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FLOW MEASUREMENT

Instruction manual

Contents
1 Description 2 Specifications 3 Installation requirements 4 Installation Commissioning

5 Troubleshooting 6 Components used 7 Packing slip 8 Warranty

9 Theory 10 Experiments 11 Components manuals

Apex Innovations

The set up is designed to study following different type of units used for flow measurement. 1) Venturimeter 2) Orifice meter 3) Pitot tube 4) Rotameter 5) Water meter Setup consists of flow measurement units under study, supply tank, Submersible pump for closed loop water circulation, acrylic measuring tank with graduated scale and differential pressure measuring arrangement mounted on stand alone structure.

Product Flow Measurement Product code 316 Venturimeter Size 18.5 mm, Bore 10 mm, Acrylic Orifice meter Size 18.5 mm, Bore 12 mm, Acrylic Pitot tube Size 18.5 mm, Acrylic Rotameter 60-600 LPH Water meter Size BSP, brass, Least count 1 lit Supply tank Capacity 8 lit, SS304 Measuring Tank Capacity 3 lit, Acrylic Pressure difference Tube with graduated scale Pump Discharge 1800 lph, Head 4 m, type submersible Piping BSP, CPVC Overall dimensions 500Wx400Dx650H mm Shipping details Gross volume 0.19m , Gross weight 45kg, Net weight 25kg
3

Electric supply 5A, three pin socket with switch (1 Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single No.) phase electric supply with proper Water supply earthing. (Neutral Earth voltage less Distilled water @10 liters than 5 VAC)

Apex Innovations

INSTALLATION

Unpack the box(es) received and ensure that all material is received as per packing slip (provided in instruction manual). In case of short supply or breakage contact Apex Innovations / your supplier for further actions. Remove packing wire inserted in the rotameter. Remove loose components inside the supply tank. Fit small loose pipe to the drain valve provided at the bottom of the measuring tank. Place the supply tank below the set up. Electric supply: Before connecting electric supply ensure that supply voltage is 230 V AC and earth neutral voltage is less than 5 V Ac.

COMMISSIONING Components

Details

Rotameter Make Eureka, Model PG 7, Range 60-600 lph, Remove the supply tank and fill with distilled water. Place the supply tank at its Connection BSP vertical, screwed, Packing location. Note that the measuring tank drain pipe is inside the supply tank. neoprene Water Ensure that the vent valve on the rubber bulb is fully closed. meter Make Ananad, Model KNS 15, Class A, Type Multijet, Keep the flow regulating valve (V1) 50% open, keep drain valve (V2) 100% non magnetic, Size 15mm (1/2 BSP) with end open and switch on the pump. connection Pump Check the working of rotameter by manipulating flowModel regulating valve Type (V1) Make U.P. National Mfrs. Ltd., THS 4000, submersible, Head 4 m, 1800 lph Watts Set the flow rate to 60 lph. Press rubber bulb 2-3 times todischarge, lower down the 60, 240 AC, 50Hz water levels in the manometerVolts tubes. Gently tap the manometer tubes to remove air entrapped. Loosen the vent valve on the rubber bulb slightly. The water shall rise in manometer tubes. Set the water level at mid scale of the manometer. Ensure that total air bubbles are removed by varying the flow rate from minimum to maximum range. ( The average level in the manometer can be raised by slightly venting out the air from vent valve of the air bulb or it can be lowered by pumping air by rubber bulb.) NOTE: For longer shut down, remove water from the supply tank and clean it.

Note: For component specific problems refer components manual

Apex Innovations

Box No.1/1 1 2

Size W475xD575xH700 mm; Volume:0.19m3 Set up assembly Instruction manual CD (Apex)

Gross weight: 45 kg Net weight: 25 kg 1 No 1 No

This product is warranted for a period of 12 months from the date of supply against manufacturing defects. You shall inform us in writing any defect in the system noticed during the warranty period. On receipt of your written notice, Apex at its option either repairs or replaces the product if proved to be defective as stated above. You shall not return any part of the system to us before receiving our confirmation to this effect. The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from: Buyer/ User shall not have subjected the system to unauthorized alterations/ additions/ modifications. Unauthorized use of external software/ interfacing. Unauthorized maintenance by third party not authorized by Apex. Improper site utilities and/or maintenance. We do not take any responsibility for accidental injuries caused while working with the set up.

1) Venturimeter
The venturi is particularly adapted to installation in pipelines not having long, unobstructed runs. The flow of fluid through the venturi tube establishes the pressure differential, which can then be measured and related to the flow rate. Because of the gradual reduction in the area of flow there is no vena contracta and the flow area is a minimum at the throat so that the coefficient of contraction is unity. The meter is equally suitable for compressible and incompressible fluids. Following figure shows general construction details.

Where Q = Theoretical discharge m /sec. a1 = Area of venturimeter at inlet m . a2 = Area of venturimeter at throat m . g = Acceleration due to gravity m/sec . H = Differential pressure head in m of liquid In actual practice the actual discharge is less than the theoretical discharge. The coefficient of discharge C d is defined as ratio of actual discharge to theoretical discharge.
3 2 2 2

Coefficient of discharge (Cd) =

Actual discharg e Theoretical discharg e

Thus the equation for actual discharge Qa becomes Qa = C d X

a1 a2 a1 a22gH Qa =H Cd X K
2 2

where

K=

a1 a2 a1a2 2g 2) Orificemeter
2 2

is known as venturimeter constant.

The orifice meter consists of a thin circular metal plate with circular sharp edge hole in it. The concentric orifice is by far the most widely used. As the fluid passes through the orifice, it contracts in area. The minimum flow area is called vena contracta. Different types of taps are used for orifice mete. The flow of fluid through the orifice meter establishes the pressure differential across the orifice plate, which can then be measured and related to the flow rate

The Actual discharge through orifice meter is given by Qa =

Cc a
2

2gH
4

1 Cc (d / D)

Where Qa = Theoretical discharge m /sec. Cc = Coefficient of contraction a = Area of orifice in m. g = Acceleration due to gravity m/sec . H = Differential pressure head in m of liquid d = Diameter of orifice in m. D = Diameter of pipe in m. The above expression can be written as
3 2 2

Qa =Cd X a where Cd =

2gH Cc
4

2 1 Cc (d / D)

is known as coefficient of discharge

3) Pitot tube
The Pitot tube is primarily a device for measuring fluid velocity. It is combination of a total head tube and a static tube. It consists simply of a tube supported in the pipe with the impact opening arranged to point directly towards the incoming fluid. This is called the impact opening and is used to measure the stagnation pressure. The static pressure is measured through the ordinary pressure tap. The difference between impact pressure and static pressure represents velocity head.

Piezometric tube
Pressure difference (H) = Velocity head = v /2g
2

Hence velocity through pipe = 2 g H

Static pressure Pitot tube

Impact pressure

Impact opening

4) Rotameter
Rotameter is a variable area meter. In the variable area meter, the drop in pressure is constant and the flow rate is a function of the area of the constriction. A rotameter consists of a tapered tube with the smallest diameter at the bottom. The tube contains a freely moving float, which rests on a stop at the base of the tube. When the fluid is flowing the float rises until its weight is balanced by the up thrust of the fluid, its position then indicating the rate of flow. The area for flow is the annulus formed between the float and the wall of the tube. (The fig. below shows schematic details of rotameter tube and float. Use top edge of the float to note rotameter reading)
Rotameter
Outlet float stop: To prevent float from leaving flowmeter tube at high flow Maximum flow rate due to maxiimum annular area is obtained at top end of tube

Edge Metering float

Fluid passes through this annular area

Tapered glass metering tube

Metering float Flow

Minimum flow rate due to minimum annular area is obtained at bottom end of tube Packin g Inlet float stop: To prevent float from leaving flowmeter tube at no flow

5) Water meter
Water meters are used for measuring cumulative water flow. The meter contains a rotating vanes housed in side a cylindrical body. The flow of water through the meter results in the positive displacement of vanes. The water enters in to slotted casing forcing the vanes to rotate about vertical axis. The cumulative flow of water is obtained by gearing rotational motion of the vanes to a counter.

(The fig. below shows internal construction of water meter. Black digits show cumulative flow in Kiloliters. Next two digits in red show reading in further decimals of kiloliters. The small round dial in red shows reading in liter. The wiper blades can be used for cleaning the cover window from inside.)

1. TO CALCULATE COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF


VENTURI METER Sr Rotamet Time
Procedure . er
Actual Pressure Theoretic Coeff. Reynold reqd for discharg diff. al of s reading liters e (Lph) across discharg dischar Number N Start the set1.5 up as explained in commissioning. (Lph) rotameter (sec) flow t Venturi e (Lph) g eLPH and wait for o. Adjust rates in steps of 50 LPH from 60 to 600 (m) H few minutes till the steady state is reached. 1 60 Note the pressure difference across the venturi meter. 2 100 Close the outlet valve at the measuring tank. 150 3 Measure the time required for collecting 1.5 lit of water in measuring tank by 4 200 stopwatch. 5 Drain the measuring tank by opening the drain valve (immediately). Observations

Calculations
Venturimeter Inlet pipe diameter (D) = 0.0185 meter Throat specification: diameter (d) = 0.010 meter Constants: Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81 m/sec Quantity of water measured (Q) = 1.5 X 10 m . Density of water () = 998 kg/m Viscosity of water () = 1.00X10 kg/m.s
-3 3 3 -3

Equations used:

1. Inlet area of the venturi meter (a1) 4 = .m 2. Throat area of the venturi meter (a2) = m 4 3. Venturimeter constant (K) =

4. Actual discharge (Qa) = m /sec


3

Q t

a1 a2 a1 a22g
2 2

5. Theoretical discharge (QT) = K


3

m /sec 6. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) = Qa / QT

7. Velocity in pipe (V) = Q

/a1

8. Reynolds No. = .V.D/ Graphs 1. Coefficient of discharge versus Reynolds number 2. Actual discharge versus theoretical discharge

Sample calculations & results


Refer worksheet Venturimeter in MS Excel file 316.xls for calculation and graph plotting.

2. T

O CALCULATE COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF ORIFICE METER

S Rot Ti Procedure

Pre Th Co Re r am me Act ssur eor eff yn Start the set ete req ual up e as explained etic . in commissioning. old Adjust rotameter flow ratesof in steps of 50 LPH from 60 to 600 LPH and wait for r d dis diff al s few minutes till the steady state is reached. rea for ch acr dis di Nu din 1.5 ar oss difference cha scacross m the orifice meter. Note the pressure g lite ge orifi rge ha be Close the outlet valve at the measuring tank. (Lp r (Lp ce (Lp rg r Measure the time required for collecting 1.5 lit of water in measuring tank by h) (se h) (m) h) e stopwatch. c)t H 1 60 Drain the measuring tank by opening the drain valve (immediately).

Observations
10 0 15 3 0 20 4 0 2

Calculations
Orificemeter specification: Inlet pipe = 0.0185 diameter meter (D) Orifice = 0.0122 diameter meter Quantity of water measured (Q) = 1.5 X 10 m . (d) Density of water () = 998 kg/m Viscosity of water () Constants: = 1.00X10 kg/m.s Acceleration = 9.81 due to m/sec Equations used gravity (g)
-3 3 3 -3

1. Inlet area of the orificemeter (A) = m 4

D
2

2. Orifice area of the meter 4 (a) = m 3. Actual discharge (Qa)= m /sec


3

Q t

4. Theoretical discharge (QT) = a m /sec 5. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) = Qa / QT


3

2g H

6. Velocity in pipe (V) = Qa /A 7. Reynolds No. = .V.D/ Graphs 1. Coefficient of discharge versus Reynolds number

2. Actual discharge versus theoretical discharge

Sample calculations & results


Refer worksheet Orificemeter in MS Excel file 316.xls for calculation and graph plotting.

3. T

O CALCULATE COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF

ITOT TUBE

Procedure

Start the set up as explained in commissioning. Adjust rotameter flow rates in steps of 50 LPH from 60 to 600 LPH and wait for few minutes till the steady state is reached. Note the pressure difference between impact pressure and static pressure. Close the outlet valve at the measuring tank. Measure the time required for collecting 1.5 lit of water in measuring tank by stopwatch. Drain the measuring tank by opening the drain valve (immediately).

Observations
S Rot r am ete r rea din g (Lp h) Ti me req d for 1.5 lite rs (se c) t Act ual dis ch ar ge (Lp h) Pre ssur e diff ere nce (m) H Th eor etic al dis cha rge (Lp h) Co eff . of di sc ha rg e Re yn old s Nu m be r

1 60 10 2 0 3 15 Quantity 0 of water measured (Q) = 1.5 X 10 m . Density 4 20 of water () = 998 kg/m Viscosity of water () = 1.00X10 kg/m.s 0
-3 3 3 -3

Equations used

D Calculations 1. Inlet area of the pitot tube meter: (A) = m 4 Pitot tube specification:
Inlet pipe = 0.0185 Q 2. Actualmeter discharge (Qa) = m /sec diameter t (D) 3. Theoretical fluid Velocity (V)= Constants: 2g Acceleration = 9.81 H m/sec due to m/sec 4. Theoretical discharge (QT)= AV m /sec gravity (g)
3 3

5. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) = Qa / QT 6. Velocity in pipe (V) = Qa /A 7. Reynolds No. = .V.D/

Graphs 1. Coefficient of discharge versus Reynolds number 2. Actual discharge versus theoretical discharge

Sample calculations & results

Refer worksheet

Pitot tube

in MS Excel file

316.xls

for calculation and graph plotting.

4. T

O CALIBRATE AND FIND ACCURACY OF ROTAMETER

Procedure

Tim f Actua Error in Ac S Rota Start the set up as explained commissioning. r mete e o l (Lph) cur . r Adjust reqd rotameter flow rates in steps r disch ac of 50 LPH from 60 to 600 LPH and wait for few minutes the steady readi till 1.5 argestate is reached. y N ng Close the valve at the measuring tank. literoutlet o (Lph) % s the time f o (Lph) Measure required for collecting 1.5 lit of water in measuring tank by . wat stopwatch. er measuring tank by opening the drainn valve (immediately). Drain the (sec Observations ) 1 60 2 3 4 100 150 200

Calculations
1. Actual discharge =

1.5 3600 Time reqd for 1.5 liter water

2. Error = Rotameter reading - Actual discharge 3. Accuracy =

Error 100 Full flow of Rotameter

Graphs
1 Plot the graph of Actual discharge versus rotameter reading. 2 Plot the graph of Accuracy versus Rotameter reading.

5. T

O FIND ACCURACY OF WATER METER

Procedure

*Initi clean *Finwater Wain supply Wa Er Acand switch on the pump. SRoEnsure tank r ta al al ter ter ro cu m Ensure the outlet valve rat the watethat wate qu qu ra measuring tank is open. et Adjust rotameter flow rate 300 LPH and wait for few minutes till the r r ant ant to (Lsay cy steady is reached. er state met met ity ity it (% er the reading er by by meter er )and start the stop watch. floNote of water w read read wa rot s) after some time interval say 15 minutes. Note the water meter reading rat ing ing ter am Observations e (Lite (Lite me ete rs) A B the ter reading r TimeLP interval for rs) which is taken: t minutes H (Lit (Lit (F) ers ers ) ) (B- F*t A) /60 1 2 3 4 *(Please note multiplication factors on the water meter)

Calculations

Water quantity by water meter = Final water meter reading - Initial water meter reading 2 Error = Water quantity by water meter Water quantity by rotameter Accuracy =

Error 100 Indicated water quantity

Rotameter (PG series)


Rotameter works on the principle of variable area. Float is free to move up & down in a tapered measuring glass tube. Upward flow causes the float to take up a position in which the buoyancy forces and the weight are balanced. The vertical position of the float as indicated by scale is a measurement of the instantaneous flow rate.

Technical specifications
Model PG-1 to 21 Make Eureka Industrial Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Flow Rate Max. 4000 to 40000 Lph Packing/Gaskets Neoprene Measuring tube Borosilicate glass Float 316SS Cover Glass Accuracy +/-2% full flow Range ability 10:1 Scale length 175200mm. Max. Temp. 200 C Connection Flanged and Threaded, Vertical
0

Principle of operation
The rotameter valves must be opened slowly and carefully to adjust the desired flow rate. A sudden jumping of the float, which may cause damage to the measuring tube, must be avoided.

Fig.1 Edge

Check Problem Leakage on Replace gland glands packing Showing Consult high/low flow manufacturers rate than expected Showing correct Replace float Incase Thereading upper edge of the float as shown in fig. 1 indicates the rate of flow. For alignment initially of gases, check also a line marked R.P. is provided on the scale which should coincide with the red line but starts leakage provided on measuring tube at the bottom. showing high Maintenance reading after fewthe days When measuring tube and float become dirty it is necessary to remove the tube andShowing clean it with correct a soft Clean brush, the trichloroethylene rotameter or compressed air. reading initially by measuring suitable solvent Dismantling of the tube starts or soft brush but Shut off the flow. showing high reading Remove afterthe front and rear covers. some Unscrew the gland adjusting screws, and push the gland upwards incase of months. bottom gland and of top gland. Then remove the glass by turning it Fluctuation of downwards Maintainincase operating to and fro. Care should be taken, float pressure asnot to drop down the glands. Float or float retainers. The indicating edge ofmentioned the float should not be damaged. in test Fitting of the measuring tube report. Normally the old gland packing isto replaced by new ones while fitting back the Frequent Use loflometer measuring tube. breakage of accommodate glass Put the glands correct first in their position and then put the packing on the tube. tube Insert the tube in its place. Push the glands downwards and upwards respectively and fix them with the gland adjusting screws. Tighten the gland adjusting screws evenly till the gap between the gland and the bottom plate is approximately 1mm. In case, after putting the loflometer into operation, still there is leakage, then tighten the gland adjusting screw till the leakage stops. Fix the scale, considering the remark given in the test report. Fix the front and rear covers.

Troubleshooting

flow rate. Maintain operating pressure below pressure rating of the tube. Check piping layout.

Manufacturers address
If you need any additional details, spares or service support for this unit you may directly communicate to the manufacturer / Dealer / Indian Supplier. Eureka Industrial Equipments Pvt. Ltd. 17/20, Royal Chambers, Paud Road, Pune 411 038. Email: eureka.equip@gems.vsnl.net.in