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MEDICAL ENGLISH

WORD BUILDING TERMS PERTAINING TO THE BODY AS A WHOLE

1ST YEAR HANDOUTS

BASIC WORD STRUCTURE OF A MEDICAL TERM

Yesterday morning, I woke up with cephalalgia and an onset of laryngitis. I sent my boy out to play, but soon he came bach lacrimating, with ambilateral abrasions on his patellae, and a large hematoma on the frontal portion of his cranium.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PREFIX 1. 2. 3. = both 4. = away from 5.

CEPHALalgia LARYNGitis ambiLATERal abRASION HEMAToma WORD ROOT = head = voice box = side = scratch = blood SUFFIX = pain = inflammation = adj. ending = tumor, mass

CYT + O + LOGY : cyt = cell o = COMBINING VOWEL (necessary when the suffix starts with a consonant) logy = study of word root + combining vowel = COMBINING FORM

BASIC RULES: 1. A word root provides the basic meaning of the term. 2. A prefix appears before the word root to change/modify its meaning. 3. A suffix appears at the end of the word providing some additional information. 4. A combinig vowel usually an o connects a word root to a suffix. 5. A combining form consists of a word root and a combining vowel. 6. A combining vowel is not used before a suffix starting with a vowel, but it is used between two roots in compound words (e.g. gastrointestinal). 7. The meaning of a medical term can usually be determined by starting with the suffix and moving back to the beginning of the word.

COMBINING FORMS: BODY PARTS AND TISSUES

head = CEPHALO (cephalalgia, hydrocephalus) skull = CRANIO (craniotomy) brain = CEREBRO, ENCEPHALO (cerebral, electroencephalogram) mind = PSYCHO, PHRENO (psychology, schizophrenia) eye = OPHTHALMO (ophthalmoscope), OCULO (periocular) ear = OTO (otitis) nose = RHINO (rhinoplasty), NASO (nasal, nasogastric) mouth = ORO (oral) tongue = GLOSSO, LINGUO (glossoscopy, sublingual) lip = LABIO (nasolabial) neck = CERVICO (cervical) vertebra, spin. col. = SPONDYLO (spondylosis) breast = MAMMO, MASTO (mammography, mastectomy) chest = THORACO (thoracic) abdomen = ABDOMINO, LAPARO (laparoscope) heart = CARDIO (electrocardiogram) lung = PULM(ON)O (pulmonal, pulmonary, pulmonic) stomach = GASTRO (gastritis, gastralgia) intestine (small) = ENTERO (enterovirus) intestine (large) = COLO(NO) (colonoscopy, colostomy) liver = HEPATO (hepatitis) kidney = RENO, NEPHRO (renal calculi, nephropathy) urinary bladder = CYSTO (cystitis, cystoscopy) uterus = UTERO, HYSTERO, METRO (uterocervical, hysterectomy, metrorrhagia) arm = BRACHIO (brachiocephalic) foot = PEDO (orthopedics) (also:PEDO= child pediatrics) finger (toe) = DACTYLO (dactylospasm) bone joint vessel nerve gland cartilage muscle skin flesh blood bile,gall b. marr., sp. cord clot cell = = = = = = = = = = = = = = OSTEO (osteoporosis) ARTHRO (arthritis) ANGIO, VASO (angioplasty, angiography, vasodilation) NEURO (neurology, neuralgia) ADENO (adenoneural, adenoma) CHONDRO (chondroma) MYO (myoma, myalgia) DERM(AT)O (dermatitis, dermatosis; dermal/dermic=CUTANEOUS) SARCO (sarcoma) HEM(AT)O (hematology, hemogram=CBC) BILI, CHOLO/E (bilirubinemia, choledochus) MYELO (myeloma) THROMBO (thrombocyte) CYTO (cytology)

ADDITIONAL COMBINING FORMS cut secrete tumor disease nature X-rays = CISO, SECTIO, TOMO (incision, C-section, tomography) = CRINO (endo-, exocrine) = ONCO (oncogenesis) = PATHO (pathology, pathogenic) = PHYSIO (physiology) = RADIO (radiologist, radiographer)

SUFFIXES

1. SUFFIXES DENOTING STATES / DISORDERS / SYMPTOMS -ALGIA, -DYNIA -CELE -ECTASIS -EMIA = pain (gastralgia, gastrodynia) = hernia, protrusion (enterocele) = dilation, expansion (angiectasis) = pres. of subst. in blood (proteinemia, hyperbilirubinemia) -IASIS, -OSIS, -PATHY = diseased condition, formation (lithiasis, dermatosis, nephropathy) (lith=stone) -LYSIS -MALACIA -MEGALY -PENIA -PHOBIA -PLEGIA -PTOSIS -RRHAGE/-RRHAGIA -RRHEA -RRHEXIS -SCLEROSIS -SPASM = destruction, breaking down (hemolysis) = softening (osteomalacia) = enlargement (hepatomegaly,acromegaly) = deficiency, decrease (leukopenia) = fear (hydrophobia, acrophobia, xenophobia) = paralysis, stroke (paraplegia) = downward displacement (nephroptosis) = abnormal/excessive flow (hemorrhage) = flow, discharge (diarrhea, amenorrhea) = rupture, break (angiorrhexis) = hardening (arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis) = involuntary contraction, convulsion, cramp (enterospasm)

2. SUFFIXES DENOTING DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES -GRAM -GRAPH -GRAPHY -METER -METRY -SCOPE -SCOPY = record (angiogram) = recording instrument (electroencephalograph) = recording procedure (electrocardiography) = measuring instrument (thermometer) = measuring procedure ( spirometry) = viewing/examining instrument (endo/cysto/laryngo/ ophthalmo/laparoscope) = procedure of visual examination (endo/cysto/laryngo/ophthalmo/ laparoscopy)

3. SUFFIXES DENOTING SURGICAL PROCEDURES -CENTESIS -CLASIA -DESIS -ECTOMY -PEXY -PLASTY -RRHAPHY -TRIPSY -STOMY -TOMY = puncture (amniocentesis) = to break (osteoclasia) = binding, fusion (arthrodesis) = surgical removal (tonsill-,nephr-, hyster-, gastr-, mastectomy) = surgical fixation/fastening in position ( nephropexy, orchidopexy) = surg. reconstruction ( mastoplasty, osteoplasty, rhinoplasty, labioplasty) = suture, stitching ( ureterorrhaphy, colorrhaphy) = crushing, friction (lithotripsy) = creating an artif. opening ( tracheostomy, colostomy) = cutting, incision (craniotomy, tracheotomy)

4. SUFFIXES DENOTING DIMINUTIVE FORMS (noun endings) -ICLE -OLE e.g. e.g. particle, ventricle, testicle, auricle, ossicle, vesicle arteriole venule, venula

-ULE/-ULA e.g.

5. SUFFIXES DENOTING ADJECTIVAL ENDINGS ( pertaining to / resembling) -AC -AL -AR -IC e.g. e.g. e.g. cardiac dorsal lumbar (lumbo=loins) mammary -TIC e.g. asthmatic

-EAL e.g. laryngeal -OSE e.g. adipose (adipo=fat) -OUS e.g. mucous (muco=mucus)

-ARY e.g.

e.g. hepatic

-OID e.g. lipoid (lipo= fat)

PREFIXES 1. PREFIXES DENOTING POSITION - LOCATION - DIRECTION (place & time) before, in front ANTE(RO): antenatal, anterolateral PRE: precancerous, preaortic PRO: prodrome, procurvation outside EC(TO): ectocytic, ectocardia EXTRA: extracellular, extrahepatic EXO: exocrine above, over, excessive EPI: epinephrine, epigastric SUPER: superacidity, supercilia SUPRA: suprarenal ULTRA: ultrasonic (away) from AB: abnormal, abscess EX: excision right DEXTRO: dextrocardia after, behind POST(ERO): postmortal, posterolateral RETRO: retroflexion, retropharyngeal inside, within ENDO: endocrine, endoscope INTRA: intravenous, intracranial under, beneath INFRA: infracolic, infracostal SUB: subpatellar, subcutaneous

to(ward) AD: adrenal, admedial left SINISTRO: sinistrocerebral

surrounding, around - PERI: periarterial, perinatal CIRCUM: circumocular, circumcision between - INTER: intercostal, intercerebral middle - MEDI: medial MESO: mesonasal near, beside, beyond, apart, abnormal - PARA: paracellular, pararenal, parapsychology through, across - DIA: diameter, diarrhea TRANS: transcutaneous, transmucosal (on) both (sides) - AMBI: ambilateral AMPHI: amphicranial
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2.

PREFIXES DENOTING COLOR = ALB-, ALBUMINO- (albinism, albuminuria) = LEUKO- (leukocyte, leukoderma, leukoplakia) = CIRRHO- (cirrhosis) = XANTHO- (xanthocyte) = LUTEO- (corpus luteum, macula lutea) = FLAVO- (flavobacterium) = ERYTHRO- (erythrocyte, erythema) = RUBEO- ( rubeosis= redness, rubeola=measles/morbilli, rubella) (= ospice) (=rubeola) = PURPURO- (purpura) = CHLORO- (chloroma) = CYANO- (cyanosis) = GLAUCO- (glaucoma) = POLIO- (poliomylelitis) = MELANO- (melanoma)

white yellow

red purple green blue gray black

3. MISCELLANEOUS PREFIXES

ANTI-

= against, opposite (antibiotic, antiseptic, anticoagulant) (contraindication, contraceptive)

CONTRA- =

BRADY-

= slow (bradycardia, bradypnea)

TACHY-

= fast, rapid

DYSMAL-

= poor, bad (dyspepsia, dysfunction) =

EU-

= good, easy

(malformation, malnutrition)

HETERO- = different (heterogeneous)

HOMO-

= same (homogeneous)

HIDRO-

= sweat (hidrosis)

HYDRO-

= water (hydrophobia, hydrocephalus)

JUXTA-

= near, adjoining (juxtaposition)

META-

= after, beyond, change (metastasis, metacarpals, metatarsals)

PSEUDO- = false (pseudomeningitis)

SYMSYNCON-

= together, union (symbiosis, symphysis) = = (syndactyly, synchondrosis) (congenital, contact, contamination)

4. PREFIXES DENOTING NEGATION / NUMBER / MEASUREMENT / SIZE 0 = = = = AANIMIN(apnea, aphasia, aphagia, arrhythmia) (anesthesia) (immature, imbalance, immobilize, immedicable) (insomnia, inactivity, incurable) (hemiplegia, hemicolectomy) (semiflexion, semicomatose)

1 1st 2

= HEMI= SEMI-

= MONO- (mononuclear, monobrachia, monocardian) = UNI(unilateral, uniceps, uninephric) = PRIMI= BI= DI(primipara) (biarticular, bipolar) (diplegia, diovulatory)

= TRI-

(trigone, triceps, trigeminus)

= QUAD(RI)- (quadriceps, quadrisection, quadrant) = TETRA(tetraplegic,tetradactyly)

many

= MULTI= POLY-

(multipara, multiple) (polyphobia, polymenorrhea)

all large small

= PAN- (pancytopenia, panarthritis) = MACRO- (macrocephaly, macrophage, macrorhinia) = MICRO- (microgastria, microdontia, microglia)

over,

= HYPER- (hypertension, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, hyperglycemia)

above, excessive

under,

= HYPO- (hypothyroidism, hypodermic)

below, deficient
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TERMS PERTAINING TO THE BODY AS A WHOLE 1. Structural organization of the body CELLS key words: membrane nucleus chromosomes genes DNA karyotype cytoplasm mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes catabolism anabolism metabolism

TISSUES key words: histology parenchymal vs stromal tissue

ORGANS AND ORGAN SYSTEMS key words: viscus / viscera integumentary musculoskeletal gastrointestinal (digestive / alimentary) urinary female reproductive male reproductive

system

respiratory lymphatic cardiovascular endocrine nervous sense organs

(see MEDICAL ENGLISH WORKBOOK pp 10-12)

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2. Body cavities key words: cranial thoracic (mediastinum, pleural) diaphragm spinal abdominal (peritoneum) pelvic 3. Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants key words: hypochondriac (left and right) epigastric lumbar (left and right) umbilical inguinal (left and right) hypogastric 4. Anatomical division of the back key words: spinal / vertebral column (backbone) vertebra, -ae spinal cord intervertebral spaces disk / cartilage pad slipped disk (discus hernia) division: cervical (C1-C7) thoracic (T1-T12) lumbar (L1-L5) sacral (S 5 fused bones) coccygeal (coccyx - 4 fused bones) RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ

5. Positional and directional terms key words: anterior (ventral) posterior (dorsal) deep superficial proximal distal inferior (caudal) 6. Planes of the body key words: frontal (coronal) sagittal (lateral) transverse (cross-sectional) anatomical position superior (cephalic) medial lateral supine prone afferent efferent

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