Painel  2  –  Geração  Distribuída  não  conectada  

Micro  redes  Inteligentes  como  solución  para  la  electrificación   de  comunidades  aisladas  

Unidad  de  micro  redes   Dr.  Guillermo  Jiménez  Estévez  
Foz  do  Iguaçu,  Sep?embre    2013  

Contents  
1.  Microgrids  opportuni9es  in  the  region   2.  Previous  developments  and  challenges   3.  Social  SCADA  and  resilience   4.  V2G  in  isolated  microgrids  /  management   challenges   5.  Conclusions  

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Microgrids  opportuni?es  in  the  region  

Electricity  Coverage  in  La9n  America   (34  mill.  have  no  access  to  electricity  in  LA  )  

Electricity   coverage  

Source:  OLADE,  2007  
3  

Microgrids  opportuni?es  in  the  region  
Rural  Electrifica9on  Coverage  in  Chile  
96%  

4  

Microgrids  opportuni?es  in  the  region  
Development  status  

RE  projects  fall  down  in  providing   diesel  engines  for  power  supply   and  organize  the  community  in   such  way  that  they  are  in  charge  of   covering  the  opera?on  and   maintenance  costs  of  the  solu9on.   Unfortunately  in  the  long  term  is   not  possible  to  cover  all  these   costs  and  the  power  supply  is   limited  to  few  hours  per  day  

   MG  opera?ng  in  islanding  way    
•  Must  be  able  to  integrate  and   coordinate  several  local  energy   sources  with  appropriate  load-­‐ frequency  strategies.   •  Ac9ve  par9cipa9on  of  the  local   community  

Source:  Denda,  Shimizu  Corpota9on   5  

Microgrids  opportuni?es  in  the  region  
Some  Microgrid  developments  in  LA  
Puertecitos,     Under  execu9on   Baja  Califonia,  MX   Puerto  Alcatraz,  San   Juanico     Opera9ve   Baja  Califonia,  MX   Huatacondo     Opera9ve   Tarapacá,  CH   Ollagüe     Under  execu9on   Antofagasta,  CH   Juan  Fernández     Design  stage   J.  Fernández,  CH   Islas  Desertores     Under  execu9on   Chiloé,  CH  
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Nano  grids,  poor   houses   Hidalgo  State,  MX  

Silice  Project   Pilot  applica9on   Bogotá,  CO   Lencóis  island     Opera9ve   Maranhao,  BR  

Trinidad  island   Feasibility   Rio  State,  BR  

Microgrids  opportuni?es  in  the  region  
Number  of  feasible  isolated  MG  opportuni9es  
Total  =  79  loca?ons  

7  

Microgrids  opportuni?es  in  the  region  
Challenges  for  MG  developments  
Dispatch  +   Reserves  =  f (uncertainty)   DSM     Customer  reac?on     =f(grid  needs)    
Market  models   investment   incen?ves    

Reliable&economical   stand-­‐alone  mode   opera?on   Voltage  and   frequency  control   techniques    power   electronics   Community   engagement  tools  

Challenges  

Plug&play  feature     Seamless   integra?on   Protec?on  schemes     bidirec?onal  power   flows  

8  

Contents  
1.  Microgrids  opportuni9es  in  the  region   2.  Previous  developments  and  challenges   3.  Social  SCADA  and  resilience   4.  V2G  in  isolated  microgrids  /  management   challenges   5.  Conclusions  

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Previous  developments  and  challenges   Fields  of  development  

Previous  developments  and  challenges  
Community  engagement  +  Opera9on  &  Maintenance  
•  To  maximize  life9me  of  equipment   •  Low  opera9on  costs   •  Low  maintenance  cost  
Engineering   solu?ons:   equipment   acquisi9on,   designs  and   construc9on   Automated   control  and   monitoring   approach:   SCADA   Educa?on  and   training:   maintenance   programs,   training,   outreach   Op?mal   opera?on:   EMS:  Unit   commitment,   Economic   dispatch  

Community   Commitment  

Long  term  sustainability  is  feasible  !  

Huatacondo  

Previous  developments  and  challenges  

Huatacondo   •   Isolated  rural  town  of  northern  Chile   •   100  people  (500)   •   Electricity  10  h/day  –    Diesel  generator  

Previous  developments  and  challenges  
Huatacondo community

ESUSCON  project  
Par tner s
e v i Un

Joint  work  

it rs

y

Huatacondo    
Water tank 2 kW

Previous  developments  and  challenges  
100 kVA

=

~

Huatacondo  (Microgrid  solu9on)  
23 kW

Previous  developments  and  challenges  

~
Water tank 2 kW

=

=

100 kVA

~

=

~

=

~

3 kW 40 kW BESS

~

=

140 kWh

•  EMS  Interface  
Wind  unit   protec?on  

•  BESS  

•  Demand   response  

•  PV   •  tracking  

Microformer  

Patricio  Mendoza,  U.  Wisconsin,  Madison  

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Previous  developments  and  challenges  

Huatacondo (Community  engagement  methodology)  
Stage   Objec?ve   Product  

Huatacondo (Facts  &  Results)  
Important  facts  
•  Before  project:  electric  service  10   hours  per  day  with  diesel   generator.   •  January  2010:  resources  available   analysis.   •  2010:  development  of  the   project.   •  December  2010:  Huatacondo   with  24  hours  electricity.   •  2011-­‐2013:  monitoring,  training   &  both  P/C  mantainance   ac9vi9es.  

Previous  developments  and  challenges  
Results  
•  73%  of  people  considered  that   the  project  has  a  posi?ve  effect   on  their  daily  life.   •  57.5%  of  the  people  considered   that  the  microgrid  has  no  effect   on  the  environment.   •  Compared  with  the  previous   opera?on  scheme,  a  50%  of   diesel  consump?on  savings  has   been  reached.   •  Improved  reliability  levels.   •  Higher  power  quality.  

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Previous  developments  and  challenges  
SOCIAL   (Community)     TECHNICAL   (Grid,   equipments,   SCADA)   SOCIAL   SCADA  

Social  SCADA     approach  

The   Social   SCADA   system   possesses   tools   that   support   the   community   in   the   managing,   monitoring   and   opera9on  of  the  microgrid.   These   tools   consider   the   following   aspects:     •   Mid  and  short  term  planning   •   System  opera9on  planning   •   Real  9me  opera9on  /  control   •   Maintenance  rou9nes  of          genera9on  units.   •   Monitoring  microgrids.  
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Previous  developments  and  challenges  
SOCIAL   (Community)     TECHNICAL   (Grid,   equipments,   SCADA)   SOCIAL   SCADA  

Its   necessary   to   take   into   account   the   interac9ons   between   technology  and  people,  as  well  as   consequences.   The   introduc?on   of   new   energy   technologies  in  a  rural  semng  is  a   challenge,   since   it   generates   changes  in  panerns  of  energy  use   and  others.  
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Previous  developments  and  challenges   Social  SCADA  

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Contents  
1.  Microgrids  opportuni9es  in  the  region   2.  Previous  developments  and  challenges   3.  Social  SCADA  and  resilience   4.  V2G  in  isolated  microgrids  /  management   challenges   5.  Conclusions  

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Social  SCADA  and  resilience  
SOCIAL   (Community)     TECHNICAL   (Grid,   equipments,   SCADA)   SOCIAL   SCADA  

Its   necessary   to   take   into   account   the   interac9ons   between   technology  and  people,  as  well  as   consequences.   The   introduc?on   of   new   energy   technologies  in  a  rural  semng  is  a   challenge,   since   it   generates   changes  in  panerns  of  energy  use   and  others.  

Is    S-­‐SCADA  an  adequate  tool  to   face  disrup9ve  events  in  a   isolated  microgrid  evironment?  

S-­‐SCADA  +  Resilience  
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Social  SCADA  and  resilience  -­‐  Objec?ve  
Develop   monitoring   tools   for   Microgrids   from   the   perspec9ve  of   Resilience,  focused  on  the  sustainability  of   the  system,  based  on  Complex  Systems  Theory.  

Complex  Systems  
Interac9ons  

Behavior  
Constraints  

Structure  

Perturba9on   Propaga9on  

Management  
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Social  SCADA  and  resilience  –  Complex  Systems  
Complex  System   is  a  generic  term   used   to   describe   interconnected   parts   that   as   a   whole   exhibit   one   or   more   proper9es   not   obvious   from   the   proper9es   of   individual   parts.   Resilience   is   the   capacity   of   a   system   to   con9nually   change   and   adapt   yet   remain   within   cri9cal   thresholds.  
Ref:  Ryan  J.  Urbanowicz  and  Jason  H.  Moore   Ref:  Stockholm  Resilience  Centre  

•   Difficult  to  determine  boundaries.   •   May  be  open.   •   Mul9ple  dynamic.   •   Self-­‐organiza9on.   •   May  produce  emergent    proper9es.   •   Rela9onship  are  non-­‐linear  and        contain  feedback  loops.  

Features:  

25  

Social  SCADA  and  resilience   Resilience  of  a  Microgrid  
In  a  microgrid  framework  resilience  may  be  understood  as  a   measure  of  the  sustainability  of  the  system.       Capacity  to  absorb  social,  environmental,  technical,  and   economical  changes  originated  by  low  probability  disrup9ve   events   with   high   impact,   while   quality   of   service   is   maintained.  

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Stable   original  state  

System   disrup?on  

Disrupted   state  

System   recovery  

Recovery   final  state  

 Indicators are key for each state  

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Ref:  K.  Barker,  J.  Ramirez,  C.  Rocco,  ¨Resilience-­‐based  network  component  important  measures”,  2013.  

Social SCADA and resilience Applica9on  of  Resilience  in  Microgrids  

Social SCADA and resilience Proper9es  of  Resilience  in  Microgrids  
I.  Avoid  
•   Key  issue  at  design  stage:   •   Robustness  /  flexibility   •   Technical  standards   •   Training  program   •   Preven9ve  maintenance   •   Condi9on  monitoring   •   Community  feedback  

II.  Withstand  
Provide  the  system  to   respond  to  disturbance   without  making  changes   to  it:     •   Protec9ve  /  SPSs   •   Reserve  margins   •   EMS  emergency        procedures     • Community   con9ngency  plans  

III.  Recover  
Elimina9on  of   disturbance  sources:   •  Correc9ve  maintenance   •  Community  recovery   con9ngency  plans   •  Repairing   •  Spare  parts   management   •  Coordina9on  with   stakeholders  

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Development of New Indicators  
System  Analysis   Complex   Systems  and   Resilience   Theory   System  Structure/ Behavior   Selec9on  of   Candidate   Indicators   Ranking  of   Indicators   Performance   Criteria  

Exis?ng   Indicators  

Filtering  &  Tuning   Set  of  Indicators  

Implementa9on   and  Test  

Data  Analysis  

Final  Set  of  Indicators  of   Resilience  for  Microgrids  

Study  Case:  PV  Panel  Failure  

•  BESS  SOH  =  0.5   •  Fuel  consump9on            factor  =  0.7     •  Only  diesel  risk:   •  BESS  failure   •  Full  PV  failure   •  Maintenance     C=  OFF,  P=  OFF   •  Workplan  delays:   •  Server  update   •  Wind  generator  service   date  

•  BESS  SOH  =  0.5   •  Fuel  consump9on            factor  =    1.0   •  Emergency  situa9on            reported  by  the  community   •  Maintenance     C=  ON,  P=OFF  

•  BESS  SOH  =  0.4   •  Fuel  consump9on            factor  =  0.75     •  Only  diesel  risk:   •  BESS  failure   •  Full  PV  failure   •  Maintenance     C=  ON,  P=ON   •  Workplan  delays:   •  Wind  generator  service   date  

•  System  reliability     •  Severe  damage  in   •  Back  to  full  diesel   based  opera9on   decreases   1/6  PV  array   •  Urgent  coordina9on   •  Increase  of  community   ac9vi9es  among   concern   stakeholders  

•  Coordina9on  ac9vi9es   among  stakeholders   •  Community  concern  

30  

Social SCADA and resilience Social  oriented  indicators  
The   Causal-­‐Chain   analysis   in   Community  Trust  establishes  the   need   to   monitor   it,   in   three   dimensions:   Trust   level,   Perceived   Effec9veness,   and   Level  of  Sa9sfac9on  

Trust  level   Low   Medium   High  

Perceived   Effec?veness   Low   Medium   High  

Level  of   Sa?sfac?on   Low   Medium   High  

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Contents  
1.  Microgrids  opportuni9es  in  the  region   2.  Previous  developments  and  challenges   3.  Social  SCADA  and  resilience   4.  V2G  in  isolated  microgrids  /  management   challenges   5.  Conclusions  

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V2G in isolated microgrids Development  opportuni9es  
                             Driver   Field   San?ago   downtown   V2G   opportuni9es    in  Chile     Mining  area   Rural  microgrids   Green-­‐   Local   Fuel   Relia-­‐ house  gases   pollu?on   price   bility   Noise  

33  

Huatacondo transportation needs
GARBAGE  COLLECTION   L  =  1.8[km]   Max  slip  =  21.5°   Max  load  =  200[kg]  

FARM  WORK  

L  =  3.4[km]   Max  slip  =  21.9°   Max  load  =  200[kg]  

INTERNAL  LOAD     TRANSPORTATION  

L  =  1.2[km]   Max  slip  =  20.2°   Max  load  =  200[kg]  

V2G in isolated microgrids Project  Stages  
DESIGN  AND  BUILD  OF  A  FOUR-­‐WIRE  THREE-­‐PHASE   INVERTER  CAPABLE  TO:  

Allow  power   condi9oning  

Drive  a  three  phase   induc9on  machine  and   supply  3ph  loads  

Connected  to  a   three  phase  grid  

Allow   bidirec9onal   power  flow    

BESS   back-­‐up   capability  

V2G in isolated microgrids Some  results  
UTILITARY  AND  COMMUNITY  ELECTRIC  VEHICLE   V2G  POWER  CONVERTER   MICROGRID  INTEGRATION  

Management challenges  

Management challenges  
Community  management  structure   Hybrid  management  structure  

Strong   High  

Social  cohesion   Experience  in  project  execu?on  

Weak   Low  

Contents  
1.  Microgrids  opportuni9es  in  the  region   2.  Previous  developments  and  challenges   3.  Social  SCADA  and  resilience   4.  V2G  in  isolated  microgrids   5.  Conclusions  

39  

Conclusions  
•  Opportunity  /  need  of  innova9on  at  regional  level    a  way  of  regional  integra9on   •  Importance  of  strategic  associa?ons:        Community-­‐  Government  –  Companies  –  University   •  Microgrids  appear  as  a  sustainable  solu9on  for  rural  electrifica9on  challenges  in  LA:   •  To  maximize  life9me  of   equipment   •  Low  opera9on  costs   •  Low  maintenance  cost   •  •  •  Solu9ons  must  be  faced  from  two  main  approaches    technical  and  social.   Resilience  indicators  should  improve  the  performance  of  microgrids  in  rural  areas.   Rural  microgrids  offer  a  development  opportunity  for  V2G  solu9ons.  
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Muchas  gracias  !  

Micro  redes  Inteligentes  como  solución  para  la  electrificación   de  comunidades  aisladas  

Dr.  Guillermo  Jiménez  Estévez  
gjimenez@ing.uchile.cl  

Previous  developments  and  challenges  
Palma-­‐Behnke  R.,  Benavides  C.,  Lanas  F.,  Severino  B.,  Reyes  L.,  Llanos  J.,  Sáez  D.:  “A  Microgrid  Energy   Management  System  Based  on  the  Rolling  Horizon  Strategy”,  IEEE  Transac9ons  on  Smartgrids,  Vol.  4,   Issue  2,    pp:  996  –  1006,  2013.   Llanos,   J.   ;   Saez,   D.   ;   Palma-­‐Behnke,   R.   ;   Nunez,   A.   ;Jimenez-­‐Estevez,   G.   :”   Load   profile   generator   and   load   forecas?ng   for   a   renewable   based   microgrid   using   Self   organizing   Maps   and   neural   networks”,   Neural  Networks  (IJCNN),  The  2012  Interna9onal  Joint  Conference,  2012.     Vargas-Serrano, A. ; Saez, D. ; Reyes, L. ; Severino, B. ;Palma-Behnke, R. ; CárdenasDobson, R. , “Design and experimental validation of a dual mode VSI control system for a micro-grid with multiple generators”, IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Page(s): 5631 – 5636, 2012.   Alvial-­‐Palavicino   C.,   Garrido-­‐Echeverría   N.,   Jiménez-­‐Estévez   G.,   Reyes   L.,   Palma-­‐Behnke   R.:   “A   Methodology  for  Community  Engagement  in  the  Introduc?on  of  renewable  Based  Smart  Microgrid”,   Energy  for  Sustainable  Development,  Vol.  15,  Issue  3,  Special  Issue:  SI,  pp:  314-­‐323,  2011. R.  Palma-­‐Behnke,  D.    Or9z,  L.  Reyes,    G.  Jiménez-­‐Estévez,    N.  Garrido,  N.  "A  social  SCADA  Approach  for  a   Renewable  based  Microgrid  -­‐  The  Huatacondo  Project   –”,  2011  IEEE  Power  &  Energy  Society  General   Mee9ng,  Detroit,  Michigan,  USA.  July  24  -­‐  28  2011.  
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V2G in isolated microgrids Some  results  

44  

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