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# 298

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

86. F  ma ma 

GmM
r
r3

a

GM
r
r3

## dtd r  r  r  r  r  r  0  0  0.

Thus, r  r is a constant vector which we will denote by L.

88.

d r
r
1
1
L

r  0  r  L  3r  r  r
dt GM
r
GM
r

1
GMr
1
0
 r  r  3 r  r  r
GM
r3
r



Thus,

1
r
 r  r  3 r  r  r
r3
r

1
r  r  r  r  r  r  0
r3

r
GM
  L  rr  is a constant vector which we will denote by e.

90. L  r  r

## Let: r  rcos  i  sin  j

r  rsin  i  cos j

Then: r  r 

 r2

d
dt

## drdt  ddr ddt

r cos 
r sin  d
dt

r sin 
r cos  d
dt

0
0

d
d
k and L  r  r  r 2 .
dt
dt

A

dA
1
dt  L P.
dt
2

## Also, the area of an ellipse is

ab where 2a and 2b are the
lengths of the major and minor axes.
1

ab  L P
2
P
P2 

2
ab
L
4
2a 2 2
4
2a 2 2
a  c 2 
a 1  e2
L 2
L 2

4
2a 4 ed
4
2ed 3

a
2
L
a
L 2

4
2 L 2GM  3 4
2 3
a 
a  Ka 3
L 2
GM

 

2. rt  t i 

1
jk
t4

## (a) Domain: 0, 4 and 4, 

(b) Continuous except at t  4

4. rt  2t  1 i  t 2j  tk
(a) Domain:  , 
(b) Continuous for all t

## Review Exercises for Chapter 11

299

6. (a) r0  3i  j
(b) r


2   
2 k

(c) rs 
  3 coss 
 i  1  sins 
 j  s 
 k
(d) r
 t  r
  3 cos
 t i  1  sin
 t j  
 tk  3i  j 
k
 3 cos t  3 i  sin t  t k
8. rt  ti 

t
j
t1

## 10. rt  2ti  tj  t 2k

x  2t, y  t, z  t 2,
y  12 x, z  y 2

t
xt  t, yt 
t1

x
y
x1

x
2 1

## 12. rt  2 cos ti  tj  2 sin tk

1

2

1

x2  z 2  4

1
1
14. rt  2 ti  tj  4 t 3k

x  2 cos t, y  t, z  2 sin t

4
x

z
6

2

2

4
2

3
y

2
3

1
3

r1t  4ti,

0 t 1

## r2t  4 cos ti  4 sin tj,

0 t

r3t  4  t j,

0 t 4

t

,
2

## the staircase has made 34 of a revolution and is 2 meters

rt  2 cos ti  2 sin tj 

20. x2  z 2  4, x  y  0, t  x

22. lim
t0

x  t, y  t, z  4  t 2

t j

 

 et k  lim
t0

rt  ti  tj  4  t 2 k
3

x
5
y

2 cos 2t
ijk
1

 2i  j  k

rt  ti  tj  4  t 2 k
4

sint 2t i  e

4
tk.
3

300

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

1
24. rt  sin ti  cos tj  t k, ut  sin ti  cos t j  k
t
(a) rt  cos ti  sin tj  k

## (d) ut  2rt  sin ti  cos tj 

Dtrt ut  0

1t  2tk


## Dtut  2rt  cos t i  sin tj  

1
2 k
t2

(e) rt  1  t 2
Dt rt  
(f) rt  ut 

t
1  t 2

## 1t cos t  t cos t i  1t sin t  t sin tj



 

1
1
1
1
cos t  2 sin t  t cos t  sin t j
Dtrt  ut   sin t  2 cos t  t sin t  cos t i 
t
t
t
t
26. The graph of u is parallel to the yz-plane.

28.

30.

t2
ln t i  t ln tj  k dt  t ln t  t i  1  2 ln tj  tk  C
4

32. rt 

## t2  t3i  t 2j  tk dt 

t3  t4 i  t3 j  t2 k  C
3

t3
kC
3

r0  C  3k

## rt  ln sec t  tan t i  ln cos t j 


1

34.

36.

1

t j  t sin t k dt 

23 t

32 j

t3  3k
3

##  sin t  t cos tk

1
0

2
 j  sin 1  cos 1k
3

t4 i  t arcsin t  1  t j  t3 k
4

1

2
 k
3
38.

40.

## rt  3 sinh t, cosh t, 2

vt  1  sec t  e
4

2t

2

## Since r0  3, 0, 0, the parametric equations are x  3,

y  t, z  2t.
rt 0  0.1  r0.1  3, 0.1, 0.2

## Review Exercises for Chapter 11

42. Range  4 


v02
16

v02
sin  cos 
16
6
213

3v 2
4
 0
104
213

2 13
6

416
 v02 v0  11.776 ft sec
3
4

## 44. rt  v0 cos ti  v0 sin t  12 9.8t2 j

(b) rt  20 cos 45ti  20 sin 45t  4.9t 2 j

20

20

45

45
0

## Maximum height  5.1 m; Range  35.3 m

(c) rt  20 cos 60ti  20 sin 60t  4.9t 2 j
20

45
0

## Maximum height  15.3 m; Range  35.3 m

(Note that 45 gives the longest range)

46.

## rt  1  4t i  2  3tj

rt  2t  1 i 

48.

vt  4 i  3j

vt  2i 

v  5
at  0

vt 

1
Tt  4i  3j
5

2t  14  1
t  12
4
j
t  13

Tt 

t  12i  j
t  14  1

Nt 

i  t  12j
t  14  1

T

4
t  13t  14  1

N

4t  12
t  13t  14  1

a T0

2
j
t  12

at 

2
j
t1

## does not exist

4
t  1t  14  1

301

302

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

50.

## vt  rt  t sin t  cos t i  t cos t  sin t j

vt  speed  t sin t  cos t2  t cos t  sin t2  t2  1
at  rt  t cos t  2 sin t i  t sin t  2 cos t j
Tt 

vt
t sin t  cos t i  t cos t  sin t j

vt
t2  1

Nt 

##  t cos t  sin t i  t sin t  cos t j

t2  1
t

at Tt 

t 2  1

t2  2
t 2  1

at Nt 

rt  t  1 i  tj 

52.

1
k
t

## 54. rt  t i  t2j  23 t 3k, x  t, y  t 2, z  23 t 3

When t  2, x  2, y  4, z  16
3 .

1
vt  i  j  2 k
t

## Direction numbers when t  2, a  1, b  4, c  8

2t 4  1

vt 

rt  i  2tj  2t 2k

t2

x  t  2, y  4t  4, z  8t  16
3

at 

2
k
t3

Tt 

t 2i  t 2 j  k
2t 4  1

Nt 

i  j  2t 2k
22t 4  1
2
2t 4  1

T  t3

4
t22t 4  1

a N

56. Factor of 4
58. rt  t2i  2tk, 0 t 3
rt  2ti  2k

s

rt dt 

z
6

4t2  4 dt

3
2

 ln t2  1  t  tt2  1

(0, 0, 0)

2
1

(9, 0, 6)

2
3
4

5
6
7
9
x

60.

## rt  i  2tj  2k, rt  5  4t2

rt  10

s

303

s

10 dt  20

5  4t2 dt

5
5
ln 5  ln105  45   6.2638
4
4

 21 

rt dt 

y
z
8
6
4
2

4
3
x

8 6 4 2

(2, 4, 4)

2 4 6 8

4
6
8

1
1

66.

## xt  2t sin t, 2t cos t, 1, rt  4t2  1

s

rt dt 

2

4t2  1 dt

 17 

1
ln17  4  4.6468
4

## rt  et cos t  et sin t i  et sin t  et cos t k

rt  et cos t  et sin t2  et sin t  et cos t2
 2et
s

rt dt

 2

68.

## rt  2ti  3tj

rt 

1
t

i  3j, rt 

1t  9  1 t 9t

1
r t   t 32i
2

j
i
1
3
r  r  t
1 32
0
 t
2
K

70.

k
0

3
3
 t 32k; r  r  32
2
2t

32t32
3
rt  r t


3
rt
1  9t32t32 21  9t32

## rt  2ti  5 cos tj  5 sin tk

rt  2i  5 sin tj  5 cos tk, rt  29
rt  5 cos tj  5 sin tk

i
j
k
r  r  2 5 sin t
5 cos t  25i  10 sin tj  10 cos tk
0 5 cos t 5 sin t
r  r  725
K

725
25 29
r  r
5



r 3
2932
29

29 29

et dt  2et

 2e
 1

304

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

72. y  ex2

74. y  tan x
y  sec2 x

1
1
y   ex2, y  ex2
2
4

K

y 2 32

1  y 

At x  0, K 

y  2 sec2 x tan x

1 x2
e
4

1
1  ex
4

K

32

2
2
25
55
14



,r
.
25
2
5432 532 55

x
y 2 32  2 sec2 x 4tan32

1  y 

At x 

1  sec x]

4
45
4

55

, K  32 
.
and r 
4
5
55
25
4

## Problem Solving for Chapter 11

4. Bomb: r1t  5000  400t, 3200  16t2

2.

2 13 2 13
 y
y  0
x
3
3

## At 1600 feet: Bomb:

y13
y  13 Slope at Px, y.
x

## rt  cos3 ti  sin3 tj

rt  3 cos2 t sin ti  3 sin2 t cos tj

v0 sin  400.

## rti  3 cos t sin t

Tt 

rt
 cos ti  sin tj
rt

Q0, 0, 0 origin
P
\

t,

PQ  T 

sin3

Thus,
t, 0 on curve.

i
cos3 t
cos t

j
sin3 t
sin t

k
0
0

\

PQ  T
D
 3 cos t sin t
T

K

Tt
1

rt
3 cos t sin t

## At t  10, bomb is at 5000  40010  9000.

At t  5, projectile is at v0 cos 5.

## Tt  sin ti  cos tj

cos3

Horizontal position:

1
Thus, the radius of curvature, , is three times the
K
distance from the origin to the tangent line.

v0 cos  1800.
Combining,
v0 

400
2
v0 sin

tan  12.5
.
v0 cos 1800
9

1800
1843.9 ftsec
cos

6.

r  1  cos
r  sin




st 


K


2 sin

d  4 cos
2
2

2  2 cos d

 4 cos

t
2

r  r 

## 2 sin2  1  cos cos   1  cos 2

2

3  3 cos 
8 sin3

3

4

2
3


sin3
4 sin
2
2
sin2

1
 
K

4 sin

s2  9 2  16 cos2

8. (a)

8 sin3

## 1  cos 2  sin2 d 

 16 sin2  16
2
2

r  xi  yj position vector
r  r cos i  r sin j
dr
dr
d
dr
d

cos  r sin
sin  r cos
i
j
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

a

d 2r
d 2r
dr
d dr
d
d
 sin
 r cos

cos  sin
2
dt
dt2
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

 

ddtr sin  drdt cos ddt  drdt cos ddt  r sin ddt 
2

 r sin

d 2
i
dt2

 r cos

d 2
dt2

ar  a ur  a cos i  sin j


dt

d 2r
2




cos2  2

ddtr sin
2

d 2r
d
r
dt2
dt

 

dr
d
d
sin cos
 r cos2
dt
dt
dt

2

 

dr
d
d
sin cos
 r sin2
dt
dt
dt

dr d
d 2
r 2
dr dt
dt

urur  a u u

ddtr  rddt 
u  2drdt ddt  r ddt
u
2

CONTINUED

 r cos sin

 

a  a u  a sin i  cos j  2
a  a

d 2
dt2

 r cos sin

d 2
dt2

305

306

Chapter 11

Vector-Valued Functions

## 10. rt  cos ti  sin tj  k, t 

8. CONTINUED

t
t
i  42,000 sin
j
(b) r  42,000 cos
12
12

 

r  42,000,

 

1 52
x
32

y 

5 32
x
64

y 

15 12
x
128

K

1
2
1
2

At t 

875 2

3

BTNk

 


15 12
x
128
25 3
x
1
4096

N  cos ti  sin tj

u.
12  u   875
3

2
2



,T
i
j
4
4
2
2



4    22i 

4   k

2

32

## At the point 4, 1, K 

1
8932
120
r 
7.
32
89
K
120

14. (a) Eliminate the parameter to see that the Ferris wheel has a radius of 15 meters and is centered at 16j.
At t  0, the friend is located at r10  j, which is the low point on the Ferris wheel.
(b) If a revolution takes t seconds, then

 t  t  t

 2
10
10
and so t  20 seconds. The Ferris wheel makes three revolutions per minute.
(c) The initial velocity is r2t 0   8.03i  11.47j. The speed is 8.032  11.472 14 msec. The angle of
inclination is arctan11.47803 0.96 radians or 55
.
(d) Although you may start with other values, t0  0 is a fine choice. The graph at
the right shows two points of intersection. At t  3.15 sec the friend is near the
vertex of the parabola, which the object reaches when
t  t0  

11.47
1.17 sec.
24.9

20

30
0

Thus, after the friend reaches the low point on the Ferris wheel, wait t0  2 sec before throwing the object in
order to allow it to be within reach.
(e) The approximate time is 3.15 seconds after starting to rise from the low point on the Ferris wheel. The friend
has a constant speed of r1t  15 msec. The speed of the object at that time is
r23.15  8.032  11.47  9.83.15  22 8.03 msec.

1 1

T  cos ti  sin tj

Angular component: 0

12. y 

T  sin ti  cos tj

d
 d 2
 , 2 0
dt
12 dt