By: Laura Chang and Chaaru Raghavan

and two uncles during this time period Sent to an orphanage for four years.           Born in village of San Gabriel. was an avid reader Attended the University of Guadalajara at age 16 for a short time before moving to Mexico City. left an unfinished story upon death Won several awards including the National Literature Prize (1970) and Príncipe de Asturias Prize (1983) Suffered from lung cancer. grandfather wanted him to become a lawyer. published a collection of 15 short stories in 1953 and Pablo Páramo in 1955. father. learned dialects and customs Co-founded the literary review Pan with Juan José Arreola and Antonio Alatorre Married Clara Aparicio in 1948 and had four sons Wrote screenplays in Mexico City and was a television producer in Guadalajara Began writing around 1940. Mexico Witnessed 1926-29 Cristero Religious War and Mexican Revolution. died of a heart attack like his mother . Jalisco. but he failed the entrance exam Worked as an immigration agent throughout Mexico. lost mother.

Carlos Fuentes (Panama)  . William Faulker (United States). Knut Hamsun (Norway). Elmer Mendoza (Mexico). Elio Vittorini (Italy)  Influenced: Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia). João Guimarães Rosa (Brazil).Influenced by: Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters (United States). Daniel Sada (Mexico).

       Cacique systems: local political bosses who hold excessive power/influence Machismo: heavily patriarchal society Females discovered themselves by identifying with figures Transition between rural. agrarian society and rapidly urbanizing. industrialization Heavily Catholic Economic disparity common Mexican Revolution brought about widespread violence .

eventually sentenced to death for disobeying  Emilio Zapata: Fought for land and liberty. tried to put a political supporter in power in 1920.Revolution of the bourgeoisie/impoverished farmers against the corrupt local and national governments Leaders:  Alvaro Obregon: Became involved on the behalf of Francisco Madero. raised an army in the North to fight Orozco. elected President 1917. served as the President of Mexico. killed in his sleep . tricked into a meeting with General Carranza and killed upon arrival  Venustiano Carranza: Joined forces with Madero temporarily. instrumental in bringing down Diaz (1911) and Huerta (1914). assassinated in 1928  Pancho Villa: Military strategist who won allegiance with Northern Mexico.

      Area of focus: State of Sonora Cananea Strike (1906): Mexican workers demanded equal wages. were forced to return to their positions without their demands being met. 23 people died Carranza sought refuge at the start of the Revolution and later became a major leader Location for the rise of military leader Obrego who served as the commander-in-chief of the revolutionary forces in NW Mexico under Carranza Armies from the region were composed of soldiers from lowermiddle class families Obregon’s hand-picked successor Plutarco Calles was from this region .

started the Revolution Ended in the loss of 90.  In 1950. Catholic priests called for a government boycott in response July 31. 1926: Catholic bishops stopped all worship services in Mexico.000 lives .21% of the Mexico's population identified themselves as Catholic Cristero War (1926 – 1929)     1917 Constitution (following an overthrow of the Mexican dictator Diaz) imposed several restrictions on the Mexican Clergy Legislation enforced with the rise of President Plutarco Calles. 98.

intentional ambiguity regarding credibility Latin America    Many claim as the origin of magic realism Became popular in the 1940s as a mode of creating an independent and unique literary style Authors utilized themes of chaos. cyclical sense of time. Elements: multiple worlds/realities. and political turmoil . integrated supernatural.   Definition: the implementation of magical elements in conjunction with reality. revolution.

3.171-3. pp.The Ghost of Hamlet's father: Where did he originate from and what are his intentions? Purgatory  "I am your father's spirit/doomed for a certain term to walk the night/And for the day confined to fast in fires/Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away" (Hamlet. 350-51)  Hamlet invokes the word "heaven" in dark contexts. but disregards it .4. 1.9-13.5. recognizes a divine power. 211-12) Hell  The ghost supports murder and revenge rather than mercy and forgiveness. avoids daylight. fails to mention atonement Heaven  Hamlet's mission is portrayed as one of divine justice: "Heaven hath pleased it so/That I must be their scourge and minister" (Hamlet. pp.

Inferno (Hell)  Hell is composed of nine circles. gluttony. Mercury. Mars. Fixed Stars. Paradiso (Heaven)  Heaven is composed of nine spheres.   Moon. treachery Other: limbo.   Pride. heretics Hell contrasts reality in terms of clarity: in hell. wrath The Violent: violence The Malicious: fraud. Purgatorio (Purgatory)  Mountain of Purgatory with two levels of antepurgatory (the excommunicate andthe late repentant) and seven terraces. Jupiter. each with a significant sin and punishment     The Self Indulgent: lust. Gluttony. Greed. Primum Mobile  The soul's journey through heaven towards God. Venus. Saturn. Wrath. Sun. . Sloth. representative of angelic hierarchy. avarice/prodigality. Lust Purgatory represents spiritual growth and the Christian life. each referring to a different "root" of sin. Envy. everyone's sins are open for all to see/be punished for.

-May 2007. Minster. "Magical Realism. "Juan Rulfo. Giancarlo. Marin. "The Ghosts of Comala: Haunted Meaning in Pedro Páramo.htm>. <http://www.net/shakespeare/study_tools/heaven_hell. Liukkonen. Latin American Herald Tribune. <http://www.wvinter." Laht. the Proud. "More Than 1.about.com/articles/257-the-few-the-proud-the-work-of-juan-rulfo1917%E2%80%931986>.com/life-meaning-purpose-hell-dantes-inferno-2321056.utexas.britaininprint. "Biography of Alvaro Obregón..com. Kay.yahoo. Lindsay.html>. "ANOTHER HOLY HORROR: THE CRISTERO WAR.University of Texas Press. Expert Says.sci. . Hell and Purgatory in Hamlet.Anderson. James A.com. Web. Web. Fall 1998.html>. Moore. 2008. Julian Rodriguez. Petri.mexconnect.english.kirjasto. 2012." A Special Introduction to Rulfo's Pedro Paramo.fi/rulfo. Web. 5 Jan. Danny J. 22 Apr. 22 Apr. Jim. Karen. <http://www. Emory University.emory. 2002.com/od/thehistoryofmexico/a/obregon." Britain in Print." Emory University---English Department. 2012. 22 Apr. 2012.edu/Bahri/MagicalRealism.net/~haught/Cristero. the Work of Juan Rulfo. "Life of Meaning and Purpose in Hell in Dante's Inferno." About. 2008. <http://www. Web. Haught. Web."Mexconnect. <http://www. Web. Tuck.htm>. Web. Christopher. <http://voices. "Concepts of Heaven." Yahoo!. Massaro. "The Few. 2009.html?cat=38>.htm>. <http://www." Kirjasto.html>.edu/utpress/excerpts/rulped-intro.000 Mexicans Leave Catholic Church Daily. 9 Oct. <http://latinamericanhistory. Web." Apr. 2012. Britain in Print. Web. 29 Apr.

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