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School Subject Topic Class/Semester Time I. Standard Competence

: Senior High School : Chemistry : Abundance of element : XII/1 : 2 x 45 minutes

3. 3. To understand the characteristic of important element, its use and hazard, and also its abudance in nature II. Basic Competence 3.1 To identify the abundance of the main group and the transtition group in nature and the product containing that element III.Indicator a) Identifying the abundance of the main group and the transtition group elements in nature b) Identifying the product containing the main group and the transtition group element c) Disscusing the the abundance of the main group and the transtition group in nature and the product containing that element in group or teamwork d) Sharing information about the main group and the transtition group in nature and the product containing that element through presentation for each group IV. Material Group 1 The alkali metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium are members of group 1 of the periodic table, and each has a ground state valence electronic configuration ns1. Discussions of these metals usually neglect the heaviest member of the group; only artificial isotopes of francium are known, the longest lived, We have already covered several aspects of tte chemistry of the alkali metals as follows:. ionization energies of metals (Section 1.10);. structures of metal lattices (Section 5.3);. metallic radii, rmetal (Section 5.5);. melting points and standard enthalpies of atomization ofmetals (Section 5.6);. ionic radii, rion (Section 5.10);. NaCl and CsCl ionic lattices (Section 5.11);. energetics of the dissolution of MX

(Section 6.9);. standard reduction potentials, EoM=M (Section 7.7);. energetics of MX transfer from water to organic solvents(Section 8.3);. alkali metals in liquid NH3 (Section 8.6);. saline hydrides, MH (Section 9.7).10.2 Occurrence, extraction and uses Sodium and potassium are abundant in the Earths biosphere(2.6% and 2.4% respectively) but do not occur naturally inthe elemental state. The main sources of Na and K (see Box10.1) are rock salt (almost pure NaCl), natural brines andseawater, sylvite (KCl), sylvinite (KCl/NaCl) and carnallite(KClMgCl26H2O). Other Na- and K-containing minerals such as borax (Na2B4O5OH48H2O; see Sections 12.2and 12.7) and Chile saltpetre (NaNO3, see Section 14.2) arecommercially important sources of other elements (e.g. Band N respectively). Unlike many inorganic chemicals, NaClneed not be manufactured since large natural deposits areavailable. Evaporation of seawater yields a mixture of salts,but since NaCl represents the major component of themixture, its production in this manner is a viable operation.In contrast to Na and K, natural abundances of Li, Rb andCs are small (% abundance Rb > Li > Cs); these metalsoccur as various silicate minerals, e.g. spodumene (LiAlSi2O6). Group 2 The relationships among the elements in group 2 beryllium,magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium are very like those among the alkali metals. However, Bestands apart from the other group 2 metals to a greaterextent than does Li from its homologues. For example,whereas Li and Na salts (with a common counterion)usually crystallize with the same lattice type, this is not truefor Be(II) and Mg(II) compounds. Beryllium compoundstend either to be covalent or to contain the hydrated[Be(H2O)4]2 ion. The high values of the enthalpy of atomization(Appendix 10) and ionization energies (Appendix 8) ofthe Be atom, and the small size and consequent high chargedensity of a naked Be2 ion, militate against the formationof naked Be2. Further, the restriction of the valence shellof Be to an octet of electrons excludes the formation ofmore than four localized 2c-2e bonds by a Be atom. It is noteworthythat Be is the only group 2 metal not to form a stablecomplex with [EDTA]4 (see Table 6.7).The elements Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra are collectively known as the alkaline earth metals. We shall have little to say aboutradium; it is radioactive and is formed as 22688Ra (a-emitter,t12 1622 yr) in the 23892U decay series. Uses of radium-226in cancer reatment have generally been superseded byother radioisotopes. The properties of radium and its compoundscan be inferred by extrapolation from

those of correspondingCa, Sr and Ba compounds.We have already described some aspects of the chemistryof the group 2 elements as follows:. ionization energies of metals (Section 1.10);. bonding in diatomic Be2 (Section 1.13);. onding schemes for BeCl2 (Sections 1.19 and 4.2);. structures of metals (Table 5.2);. structures of halides and oxides, see CaF2, CdI2 and NaCllattices (Section 5.11);. lattice energy treatment of disproportionation of CaFinto Ca and CaF2 (Section 5.16);. solubility products, e.g. for CaF2 (Section 6.9);. hydration of metal ions (Section 6.9);. saline hydrides, MH2 (Section 9.7). Beryllium occurs principally as the silicate mineral beryl,Be3Al2[Si6O18] (silicates, see Section 13.9); it is also foundin many natural minerals, and precious forms include Group 13 The elements in group 13 boron, aluminium, gallium,indium and thallium show a wide variation in properties:B is a non-metal, Al is a metal but exhibits many chemicalsimilarities to B, and the later elements essentially behaveas metals. The diagonal relationship between aluminiumand beryllium was discussed in Section 11.10. Althoughthe M(III) oxidation state is characteristic for elements ingroup 13, the M(I) state occurs for all elements except B,and for Tl this is the more stable oxidation state. Thalliumshows similarities to elements outside those in group 13,and can be compared to the alkali metals, Ag, Hg and Pb,an observation that led Dumas to describe it as the duckbillplatypus among elements.In contrast to the later elements, B forms a large numberof so-called electron-deficient cluster compounds, the bondingin which poses problems within valence bond theory;we introduce these compounds in Section Occurrence, extraction and uses The relative abundances of the group 13 elements are shownin Figure 12.1. The main sources of oron are borax,a2B4O5OH48H2O, and kernite, Na2B4O5OH42H2O, with extensive deposits eing worked commerciallyin the Mojave Desert, California. Aluminium is the mostabundant metal in he Earths crust, and occurs in aluminosilicates(see Section 13.9) such as clays, micas and feldspars, nbauxite (hydrated oxides) and, to a lesser extent, in cryolite,Na3AlF6. Gallium, indium and hallium ccur in traceamounts as sulfides in various minerals. Group 16 The group 16 elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, telluriumand polonium are called the alcogens.Oxygen occupies so central a position in any treatmentof inorganic chemistry that iscussions of many of itscompounds are dealt with under other

elements. The decreasein non-etallic haracter down the group is easily recognizedin the elements:. oxygen exists only as two gaseous llotropes (O2 and O3);. sulfur has many allotropes, all of which are insulators;. the stable forms of elenium and tellurium are semiconductors;. polonium is a metallic conductor.Knowledge of the hemistry of Po and its compounds is limitedbecause of the absence of a stable isotope and the ifficultyof working with 210Po, the most readily available isotope.Polonium-210 is produced from 09Bi by an (n,g) reaction(see Section 2.4) followed by b-decay of the product. It is anintense a-mitter t12 138 days) liberating 520 kJ g1 h1,and is a lightweight source of energy in space satellites.However, this large energy loss causes many compounds ofPo to decompose; Po ecomposes water, making studies ofchemical reactions in aqueous solution difficult. Polonium isa etallic conductor and crystallizes in a simple cubic lattice.It forms volatile, readily hydrolysed halides oCl2, PoCl4,PoBr2, PoBr4 and PoI4 and complex ions PoX62 (X Cl,Br, I). Polonium(IV) oxide is ormed by reaction between Poand O2 at 520 K; it adopts a fluorite lattice (see Figure 5.18)and is paringly soluble in aqueous alkali. The observedproperties are those expected by extrapolation from e.15.2 Occurrence, extraction and usesOccurrenceFigure 15.1 illustrates the relative abundances of he group16 elements in the Earths crust. Dioxygen makes up 21%of the Earths atmosphere (see igure 14.1b), and 47% ofthe Earths crust is composed of Ocontaining compounds,e.g. water, imestone, silica, silicates, bauxite and haematite.It is a component of innumerable compounds and is ssentialto life, being converted to CO2 during respiration. Nativesulfur occurs in deposits around olcanoes and hot springs,and sulfur-containing minerals include iron pyrites. V. Learning Methods Jigsaw Learning Methods and Discussion VI. Steps
No 1 Teachers activity Introduction Greeting Answering greetings the5 minute Students activity Time

Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb. Good morning, everybody. How are you today?

Checking presence



Pay attention to teacher that check the students presence Connecting the materials with activity in the daily life. Pay attention to the explanation Answer mom. H2O Water,

what is the main part our body consist of?,

Good, and what is the molecular water? formula of

Excelent! Water consist of two kind of molecules, there are...?

Hydrogen oxygen maam..


Okay student, most part of our body consist of atom. And actually all around us are consist of atoms.

Explaining will study


learning the

purposes in this meeting we about abundance and the uses of elements

Main activity Giving the general explanation Pay about the Periodic Trend of Properties Periodic discussed. of Elements that will in be Table attention to the5 minutes

teachers explanation

Forming groups

Forming the group

3 minutes

Dividing students into 4 groups of 4. And assign them into their own number 1, 2, 3, and 4. Studying Giving 4 different subtopics for subtopics each groups and ask them to study on their own subtopics. The subtopics are : a) The Group abundance contain and of the the 5 minutes


1 elements

: The

alkali metals b) The Group abundance contain and of the the


2 elements

: The

Alkaline Earth Metal c) The abundance contain and of the the 2 minutes

products Group 13 d) The

abundance contain

and of


the Gathering with other the students that have same sub topics Discussing with partner

7 minutes

Group 16 elements : The Oxygen Group After study the materials, each person that have same subtopics forming new groups called the expert groups. Asking the expert group to discuss deeply about their own subtopics and give them several questions. Bringing back the students to the first group and asking each

in the group.

10 minutes

Answer the question

Explaining their own subtopics in front of their group mates

person to explain their own subtopics to their group mates. Observing the process

Closing One group presents about Presentation 5 minutes

todays materials. one of the student ask to the asking question presenter. Giving individual quiz in the Doing the quiz end of the discussion Make conclusion together with Giving their idea students. Giving reward to the students that give conclusion. Closing Wr. Wb. the lesson by Answer the greeting 3 minutes

greetings Wassalamualaikum


Resources/Material A-Level Chemistry Vol. 2A, Internet Material Work sheet, LCD, Computer Other literatures

VIII. Valuation 1. Technical Test and Non Test 2. Form a. Individual Test b. Group Test c. Disscussion 3. Worksheeet (attachment)

Kepala Sekolah

Malang, 1 Mei 2013 Mengetahui,

Guru Mata Pelajaran

1st attachment THE ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENT WORKSHEET Group of element Group Member

: ______________ : ______________ : ______________


The abundances The products contain that element

2nd attachment


Aspect Li Na

: Group 1:The alkali metals : ______________ : ______________

Element K Rb Cs

The In contrast Sodium is Potassium is abundance to Na and K, abundant in the abundant in s ninural Earths the Earths abundances biosphere biosphere of Li, Rb and (2.6% (2.4% Cs are small respectively) but respectively) (% do not occur but do not abundance ninurally in occur Rb > Li > ninurally in the elemental Cs) stine. the elemental stine.

In contrast In contrast to Na and K, to Na and ninural K, ninural abundances abundance of Li, Rb and s of Li, Rb and Cs are small (% Cs are abundance small (% Rb > Li > abundance Cs) Rb > Li > Cs)

The Lithium is The main source The main Rubidium products extracted of Na is rock salt sources of K chloride contain from LiCl in a (almost pure is ninural (RbCl) that similar NaCl), Natural brines and element electrolytic brines and seawiner, seawiner, sylvite sylvite (KCl), process; LiCl (KCl), sylvinite sylvinite is first (KCl/NaCl) and (KCl/NaCl) obtained carnallite and carnallite from (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O) spodumene . Other Na and (KCl.MgClby heining 2.6H2O) K-containing with CaO to minerals such as borax. give LiOH, which is then converted to the

Cesium chloride (CsCl)



Aspect Be The 100,4 ppm in abundances the earths crust Mg 104,3 ppm in the earths crust

: Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metal : ______________ : ______________

Element Ca Sr Ba

104,5 ppm in 102,7 ppm in 102,8 ppm the earths the earths in the crust crust earths crust

The Beryllium Carnallite Dolomite Celestite Barytes products occurs (CaCO3.MgCO3 (SrSO4), (BaSO4). contain that principally as (KCl.MgCl2.6H2 ), O) element the silicate Strontianite gypsum mineral Dolomite (CaSO4.2H2O), (SrCO3). beryl, (CaCO .MgCO )
3 3

Be3Al2[Si6O18]. It is also found in many natural minerals.

Magnesite (MgCO3), Olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4).

and CaCO3 (in the forms of chalk, limestone and marble.


Aspect Boron The 106 ppb in the abundances earths crust Aluminum

: Group 13 : ______________ : ______________

Element Gallium Tin Thallium 102,6 ppb in the earths crust

108 ppb in 104,5 ppb 101,8 ppb the earths in the in the crust earths earths crust crust GaH6, GaCl3

The The main sources Bauxite products of boron are (Al2O3.nH2O), contain that borax, element Kriolite Na2[B4O5(OH)4].8 H2O and kernite, (Na AlF )
3 6

Xasiterite, TlCl3.In (SnO2) [H3N(CH2)5NH3]Tl Cl5, a squarebased pyramidal structure for the anion has been confirmed.

Na2[B4O5(OH)4].2 [Al H THF) ] 2 6( 2 H2O.


Aspect Oxygen The abundances 21% in atmospher and 47% in earths crust The products Hydroxide contain that compound element (such as NaOH, KOH, etc), O2, water (H2O), and ozon (O3) Sulfide (S2-), Solid oxide Oxide Hydroxide sulfat (SO42-), (SeO2), (TeO2), Po-halide 2sulfit (SO3 ), H2SeO4, and hydride and hydride (H2Te), and organosulfur (H2Se) halide (TeF6) Sulfur

: Group 16: The Oxygen Group : ______________ : ______________

Element Selenium Tellurium Polonium

105,4 ppb in 101,7 ppb in 100,6 ppb in 3.10-7 ppb in earths crust earths crust earths crust earths crust

3rd attachment 1) Cognitiv Aspect Final mark will be taken from the individual and the group test
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name Group Test Individual Test Final mark

2) Afective Aspect Valuation is happened during the learning session No

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Name seriousness

Valuation aspects Liveness Time allocation in presentation

Final Mark

Assesmen Rubrik ASPECT seriousness MARK 4 3 2 1 Fully Seriuos Seriuos during Less of Seriuos unseriuos during Learning Learning during Learning during Learning activity activity activity activity Fully active during active during Less of active unactive during Learning activity Learning during Learning Learning activity activity activity Less of uneffective time effective time allocation in allocation in presentating presentating


Time allocation Fully effective effective time in presentation time allocation in allocation in presentating presentating