifies the effects of job involvement and career commitment on learning motivation and learning transfer. The results indicated that career commitment significantly predicted learning motivation and learning transfer. This reflects that MBA graduates were more willing to learn and transfer what they have learned to their jobs when they were more concerned about their personal development and employability. Although the path coefficients of the relationships between job involvement and learning motivation and between job involvement and learning transfer were not significant, they were still significantly correlated. The likely emergence of the suppressor effect preserves our attention to its impact on learning. This paper also suggests further research to identify the antecedents of career commitment in order to design strategies for improving the performance of management development programs.

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Eddie W.L. Cheng and Danny C.K. Ho The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer Career Development International 6/1 [2001] 2027

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