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Born in village of San Gabriel. but he failed the entrance exam Worked as an immigration agent throughout Mexico. was an avid reader Attended the University of Guadalajara at age 16 for a short time before moving to Mexico City. Jalisco. lost mother. Mexico Witnessed 1926-29 Cristero Religious War and Mexican Revolution. learned dialects and customs Co-founded the literary review Pan with Juan José Arreola and Antonio Alatorre Married Clara Aparicio in 1948 and had four sons Wrote screenplays in Mexico City and was a television producer in Guadalajara Began writing around 1940. left an unfinished story upon death Won several awards including the National Literature Prize (1970) and Príncipe de Asturias Prize (1983) Suffered from lung cancer. died of a heart attack like his mother . and two uncles during this time period Sent to an orphanage for four years. published a collection of 15 short stories in 1953 and Pablo Páramo in 1955. father. grandfather wanted him to become a lawyer.
Elmer Mendoza (Mexico). William Faulker (United States). Carlos Fuentes (Panama) . Elio Vittorini (Italy) Influenced: Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia).Influenced by: Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters (United States). Daniel Sada (Mexico). João Guimarães Rosa (Brazil). Knut Hamsun (Norway).
agrarian society and rapidly urbanizing. Cacique systems: local political bosses who hold excessive power/influence Machismo: heavily patriarchal society Females discovered themselves by identifying with figures Transition between rural. industrialization Heavily Catholic Economic disparity common Mexican Revolution brought about widespread violence .
served as the President of Mexico. assassinated in 1928 Pancho Villa: Military strategist who won allegiance with Northern Mexico. elected President 1917. tricked into a meeting with General Carranza and killed upon arrival Venustiano Carranza: Joined forces with Madero temporarily. instrumental in bringing down Diaz (1911) and Huerta (1914). eventually sentenced to death for disobeying Emilio Zapata: Fought for land and liberty.Revolution of the bourgeoisie/impoverished farmers against the corrupt local and national governments Leaders: Alvaro Obregon: Became involved on the behalf of Francisco Madero. killed in his sleep . raised an army in the North to fight Orozco. tried to put a political supporter in power in 1920.
Area of focus: State of Sonora Cananea Strike (1906): Mexican workers demanded equal wages. 23 people died Carranza sought refuge at the start of the Revolution and later became a major leader Location for the rise of military leader Obrego who served as the commander-in-chief of the revolutionary forces in NW Mexico under Carranza Armies from the region were composed of soldiers from lowermiddle class families Obregon’s hand-picked successor Plutarco Calles was from this region . were forced to return to their positions without their demands being met.
1926: Catholic bishops stopped all worship services in Mexico.21% of the Mexico's population identified themselves as Catholic Cristero War (1926 – 1929) 1917 Constitution (following an overthrow of the Mexican dictator Diaz) imposed several restrictions on the Mexican Clergy Legislation enforced with the rise of President Plutarco Calles. In 1950. started the Revolution Ended in the loss of 90. 98. Catholic priests called for a government boycott in response July 31.000 lives .
Elements: multiple worlds/realities. revolution. and political turmoil . integrated supernatural. Definition: the implementation of magical elements in conjunction with reality. intentional ambiguity regarding credibility Latin America Many claim as the origin of magic realism Became popular in the 1940s as a mode of creating an independent and unique literary style Authors utilized themes of chaos. cyclical sense of time.
4.171-3. but disregards it . 3.The Ghost of Hamlet's father: Where did he originate from and what are his intentions? Purgatory "I am your father's spirit/doomed for a certain term to walk the night/And for the day confined to fast in fires/Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away" (Hamlet. 211-12) Hell The ghost supports murder and revenge rather than mercy and forgiveness. recognizes a divine power. 1. avoids daylight. fails to mention atonement Heaven Hamlet's mission is portrayed as one of divine justice: "Heaven hath pleased it so/That I must be their scourge and minister" (Hamlet. pp. 350-51) Hamlet invokes the word "heaven" in dark contexts. pp.5.9-13.
avarice/prodigality. Jupiter. representative of angelic hierarchy. everyone's sins are open for all to see/be punished for. Sloth. Moon. Envy. . Saturn. each with a significant sin and punishment The Self Indulgent: lust. Pride.Inferno (Hell) Hell is composed of nine circles. Greed. Paradiso (Heaven) Heaven is composed of nine spheres. Venus. Wrath. Gluttony. Mercury. treachery Other: limbo. Mars. Lust Purgatory represents spiritual growth and the Christian life. Primum Mobile The soul's journey through heaven towards God. each referring to a different "root" of sin. Sun. Purgatorio (Purgatory) Mountain of Purgatory with two levels of antepurgatory (the excommunicate andthe late repentant) and seven terraces. Fixed Stars. wrath The Violent: violence The Malicious: fraud. gluttony. heretics Hell contrasts reality in terms of clarity: in hell.
"Concepts of Heaven. <http://www. Marin.about. Web. Minster. Web. Liukkonen. Giancarlo. "The Few. "ANOTHER HOLY HORROR: THE CRISTERO WAR. Kay. Expert Says. 2012. Latin American Herald Tribune. Web. 2008. Emory University. Web. 2008. <http://www. 2009. Julian Rodriguez.com.utexas.net/shakespeare/study_tools/heaven_hell. Massaro. 22 Apr. Christopher.english. <http://www. <http://latinamericanhistory.htm>. the Proud. Web. 5 Jan. Tuck. 2012. Jim. "Biography of Alvaro Obregón. Web. Petri. Britain in Print. Moore. Fall 1998." Laht.com/od/thehistoryofmexico/a/obregon." Britain in Print.fi/rulfo. Web. Hell and Purgatory in Hamlet. "Life of Meaning and Purpose in Hell in Dante's Inferno." About.kirjasto." Emory University---English Department. Danny J.edu/utpress/excerpts/rulped-intro." A Special Introduction to Rulfo's Pedro Paramo.com/articles/257-the-few-the-proud-the-work-of-juan-rulfo1917%E2%80%931986>. 22 Apr. "Juan Rulfo. "Magical Realism. <http://voices.emory.britaininprint.htm>. Web.-May 2007.com.html>.edu/Bahri/MagicalRealism.com/life-meaning-purpose-hell-dantes-inferno-2321056. . 2002. Haught.000 Mexicans Leave Catholic Church Daily.yahoo.University of Texas Press. "More Than 1. 2012. the Work of Juan Rulfo.html>. 9 Oct. Web. <http://www. 29 Apr. James A." Apr. <http://www.html>. 2012.mexconnect. 22 Apr.sci.net/~haught/Cristero.html?cat=38>.Anderson.." Yahoo!."Mexconnect." Kirjasto.htm>. <http://www. Karen. "The Ghosts of Comala: Haunted Meaning in Pedro Páramo.wvinter. Lindsay.