Você está na página 1de 9

298

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

86. F  ma ma 

GmM
r
r3

a

GM
r
r3

Since r is a constant multiple of a, they are parallel. Since a  r is parallel to r, r  r  0. Also,

dtd r  r  r  r  r  r  0  0  0.


Thus, r  r is a constant vector which we will denote by L.

88.

d r
r
1
1
L

r  0  r  L  3r  r  r
dt GM
r
GM
r

1
GMr
1
0
 r  r  3 r  r  r
GM
r3
r



Thus,

1
r
 r  r  3 r  r  r
r3
r

1
r  r  r  r  r  r  0
r3

r
GM
  L  rr  is a constant vector which we will denote by e.

90. L  r  r

92. Let P denote the period. Then

Let: r  rcos  i  sin  j


r  rsin  i  cos j

Then: r  r 

 r2

d
dt

drdt  ddr ddt

r cos 
r sin  d
dt

r sin 
r cos  d
dt

0
0

d
d
k and L  r  r  r 2 .
dt
dt

A

dA
1
dt  L P.
dt
2

Also, the area of an ellipse is


ab where 2a and 2b are the
lengths of the major and minor axes.
1

ab  L P
2
P
P2 

2
ab
L
4
2a 2 2
4
2a 2 2
a  c 2 
a 1  e2
L 2
L 2

4
2a 4 ed
4
2ed 3

a
2
L
a
L 2

4
2 L 2GM  3 4
2 3
a 
a  Ka 3
L 2
GM

 

Review Exercises for Chapter 11


2. rt  t i 

1
jk
t4

(a) Domain: 0, 4 and 4, 


(b) Continuous except at t  4

4. rt  2t  1 i  t 2j  tk
(a) Domain:  , 
(b) Continuous for all t

Review Exercises for Chapter 11

299

6. (a) r0  3i  j
(b) r


2   
2 k

(c) rs 
  3 coss 
 i  1  sins 
 j  s 
 k
(d) r
 t  r
  3 cos
 t i  1  sin
 t j  
 tk  3i  j 
k
 3 cos t  3 i  sin t  t k
8. rt  ti 

t
j
t1

10. rt  2ti  tj  t 2k

x  2t, y  t, z  t 2,
y  12 x, z  y 2

t
xt  t, yt 
t1

x
y
x1

x
2 1

12. rt  2 cos ti  tj  2 sin tk

1

2

1

x2  z 2  4

1
1
14. rt  2 ti  tj  4 t 3k

x  2 cos t, y  t, z  2 sin t

4
x

z
6

2

2

4
2

3
y

2
3

1
3

18. The x- and y-components are 2 cos t and 2 sin t. At

16. One possible answer is:


r1t  4ti,

0 t 1

r2t  4 cos ti  4 sin tj,

0 t

r3t  4  t j,

0 t 4

t

,
2

the staircase has made 34 of a revolution and is 2 meters


high. Thus, one answer is
rt  2 cos ti  2 sin tj 

20. x2  z 2  4, x  y  0, t  x

22. lim
t0

x  t, y  t, z  4  t 2

t j

 

 et k  lim
t0

rt  ti  tj  4  t 2 k
3

x
5
y

2 cos 2t
ijk
1

 2i  j  k

rt  ti  tj  4  t 2 k
4

sint 2t i  e

4
tk.
3

300

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

1
24. rt  sin ti  cos tj  t k, ut  sin ti  cos t j  k
t
(a) rt  cos ti  sin tj  k

(b) rt  sin t i  cos t j

(c) rt ut  2

(d) ut  2rt  sin ti  cos tj 

Dtrt ut  0

1t  2tk


Dtut  2rt  cos t i  sin tj  

1
2 k
t2

(e) rt  1  t 2
Dt rt  
(f) rt  ut 

t
1  t 2

1t cos t  t cos t i  1t sin t  t sin tj




 

1
1
1
1
cos t  2 sin t  t cos t  sin t j
Dtrt  ut   sin t  2 cos t  t sin t  cos t i 
t
t
t
t
26. The graph of u is parallel to the yz-plane.

28.

30.

t2
ln t i  t ln tj  k dt  t ln t  t i  1  2 ln tj  tk  C
4

tj  t 2k  i  tj  tk dt 

32. rt 

t2  t3i  t 2j  tk dt 

t3  t4 i  t3 j  t2 k  C
3

sec t i  tan tj  t 2k dt  ln sec t  tan t i  ln cos t j 

t3
kC
3

r0  C  3k

rt  ln sec t  tan t i  ln cos t j 


1

34.

36.

1

t j  t sin t k dt 

23 t

32 j

t3i  arcsin tj  t2k dt 

t3  3k
3

 sin t  t cos tk

1
0

2
 j  sin 1  cos 1k
3

t4 i  t arcsin t  1  t j  t3 k
4

1

2
 k
3
38.

rt  t, tan t, et

40.

rt  vt  1, sec2 t, et

rt  3 sinh t, cosh t, 2

vt  1  sec t  e
4

r0  0, 1, 2 direction numbers

2t

rt  at  0, 2 sec t tan t, e 


2

rt  3 cosh t, sinh t, 2t, t 0  0

Since r0  3, 0, 0, the parametric equations are x  3,


y  t, z  2t.
rt 0  0.1  r0.1  3, 0.1, 0.2

Review Exercises for Chapter 11

42. Range  4 


v02
16

v02
sin  cos 
16
6
213

3v 2
4
 0
104
213

2 13
6

416
 v02 v0  11.776 ft sec
3
4

44. rt  v0 cos ti  v0 sin t  12 9.8t2 j


(b) rt  20 cos 45ti  20 sin 45t  4.9t 2 j

(a) rt  20 cos 30ti  20 sin 30t  4.9t 2 j

20

20

45

45
0

Maximum height  10.2 m; Range  40.8 m

Maximum height  5.1 m; Range  35.3 m


(c) rt  20 cos 60ti  20 sin 60t  4.9t 2 j
20

45
0

Maximum height  15.3 m; Range  35.3 m


(Note that 45 gives the longest range)

46.

rt  1  4t i  2  3tj

rt  2t  1 i 

48.

vt  4 i  3j

vt  2i 

v  5
at  0

vt 

1
Tt  4i  3j
5

2t  14  1
t  12
4
j
t  13

Tt 

t  12i  j
t  14  1

Nt 

i  t  12j
t  14  1

T

4
t  13t  14  1

N

4t  12
t  13t  14  1

a T0

2
j
t  12

at 

Nt does not exist

2
j
t1

does not exist

4
t  1t  14  1

301

302

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

rt  t cos ti  t sin t j

50.

vt  rt  t sin t  cos t i  t cos t  sin t j


vt  speed  t sin t  cos t2  t cos t  sin t2  t2  1
at  rt  t cos t  2 sin t i  t sin t  2 cos t j
Tt 

vt
t sin t  cos t i  t cos t  sin t j

vt
t2  1

Nt 

 t cos t  sin t i  t sin t  cos t j


t2  1
t

at Tt 

t 2  1

t2  2
t 2  1

at Nt 

rt  t  1 i  tj 

52.

1
k
t

54. rt  t i  t2j  23 t 3k, x  t, y  t 2, z  23 t 3


When t  2, x  2, y  4, z  16
3 .

1
vt  i  j  2 k
t

Direction numbers when t  2, a  1, b  4, c  8

2t 4  1

vt 

rt  i  2tj  2t 2k

t2

x  t  2, y  4t  4, z  8t  16
3

at 

2
k
t3

Tt 

t 2i  t 2 j  k
2t 4  1

Nt 

i  j  2t 2k
22t 4  1
2
2t 4  1

T  t3

4
t22t 4  1

a N

56. Factor of 4
58. rt  t2i  2tk, 0 t 3
rt  2ti  2k

s

rt dt 

z
6

4t2  4 dt

3
2

 ln t2  1  t  tt2  1

(0, 0, 0)

2
1

(9, 0, 6)

 ln10  3  310  11.3053

2
3
4

5
6
7
9
x

Review Exercises for Chapter 11


60.

rt  10 cos ti  10 sin tj

62. rt  ti  t2j  2tk, 0 t 2

rt  10 sin ti  10 cos tj

rt  i  2tj  2k, rt  5  4t2

rt  10

s

303

s

10 dt  20

5  4t2 dt

5
5
ln 5  ln105  45   6.2638
4
4

 21 

rt dt 

y
z
8
6
4
2

4
3
x

8 6 4 2

(2, 4, 4)

2 4 6 8

4
6
8

1
1

64. rt  2sin t  t cos t, 2cos t  t sin t, t, 0 t

66.

xt  2t sin t, 2t cos t, 1, rt  4t2  1

s

rt dt 

2

4t2  1 dt

 17 

1
ln17  4  4.6468
4

rt  et sin ti  et cos tk, 0 t

rt  et cos t  et sin t i  et sin t  et cos t k


rt  et cos t  et sin t2  et sin t  et cos t2
 2et
s

rt dt

 2

68.

rt  2ti  3tj


rt 

1
t

i  3j, rt 

1t  9  1 t 9t

1
r t   t 32i
2

j
i
1
3
r  r  t
1 32
0
 t
2
K

70.

k
0

3
3
 t 32k; r  r  32
2
2t

32t32
3
rt  r t


3
rt
1  9t32t32 21  9t32

rt  2ti  5 cos tj  5 sin tk


rt  2i  5 sin tj  5 cos tk, rt  29
rt  5 cos tj  5 sin tk

i
j
k
r  r  2 5 sin t
5 cos t  25i  10 sin tj  10 cos tk
0 5 cos t 5 sin t
r  r  725
K

725
25 29
r  r
5



r 3
2932
29

29 29

et dt  2et

 2e
 1

304

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

72. y  ex2

74. y  tan x
y  sec2 x

1
1
y   ex2, y  ex2
2
4

K

y 2 32

1  y 

At x  0, K 

y  2 sec2 x tan x

1 x2
e
4

1
1  ex
4

K

32

2
2
25
55
14



,r
.
25
2
5432 532 55

x
y 2 32  2 sec2 x 4tan32

1  y 

At x 

1  sec x]

4
45
4

55

, K  32 
.
and r 
4
5
55
25
4

Problem Solving for Chapter 11


4. Bomb: r1t  5000  400t, 3200  16t2

x23  y23  a23

2.

Projectile: r2t  v0 cos t, v0 sin t  16t2

2 13 2 13
 y
y  0
x
3
3

At 1600 feet: Bomb:

y13
y  13 Slope at Px, y.
x

Projectile will travel 5 seconds:

rt  cos3 ti  sin3 tj


rt  3 cos2 t sin ti  3 sin2 t cos tj

3200  16t2  1600 t  10

5v0 sin   1625  1600


v0 sin  400.

rti  3 cos t sin t


Tt 

rt
 cos ti  sin tj
rt

Q0, 0, 0 origin
P
\

t,

PQ  T 

sin3

Thus,
t, 0 on curve.

i
cos3 t
cos t

j
sin3 t
sin t

k
0
0

 cos3 t sin t  sin3 t cos tk


\

PQ  T
D
 3 cos t sin t
T

K

Tt
1

rt
3 cos t sin t

At t  10, bomb is at 5000  40010  9000.


At t  5, projectile is at v0 cos 5.

Tt  sin ti  cos tj

cos3

Horizontal position:

1
Thus, the radius of curvature, , is three times the
K
distance from the origin to the tangent line.

5v0 cos  9000


v0 cos  1800.
Combining,
v0 

400
2
v0 sin

tan  12.5
.
v0 cos 1800
9

1800
1843.9 ftsec
cos

Problem Solving for Chapter 11

6.

r  1  cos
r  sin




st 


K


2 sin



d  4 cos
2
2

2  2 cos d

 4 cos

t
2

r  r 

2 sin2  1  cos cos   1  cos 2



2

3  3 cos 
8 sin3

3

4


2
3



sin3
4 sin
2
2
sin2

1
 
K

4 sin

s2  9 2  16 cos2

8. (a)

2r2 2 rr2 32r 2


8 sin3

1  cos 2  sin2 d 



 16 sin2  16
2
2

r  xi  yj position vector
r  r cos i  r sin j
dr
dr
d
dr
d

cos  r sin
sin  r cos
i
j
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

a

d 2r
d 2r
dr
d dr
d
d
 sin
 r cos

cos  sin
2
dt
dt2
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

 

ddtr sin  drdt cos ddt  drdt cos ddt  r sin ddt 
2

 r sin

d 2
i
dt2

 r cos

d 2
dt2

ar  a ur  a cos i  sin j


dt

d 2r
2




cos2  2

ddtr sin
2

d 2r
d
r
dt2
dt

 

dr
d
d
sin cos
 r cos2
dt
dt
dt

2

 

dr
d
d
sin cos
 r sin2
dt
dt
dt

dr d
d 2
r 2
dr dt
dt

urur  a u u

ddtr  rddt 
u  2drdt ddt  r ddt
u
2

CONTINUED

 r cos sin

 

a  a u  a sin i  cos j  2
a  a

d 2
dt2

 r cos sin

d 2
dt2

305

306

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

10. rt  cos ti  sin tj  k, t 

8. CONTINUED

t
t
i  42,000 sin
j
(b) r  42,000 cos
12
12

 

r  42,000,

 

1 52
x
32

y 

5 32
x
64

y 

15 12
x
128

K

1
2
1
2

At t 

875 2

3

BTNk

 


15 12
x
128
25 3
x
1
4096

N  cos ti  sin tj

u.
12  u   875
3

2
2



,T
i
j
4
4
2
2



4    22i 

4   k

2

32

At the point 4, 1, K 

1
8932
120
r 
7.
32
89
K
120

14. (a) Eliminate the parameter to see that the Ferris wheel has a radius of 15 meters and is centered at 16j.
At t  0, the friend is located at r10  j, which is the low point on the Ferris wheel.
(b) If a revolution takes t seconds, then

 t  t  t

 2
10
10
and so t  20 seconds. The Ferris wheel makes three revolutions per minute.
(c) The initial velocity is r2t 0   8.03i  11.47j. The speed is 8.032  11.472 14 msec. The angle of
inclination is arctan11.47803 0.96 radians or 55
.
(d) Although you may start with other values, t0  0 is a fine choice. The graph at
the right shows two points of intersection. At t  3.15 sec the friend is near the
vertex of the parabola, which the object reaches when
t  t0  

11.47
1.17 sec.
24.9

20

30
0

Thus, after the friend reaches the low point on the Ferris wheel, wait t0  2 sec before throwing the object in
order to allow it to be within reach.
(e) The approximate time is 3.15 seconds after starting to rise from the low point on the Ferris wheel. The friend
has a constant speed of r1t  15 msec. The speed of the object at that time is
r23.15  8.032  11.47  9.83.15  22 8.03 msec.

1 1

T  cos ti  sin tj

Angular component: 0

12. y 

T  sin ti  cos tj

d
 d 2
 , 2 0
dt
12 dt

Radial component: 

rt  sin ti  cos tj, rt  1

dr
d 2r
 0, 2  0
dt
dt

Therefore, a  42000


4