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REPORT OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICE

EXPERIMENT 3

DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR POLARITY BASED ON ITS SOLUBILITY

Group 7 Offering A 1. Setya Ika Lestari 2. Clarissa Zulzila Prajwita 3. Much. Zainul Anwar (100331404561) (100331406388) (100331404543)

CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF MATHEMATIC AND SCIENCE STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG 2011

I.

Purposes: Student will be able to determine polarity of samples based on its solubility.

II.

Theory Theoritically, polaroty of a molecule was determined by the electronegativity of its atom and the shape of the molecule. In first, you have already learned that H 2O molecules is polar because of the bond between O-H has big electronegativity difference (bond dipole) and the V shape of its three dimention structure. Therefore the H2O bound has high molecular dipole moment (=1,84). On the contrary, CO2 is non polar, though it has bond dipole in the C-O bond, but the structure is linier, the two same dipoes with opposite direction will result a total dipole of zero. Experimentally, we could determine the molecule polarity by tested the solubility of a substance. A popular aphorism used for predicting solubility is like dissolve like. This statement indicates that a solute will dissolve best in a solvent that has a similar chemical structure to it self. A non polar compound will dissolve in non polar solvent, whereas ionic and polar compound will dissolve in polar solvent. Except of crystal ( solid network ) like diamond and quartz, those will undissolved in the two kind of solvent, polar or non polar solvent, because its intermolecular bond in the crystalline structure is very strong.

III.

Result and Discussion Samples NaCl Amylum Glucose Baking soda Margarine NaOH 0,1M HCl 0,1M Acetone Ethanol Cooking Oil Aquadest Dissolved Undissolved Kerosin Dissolved Undissolved Polar Nonpolar Polar/Non polar/ionic ionic nonpolar polar polar nonpolar ionic polar

Discussion: In the experiment, the first solvent is aquadest (H2O). By the theory, water molecule is polar because of the electronegativity differences. It is mean that the oxygen end of the molecule is slightly negative, because the electron spend more time there than they do at the hydrogen ends which would be slightly positive. The solute that soluble in water are NaCl, NaOH, Glucose(C6H12O6), Baking soda, HCl, and Ethanol (CH3CH2OH). When this polar solvent (H2O) is dissolving polar solute, the liquid has more attraction for the polar solute molecule or ions. The + ends of water molecules can group themselves around the negative ends of the polar solute molecule or ions. And the ends, will group themselves around the positive ends of the polar solute molecule or ions. So, we can conclude that Glucose(C6H12O6), Baking soda, HCl, and Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) are polar, NaCl and NaOH which can produce ion when dissolved in water are ionic compound. But, the other samples, Amylum, margarine and cooking oil are undissolved in the water. It can be explained by this reason. When this polar solvent (H2O) is dissolving nonpolar solute, it will be more attracted to themselves than to the non polar solute. Because, in the non polar molecule there is no + and ends for the water dipoles to act upon. So, we can conclude that these three samples are non polar. The second solvent in this experiment is cerosine. Cerosine is non polar compound. By the theory, it only can dissolve the solute which has the same polarity. From the result of the experiment, there are only three samples which soluble in this solvent and also undissolved in the water solvent. These three samples, Amylum, margarine and cooking oil, can dissolve in cerosine because non-polar substances are left to interact primarily with themselves and with other non-polar substances. The nonpolar molecules are attracted to one another through London forces (dispersion forces). This intermolecular is exist in all compounds. But their effect is dwarfed in compounds that also have strong dipole-dipole attractions or ionic attractions. So, when there is no ionic or dipoles attraction (such as in non polar compound), this forces will be exist. The molecules in solution are essentially interchangeable. When mixed, polar and non-polar materials tend to form separate phases with minimal surface area between them. IV. Questions 1. Which following compounds will dissolve better in water. a. KBr or CBr4 b. CH4 or NH3 c. Br2 or HBr 2. Butyllated hidroxytoluena, BHT is used as preservative in various food product.

a. Draw the structure of BHT b. Based on its structure and solubility, discusse whether BHT in the food could be secreted out of tour body in urine or will be stored as body fat if it consumed by human.

http://www.chalkbored.com/lessons/chemistry-12/study-note-2-20.pdf http://www.ausetute.com.au/intermof.html http://www.800mainstreet.com/9/0009-002-process.html http://www.chem.purdue.edu/bcce/liledissolveslike_for_bcce.pdf http://dl.clackamas.edu/ch105-03/examples1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_der_Waals_force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/acetone http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/glucose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sodium_chloride