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SUMMER PROJECT

AEROMODELLING CLUB RC ORNITHOPTER


BY: ANKIT CHOUDHARY, VARSHA YADAV, MRIGANK SINGH AND PARIDHI KABRA

Content:
What is RC Ornithopter History of the ornithopter Aerodynamics of RC Ornithopter

Main parts:
Gear Box Main Body Wing Tail Part

How does it fly? Dimensions we used for our Ornithopter Difficulties we faced during its construction Improvements we can make Applications of RC Ornithopter

What is RC Ornithopter
An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos "bird" and pteron "wing") is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings. Those machines are driven by rotating airfoils. In an ornithopter, the driving airfoils have an oscillating motion instead. This imitates nature, because no animals have any rotating parts. The ornithopter works on the same principle as the airplane. The forward motion through the air allows the wings to deflect air downward, producing lift. The flapping motion of the wings takes the place of a rotating propeller. The wing design is designed with the spar as far forward of the airfoil but still having acceptable dimensions of strength. Engineers and researchers have experimented with wings that require carbon fiber, plywood, fabric, ribs, and the trailing edge to be stiff, strong, and for the mass to be as low as possible. Any mass located to the aft or empennage, reduce the wings performance and hinder the design of the ornithopter. In order to calculate the performance of the ornithopter, the wings lift is determined by the lift of the wing versus weight, drag and thrust. A smooth aerodynamic surface with a double-surface airfoil is more efficient then a single-surface airfoil to produce more lift.

How is it different from an airplane or helicopter?


Unlike airplanes and helicopters, the driving airfoils of the ornithopter have a flapping or oscillating motion, instead of rotary. As with helicopters, the wings usually have a combined function of providing both lift and thrust. Theoretically, the flapping wing can be set to zero angle of attack on the upstroke, so it passes easily through the air. Since typically the flapping airfoils produce both lift and thrust, drag-inducing structures are minimized. These two advantages potentially allow a high degree of efficiency. In propeller- or jet-driven aircraft, the propeller creates a relatively narrow stream of relatively fast moving air. The energy carried by the air is lost. The same amount of force can be produced by accelerating a larger mass of air to a smaller velocity, for example by using a larger propeller or adding a bypass fan to a jet engine. Use of flapping wings offers even larger displaced air mass, moved at lower velocity, thus improving efficiency. In order to create an effective ornithopter, it had to be able to flap its wings to generate enough power to get off the ground and travel through the air. Efficient flapping of the wing is characterized by pitching angles, lagging plunging displacements by approximately 90 degrees.[23] Flapping wings increase drag and are not as efficient as propeller-powered aircraft. To increase efficiency of the ornithopter, more power is required on the down stroke than on the upstroke.[24] If the wing on the ornithopter was not flexible and flapped at the same angle while moving up and down, it would act like a huge board moving in two dimensions, not producing lift or thrust. The flexibility and move-ability of the wing let it twist and bend to the reactions of the ornithopter while in flight.

History of the ornithopter

Birds inspired Leonardo da Vinci when he designed his ornithopter in 1490. Leonardo da Vinci was interested in flying during 14881514. He never saw his dream of flight take place because his ornithopter was too heavy and required too much energy to produce lift or thrust. In 1929, the human-powered ornithopter constructed by Alexander Lippisch was towed into the air and glided around. In 1959, in England, another ornithopter was towed into the air and demonstrated the ornithopter being a birdlike machine.[22] By the 1960s, there were powered unmanned ornithopter flights of various sizes demonstrating how ornithopters flew. In 1991 Harris and DeLaurier flew the first successful engine-powered remotely piloted ornithopter in Toronto, Canada. By 1999, there was an ornithopter design that was designed to take off from a level pavement.

Aerodynamics
Lift is the force that utilises the fluid continuity and Newton's laws to create a force perpendicular to the fluid flow. It is opposed by weight, which is the force that pulls things towards the ground. Thrust is the force that moves things through the air while drag is the force of flight that is an aerodynamic force that reduces speed. The ornithopter wing is attached to the body at sight angle,which is called the angle of attack, The downward stroke of the wing deflects air downward and backward generating lift and thrust. Also the wing surface is flexible, this causes the wing to flex to the correct angle of attack we need in order to produce the forces that we want to achieve flight. The mechanics of flapping flight are far more complicated than that of fixed -wing flight.For an aircraft with fixed wings. Only forward motion is necessary to induce aerodynamic lift. But for flapping flight wing not only has to have a forward motion, but also must travel up and down. This additional dimension means the wing constantly changes shape during flight.

Main Parts:
Gear Box
A gear or more correctly a "gear wheel" is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, magnitude, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear, however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation.

Main Body

Body Frame It is made of balsa wood and a carbon rod of 3 mm diameter in the form of a triangular shape. In order to minimize the weight of our aircraft Styrofoam has been used and appropriate sized gaps have been made for placing the battery, ESC and receiver and then stuck in the gap of body frame and we also made the seperate compartment for fitting servos which are used to assign the directions to the ornithopter. A proper mount is attached in front of the body frame for the motor and gear box.

Wing
In order to create an effective ornithopter, it had to be able to flap its wings to generate enough power to get off the ground and travel through the air. Efficient flapping of the wing is characterized by pitching angles, lagging plunging displacements by approximately 90 degrees. Flapping wings increase drag and are not as efficient as propeller-powered aircraft. To increase efficiency of the ornithopter, more power is required on the down stroke than on the upstroke. If the wing on the ornithopter was not flexible and flapped at the same angle while moving up and down, it would act like a huge board moving in two dimensions, not producing lift or thrust. The flexibility and move-ability of the wing let it twist and bend to the reactions of the ornithopter while in flight.

Tail Part
The tail is a V shaped tail with an angle of 120 degrees. It is made of balsa . Plastic has been used to cover it and tightened by a blower. Two servos are mounted on the body frame to move the rudders attached to the tail which are used to change the direction and pitch of the ornithopter.We keep rudders in different ways to change the direction If both the rudders are in upward direction then Ornithopter deflects downward. If both the rudders are in downward direction then Ornithopter deflects upward. If rightward is in upward direction and leftward is in downward direction then Ornithopter deflects leftward. If rightward is in downward direction and leftward is in upward direction then Ornithopter deflects rightward.

How does it fly?


Most important thing to notice about the ornithopter is that it cannot land or take-off to the groung directly, so support must be provided during this crucial times. Now to fly an Ornithopter we trigger the motion of it by providing it support through our hands. For

initiating the motion we switch on the power supply for motor and servos by simulator (transmitter) and then the whole dynamics of the aircraft is controlled by simulator. Directions or throttle should be controlled appropriately for smooth and stable flight.

Dimensions we used for our Ornithopter


We made the ornithopter plan first on paper after referring to various websites and seeing some videos on youtube. The main task was to keep the body light as well as make a strong body design along with obtaining appropriate lift. We have planned the ornithopter to make 4 -5 flaps per second (flapping rate is adjustable according to situation) Dimensions The body is 30 cm long Wingspan-- 1 meter Tail-- 15 cm Motor: 1700 kV hextronix brushless outrunner ( 25 g) Battery: 7.4 V LiPo Body Frame It is made of balsa wood and a carbon rod of 3 mm diameter in the form of a triangular shape. Styrofoam has been cut and stuck in the gap and appropriate sized gaps have been made for placing the battery, ESC and receiver. A proper mount is attached in front of the body frame for the motor. The Tail The tail is a V shaped tail with an angle of 120 degrees. It is made of balsa. Plastic has been used to cover it and tightened by a blower. Two servos are mounted on the body frame to move the rudders attached to the tail which are used to change the direction and pitch of the ornithopter.

Gear Box I want to elaborate more on Gear box because it was most difficult task we felt during the
making of gear box. We had to get a gear ratio of 50:1. And the most difficult task was to find the gears. We couldnt find any at last we fabricated the gears from the 4i lab. The gears are of three types 2 gears of 40 teeth, 3 of 8 teeth and one of 16 teeth. These have been arranged suitably in series to get the desired gear ratio. At first we used foam tape for the gear box, but it was destroyed as it was weak (could not bear the load) then we remade the gearbox using wood. The spars are attached to the driving gear mechanism using a V shaped arrangement made of strong wood. The motor drives the driving gear, and the Output gear drives the V attachment which flaps the wings . The wing flaps are made symmetric by proper adjustment of the wing attachments to the gearbox.

Difficulties we faced during its construction


The main difficulty we faced during the construction of the ornithopter was in the construction of its gear box to make gear box according to proper ratio and also of good strength. We all the time kept care about the weight of the ornithopter also.

Improvements we can make


Our Ornithopter would be better if we had constructed a strong gear box and also of large or appropriate size so that wings can flap to their max they can. Also you must be careful about the design of the wing. You should search properly, see professionals ornithopter to make wings more effective. These are the main drawbacks of our Ornithopter which we personally feel.

Applications of RC Ornithopter
The main applications of RC Ornithopter are as they can be made to resemble birds or insects, they could be used for military applications, such as espionage|spying without alerting the enemies that they are under surveillance. Several ornithopters have been flown with video cameras on board, some of which can hover and maneuver in small spaces. In 2011, AeroVironment, Inc. announced a remotely piloted ornithopter resembling a large hummingbird for possible spy missions.

A SPECIAL THANKS TO ALL OUR CLUB COORDINATORS..