Theological Studies 69 (2008


WHERE IS THE CHURCH? GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY VINCENT J. MILLER Theological considerations of the cultural effects of globalization have focused largely on homogenization: the erosion of local cultures by some dominant globalizing culture. This article considers three contrasting analyses. Globalization also fosters cultural fragmentation and purification, the abstraction of culture and social space from geographical space, and a reduction of culture to identity. These additional challenges are evaluated from the perspective of the mark of catholicity, which is proposed as a theological resource for an ecclesial response to the challenges of globalization. that globalization poses a pressing challenge to the church, but what is the nature of this challenge? Different analyses engender varied diagnoses of globalization’s problems, which in turn suggest different prescriptions for how best to respond. This article explores the consequences that different understandings of the cultural effects of globalization have for theological reflection and ecclesial response. Theological reflection on the cultural effects of globalization has long emphasized homogenization: globalization erodes local cultures, replacing them with either some version of Western culture or a global consumer culture. Sociologists and anthropologists, however, have long noted an opposing dynamic: heterogenization. The same economic and technological forces that make globalization possible also encourage people to think of themselves as members of distinct cultures and to join together in ever purer, smaller cultural units. Globalization reifies difference as much as it homogenizes it. A third cultural dynamism is intertwined with these two: deterritorialization. Mediated culture, easy travel and migration, and choice of community unbind culture from geographical space. Deterritorialization intensifies heterogenization. These two dynamisms combine to give rise to a



VINCENT J. MILLER received his Ph.D. from the University of Notre Dame and is now associate professor of theology at Georgetown University. He is grateful to the Louisville Institute for funding the research for this article. His Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture (2004) became the subject of a symposium whose proceedings were published in Zeitschrift für Theologie in Europa (2006, vol. 1). Projected is a book on theology and the cultural effects of globalization.
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certain “cultural ecology” which fosters communities that focus on their own identities. Religious communities are diminished as they ignore elements of their traditions that ground a complex form of life in favor of those that project a clear identity. These three cultural dynamisms pose profound challenges. The mark of catholicity provides both a measure of these challenges and a resource for addressing them. The challenges of homogenization are well recognized. The erosion of local cultures impoverishes communities, reducing persons to individual consumers bereft of traditional wisdom. Religiously, it fosters a generic, individualistic spirituality. Heterogenization, on the other hand, threatens that global intimacy will bring not communion, but polarization and division. Heterogenization fosters a cultural ecology where communities close in on themselves, becoming ever-purer enclaves of the similar, threatening catholicity on both the global and the local level. Finally, deterritorialization threatens to sunder the church from its mission as a transformative sacrament of God’s salvation, engaging the goodness and suffering of the world, reducing church instead to a sectarian community policing its identity. This article proceeds in three stages. First, it considers the homogenization analysis and its theological and ecclesial reception. Second, it augments this analysis with a consideration of heterogenization and deterritorialization. Finally, it employs the mark of catholicity to measure globalization’s challenges to the church and as a resource for responding to them. GLOBALIZATION AS HOMOGENIZATION Homogenization is the most popularly understood of globalization’s cultural impacts. It describes globalization as the imposition of a single culture—whether a continuation of European colonialism or the reduction of the global diversity of cultures into one generic, consumerist conglomerate. A review of titles reveals as much: Jihad vs. McWorld, The McDonaldization of Society, The Westernization of the World. Discussions of globalization and culture abound with terms that express homogenization, such as “coca-colonization,” “Americanization,” and “global hyperculture.”1 Unlike European colonialism, however, which actively sought political control through cultural disempowerment, today’s cultural imperialism is the side effect of global marketing and new communication technologies, which spread American culture through goods, practices, and marketing. “Hege-

1 John Tomlinson, Globalization and Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999) 84–105; Robert J. Schreiter, The New Catholicity: Theology between the Global and the Local (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1997) 10.

strategies of defense. of the other cultures. protection. the ongoing processes of secularization and reli- Tamar Leibes and Elihu Katz. Globalization and Culture 84. and radical orthodox theologies.” in Globalization and Its Victims. and overly accommodating practices of interreligious dialogue.”2 Similar analyses appear among theologians.”4 Treatments follow from diagnoses.”3 Teresa Okure sees in globalization “the destruction of the cultures of those places to which the globalized culture spreads. Such globalization aims at the subordination. at 81. critical perspectives. Religious responses focus on inculturation in order to undo the destructive legacies of colonialism to indigenous cultures and to ground robust contemporary local forms of Christianity. and purification seem fitting responses.414 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES mony is prepackaged in Los Angeles. The Export of Meaning: Cross-Cultural Readings of Dallas (New York: Oxford University. 3 Michel Amaladoss. these movements have a striking similarity. critical. 4 Teresa Okure.” in ibid. There is much that is valuable in these approaches. cited in Tomlinson. We are decades into a sustained reaction to liberal. ed. and pluralist tendencies in academic theology by esthetic. Michael Amalados describes the dominant form of globalization as the spread of “a particular culture or country or ideology or economic system. among them Black and Latina/Latino theologies and varieties of Christian feminism. if not disappearance. shipped out to the global village. 1993) xi. culture. When globalization is conceived in terms of homogenization. closure. and ideological orientation we witness the same concern for preserving cultural particularity. Okure also wonders about the impact individualization and consumerism have on Western cultural traditions. 2001) 81–88. postliberal. Western colonialism did enormous violence to other cultures. and unwrapped in innocent minds. “The Utopia of the Human Family: Among the Religions of Humanity. Concilium 293/5 (London: SCM. Across geography. To this list we could add a curious set of fellow travelers— various forms of identity-based and subaltern theologies. These emphasize the particularities of the Christian tradition over against secular Enlightenment reason. other modern master narratives. “Africa: Globalization and the Loss of Cultural Identity. Jon Sobrino and Felix Winfred. 2 . Although globalized capitalism works through different processes toward different ends. it spreads a global “hyperculture” that is no less destructive in both the global West and South. at 67. Beneath their clear normative differences. 67–74. ideologies. In the West. Her question helpfully contextualizes theological movements in Europe and North America that are also concerned with cultural erosion and the preservation of particularity. The destruction it wrought continues long after political independence is won. etc.

but such approaches alone are an incomplete response to globalization’s cultural effects because they are grounded in an analysis that does not attend to the full range of globalization’s effects. much needed. Scott Lash. New Catholicity 25. ed. intentional efforts to preserve and hand them on. They enable culture to float free of geographical space.”6 No matter how grand the aims of global capitalism. “Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity. The culture within which we relate to one another (including religious culture) is unbound from geographical space—deterritorialized—with profound consequences for the ability of the church to be present anywhere. we must consider these dynamics as well. and Roland Roberston (Thousand Oaks. Mike Featherstone. therefore. In Robert Schreiter’s words. The very technologies that make globalization possible also engender cultural differentiation. What appear at first glance to be perfect examples of the dominance of Schreiter.” in Global Modernities.”5 These technologies have another effect as well.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 415 gious deregulation have offered a flood of cultural and religious options that erode the stability of cultural and religious traditions in a tide of liberating and individualizing choice. THE HETEROGENIZING AND DETERRITORIALIZING EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION Although the homogenization thesis has dominated theological interpretations of globalization. it must contend with the local cultures that receive its products. Programs of preserving particularity are.: Sage. Roland Robertson. globalization produces a cultural context marked by both “hybridity” and “hyperdifferentiation. 6 5 . sociology and anthropology have long noted a contravening cultural dynamic. The consequences go beyond the virtual cultures of the Internet and global media. Heterogenization Heterogenization is primarily known in popular and academic literature by the term “glocalization. 1995) 25–44. The interplay of these two dynamics tends to reduce culture and religion to sources of identity. Calif. Traditions are unlikely to survive as living realities without reflexive.” He points to Philippine enthusiasm for Kenny Rogers and the global reach of Coca Cola as examples. Arjun Appadurai provides evidence for this in opposition to facile descriptions of globalization as “Americanization. To respond to the challenges of the cultural effects of globalization fully. This erosion fundamentally alters the social inertia hitherto lending continuity to a community’s traditions. Globalization’s impact is complex and perhaps even contradictory.

But globalization does not encourage cultural particularity and heterogenization only because of the remnant ability of local cultures to function as market niches for capitalism. Changes in media have long accompanied cultural transformations. communications technologies. Coke is mixed with indigenous ingredients to yield a drink that has much more to do with local identity than neocolonial cultural inferiority—the Cuba Libre. on second glance become more complex. bringing all parts of the globe into relationship with the others. 175. 1992) 27. 8 Roland Robertson. 1991). Tomlinson. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso. Both are “indigenized” in their reception and use. Indeed. 9 Benedict R. Globalization and Culture 84. . as the relationship between the printing press and the Reformation makes clear. The cost of media has dropped so drastically that only miniscule audiences are required for media outlets to be successful. The technology that once allowed for the massive homogenization required for national-scale cultures now allows for the emergence of ever smaller and more refined cultural units. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (London: Sage. The explosion 7 Arjun Appadurai. the modern nation-state’s project of subsuming regional identities into a larger geographical unit would not have been possible. and economic structures compress time and space. local cultures have already been constructed as species within a broader genus and thus were relativized in relationship to other cultures.8 Appadurai offers another account of how globalization feeds the rise of smaller and purer cultural identities by building upon Benedict Anderson’s argument that the emergence of the nation-state depended on print media such as newspapers and novels that could sustain a national cultural identity. 97. or “imagined community. O’G. free Internet weblog—“blog”—sites have now reduced the cost to zero (on this side of the digital divide). 1996) 29. Such changes are about much more than the emergence of websites for alternative music or amateur political commentary.7 The global circulation of violent Hollywood films inspires not only respect for the American empire but also contributes to the imaginative resources of myriad militant groups that fight against it. Long before fundamentalist reaction against the unwelcome encroachments of the broader world sets in. Developments in transportation. Kenny Rogers enjoys more popularity abroad than at home.416 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES American culture. Anderson. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.”9 Without this.

and practices that grounded social relations.”13 Culture is transformed as it is moves from the background. media. 1985) 71–74.S. “because of the interplay of commerce. 41. Deterritorialization The same technologies of communication and transportation that fuel the heterogenization of culture also break it loose from the moorings of geographic territory. Modernity at Large 33–34. Patchwork Nation: Sectionalism and Political Change in American Politics (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.11 The demographics of U. where it functioned as the system of shared assumptions. forever slipping through the cracks between states and borders.S. symbols. Schuknecht.10 The growth of heterogeneous cultures is evident in contemporary U. 12 James G. has now become a global force. The “automobile scale” of suburban life and the expectation of choice have transformed the Catholic parish from geographical to a congregational model. Rather than challenging the heterogenizing tide rising in culture. Robert N. into the foreground where it is made a matter of intentional choice. 11 10 . The market niching of news and commercial culture separates the population into a nation of “red and blue” and thousands of other subcultures. People choose the community they attend. 13 Appadurai. 10. neighborhoods increasingly reflect a concentration into enclaves of similar political and cultural values. Bellah et al. which leads to a homogenizing effect within communities. Parishes cease to be places where people with different theological commitments worship together and interact. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (New York: Harper. once a genie contained in the bottle of some sort of locality (however large). national policies. culture.12 The church has the potential to provide a place of deeper communion to bridge such divisiveness. 33. churches unfortunately conform to it. and consumer fantasies. but equally significant erosions.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 417 of media and its resultant cultural agency give rise to myriad heterogeneous cultures.. 2003). Gimpel and Jason E. Appadurai. The “lifestyle enclaves” based on consumption separated from politics and religion warned of by Bellah in the 1980s have grown to encompass increasingly public dimensions of community. This shift brings with it an epochal increase in personal freedom of choice. The result is an intentional or consumer (these are harder to distinguish than we would like) understanding of parishes. But these same dynamics are evident in local religious communities. ethnicity. Appadurai notes that. Modernity at Large 3.

people lose the ability to conceive of the world as a place of specific moral responsibility. 2002) 99. not in a congregational one. 1998) 64. With no shared terrain between distinct in-groups. While virulent nationalisms and ethnic identities flourish.14 Microstates (and. however. when society is reduced to a conglomeration of individuals choosing among heterogeneous cultural associations. Zygmunt Bauman notes that they do not undertake the traditional tasks of larger states. Globalization: The Human Consequences (New York: Columbia University. Second. many larger states that have embraced the limitations on economic sovereignty required by the global economy) no longer control their domestic economies. Culture ceases to provide common assumptions that form the basis for judgment. This ceding of control results in a decline in a political imagination for policy. indeed. prophetic gestures. What are the “local” political and community issues for such a congregation? Jose Casanova describes territory as analogous to history. With the decline of the nation-state. William Cavanaugh observes that the deterritorializing effects of globalization build upon the nation-state’s “project of subsuming the local under the universal. they lose their sense of responsibility for the territories they claim. & T. 14 . 15 William T. The Theopolitical Imagination (London: T. satire. Just as history is the narrative imbuing of time Zygmunt Bauman. Political uses of culture—rallying around shared convictions.418 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES Three erosions are particularly evident. what is chosen is not assumed to be shared. Cavanaugh. They are built on the only remaining leg of the traditional tripod of the sovereign nation-state—the identity function of nationhood.”15 Clearly the centralized government of the nation-state usurped the power of a range of diverse local communal and political structures including the church. policy decays into ideology. To do so. which. Clark. Finally. The emergence of microstates serves as a surprising illustration of deterritorialized culture. cease to correspond to a particular geographical space. one can offend but never challenge. we lose one of the larger-scale mappings of moral concern that we possess. as a result of their strictly voluntarist nature. First. culture loses its concern for and ties to specific territory. the government constructed the nation as the fundamental unit of social belonging and moral concern. such as controlling their economies and ensuring their own security. for the business of running the laws and institutions necessary for the common good. Prayers for the “shut-ins of our parish” make sense in a geographical model. deliberation. the transgression of subalterns on dominant culture—lose their traction. and conflict. Society fragments into a host of smaller communal obligations.

Religion as a Chain of Memory.16 Thus. Modernity at Large 41.” Sociology of Religion 62 (2001) 415–41. 19 Clifford Longley. Whereas the very doctrine of catholicity would have once provided a theological mapping of the world that denied the possibility of not being implicated in the one church of Christ. but for “sentiments. one frequently hears “catholicity” used as a less onerous adjective for “catholicness. 2006) 9. Thus we turn to religious traditions not for their complex wisdom. 17 Danièle Hervieu-Léger. and Globalization. at 428. This task of projecting an identity is as different from fidelity to tradition as today’s wedge-issue politics is from building a broad political coalition. the New Millennium. Simon Lee (New Brunswick. it seems. contraception has become the acid test of Catholicity. using the complex professional 16 Jose Casanova. deterritorialization threatens the church’s ability to be present in and to any particular place.” Thus.” Tablet 260 (April 4. N. so territory is the rendering of space humanly significant. deterritorialized cultural ecology reinforces the sectarian impulse.J. “Now.: Rutgers University. it seems. held together only by what they believe in common—negotiated not with a global ecumene of believers. trans. Catholicity is defined in terms of the contested issues that can be used to project a distinct identity. there is less need to engage recognized authorities or to undertake the rhetorical work of dialogue and argument with those who disagree. Identity When community drifts free from geographical place. contraception has become the acid test of Catholicity. 1993) 149–56.”18 An example can be found in a common linguistic slide of the word “catholicity. The bioethicist responded.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 419 with meaning. but within the bounds of small “elective fraternities” or focused movements. the title of a recent editorial: “Now. . An identity-focused.17 Communities are sustained by their ability to offer clear identities. 18 Appadurai.” In conversations about the Catholic identity of institutions. Communities become ever more homogeneous. “Religion. This conflict of tasks manifested itself in a recent exchange between the leader of a conservative pressure-group focused on Catholic identity and a senior Catholic bioethicist.”19 This linguistic shift of the term is utterly predictable in a situation where religion is reduced to identity. whose greatest force is in their ability to ignite intimacy into a political state and turn locality into a staging ground for identity. the term “catholicity” is now merely a label of shallow particularity. The activist had previously targeted the professor (a member of the Pontifical Academy of Life) as a “Professor of Death” who did not support John Paul II’s teaching on artificial hydration and nutrition.

Attempts to plumb the significance of the clause “in principle” in John Paul’s allocution. Identity is not only too narrow a social function to support the richness of religious belief and practice. 21 Olivier Roy. cosmopolitan traditions are suspect. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (New York: Columbia University. it also risks fueling conflict by depriving practitioners of the elements of their traditions with which they can resist religiously fueled conflict. “Identity. it shears off what does not serve its limited needs. Thomas Banchoff (New York: Oxford. . who prefer gurus to teachers.420 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES hermeneutics of his field—a style of language quite different from the activist’s heated press-release discourse. which is essential for practicing ethics in a Catholic healthcare setting. 2004) 31. Olivier Roy’s observations about the lack of hearing received by moderate Muslim voices are hauntingly relevant in a Catholic context.” for all the integrity evoked by its rhetorical use. The exchange illustrated that the complexities and nuances that mark a lived tradition of moral reflection do not translate easily into the rhetorical needs of identity projection. forthcoming. He appeals to the cosmopolitan elements of religious traditions and to the learned figures who espouse them as the hope for countering the violent use of religions. “What’s Special about Religious Disputes?” in Religious Pluralism. 22 R. Md. consider that too much intellectualism spoils the faith. appear as overly rigorous hairsplitting at best. Scholars “wish to propound their academic theological learning. In his discussion of cosmopolitanism. and World Politics. and Reconciliation (Lanham. Violence. Religious communities cease to image the diverse 20 Kwame Anthony Appiah.20 But when identity is the fundamental religious and cultural practice.: Rowman & Littlefield. They therefore do not appeal to born-again Muslims. This linguistic confusion poses a profound problem for the discipline of theology. Scott Appleby. which emerges in situations of high levels of religious commitment and low levels of religious literacy. Far from preserving the complex orthodoxy and orthopraxis of a tradition. ed. and at worst as casuist sophistry for those seeking to establish a clear identity. is a very limited cultural practice. Anthony Appiah expresses a hope that many theologians would readily embrace. 2000).”21 Our identity-focused ecology is almost identical to the conditions Scott Appleby describes for the emergence of ethnonationalist religious extremism. 2008).22 These other cultural effects of globalization present a range of urgent problems for the church. Globalization. The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion. Liberal thinkers do not meet the demands of the religious market. The two were speaking different languages yoked to fundamentally different tasks. and seek a ready-made and easily accessible set of norms and values that might order their daily lives and define a practical and visible identity.

Believers lose the habits of cohabiting with people who are different from them. catholicity is a theological ideal. . dispersed monologues. As a mark of the church. joined to the structures and practices of the church. The ongoing argument of a living tradition fragments into myriad. Catholicity informs the church’s graced successes and challenges it to a greater fullness.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 421 unity of the Body of Christ and become instead enclaves of the likeminded. The mark of catholicity provides both measure and means for engaging these cultural dynamics: an ideal of unity as a harmony of difference that challenges the dominant sectarianism. Attention to patristic usage shows that the fullness denoted by katholou referred to the fullness of faith as much as to geographical uni23 Robertson. We face a new situation caused by changes in the structures of community. The communication and rhetorical skills required to engage and convince others are lost. as a global community with a global infrastructure of its own. RESPONDING TO THE FULL RANGE OF THE CULTURAL EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION This three-part analysis of globalization calls for a different response than the homogenization account. Conceiving Catholicity Recent theological debates about catholicity centered around two issues. The challenge facing the church is to preserve catholicity from dissipating into abstract. can foster a better form of globalization than the one promoted by the forces of advanced capitalism. The first is the need to recover a qualitative conception of catholicity to correct Scholastic and Counter-Reformation emphasis on geographical breadth. they are being lifted from rooted engagement with the world around them. and a call to the fullness of salvation that cannot settle for purity abstracted from concrete engagement with the world. Globalization 100. we are simply swimming with the current of heterogenization by abetting the reduction of Christianity to a fractious collection of identity fronts. They retreat into distinct identities that have less and less contact with anything beyond their borders. the church.23 By fostering relationships and exchanges not happening elsewhere. Catholicity can function as an example of what Roland Robertson terms “the particularization of the universal”—a particular cultural understanding of the global whole that guides action within it. At the same time as communities are fragmenting. The challenge is not simply to preserve particularity against erosion. If that is all we do. virtual enclaves.

”24 The second focus of debate concerns the relationship of catholicity to the mark of unity. at 445. Each offers a distinct mapping of space. that is . “Locality can only be thought of as the ecclesiological equivalent of individuating matter in scholastic philosophy. When catholicity is subordinated to unity. the pentecostal Church was already fully the Catholic Church of God. 439. like their members. 1988) 48–81 and passim. are fundamentally fallen.” Jurist 52 (1992) 416–47. The church’s relationship to them is one of proclaiming the truth the cultures lack. 24 . A close identification of catholicity with unity appeals to the pessimism of Augustinian anthropology.26 Thus ecclesial space is mapped with a bright center where the fullness of revealed truth is embraced. See also Henri De Lubac.422 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES versality. “The Local Church within Catholicity. then locality appears not as a threat to the unity of the church. “The Local Church and the Church Catholic: The Contemporary Theological Problematic. 26 Ibid. It “is the entirety of the divine gifts rather than their extension that is essential. .” Jurist 52 (1992) 449. locality and the diversity of the world’s cultures are likely to be viewed at best as passive material to be transformed by being brought into conformity with a centrally mediated Christian truth. Cultures. 25 Joseph A.” At worst such approaches view locality as matter in a more Neoplatonic sense: as an incorrigible confusion of the unity of the church. it is a paradigm of confrontation between grace and sin.-M. The problems posed by globalization provide an illuminative evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different construals of this relationship. . on the other hand. J. but as its realization. Thus the local church is evaluated in terms of its unity and clarity of faith. These two approaches to catholicity correlate with analogical and dialectical theological approaches. not in terms of the depth of its engagement with its culture. Theological considerations of catholicity are often implicitly or explicitly also debates about the mark of unity and the relationship between the two. The periphery is the boundary (perhaps understood in cultural terms) where the clear distinction between light and darkness is always in danger of being blurred into a muted grey. If. catholicity is understood in a more complementary sense as adding “dimensions of plurality and integration” to unity. Thus. This mapping of space sees unity as constantly under threat from its centrifugal dissemination in the cultural particularities of localities. Tillard.-R. Catholicism: The Corporate Destiny of Mankind (San Francisco: Ignatius.25 This conception of catholicity makes more sense of the concept as a distinct mark of the church in itself. even when it was only the community in Jerusalem. without intelligible content. Komonchak. Joseph Komonchak outlines two contrasting tendencies within theological reflection on the relationship between unity and catholicity.

J. younger generations are left susceptible to reducing Catholicism to rigid identity fronts. this position neither presumes nor devalues unity. The church must engage a situation that demands clear identities without allowing itself to be reduced to a mere identity front. when the church must engage a cultural ecology where identity projection has become a fundamental cultural practice. such approaches can rest too secure in their assumptions of unity.-M. The spread of the church is not the expansion of a cultural boundary. Lacking a complementary understanding of catholicity. Nevertheless. (New York: Seabury. one that unwittingly reinforces the heterogenizing dynamics of globalization by rendering unity sectarian. These historical accidents of Catholic history have overlapped with the widespread detraditionalization of culture in the West. it does not come from human effort alone. Generations raised in a church that rigidly guarded identity compensated for these extremes.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 423 The complementary understanding of catholicity is consonant with the more optimistic anthropology of the analogical tradition. but rather presents catholicity as a complementary challenge. I Believe in the Holy Spirit. He argued for a qualitative under- Yves Congar. A complementary conception of catholicity provides a much more adequate basis for engaging globalization. which always expects God to be already at work abroad in the world. often without providing sufficient clarity on what was essential for the following generations who had no experience of such rigidity. The dialectical approach is both less and more at home in the contemporary cultural ecology. 27 . 3 vols. The result is a smaller. it is inclined to protect a kernel of orthodoxy by disowning anything that threatens it with disorder. By construing locality as a threat to unity. it tends to construe the contemporary moment as a threat to unity alone. Indeed.27) The weaknesses of such assumptions may be evident in the changes of the past four decades. These problems are not essential to a complementary understanding of catholicity. however. the dialectic approach unwittingly reinforces the very dynamics it seeks to remedy. 1983) 2:24–38. purer church.-R. and of retrograde aspects that require correction and conversion. Each locality is a potential bearer both of riches that contribute to the greater fullness of the entire church. Tillard provided a model of such an approach. it is deeply sensitive to the centrifugal tendencies of the present. A position that presumes unity may be particularly unsuited for the present moment. but the embrace of new cultures that provide greater insights into the gospel message. As a result. that the unity of the church is a gift of the Holy Spirit. On the one hand. (It must always be remembered. In so doing.

Patristic usage stressed the “fullness of faith” and the salvation of humankind fully present in the church. But as the gift of salvation for the world. but these centrifugal tendencies cannot be addressed by a withdrawal from the task of catholicity. Ruddy. 29 Avery Dulles offers a fourfold schema in The Catholicity of the Church (Oxford: Clarendon. This understanding bore within itself the mission to “make disciples of all nations” (Mt 28:19) because it presumed the unity of all humankind. Ruddy (Local Church 66–72) modifies this schema by developing the notion of “depth. and depth. Catholicity is multifaceted. Catholicity of the Church 13–18.”28 A complementary model of catholicity provides analytical and practical resources to address all challenges of globalization. which made an issue of its initial confinement to Europe. 1985). catholicity as fullness bears an expansionist imperative to set no limits to the breadth of salvation. Local Church 67–68. “The gift of catholicity becomes the task of catholicity.30 Despite the reaction against this shallow geographical account by 20th-century ressourcement theology. the breadth of its embrace of cultures. Catholic unity cannot be achieved without engaging difference. It describes the fullness of the divine gift of salvation to the church. The fractiousness these dynamisms encourage is a direct attack on the essence of the church. Catholicity of the Church 72–74.29 Three aspects of catholicity are particularly relevant for evaluating and responding to the heterogenizing and deterritorializing forces of globalization: catholicity as breadth. It illuminates the threat posed by the heterogenization of communities and the reduction of culture to a resource for identity projection.” 30 See Dulles. Geographical breadth gained emphasis following Augustine’s conflict with the Donatists. regardless of its geographical extension. The eschatological fulfillment of God’s promise is meant for all. and in Catholic Counter-Reformation polemics against early Protestantism. The katholou is a burden that must be born in the church’s messy engagement with cultures in all their particularity. and the temporal dimension of its extension through history.31 The technologies of globalization allow a fuller realization of the koi28 Christopher Ruddy. harmony of difference. 2006) 69. the depth of its penetration into human existence. 31 Dulles. geographical breadth is the most intuitively obvious aspect of catholicity.424 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES standing of catholicity as the divine gift of fullness of faith. it cannot remain static. . Catholicity as Breadth Regarding globalization. The Local Church: Tillard and the Future of Catholic Ecclesiology (New York: Herder & Herder.

that is. for a shallow sense of catholicity understood as mere geographical dispersal to be deepened into a true communion among the local churches of the world. 37 Avery Dulles. when habits such as unity in difference depend on particular practices and discourses that may be endangered.”36 Avery Dulles argues that “catholicity.38 Such ad extra missions are inextricably tied to the ad intra culTillard. 34 Congar. he said that globalization provides an opportunity for “weaving a network of understanding and solidarity among peoples. 36 Johann Adam Möhler. demands them. Catholicity as Communion of Difference Catholicity is. far from excluding differences.34 This is evident in the recent crisis in the Anglican communion between the American Episcopalian Church and the rest of the communion over the ordination of Bishop Gene Robinson. 1996) 194–98.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 425 nonia of the entire church. characterized by a “both/ and” rather than an “either/or” approach. ed. Ecclesia in America no. in Richard McBrien’s words. Catholicity of the Church 167. rather than reducing all things to the utilitarian calculus of neoliberal economics. Catholicism. John Paul II.”37 There is a danger that such ideal descriptions can seduce us into assuming that certain forms of Catholicism are unquestionably robust. which in its unity avoids both a “wearying monotone” and an “antagonistic discord. I Believe in the Holy Spirit 25. one that builds global solidarity and respects human rights. trans.35 Johann Adam Möhler used the analogy of the choir constituted in the contrasting contributions of different voices. Toward this hope. rev.33 Congar observed that globalization facilitates a greater depth of encounter with the “other” that makes communion both more concrete and more difficult. living challenge of negotiating similarity and difference between cultures in real time. “The Local Church within Catholicity” 453. Schreiter. Unity in the Church or the Principle of Catholicism. 35 Richard P. John Paul II frequently expressed his hope of communion and dialogue for a world rent with factionalism and conflict. McBrien. Benedict XVI has continued this usage. New Catholicity 132. address to the Ambassador of Uruguay. (New York: HarperCollins. 2006. 55. Tillard noted that the church in the West has long depended on the centralized administrative and communications structures of Roman authority. In his July 3. without reducing everything to merely mercantile 33 32 . 1994) 10. Transcultural communion has moved from an abstract ideal affirmed in the Creed and symbolized in the hierarchy to a real. Peter Erb (Washington: Catholic University of America.32 Schreiter argues that the new infrastructures provide the opportunity for the church to become more deeply catholic. 38 For example. he frequently envisioned the church’s role in bringing about a “different” globalization.

The situation challenges the church to deepen its structures and practices of catholicity and communion in order to more deeply bind the whole church of Christ in a time when the cultural dynamisms of globalization are rending the church asunder. 2008) 39 Lumen gentium no. The notion of catholicity as depth provides resources both to elaborate the response to heterogenizaor pragmatic exchanges. Thus.40 Catholicity as Depth The various dimensions of catholicity are ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.” http://www.426 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES tivation of habits. The call to universality and geographic breadth also necessitates engagement in the particular and the local.zenit. catholicity calls for diocesan and interparish structures to weave parishes into local and global ecclesial networks. Theologically speaking. Believers lose the religious habits of acceptance and fraternal argument necessary for dealing with intramural diversity. We must now intentionally work to hear the truth in the other side and to preserve it as part of the fullness of the tradition.html (accessed February 16. racial. Therefore. This change in cultural ecology is crucial for an adequate ecclesial response. no.phtml?sid‫ס‬91975 (accessed February 16. http://www. and class practices and structures of communion. and in many cases bishops have worked heroically to bring about communion and reconciliation.vatican. however. 2008). has long been more the result of the simple inertia of social space—nominally unified because locale bound them together. We are no longer forced to listen to others. The call to engage the diversity of human cultures is also a call to enter into the depths of each.”39 The unity of the local church. But this analysis makes clear that such a goal requires more than exhortations. . 48. bishops are the “visible source and foundation of unity in their own particular churches. inclusivity of difference becomes more difficult to sustain as communities become more theologically and ideologically monochromatic and unbound from territorial space. congregational model of community makes communion in place the exception rather than the rule. it also requires an institutional and structural response at the parish level and beyond. Local churches have been riven by ethnic. The current deterritorialized. The situation demands an intentional cultivation of the habits of catholicity to supplement what was once brought about by the inertia of social space. 40 Ibid. The church must now intentionally cultivate its own practices of inclusion in order to be the sacrament of unity for the broader world. 23.

GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 427 tion found in catholicity as breadth and communion of difference. Ibid. as well as channels of agency for believers to become aware of and involved in the plight of fellow Christians in Central America. citing Kenneth Surin. Theopolitical Imagination 110. the local community provides a place where this embrace of fullness is made concrete.” Modern Theology 7 (1990) 67–100. how it functions as a heuristic space where the particularities of cultures and societies are brought into focus for encounter with the gospel. The depth of local commitment grounds deeper global relationships. Against this deception. which serves as a false catholicity. 43 Cavanaugh. Depth as Unity Made Concrete If catholicity complements the mark of unity with the imperative that the church embrace diversity. at 74.” “The action of the Eucharist collapses spatial divisions not by sheer mobility but by gathering in the local assembly. Cavanaugh poses a logic of catholicity derived from the Eucharist that “maps space in such a way that one becomes more united to the whole the more tied one becomes to the local. Rather. it roots the individual in a community that is enmeshed in a global network of relationships. 115. Catholicity is not an abstract allegiance that lifts one out of the burdens of place (the current cultural ecology exacerbates the Roman Catholic ultramontane tendency to do just that).42 This “simulated catholicity” is problematic because. “A Certain ‘Politics of Speech’: ‘Religious Pluralism’ in the Age of the McDonald’s Hamburger. We will consider how the local church can function as a locus for the concrete experience of unity. and how it can serve to ground people in the local amidst a world where the freedoms of access draw people into deterritorialized niches that float free of the places in which they live. 42 41 .”43 The Central American solidarity movement in the 1980s provides a compelling example of this possibility. 109. Reports from missionaries and delegations provided accounts of events transpiring in those countries. Theopolitical Imagination 98–99. by its very workings. Cavanaugh argues that catholicity provides a fundamentally different and better conception of universality than does global capitalism. “it hides the way that space remains rigidly segmented” between first world consumers and bodies of producers and the predicaments of their locations. Local churches provided important conduits of information and concern. These accounts disputed Cavanaugh. 113. and to provide insights for engaging the deterritorializing aspects of globalization. a “universal mapping of space typified by detachment from any particular localities”41 that reduces diversity to the “merely different” required for formal exchange.

1995) 126. A sacramental understanding of church requires that we see its encounter with the local in terms of both embrace and challenge. concern for. 1963) For a discussion of the resources of Rahner’s thought for a theology of the local church see William A. Local Church 66. J. Culture. policy. L’Église locale 133. to provide aid. W. A Voice of Their Own 154–55. regional and hemispheric synods. 44 . and to stand in solidarity with people in those countries. L’Église locale: Ecclésiologie de communion et catholicité (Paris: Cerf. Translation from Ruddy. the church is the fundamental sacrament of salvation. If. or with the consumer mentality that inflects marketing and travel networks. These community and institutional networks are imbued with the values and goals of Christianity. These include formal interparish partnerships. or with the nationalism of state boundaries and relationships. 2005) 163–86. government and the mainstream media. Church groups organized to change U. and Agency in the Central American Solidarity Movement (New York: Oxford University. and the ability to help distant others. while the sinfulness is rejected and transformed.-R. it must show forth this salvation in the concrete lives of particular communities in their full historical contexts.47 Particular See Sharon Erickson Nepstad. Convictions of the Soul: Religion. Minn. postmodern signifier. Clark. if always open to eschatological completion. 45 J. as Rahner argues. trans. regional bishops’ conferences. Tillard. 47 Tillard. 46 Karl Rahner. rather than with the instrumental rationality of global capital production.44 Ties to local communities deepened believers’ knowledge of. A Voice of Their Own: The Authority of the Local Parish (Collegeville. Local communities’ ties to global networks of church institutions and communities remain an important resource for cultivating an alternative form of globalization.”45 Here salvation is rendered historically concrete. O’Hara (New York: Herder & Herder. and major gatherings. 2004).46 The question posed by virtual forms of community is whether the church as fundamental sacrament effects what it signifies or merely serves as a shallow.428 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES those offered by the U. The Church and the Sacraments. diocesan networks.S. networks of religious colleges and universities.-M. Depth as Sacramental Realization Tillard describes the catholic imperative to engage the depths of the local as the divine gift of fullness “‘plung[ing] its roots’ into the soil of diverse human cultures.S.: Liturgical. Clark. The good that is present is elevated in the fullness of the church. global religious orders. Tillard speaks of the local community as an exegetical and hermeneutical agent that manifests catholicity by engaging the tradition from the “tissue” of a particular human location.

South was long abetted by conformity of the Christian churches to racial segregation. Racism in the U.48 It is precisely this power of holding the gospel in tension with the complexities of the local that is endangered by the heterogenizing forces of globalization. All must either unite in the same Eucharist to face this murderous division within the community or place themselves outside of communion. it did not appear within them as a division to be challenged. Far from being an inert organizational unit. Since racial division structured the churches. Rather than the local church constructing a space within which the injustices of the local context can be brought to light.S. diokesis. Romero declared that Grande’s funeral mass at the cathedral would be the only liturgy celebrated in the archdiocese that Sunday. Theopolitical Imagination 122. But when mediating structures are being swept away by the indiCavanaugh. The church could not fragment into different factions in response to his death. In this light. Nevertheless. or neighborhood. a sectarian communal ecology makes it likely the church will segregate into enclaves along local divisions. town. Cavanaugh finds a model in Archbishop Óscar Romero’s response to the murder of Rutilio Grande in the Salvadoran civil war. village. but by using its doctrinal and liturgical resources to transform extant structures. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture (New York: Continuum.50 Social forms bring with them powerful ideological imaginaries that are very difficult to counter. 49 48 . 2004) 174–223. Cavanaugh’s concern about the violence and idolatry of the nation-state are well founded. While the church is called to bring spaces of communal salvation into being. In so doing. In light of the deterritorializing effects of globalization.GLOBALIZATION AND CATHOLICITY 429 cultures contribute insights that unveil the meaning of elements of the Scriptures and tradition lying dormant within the church. it is important to attend to the value of extant territorializing structures. it has used them all. injustices.49 It did not create the structures of ekklesia. The eucharistic community can provide a place where the tensions. it does so not by forming them de novo. Oppression and inequality are deeply woven into societies. 50 Cavanaugh. the territorial parish appears surprisingly important. See the discussion of tactics in Vincent Miller. Theopolical Imagination 9–52. The confrontation between the gospel and the sinful aspects of culture and society has two ties to locality. The first involves entry into the depths of a particular sociocultural context. and divisions of society can appear and be illuminated by the demands of the gospel. it always had to push them beyond their extant limits toward their eschatological fullness. it is a structure that can be used to stand against the deterritorializing effects of globalization—a place where the church can hold and frame the local.

housing. where the concrete demands of justice in the 51 J. a protest about the child tax credit of 2004. Thus from parish and diocesan engagement with municipal and county governments. Local Church 71.” In patristic usage. etc. the famine. 53 Vincent J. Tillard. 52 . Our desire to be a eucharistic community and our attempts to realize this desire through multicultural liturgies and whole-parish celebrations were put to the test by a political policy that cut through the parish along economic lines. whatever their manifest defects. at 321. provide means to evaluate problems that face a given region or social unit. This catholic task of engaging the local has another dimension as well. 307–22. or suffering of a specific city or region. and to construct coalitions for a collective response.-R. “Reception—Communion. universal situation. “Here—where bonds of personal relationships and love can be experienced firsthand. The “church as such receives into its own flesh the realities of creation or the fruits of human skill. cited in Ruddy.” ibid.430 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES vidualizing tide of global capitalism. environmental destruction. J.-M. In William Clark’s words. It ties the church to the needs and stories of those who live there.-R. was given great strength by the framing of the liturgy.51 The local community functions as a heuristic space for expressing local problems and inviting a response from the church. or global level engagement with international governmental organizations. In Tillard’s words. to develop policies to address them. together with the pains and efforts of people striving to transform the human condition into what their conscience teaches them it has to be. earthquake. at 7. episcopal conferences and national governments. the nation-state remains an essential structure for enabling the church to engage particular localities. Tillard. Democratic institutions on all scales. catholicity is the relation of the pleroma of God’s salvation to the “pleroma of human suffering and misery” which “cannot be identified with a kind of abstract. 2004) 18–20.” America 191. Miller.” One in Christ 28 (1992) 1–12.-M.4 (August 16. John Paul II and the participants of the Synod of the Americas provided many examples of how the church can constitute its own territorializing of the world in Ecclesia in America. suffering is always particular—for example. In my own parish. “‘Communion’ and Salvation. which left out the working poor. The church must also challenge and transgress the limits of these structures. “Politics in the Parish.53 The local church territorializes Christianity in the sense of giving it an analytical focus and political traction in the problems of the world. the church uses secular structures in its own broader mission to transformatively engage the world.”52 Some issues appear only on the local level—homelessness.

the choice is not whether or not to use these technologies to deepen the territorial space of the local and facebook. and perhaps letters to the editor in the diocesan or Amy Welborn’s openbook. What if such technologies were made part of local parish life? Given the rising importance of such virtual social spaces such as myspace. Conversation on those levels is limited to chats over coffee. and telling how much easier it is to participate in deterritorialized email and blog discussions for pressure groups and national figures than for local parishes or CONCLUSION Different analyses of the cultural context lead to differing diagnoses of the problems the church faces and diverse prescriptions for responding. Here both the possibility and the struggle of genuine Christian community are ‘realized’ in the truest sense. Now they must consciously establish territorial connections themselves. as this article argues. The actual choice between tying them to the traditional spaces of the church or surrendering to them as deterritorialized substitutes. being rendered virtual from within. however. Descriptions of the cultural effects of globalization that limit themselves to homogenization prescribe the preservation of the church’s threatened particularity in the face of the eroding and syncretistic maelstrom of global hyperculture. It is striking how little these technologies have been exploited for parishes. A Voice of Their Own 171. the cultural effects of globalization include not only homogenization but also heterogenization and deterritorialization. Parishes were once territorialized by the neighborhoods in which they were located. . Such a diagnosis works well with approaches that subordinate catholicity to unity. but their mutual participation in the liturgy does not draw them out of their separate cultural niches. If. then this strategy becomes insufficient.”54 Parishes AND CATHOLICITY 431 world can be recognized and engaged—the church’s own sacrament of Christ’s presence is celebrated. dueling prayers of the faithful. however. Far from combating the 54 Clark. The church can no longer rely on geographic and social inertia to maintain communion. it must take steps to actively foster it. Read the discussions on national blogsites such as the Paulist-sponsored bustedhalo. Where can parishioners find anything close to that level of engagement in their own communities? Neighborhood associations have flourished by using these technologies. People gather in the same place. The good news is that the same communications technologies that foster deterritorialized cultural niches also provide resources to anchor communities in place.

Capitalism and technology have brought the distant parts of the world closer together than ever before. Catholicity provides an idea of the universal that embraces global diversity. this intimacy brings as much conflict as harmony. rather they are grounded and articulated in a global network of institutions and community relationships. Much depends on whether the church stretches into its responsibilities or retreats by conforming to the current cultural ecology. an exclusive focus on preserving particularity results in merely being swept along with the currents of cultural heterogenization. These ideals are not mere ideological desiderata. becoming yet another enclave projecting a pure and irrelevant identity. The world desperately needs the church to be a sacrament of the salvation and unity of humankind. . The three dimensions of catholicity discussed here illustrate the full challenge posed by globalization and provide an alternative telos and mapping of space for engaging it. an imperative of unity that must reach into the local. As we know all too well.432 THEOLOGICAL STUDIES effects of globalization. The outcome is far from clear. and an ideal of wholeness that embraces difference.