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Transistors

They are unidirectional current carrying devices with capability to control the current flowing through them The switch current can be controlled by either current or voltage Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) control current by current Field Effect Transistors (FET) control current by voltage They can be used either as switches or as amplifiers

NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor


One N-P (Base Collector) diode one P-N (Base Emitter) diode

PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor


One P-N (Base Collector) diode one N-P (Base Emitter) diode

NPN BJT Current flow

BJT and
From the previous figure iE = iB + iC Define = iC / iE Define = iC / iB Then = iC / (iE iC) = /(1- ) Then iC = iE ; iB = (1-) iE Typically 100 for small signal BJTs (BJTs that handle low power) operating in active region (region where BJTs work as amplifiers)
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BJT in Active Region

Common Emitter(CE) Connection Called CE because emitter is common to both VBB and VCC
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BJT in Active Region (2)


Base Emitter junction is forward biased Base Collector junction is reverse biased For a particular iB, iC is independent of RCC transistor is acting as current controlled current source (iC is controlled by iB, and iC = iB) Since the base emitter junction is forward biased, from Shockley equation
VBE iC = I CS exp VT 1
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Early Effect and Early Voltage


As reverse-bias across collector-base junction increases, width of the collector-base depletion layer increases and width of the base decreases (base-width modulation). In a practical BJT, output characteristics have a positive slope in forwardactive region; collector current is not independent of vCE. Early effect: When output characteristics are extrapolated back to point of zero iC, curves intersect (approximately) at a common point vCE = -VA which lies between 15 V and 150 V. (VA is named the Early voltage) Simplified equations (including Early effect):
v iC = I S exp BE V T v 1 + CE V A FO

F = FO 1 +

v CE V

iB =

IS

v exp BE V T

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BJT in Active Region (3)

Normally the above equation is never used to calculate iC, iB Since for all small signal transistors vBE 0.7. It is only useful for deriving the small signal characteristics of the BJT. For example, for the CE connection, iB can be simply calculated as, V VBE i B = BB R BB

or by drawing load line on the base emitter side


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Deriving BJT Operating points in Active Region An Example


In the CE Transistor circuit shown earlier VBB= 5V, RBB= 107.5 k, RCC = 1 k, VCC = 10V. Find IB,IC,VCE, and the transistor power dissipation using the characteristics as shown below By Applying KVL to the base emitter circuit
iB 100 A

IB =

VBB VBE R BB

0 5V vBE

By using this equation along with the iB / vBE characteristics of the base emitter junction, IB = 40 A 10

Deriving BJT Operating points in Active Region An Example (2)


iC 10 mA

By Applying KVL to the collector emitter circuit V VCE 100 A I C = CC R CC


80 A 60 A 40 A 20 A

By using this equation along with the iC / vCE characteristics of the base collector junction, iC = 4 mA, VCE = 6V = I C 4mA = = 100 I B 40A

0 20V vCE

Transistor power dissipation = VCEIC = 24 mW We can also solve the problem without using the characteristics 11 if and VBE values are known

BJT in Cutoff Region


Under this condition iB= 0 As a result iC becomes negligibly small Both base-emitter as well base-collector junctions may be reverse biased Under this condition the BJT can be treated as an off switch

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BJT in Saturation Region


Under this condition iC / iB < in active region Both base emitter as well as base collector junctions are forward biased VCE 0.2 V Under this condition the BJT can be treated as an on switch

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BJT in Saturation Region (2)

A BJT can enter saturation in the following ways (refer to the CE circuit) For a particular value of iB, if we keep on increasing RCC For a particular value of RCC, if we keep on increasing iB For a particular value of iB, if we replace the transistor with one with higher
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BJT in Saturation Region Example 1


In the CE Transistor circuit shown earlier VBB= 5V, RBB= 107.5 k, RCC = 10 k, VCC = 10V. Find IB,IC,VCE, and the transistor power dissipation using the characteristics as shown below Here even though IB is still 40 A; from the output characteristics, IC can be found to be only about 1mA and VCE 0.2V( VBC 0.5V or base collector junction is forward biased (how?))
iC 10 mA 100 A 80 A 60 A 40 A 20 A 0 20V vCE

= IC / IB = 1mA/40 A = 25< 100

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BJT in Saturation Region Example 2


In the CE Transistor circuit shown earlier VBB= 5V, RBB= 43 k, RCC = 1 k, VCC = 10V. Find IB,IC,VCE, and the transistor power dissipation using the characteristics as shown below Here IB is 100 A from the input characteristics; IC can be found to be only about 9.5 mA from the output characteristics and VCE 0.5V( VBC 0.2V or base collector junction is forward biased (how?)) = IC / IB = 9.5 mA/100 A = 95 < 100 Transistor power dissipation = VCEIC 4.7 mW Note: In this case the BJT is not in very hard saturation
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BJT in Saturation Region Example 2 (2)


iB 100 A iC 10 mA 100 A 80 A 60 A 40 A 20 A 0 5V vBE 0 20V vCE

Input Characteristics

Output Characteristics

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BJT in Saturation Region Example 3


In the CE Transistor circuit shown earlier VBB= 5V, VBE = 0.7V RBB= 107.5 k, RCC = 1 k, VCC = 10V, = 400. Find IB,IC,VCE, and the transistor power dissipation using the characteristics as shown below By Applying KVL to the base emitter circuit IB = VBB VBE = 40A R BB

Then IC = IB= 400*40 A = 16000 A and VCE = VCC-RCC* IC =10- 0.016*1000 = -6V(?) But VCE cannot become negative (since current can flow only from collector to emitter). Hence the transistor is in saturation
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BJT in Saturation Region Example 3(2)


Hence VCE 0.2V IC = (10 0.2) /1 = 9.8 mA Hence the operating = 9.8 mA / 40 A = 245

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BJT Operating Regions at a Glance (1)

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BJT Operating Regions at a Glance (2)

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BJT Large-signal (DC) model

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BJT Q Point (Bias Point)


Q point means Quiescent or Operating point Very important for amplifiers because wrong Q point selection increases amplifier distortion Need to have a stable Q point, meaning the the operating point should not be sensitive to variation to temperature or BJT , which can vary widely

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Four Resistor bias Circuit for Stable Q Point

By far best circuit for providing stable bias point


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Analysis of 4 Resistor Bias Circuit

VB = VTH =

Vcc R 2 R1 + R 2

R B = R TH =

R1 R 2 R1 + R 2
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Analysis of 4 Resistor Bias Circuit (2)


Applying KVL to the base-emitter circuit of the Thevenized Equivalent form VB - IB RB -VBE - IE RE = 0 (1) Since IE = IB + IC = IB + IB= (1+ )IB (2) Replacing IE by (1+ )IB in (1), we get
IB = VB VBE R B + (1 + )R E VB VBE (1 + )R E

(3)

If we design (1+ )RE >> RB (say (1+ )RE >> 100RB) Then
IB

(4)
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Analysis of 4 Resistor Bias Circuit (3)


And I C = I E
VB VBE (for large ) (5) RE

Hence IC and IE become independent of ! Thus we can setup a Q-point independent of which tends to vary widely even within transistors of identical part number (For example, of 2N2222A, a NPN BJT can vary between 75 and 325 for IC = 1 mA and VCE = 10V)

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4 Resistor Bias Circuit -Example


A 2N2222A is connected as shown with R1 = 6.8 k, R2 = 1 k, RC = 3.3 k, RE = 1 k and VCC = 30V. Assume VBE = 0.7V. Compute VCC and IC for = i)100 and ii) 300

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4 Resistor Bias Circuit Example (1)


i) = 100
VB = VTH = R B = R TH = IB = Vcc R 2 30 *1 = = 3.85V R 1 + R 2 6.8 + 1 R1 R 2 6.8 *1 = = 0.872k R 1 + R 2 6.8 + 1

VB VBE 3.85 0.7 = = 30.92A R B + (1 + )R E 0.872 + 101*1

ICQ = IB = 3.09 mA IEQ = (1+ )IB = 3.12 mA VCEQ = VCC-ICRC-IERE = 30-3.09*3.3-3.12*1=16.68V


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4 Resistor Bias Circuit Example (2)


i) = 300
VB = VTH = R B = R TH = Vcc R 2 30 *1 = = 3.85V R 1 + R 2 6.8 + 1

R1 R 2 6.8 *1 = = 0.872k R 1 + R 2 6.8 + 1 VB VBE 3.85 0.7 IB = = = 10.43A R B + (1 + )R E 0.872 + 301*1

ICQ = 300IB = 3.13 mA IEQ = (1+ )IB = 3.14 mA VCEQ = VCC-ICRC-IERE = 30-3.13*3.3-3.14*1=16.53V
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4 Resistor Bias Circuit Example (3)


= 100 VCEQ 16.68 V = 300 16.53 V % Change 0.9 %

ICQ

3.09 mA

3.13 mA

1.29 %

The above table shows that even with wide variation of the bias points are very stable.
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Four-Resistor Bias Network for BJT


R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 V EQ = R EQ I B + V BE + R E I E 4 = 12 ,000 I B + 0 .7 + 16 ,000 ( F + 1) I B V EQ V BE 4 V - 0.7V IB = = = 2 .68 A R EQ + ( F + 1) R E 1 .23 10 6 I C = F I B = 201 A V EQ = V CC R1 R EQ = R1 R 2 = R1 R 2

F = 75

IE = (F +1)IB = 204 A VCE = VCC RC IC RE I E VCE = VCC RC +


F

RF

IC = 4.32 V

F. A. region correct - Q-point is (201 A, 4.32 V)


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Four-Resistor Bias Network for BJT (cont.)


All calculated currents > 0, VBC = VBE - VCE = 0.7 4.32 = - 3.62 V R Hence, base-collector junction isRreverse-biased, V =V + I = 12 38 ,200 I and assumption of forward-active region operation The two points needed to plot the load is correct. line are (0, 12 V) and (314 A, 0). Load-line for the circuit is: load line is plotted on Resulting
CE CC C F C F

common-emitter output characteristics. IB = 2.7 A, intersection of corresponding characteristic with load line gives Q-point.
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Four-Resistor Bias Network for BJT: Design Objectives


We know that
IE = V EQ V BE R EQ I B RE V EQ V BE RE for R EQ I B << (V EQ V BE )

This implies that IB << I2, so that I1 = I2. So base current doesnt disturb voltage divider action. Thus, Q-point is independent of base current as well as current gain. Also, VEQ is designed to be large enough that small variations in the assumed value of VBE wont affect IE. Current in base voltage divider network is limited by choosing I2 IC/5. This ensures that power dissipation in bias resistors is < 17 % of total quiescent power consumed by circuit and I2 >> IB for > 50.
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Four-Resistor Bias Network for BJT: Design Guidelines


Choose Thvenin equivalent base voltage Select R1 to set I1 = 9IB. Select R2 to set I2 = 10IB.
R1 = V EQ 9IB V CC V EQ 10 I B RE V EQ V BE IC
RE
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V CC V V EQ CC 4 2

R2 =

RE is determined by VEQ and desired IC.

RC is determined by desired VCE.

RC

V CC V CE IC

Four-Resistor Bias Network for BJT: Example


Problem: Design 4-resistor bias circuit with given parameters. Given data: IC = 750 A, F = 100, VCC = 15 V, VCE = 5 V Assumptions: Forward-active operation region, VBE = 0.7 V Analysis: Divide (VCC - VCE) equally between RE and RC. Thus, VE = 5 V and VC = 10 V
RC = RE = V CC V C IC VE = 6 .67 k

I2 =10IB = 75.0 A I1 = 9IB = 67.5 A R1 = = 84.4 k 9I B V V R2 = CC B =124 k 10I B


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IE V B = V E + V BE = 5 .7 V I I B = C = 7 .5 A

= 6 .60 k

VB

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Two-Resistor Bias Network for BJT: Example


Problem: Find Q-point for pnp transistor in 2-resistor bias circuit with given parameters. Given data: F = 50, VCC = 9 V Assumptions: Forward-active operation region, VEB = 0.7 V Analysis: 9 = V EB + 18 ,000 I B + 1000 ( I C + I B )
9 = V EB + 18 ,000 I B + 1000 (51 ) I B IB = 9V 0.7V = 120 A 69 ,000 I C = 50 I B = 6.01 mA

V EC = 9 1000 ( I C + I B ) = 2.88 V V BC = 2.18 V

Forward-active region operation is correct Q-point is : (6.01 mA, 2.88 V)


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