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CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2 Frequency Distributions and Graphs © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 Objectives Organise data

Frequency Distributions and Graphs

© Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004

Distributions and Graphs © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 Objectives Organise data using frequency

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Objectives

and Graphs © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 Objectives Organise data using frequency distributions. Represent

Organise data using frequency distributions.

Represent data in frequency distributions graphically using histograms, frequency polygons, and ogives.

Represent data using Pareto charts, time series graphs, and pie graphs.

Draw and interpret a stem and leaf plot.

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Introduction

plot. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 2 Introduction This chapter will show how to organise

This chapter will show how to organise data

by constructing frequency distributions and

then construct appropriate graphs to

represent the data in a concise, easy-to-

understand form.

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Basic Vocabulary

form. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 3 Basic Vocabulary When data are collected in original

When data are collected in original form, they

are called raw data.

A frequency distribution is the organisation of

raw data in table form, using classes and

frequencies.

The two most common distributions are

categorical frequency distribution and the

grouped frequency distribution.

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An Example

An Example Suppose a researcher wished to do a study on the number of miles that

Suppose a researcher wished to do a study on the number of miles that the employees of a large department store travelled to work each day. The researcher first would have to collect the data by asking each employee the approximate distance the store is from his or her home. The data are:

1

2

6

7

12

13

2

6

9

5

18

7

3

15

15

4

17

1

14

5

4

16

4

5

8

6

5

18

5

2

9

11

12

1

9

2

10

11

4

10

9

18

8

8

4

14

7

3

2

6

It is very hard for us to tell the information from such a table full of raw data. Therefore, the researcher organises the data by constructing a frequency distribution. The frequency is the number of values in a specific class of the distribution.

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An Example (cont’d)

2 - 5 © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 An Example (cont’d) Now some general observations can be
2 - 5 © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 An Example (cont’d) Now some general observations can be

Now some general observations can be obtained from looking at the data in the form of a frequency distribution. For example, the majority of employees live within 9 miles of the store.

Reminder: A frequency distribution is the organisation of raw data in table form, using classes and frequencies.

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Categorical Frequency Distributions

McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 6 Categorical Frequency Distributions The categorical frequency distribution is used for data

The categorical frequency distribution is used for data that can be placed in specific categories, such as nominal- or ordinal- data. For example, data such as political affiliation, religious affiliation, or studying field would use categorical frequency distributions.

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An example

© Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 7 An example Twenty-five army officers were given a blood

Twenty-five army officers were given a blood test to determine their blood type. The data set is:

A

B

B

AB

O

O

O

B

AB

B

     

BBOAO

 

A

 

O O

O

AB

AB

 

A O

B

A

Its frequency distribution is:

Class

Frequency

Percent

A

5

20

B

7

28

O

9

36

AB

4

16

Total

25

100

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Grouped Frequency Distributions

Grouped Frequency Distributions When the range of the data is large, the data must be grouped

When the range of the data is large, the data must be grouped into classes that are more than one unit in width.

Class limits

Class

Cumulative

(in miles)

boundaries

Frequency

Frequency

24-30

23.5-30.5

3

3

31-37

30.5-37.5

1

4

38-44

37.5-44.5

5

9

45-51

44.5-51.5

9

18

52-58

51.5-58.5

6

24

59-65

58.5-65.5

1

25

 

25

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1 25   25 © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 9 Grouped Frequency Distributions (cont’d.) The

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Grouped Frequency Distributions (cont’d.)

2004 2 - 9 Grouped Frequency Distributions (cont’d.) The lower class limit represents the smallest data

The lower class limit represents the smallest data value that can be included in the class.

The upper class limit represents the largest value that can be included in the class.

In the distribution shown in the last slide, taking the first class as an example, the values 24 and 30 are the class limits. The lower class limit is 24. The upper class limit is 30.

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Grouped Frequency Distributions (cont’d.)

2004 2 - 1 0 Grouped Frequency Distributions (cont’d.) The class boundaries are used to separate

The class boundaries are used to separate the classes so that there are no gaps in the frequency distribution.

The numbers in the second column are the class boundaries in the previous example. As one can see, for example, there is a gap between 30 and 31. The number 30.6 is grouped into the class

31-37.

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Class Boundaries Significant Figures

2004 2 - 1 1 Class Boundaries Significant Figures Rule of Thumb: Class limits should have

Rule of Thumb: Class limits should have the same decimal place value as the data, but the class boundaries have one additional place value and end in a 5.

data, but the class boundaries have one additional place value and end in a 5. ©

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Finding Class Boundaries

Finding Class Boundaries The class width for a class in a frequency distribution is found by

The class width for a class in a frequency distribution is found by subtracting the lower (or upper) class limit of one class from the the lower (or upper) class limit of the next class.

(Do NOT subtract the limits of a single class!)

The class midpoint is found by adding the lower and upper boundaries (or limits) and dividing by 2.

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Class Rules

by 2. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 3 Class Rules There should be between

There should be between 5 and 20 classes.

The class width should be an odd number.

The classes must be mutually exclusive.

The classes must be continuous.

The classes must be exhaustive.

The classes must be equal width.

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An Example

width. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 4 An Example The data shown here represent

The data shown here represent the number of miles per gallon that 30 selected four-wheel-drive sports utility vehicles obtained in city driving. Construct a frequency distribution.

12

17

12

14

16

18

16

18

12

16

17

15

15

16

12

15

16

16

12

14

15

12

15

15

19

13

16

18

16

14

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13 16 18 16 14 © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 5 An Example (cont’d)

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An Example (cont’d)

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 5 An Example (cont’d) Solution: Class limits Class Frequenc Cumulative

Solution:

Class limits

Class

Frequenc

Cumulative

(in miles)

boundaries

y

Frequency

12 11.5-12.5

6

6

13 12.5-13.5

1

7

14 13.5-14.5

3

10

15 14.5-15.5

6

16

16 15.5-16.5

8

24

17 16.5-17.5

2

26

18 17.5-18.5

3

29

19 18.5-19.5

1

30

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17 16.5-17.5 2 26 18 17.5-18.5 3 29 19 18.5-19.5 1 30 © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004

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An Example (cont’d)

An Example (cont’d) Procedure Table Constructing a Grouped Frequency Distribution Step 1 Determine the classes.

Procedure Table

Constructing a Grouped Frequency Distribution

Step 1

Determine the classes.

Find the highest and lowest value.

Find the range.

Select the number of classes desired.

Find the width by dividing the range by the number of classes and rounding up.

Select a starting point (usually the lowest value or any convenient number less

than the lowest value); add the width to get the lower limits.

Find the upper class limits.

Find the boundaries.

Step 2

Find the numerical frequencies.

Step 3

Find the cumulative frequencies.

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Types of Frequency Distributions

McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 7 Types of Frequency Distributions A categorical frequency distribution is used

A categorical frequency distribution is used when the data is nominal.

A grouped frequency distribution is used when the range is large and classes of several units in width are needed.

An ungrouped frequency distribution is used for numerical data and when the range of data is small.

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Why Construct Frequency Distributions?

2004 2 - 1 8 Why Construct Frequency Distributions? To organise the data in a meaningful,

To organise the data in a meaningful, intelligible way.

To organise the data in a meaningful, intelligible way. To enable the reader to make comparisons

To enable the reader to make comparisons among different data sets.

To facilitate computational procedures for measures of average and spread.

To enable the reader to determine the

nature or shape of the distribution.

To enable the researcher to draw charts and graphs

for the presentation of data.

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The Role of Graphs

© Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 1 9 The Role of Graphs The purpose of graphs

The purpose of graphs in statistics is to

convey the data to the viewer in pictorial form.

Graphs are useful in getting the audience’s

attention in a publication or a presentation.

useful in getting the audience’s attention in a publication or a presentation. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004

© Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004

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Three Most Common Graphs

Three Most Common Graphs The histogram displays the data by using vertical bars of various heights

The histogram displays the data by using vertical bars of various heights to represent the frequencies.

8 6 4 2 0 0 10.5 20.5 30.5 40.5 50.5 60.5 70.5 80.5 Frequency
8
6
4
2
0
0
10.5
20.5
30.5
40.5
50.5
60.5
70.5
80.5
Frequency

Class Boundaries

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Three Most Common Graphs (cont’d.)

2004 2 - 2 1 Three Most Common Graphs (cont’d.) The frequency polygon displays the data

The frequency polygon displays the data by

using lines that connect points plotted for the

frequencies at the midpoints of the classes.

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Frequency
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Frequency

0.5

10.5 20.5 30.5 40.5 50.5 60.5 70.5 80.5

Class Midpoints

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Three Most Common Graphs (cont’d.)

2004 2 - 2 2 Three Most Common Graphs (cont’d.) The cumulative frequency or ogive represents

The cumulative frequency or ogive represents the cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution.

Cumulative

 

30

Frequency

20

Frequency 20

10

0

 

0

10.5

21

31.5

42

52.5

63

73.5

84

94.5

 

Class Boundaries

 
 

©

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004

 

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Relative Frequency Graphs

2004   2 - 2 3 Relative Frequency Graphs A relative frequency graph is a graph

A relative frequency graph is a graph that uses proportions instead of frequencies. Relative frequencies are used when the proportion of data values that fall into a given class is more important than the frequency.

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Other Types of Graphs

Other Types of Graphs A Pareto chart is used to represent a frequency distribution for categorical

A Pareto chart is used to represent a frequency distribution

for categorical variable, and the frequencies are displayed by the heights of vertical

bars, which

arranged in order from highest to lowest.

are

How People Get to Work

30 20 10 0 Auto Bus Trolley Train Walk Frequency
30
20
10
0
Auto
Bus
Trolley
Train
Walk
Frequency

2-25

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Other Types of Graphs (cont’d.)

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 Other Types of Graphs (cont’d.) A time series graph represents data that occur

A time series graph represents data that occur

over a specific period of time.

Temperature Over a 5-hour Period

55 50 45 40 35 12 1 2 3 4 5 Temp.
55
50
45
40
35
12
1
2
3
4
5
Temp.

Time

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Other Types of Graphs (cont’d.)

2004 2 - 2 6 Other Types of Graphs (cont’d.) A pie graph is a circle

A pie graph is a circle that is divided into sections or wedges according to the percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.

Favorite American Snacks

snack nuts 8% potato popcorn chips 13% 38% pretzels 14%
snack nuts
8%
potato
popcorn
chips
13%
38%
pretzels
14%

tortilla

chips

27%

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Stem-and-Leaf Plots

© Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 2 7 Stem-and-Leaf Plots A stem-and-leaf plot is a data

A stem-and-leaf plot is a data plot that uses part of a data value as the stem and part of the data value as the leaf to form groups or classes.

It has the advantage over grouped frequency distribution of retaining the actual data while showing them in graphic form.

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Stem-and-Leaf Plots

Stem-and-Leaf Plots Stem-and-Leaf diagrams were originally developed by John Tukey of Princeton University. They are

Stem-and-Leaf diagrams were originally developed by John Tukey of Princeton University. They are extremely useful in summarising reasonably sized data (under 150 values as a general rule) and, unlike histograms, result in no loss of information. By this we mean it is possible to retrieve the original data set from a stem-and-leaf diagram, which is not the case when using a histogram – some of the information in the original data is lost when a histogram is constructed, although histograms provide the best alternative when attempting to summarise a large set of sample data.

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An Example

data. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 2 9 An Example Suppose a study reports the

Suppose a study reports the after-tax profits of 12 selected companies. The profits (recorded as cents per dollar of revenue) are as follows

3.4

4.5

2.3

2.7

3.8

5.9

3.4

4.7

2.4

4.1

3.6

5.1

The stem-and-leaf diagram for these data is shown below:

Stem

Leaf (unit = .1)

2 4

3

7

3 4

4

6

8

4 5

1

7

5 9

1

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An Example (cont’d)

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 3 0 An Example (cont’d) Each observation is represented by a

Each observation is represented by a stem to the left of the vertical line and a leaf to the right of the vertical line. For example the stems and leaves for the first and last observation would be

Stem

Leaf (unit = .1)

3

4

Stem

Leaf (unit = .1)

5

1

In a stem-and-leaf diagram, the stem are put in order to the left of the vertical line. The leaf for each observation is generally the last digit (or possibly the last two digits) of the data value, with the stem consisting of the remaining first digits. The leaf values are generally arranged in ascending order. The value 562 could

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An Example (cont’d)

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 3 1 An Example (cont’d) be represented as 5|62 or as

be represented as 5|62 or as 56|2 in a stem-and-leaf diagram, depending on the range of the sample data. If the diagram is rotated counterclockwise, it has the appearance of a histogram and clearly describes the shape of the sample data.

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Summary of Graphs and Uses

Summary of Graphs and Uses Histograms , frequency polygons , and ogives are used when the

Histograms, frequency polygons, and

ogives are used when the data are

contained in a grouped frequency

distribution.

Pareto charts are used to show frequencies for nominal variables.

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Summary of Graphs and Uses (cont’d.)

2004 2 - 3 3 Summary of Graphs and Uses (cont’d.) Time series graphs are used

Time series graphs are used to show a pattern or trend that occurs over time.

Pie graphs are used to show the relationship between the parts and the whole.

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Conclusions

whole. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 3 4 Conclusions Data can be organized in some
whole. © Copyright McGraw-Hill 2004 2 - 3 4 Conclusions Data can be organized in some

Data can be organized in some meaningful way using frequency distributions. Once the frequency distribution is constructed, the representation of the data by graphs is a simple task.

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