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Allama Iqbals Vision Of Khudi (The Self)

The central argument of the paper is that Iqbals man is not an amoral biped, i.e. a tw o legged creature devoid of values, norms or ethics. The man (Adam) for Iqbal is not merely the centre of universe but the universe itself. Iqbal is obsessed to achieve the mans lost glory back as Iqbal w ants man to regain the original noble heights and for that he gives him a tool. I.e. Khudi (the self). This w ork is though not an exclusive look at Iqbals concept of Khudi, rather the crux of the matter is to understand how Iqbal envisioned Khudi as an illumination to decorate man for spiritual, conscious and moral heights. The fact is that Iqbals being the Quranic poet, glorifies Adam, and treats him a special being and reminding him of his being the plume of the creation as mentioned in the Quranic lexicon. If w e have to understand man in the Iqbalian purview , we have to take the Route of the philosophy of Khudi to understand how Iqbal emancipates and empow ers the Juzz(part) to realize the Kull (total). Khudi is w hat? Simply a combination of three elements, I.e. Irfan-e-zaat(to know one self), Kayinaat ki hakikat ka idraak,(Know ing the reality of universe) Aur Khuda ko pehchanana(Knowing God). It is khudi or the Self that is the root of all existence. The philosophy of self, selfhood or Falsafa-i- Khudi (Philosphy of Self) to be concise is an emblem of Allamas message and a one w ord substitute of his entire philosophical discourse. In Iqbalian pristine Khudi in simple w ords symbolizes realization of self, i.e. recognizing ones ego, ones self sufficiency, and the divine strands that connect creation with the creator. Khudi as Allama held means to realize that man has a particle of divine light w ithin h im w hose discovery can escort man to the apogees of creation and w hose negligence can confine him to the class of amoral bipeds. What prompted Hazrat Allama to emphasise upon khudi w as mainly to overcome the stagnation (Jamood) that had crept into the ummah (the Muslim w orld) after the collapse of Caliphate. Iqbal in true sense arrived at an important conjecture of self and thus forced conscious beings to ponder over the very goal, reason and cause of the universe and mans very being. Though his philosophical or sociological dimensions are diverse and debatable how ever, they all seem to converge at his concept of selfhood, which is the launch pad as w ell as the hallmark of his message. Allama Iqbals conception about the reality of human personality and the pedestal that man occupies in the hierarchy of creation lead him to the realization of macrocosm-microcosm apposition (that is, man is micro-universe and the shadow of external universe) and gave birth to the philosophy of selfhood. This synthesis was lar gely catalysed by Allamas approach to the triaxial nature of man. This is to say in w hat relation man stands w ith respect to his outer w orld (outw ard axis) his inner-self (inward axis) and his God (upw ard axis). This analysis trio of mind, body and spirit (as it is termed in philosophy) landed Iqbal into the realization that in this schema of tri-laterality man occupies prior co-ordinate. (That man is bestow ed high priority in comparison to universe) where from other tw o elements, i.e. the universe and God can be assessed and analyzed. The notion of mans grandeur is as old as the universe itself as the fact is that angels w ere asked to pay homage to Adam and the one w ho refused faced the ultimate w rath. The theme gained so much impetus and attention historically that plethora of opinions took their shape in an attempt to locate the mans coordinates in the hierarchy of creations.

Some of these view s like that of pantheism maintained unity of creation and put the creation and creator on same footings. Still others reduced the status of man to that of a mere biological being. In the entire line of discussion there has been philosophically speaking a rift betw een different schools of thought and in their methodology w hen it comes to answ ering the questions about man. Today consciously or unconsciously, with a relative difference in the East and the West a radical shift of reference from the Divine or ultimate authority to man is being made. Today, largely for all practical purposes, man is the measure of all things. In the modern age, the sense of human autonomy is very deep, w ithout delinking the relevance of God. In the East, the destination of man largely remains spiritual. In his philosophy Allama resurfaced the pedestal of man and introduced him to his infinite potential. For Allama the man is bestowed with high priority in comparison to universe. It turns out that if understood properly, this philosophy aims at introducing man to his real self and to project him as a vicergent from heavens to earth. Allamas philosophy is in its right an unbeaten attempt to synthesize a societal set up w hose foundations are strictly moral and spiritual as opposed to the mere binding of social interdependence. Man is central to his philosophy as Allama deems man as the crown of creation. Now w ho is this Iqbalian man? Definitely The Mard-i-Moomin(The Ideal Man) If w e have to understand Iqbals real grandeur of man, w e have to go through the path of Mard -iMoomin(Ideal Man) and its characteristics and then only Iqbals conceptio n of man can be understood in true sense. Mard-i-Moomin, the real picture of, manhood as perceived by Iqbal is essentially spiritual in nature and stands above the physical, biological and psychological confines. Mard -i-Moomin despite earning w orld is least influenced by its glory. He doesnt turn aw ay from universe as Platonic concept demands but rather conquers it as demanded by Quranic dictions. On qualifying all these strenuous trials Mard -i-Moomin is blessed w ith a throne w here his w ill becomes t he w ill of God and his thoughts and acts reflect the divine plans. He is bestow ed upon an authority, the authority of w hich Hazart Allama Iqbal says: Koi andaza kar i sakhta uskay zour -i-bazu ka Nigah-e-mard-i- moomin se badal jaati hain taqdeerain (Can anyone even guess at the strength of his arm? By the glance of the man w ho is a true believer, even destiny is changed). Iqbal very precisely gauged that in man there is implanted a divine corpuscle (Soul or consciousness that Iqbal pertinently terms Khudi) ,the blue-print of universe and in the depths of mans inner -self lies encoded all the treasure of w isdom and information about every atom of universe(As maintained in Quran that Allah bestow ed Adam w ith total know ledge),Whose decoding Allama called as discovery of self or tameer-i-khudi. Allama Iqbal also acknow ledged the relation of man w ith the divine w orld (Aalmi Arw ah is the closest word to describe that hyper sensual universe) and also estimated the infinitude of potential, man is endow ed with. In view of all these superfluous traits of man Iqbal thus w rote in closing poem Hazrat Insaan of his collection Armugani Hijaz, Agar maqsoodi qul mai hu tou muj se maw ara kya hai Meri hungama haaye nobanu ki Intihaa kya hai.

(If i am the plume and purpose of all creation, then w hat lies beyond me? Is there any bound to my ever perpetual and evolving tendencies). This couplet glibly encompasses and depicts the Allamas picture of man and his insight regarding the potential of human nature besides it provides a tangible answer to all affiliated questions related to the purpose, destiny and reality of man. Hamsaaya-e- jibreel-i-ameen, banda-e- khaki Hai iska nashayman na Bukhara na badakhshan (This clay born man has kinship close to Jibreal-the trusted.His dw elling place is never a land or a clime). The distinction of Iqbal lies in not only presenting a sketch of Mard-i-Moomin but also specifying the w eltanschauung (touch stone) for such a canonical embodiment. Iqbal identifies Mard -iMoomin as one w ho realizes, acknowledges and develops his Khudi. This khudi is the corner stone of Iqbalian philosophy and the minimum qualification demanded by Iqbals Mard -i-Moomin. Iqbals Mard-i- Moomin is the ultimate manifestation of manhood and is pertinently seen as the ambassador of Allah. Secondly, this Mard-i-Moomin is a pragmatic equivalent of Quranic lexicon. Iqbalian concept of man is much comprehensive and multidimensional. Iqbal, w hen speaking on human existence and the philosophy of self maintains equipois e or equilibrium betw een endogenous and exogenous dimensions of human personality. In Iqbalian pristine man is seen as the cause of creation. Chronologically man w as created at the conclusion of creation but teleologically it is man w ho directed the course of evolution. A microcosm in form, man is a macrocosm encompassing the entire cosmos in his bosom. Man is biological by nature but metaphysical by origin, chemical in composition but spiritual in essence. The man w hom Allama talks of is one w ho successfully undertakes the construction of self and makes himself accordant w ith the divine scheme of creation. By the realization of self w hat is meant is that the man may realize his origin, his essence, his pedestal and the infinite capabilities he is endow ed with. This realization of self Allama terms as taemeer -i-khudi (construction of self). Allamas Khudi, if translated in psychological language is an advanced form of ego. This ego, as Allama deemed, is not identical to soul in the trivial sense. Nor is it a rigid substance occupying space like a physical object, rather it lies beyond the realm of space-time fabric. Iqbal maintains that the reality of ego (self or consciousness) is too profound to be intellectualized and the present day psychology in beset w ith a number of hurdles to put the concept of khudi (The self) on experimental footing. Despite that, practical side of this philosophy is of such productive and pragmatic value that it compels us to accept it in its totality and pragmatic spirit. It is w orth to mind that the use of the w ord khudi or equivalently translated as ego as used by Iqbal is not, in any w ay related to the issue of pride, superiority complex or any other negative tendency and does not convey any other prevalent meaning of th e w ord. Rather Khudi is a process of self -construction strictly according to Quranic prescriptions and the one w ho succeeds in this process of construction is deemed as Mard -i-Moomin. This Mard-i-Moomin is Iqbals ideal man w hich is w ell symbolized by Shaheen (Eagle) and is characterized by distinct spiritual and moral values. He is the trustee of universe and a treasure of secrets. Every corpuscle of human creation holds a secret in it and as such man is himself the biggest secret of universe.

Bes ides his spiritual, metaphysical, ontological and intellectual aspects the Iqbals message of self-discovery also attains prominence in an attempt to scrabble mans ow n purpose and position in the arena of creatures. Iqbal does not regard self -discovery or the selfhood as a mere theoretical discourse but rather sees self (ego-hood) as actuality, which when developed, brings revolutionary changes and endows tremendous power to man. This selfhood not only enables man to develop his ow n ego by adopting different measures but also assists him in shaping the destiny of the universe and establishing the kingdom of God on earth in accordance with the special status of vicergency that man occupies in the plethora of creatures and for which he has been placed on the pedestal of khalifatul Arz(To govern the Land).It thus becomes obligatory and mandatory for man to discover his self so as to execute the expected commandments in desired format. Another prominent aspect of self - discovery as can be gauged by the follow ing passage that Dr. Ali Shariati (Ali Shariati (1933-1977) w as an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist) puts it in preface of his masterpiece work Ma w a Iqbal (Dr. Shariatis Masterpiece on Allama Iqbal), w here he narrates the dialogue betw een Maulana Rumi and his master Shams Tabrezi, he w rites, we must first find our self. Jallaludin Rumi once said, I put forth fourteen reasons to prove the existence of God to a group of people. Shams Tabriz responded me on behalf of God and adding that i should prove my ow n existence as God needs no proof. Shariati in this preview thus infers that Shams advice is a general and lasting rule for understanding our self and w ho we are? And what we seek? Before speaking about God, religion, civilization, culture, etc Since man forms the prelude, interlude and conclusion of Iqbalian thought. Thus Allama by edification of his chosen theme of the self proved his take on mans glorification by not by him but by Allaha Himself. The ultimate aim of Khudi is love for humanity and khudi is the crux of allama, i.e. Azmat-e- Adam is Iqbals choicest and main theme. Allama gives a spiritual call to the man to develop The Self at least through his beautiful Couplet in Bangi Dara: Apne Mann Main doob kar paja surag-e-zindagi Tu agar mera nhi banta ,na ban apna tou bann (Delve into your soul and there seek our lifes buried tracks. Will you not be mine? Then be not mine, be your ow n right). Lastly,I w ould like to say one thing,that it is not necessary to be urdu know ing or speaking alw ays in urdu to pay true or loved tribute to Allama for Allama himself has transcended such linguistic boundaries,he belongs to us all irrespective of urdu or farsi or English speaking.We need to find and conceptualise Iqbal w ithin us.The anchoring question remains do w e really love the Hakimul-ummat?